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Pre board exam in orif ed

1. Teacher D plays soft classical music while her class is asked to meditate on the
beauty of creation because she believes that meditative music can help them
reflect better. On which theory is this practice founded?
A. Humanistic psychology
B. Psychoanalysis
C. Gestalt psychology
D. Behaviorism

2. Teacher Es sideline is selling Encyclopedias for Children on weekends. Her

usual clientele are the parents of pupils who are on the verge of failing or those
vying for the Top Ten. In fact, she always succeeded in selling encyclopedias to
these parents. Is there anything unethical with the way Teacher E does her sideline?
A. Yes, there is. She may become less objective in her evaluation of the work of
these pupils concerned.
B. No, there isnt. Books and teachers mix. Teachers are supposed to promote
C. No, there isnt. A teachers salary is meager and selling books is respectable way
of augmenting Teacher
Es income.
D. Yes, there is. She is not supposed to engage in any form of sideline.

3. To build a sense of pride among Filipino youth, which should be done?

A. Re-study our history and stress on our achievements as a people.
B. Re-study our history from the perspective of our colonizers.
C. Replace the study of folklores and myths with technical subjects that make
youths globally competitive.
D. Set aside the study of local history.

4. Teacher Rodel discovered that his students are very good in dramatizing. Which
tool must have helped him discover his pupils strength?
A. Product assessment

B. Performance test

C. Journal entry

D. Portfolio

5. Here is a performance objective: WITH THE AID OF A PERIODIC CHART, the

students will list the atomic weights of the first ten elements. The words in capital
letters are referred to as the ___________.
A. minimum acceptable performance
B. behavior
C. condition
D. Performance statement

6. Even if the situation allowed her to cheat, Bianca chose not to because she
believes it is not the right thing to do. In what moral developmental stage is Bianca?
A. Conventional
B. Post- conventional
C. Pre-conventional
D. Universal

7. Which assessment tool will be most authentic?

A. Short answer test
B. Alternate-response test
C. Essay test
D. Portfolio

8. Which of the following is a fact question?

A. What are some of the ways in which you have used the word ancient?

B. What are the effects of the invention of electricity on the life of people?
C. What is the function of a CPU in a microcomputer?
D. What would be one of the first things we have to do to clean the air we breathe?

9. Which holds true to norm-referenced testing

A. Constructing test items in terms of instructional objectives
B. Identifying an acceptable level of mastery in advance
C. Determining tasks that reflect instructional objectives
D. Identifying average performance of a group

10. I like to teach subtraction by engaging my pupils in a sari-sari store business.

Which technique is this?
A. Contrived incident

B. Game

C. Dramatization


11. According to Banduras learning theory, the four factors that are necessary for a
person to learn through observation are attention, retention, reproduction and
A. metacognition

B. reflection

C. discrimination

D. motivation

12. In one of the pages of her printed reference material, Teacher Irene finds an
illustrative life cycle of a frog. Assuming that the following are available to her,
which is the quickest way for her to effectively present the life cycle of a frog to her
class? By _______________.
A. the use of an overhead projector

C. describing the life cycle

B. the use of an opaque projector

D. drawing on the chalkboard



SET A- 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9


Which statement correctly applies to the two sets of score distribution?

The scores in Set A are more spread out than those in Set B.
The range for Set B is 6
The range for Set A is 5
The scores in Set B are more spread out than those in Set A.

14. I like my students to master the skill of multiplying 2-digit numbers. Which
method is most appropriate?
A. Drill

B. Expository

C. Discovery

D. Unit

15. Which educational issue can be clarified by understanding Maslows Needs

A. The effects of different classroom structures
B. Delinquency in the public schools
C. The effect of poverty on academic achievement
D. Sex education issues in school

16. Teacher Alvin wants to teach the class the rules in playing basketball. Which
method is most appropriate?
A. Discovery
B. Inductive reasoning
C. Problem solving
D. Direct instruction

17. From which educational philosophy does Back to the Basics movement spring?

A. Essentialism

B. Perennialism

C. Progressivism

D. Existentialism

18. Which does NOT belong to the group?

A. Completion
B. Alternate response
C. Multiple choice
D. Matching type

19. Teacher F helps the pupils remember that stalaCtite grows from the Ceiling and
the stalaGmites grow from the Ground. What device does Teacher F use?
A. Memory device
B. Drill device
C. Coding device
D. Mnemonic device

20. Which basic guidance service is concerned with the gathering and dissemination
of information about students to appropriate professional staff to aid them in their
job to help students?
A. Counseling service

C. Individual inventory service

B. Placement service

D. Research service

21. Which of the following best illustrates the balance of responsibility and
A. A teacher allows a below average child to find out for himself how to manipulate
a simple machine.
B. A teacher advises the parents of a below average child to get their child a tutor
to teach him how to manipulate a simple machine.
C. A teacher asks a brighter child to teach a below average pupil how to manipulate
a simple machine.

D. A teacher diligently explains to a below average child how to manipulate a simple


22. What is most likely to happen in our economy when export continuously
surpasses import? is a thought question on______.
A. generalizing

B. predicting

C. synthesizing

D. creating

23. Teacher Y says: Perfection must be real. While we cannot attain it here on
earth, we aspire for it. It must be real. Teacher Y leans towards which philosophy?
A. idealism
B. Realism
C. Philosophical analysis
D. Pragmatism

24. How do cognitive psychologists see the learner?

A. With empty minds

C. Full of experiences

B. uninterested to learn

D. Totally conditioned by environment

25. A Grade I pupil has difficulty writing letter A. Which prompt/s is/are most
A. Gestural

B. Physical

C. Verbal & Gestural

D. Verbal

26. Which primary criterion should guide a teacher in the choice of instructional
A. Novelty
B. Attractiveness
C. Ability of the students
D. Appropriateness

27. With which is true authority equated?

A. Suppression

B. Power

C. Coercion

D. Service

28. Mitos was first asked to compare identical amounts of liquids in two short
glasses. The liquid from one of the two short glasses was poured into a taller,
skinnier glass of the same capacity. Mitos indicated that the amounts of liquid in the
two different glasses are still the same. What is Mitos that capable of ?
A. Assimilation

B. Accomodation C. Conservation

D. Reversibility

29. Which is most implied by a negatively skewed score distribution?

A. Several of the pupils are in middle of the distribution
B. Most of the scores are high
C. Most of the scores are low
D. The scores are evenly distributed from left to right of the normal curve.

30. Q1 is to 25th percentile as median is to ________.

A. 25th percentile

B. 40th percentile

C. 50th percentile

D. 75th

31. Which quotation goes with a proactive approach to discipline?

A. An ounce of prevention is better than a pound of cure.
B. Do not make a mountain out of a mole.
C. Walk your talk.
D. Do not smile until Christmas.

32. Each teacher is said to be a trustee of the cultural and educational heritage of
the nation and is obliged to transmit to learners such heritage. Which practice helps
him fulfill such obligation?

A. Observe continuing professional education to be the best Filipino teacher.

B. Teach the latest instructional technology to Filipino children.
C. Study the life of Filipino heroes and pass on their deeds worth emulating to
D. Supplant indigenous culture with foreign culture claimed to be superior.

33. All men are pretty much alike. It is only by custom that they are set apart.,
said an Oriental philosopher. Where is this thought most inspiring?
A. In multi-cultural group of learners
B. In multi-cultural, heterogenous and indigenous peoples groups
C. In a heterogenous class of learners
D. In a class composed of indigenous people

34. Principal A tells his teachers to employ more cooperative learning to help
students develop social virtues like cooperation. Which philosophy governs Principal
As thinking?
A. Essentialism
B. Perennialism
C. Existentialism
D. Progressivism

35. What is the mode of the following score distribution: 96, 97, 98, 97, 93, 90, 89,
97, 81, 80?
A. 97

B. 96

C. 98


36. What an individual has learned in the formative years tend to persist, but they
are not unchangeable according to Hurlock. Change is most likely to occur under
the following conditions EXCEPT when _______.

A. the individual himself/herself is strongly motivated to make the change

B. significant people treat the individual in new and different ways
C. needs to be changed are in the genes
D. the individual receives help and guidance in making the change

37. You have presented a lesson on animal protective coloration. At the end, you ask
if there are any questions. There are none. You can take this to mean that ________.
A. the students are not interested in the lesson
B. the students did not understand what you were talking about
C. the students understood everything you presented
D. you need to ask specific questions to elicit response

38. English and Filipino are the official languages of the Philippines according to the
Philippine Constitution. This means that they are the prescribed media of ______.
I. communication in government

III. Communication in public

II. instruction in educational institutions

A. I, II


IV. Lectures in teachers


D. I, IV

39. What measure/s of central tendency does the number 16 represent in the
following score distribution? 14, 15, 17, 16, 19, 20, 16, 14, 16?
A. Mode only
B. Median only

C. Mode and median

D. Mean and mode

40. Teacher Jhonna is convinced that she should teach her students to appreciate
themselves for who they are and to accept the responsibility for their thoughts,
feeling and actions. Which philosophy governs Teacher Jhonnas thought?

A. Existentialism

B. Realism

C. Perennialism


41. Who is NOT covered by the Code of Ethics of Professional Teachers?

A. Teachers of academic, vocational, specific, technical, or non-formal institutions
B. Teachers in all educational institutions at the preschool, elementary, and
secondary levels
C. Teachers in the tertiary level
D. All full time or part time public and private school teachers and administrators

42. Which group of philosophers has opposite views from the rationalists?
A. Empiricists

B. Existentialists

C. Naturalists

D. Idealists

43. What does the principle of individual differences require teachers to do?
A. Give less attention to gifted learners
B. Provide for a variety of learning activities
C.Treat all learners alike while teaching
D. Prepare modules for slow learners in class

44. Which one does NOT illustrate the principle that rights and duties are
A. The right of an unmarried pregnant teacher to abort her baby is in relation to her
duty to protect her name.
B. The right to a living wage involves the duty of the employer to give the salary
agreed upon and the duty of the employee to give a fair amount of work.
C. The right to life on the part of one person corresponds to the obligation on the
part of other persons to respect such a right.
D. The right of the state to compel citizens to military service is reciprocated by the
duty of the state to protect citizens.

45. For maximum interaction, which type of questions must a teacher avoid?
A. Rhetorical

B. Informational

C. Leading

D. Divergent

46. A caregiver working with infants aims to maximize their cognitive development
by having an environment that provides multi-sensorial stimulation. This is guided
by the theory of _______.
A. Erikson

B. Piaget

C. Gardner

D. Goleman

47. What is/are important to state when explaining percentile-ranked tests to

I. What group took the test
II. That the scores show how students performed in relation to other students
III. That the scores show how students performed in relation to an absolute
A. I & II

B. II only

C. I & III

D. III only

48. Which is the true end of a teachers authority in the classroom?

A. To sow fear in every child for orders sake
B. To coerce the child to do what is good
C. To motivate the child to internalize self-discipline
D. To make the child obey orders

49. I started my lesson with a graphic presentation of data then asked my students
to analyze and interpret them and draw implications from them. How did my lesson
development proceed?
A. Deductively
B. Transductively
C. Inductively

D. Inductively then deductively

50. I want to have small group discussions in my class. Which topics will be best for
group discussion? Those topics_____.
A. that are formally structured by texts
B. that are factual
C. where a high degree of consensus among students does not yet exist
D. where a high degree of consensus among students already exists.

51. Which questioning behavior is appropriate?

A. Repeating students responses.
B. Allowing choral responses.
C. Cutting a student who gives a long response.
D. Asking the question then calling on a student to answer.

52. Standard deviation is to variability as mode is to ________.

A. correlation

B. level of difficulty

C. discrimination

D. central

53. You regard the classroom as a small democracy where you help your children
live the democratic way of life. To which educational philosophy do you adhere?
A. Reconstructivism

B. Progressivism

C. Existentialism

D. Realism

54. Marking on a normative basis means that _______.

A. the normal curve of distribution should be followed
B. the symbols used in grading indicate how a student achieved relative to other
C. some get high marks

D. some are expected to fail

55. In Krathwohls taxonomy of objectives in the affective domain, which is the

highest level of affective behavior?
A. Responding

B. Valuing

C. Organization


56. The cultivation of reflective and meditative skills in teaching is an influence of

A. Taoism

B. Shintoism

C. Confucianism

D. Zen Buddhism

57. A teacher should take the obligation upon himself to study the customs and
traditions of the community where she works in order to __________.
A. change the culture of the community
B. have a sympathetic attribute for the people of the community
C. please the people of the community
D. identify the weakness of the culture of the community

58. Which of the following group activities provides an open environment in which
group members can discuss their opinions without being judged as wrong?
A. Buzz session
D. Panel

B. Forum

C. Philips 66

59.To teach the democratic process to the pupils, School T decided to pattern the
election of class and school officers after the local election process. There were
qualifications set for candidates, limited period of campaign and rules for posting
campaign materials, etc. Which of the following did the school employ?
A. Symposium

B. Simulation

C. Philips 66

D. Role

60. If a child is bitten by a large, black dog, the child may fear not only that black
dog but also other large dogs. Which conditioning process is illustrated?
A. Generalization

B. Acquisition

C. Discrimination

D. Extinction

61. Here is a question on the knowledge level: WHAT IS THE DEFINITION OF

CAPITALISM Which one is a corresponding question in the application level?
A. In your own words, explain the concept of capitalism
B. What should an economic system be like that combines the main features of
capitalism and socialism?
C. What countries from among those listed do have a capitalist economic system?
D. What factors distinguish capitalism from socialism?

62. To believe in the basic goodness of every learner is in line with the thought on
the innate goodness of man as taught by _______.
A. Lao tsu

B. Kung-fu-tsu

C. Mohammad

D. Mencius

63. Cristy, a Grade 3 pupil, is happy when she wins in a game but sulks when she
doesnt. Which does Cristys behavior indicate?
A. Egotism

B. Egocentrism

C. Rigidity of thought


64.World War II has caused too much destruction to life and property and the Allied
Forces which composed of the United States, Great Britain and France wanted to
end it. But Japan adamantly refused. To force Japans surrender, the Allied Forces
dropped the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 9, 1945.
Which basic principle of morality applies to this case?
A. Always do what is right
B. Principle of double of effect

C. The end does not justify the means

D. Between the two evils, do the lesser evil.

65. To arouse in them the spirit of nationalism, Teacher Ima plays Philippine folk
music as pupils enter the classroom after flag ceremony. To what theory does
Teacher Ima adhere?
A. Humanistic psychology
B. Gestalt psychology
C. Behaviorism
D. Psychoanalysis

66. Research found that children learn visual discrimination tasks more rapidly if
they talk to themselves. This shows that _________.
A. visual discrimination may be learned without vocalization
B. vocalization does not enhance visual discrimination
C. vocalization assists visual discrimination
D. visual discrimination cannot be learned without vocalization

67. In which lesson can you use the indirect instruction method?
A. Using a microscope properly
B. Distinguishing war from aggression

C. Solving an equation with two

D. Cooking pinakbet

68. The authoritarian setting in the Filipino home is reinforced by a classroom

teacher who _______.
A. prescribes what pupils should do
B. encourages pupils to ask questions

C. asks open-ended questions

D. is open to suggestions

69. Belen enjoys games like scrabble, anagrams, and password. Which type of
intelligence is strong in Belen?
A. Interpersonal intelligence

C. Spatial intelligence

B. Linguistic intelligence

D. logical and mathematical

70. To test if values have really been imbibed, which measurement instruments
should a teacher use?
A. Rating scales and conflict stories
B. Projective techniques and moral dilemmas
C. Unobtrusive observation and anecdotal records
D. Likert scales and rating scales

71. The following are trends in marking and reporting systems EXCEPT
A. raising the passing grade from 75 to 80
B. conducting parent-teacher conferences as often as needed
C. indicating strong points as well as those needing improvement.
D. supplementing subject grades with checklist on traits.

72. Here is a lesson objective in a Language lesson: From memory, the pupils must
be able to recite the poem. Applying Robert Magers principle which does this
objective lack?
A. Location

B. Condition

C. Criterion measure


73. Teacher Jenny subscribes to the mental discipline approach. Which is she
convinced of?
A. The more difficult the subject, the more the student exercises his mind, the
greater the value of the subject.
B. The more bodily exercises, the better for the student.
C. The less the student engages himself in mental exercise, the better for the

D. The easier the subject, the greater the value of the subject

74. The students of Teacher Sophie scan an electronic encyclopedia, view a film on
a subject, or look at related topics at the touch of a button right there in the
classroom. Which device does Teacher Sophies class have?
A. Videodisc

B. Videotaped lesson


D. Teaching machines

75. A class is composed of academically poor students. The distribution would be

most likely to be _____.
A skewed to the right

B. leptokurtic

C. a bell curve

D. skewed to the

76. A good classroom manager has eyes on the back of his head. This means that
the effective teacher ___.
A. has eye contact with his students
B. gives penetrating looks to his students
C. looks at his students from head to toe when he expresses
legitimate anger
D. is aware of all actions and activities in his classroom

77. In Krathwohls affective domain of objectives, which of the following is the

LEAST authentic?
A. Responding

B. Receiving

C. Valuing

D. Organization

78. I want to measure students awareness of values. Which tool will I use?
A. Likert scales

B. Projective technique

C. Moral dilemma D. Observation

79. Which theory backs up the use of computer-assisted instruction?

A. Classical conditioning

B. Insight learning
C. Associative shifting
D. Operant conditioning

80. Which characteristic of a good test is threatened when a significantly greater

number from the lower group gets a test item correctly?
A. Objectivity

B. Scorability

C. Administrability

D. Reliability

81. Cognitive is to knowledge as affective is to ____.

A. rights

B. skills

C. obligations

D. values

82. To develop higher-level thinking skill among students, which type of questions
should be discouraged?
A. Sequential questions

C. Stimulating questions

B. Overload questions

D. Clear questions

83. You want to generate as many ideas as you can as your class is about to embark
on a class project for senior citizens. Which of the following will you employ?
A. Brainstorming

B. Role playing

C. Brainwashing

D. Simulation

84. Regular medical check-up required of teachers is done in the interest of _______.
A. School officials

C. the state and of every teacher

B. Filipino medical doctors

D. parents

85. In which competency did my students find the greatest difficulty? In the item
with a difficulty index of _____.
A. 0.1

B. 1.0

C. 0.9

D. 0.5

86. You made use of an I message to communicate your anger to Venus. Which is
a characteristic of that I message.? Focus on _____.
A. what in Venuss behavior made you angry
B. your feelings about Venuss misbehavior
C. why you cannot control Ruths behavior
D. your thinking about Venuss misbehavior

87. What kind of social environment prevails in your class if you, as the teacher, are
the primary provider of information, opinions, and instructions?
A. In between democratic and Laissez faire
B. Laissez faire

C. Authoritarian
D. Democratic

88. Knowledge is innate in the soul. Provoke people into thinking for themselves
rather than teach them they did not already know, said one Greek philosopher.
What is the application of this in the classroom today? Use of _____.
A. cooperative learning

C. questioning method

B. role playing

D. concept mapping

89. Because the pupils are hungry, they ignore the instruction to line up for their
snacks and are therefore unruly. On what level(s) are the students acting?
A. Ego and Superego

B. Ego

C. Id

D. Superego

Practice Test in LET Professional Education-Principles and Strategies in Teaching

1. The _________ method is used when the learners are made to observe things in
a certain place like the market.
1) Participatory
2) Case study
3) Simulation
4) Field trip

2. The recommended method to use if the teachers wishes each learner to

concentrate in learning a topic to his skills are properly assessed is.
1) Semantic webbing
2) Independent study
3) Role playing
4) Field trip

The ________ method is observed if we wish the pupil learn from real life
situation dilemmas.
1) Situation
2) Lecture
3) Textbooks
4) Observation

4. The ________ method is used to make the learners study in detail a specific
thing, person or place not known to them

1) Case study
2) Participation
3) Project
4) Field trip

5. Which of the following method will you used to verify a certain findings and to
make the learners handle apparatus properly?
1) Textbook method
2) Laboratory method
3) Field trip method
4) Project method

6. The ________ method is utilized if the learners are trained to do creative

1) Project
2) Case study
3) Field trip
4) Simulation

7. If the material is dangerous for the learners to handle, which of the following
method will you use?
1) Textbook
2) Group discussions
3) Lecture-demonstration
4) Eclectic


Which method is used to develop scientific inquiry among the learners?

1) Project
2) Case study
3) Problem solving
4) Simulation
9. The ________ method is used to find out the learners knowledge about a certain
topic assigned to them.
1) Independent study
2) Textbook
3) Lecture
4) Question and answer

10. The ________ approach is utilized when the learners are trained to ask intelligent
1) Process
2) Discovery
3) Inquiry
4) Value certification

11. If you wish to relate a subject matter to one of the four principles of learning,
the ________ approach should be used.
1) Multidisciplinary
2) Interdisciplinary
3) Conceptual
4) Integration

12. The ________ approach is used if the teacher wishes to solve a problem being
met in the school.

1) Mastery
2) Integration
3) Action learning
4) Value clarification

13. You wish to make the learners learn or internalized fully a subject matter to be
taught to them. Which of the following will you need?
1) Integrated
2) Multi-media
3) Master
4) Multi-disciplinary

14. Which of the following approaches will be used if you wish to relate a particular
subject to all disciplines of learning?
1) Multidisciplinary
2) Interdisciplinary
3) Value clarification
4) Integration

15. To enable the learners to learn by their own pace of growth, _________ approach
is used.
1) Inquiry
2) Discovery
3) Mastery
4) Modular

16. The ______ approach is observed when the learners want to meet the criterion
level of success act set by the teachers.

1) Mastery learning
2) Interdisciplinary
3) Conceptual
4) Modular

17. Which approach is used to emphasize the skills in informing conclusions?

1) Multidisciplinary
2) Interdisciplinary
3) Conceptual
4) Inquiry

18. Which of the following approaches is used to include issues confronting the
1) Integration
2) Interdisciplinary
3) Conceptual
4) Inquiry

19. The _______ approach is used to make the learners enunciate their feelings or
attitudes about certain issues.
1) Value clarification
2) Mastery
3) Integration
4) Interdisciplinary

20. The _________ method is used if the learners are to use their senses effectively.
1) Textbook

2) Lecture demonstration
3) Observation
4) Independent study










10. 3
11. 4
12. 3
13. 3
14. 1
15. 2
16. 1
17. 3
18. 2
19. 1
20. 2

Practice Questions

1. Which theory would most support the following statement? There are many 'ways
of knowing,' all equal to one another: each student will learn in his or her own
FTCE Test Study Guide with Practice Questions

a. Bloom's taxonomy
b. Situated learning
c. Problem-based learning
d. Multiple intelligences

2. Which approach is best for beginning to teach a group of new students?

a. Rely on age- and grade-appropriate standards to determine the starting point in

the curriculum.
b. Review samples of past class work or test scores, if available, in conjunction with
teacher-administered assessment to determine a starting point.
c. Talk with students to gauge their intellectual and maturity levels and attempt to
"jump-start" them by introducing challenging work immediately.
d. Ask students to list their interests in detail and use the lists to design instruction
that will maintain their attention throughout the course.

3. Which answer describes the best use of concept extensions in the classroom?

a. During the course of the year, each student in Biology class is permitted to
choose a topic of interest and research it. The research is then presented to the
class with visual and/or media aids.

b. Whenever a student comes across a word that he does not understand, his
teacher shows him how to use context clues or reference sources to find its
c. Each week during a unit on biodiversity, students visit the lake besides their
school to observe and record information about plant and animals living there. Each
entry must be accompanied by class reading and lecture notes.
d. A Social Sciences teacher instructs her students to interview one person over the
age of 65 for a final project. The students prepare a written report and participate in
a classroom discussion about what they learned.

4. Which statement is false?

a. Metaphors and analogies are often useful in learning new concepts through
activation of prior knowledge.
b. Metaphors and analogies compare things that are not the same, but that have
some similarities.
c. Analogies should be presented before metaphorical concepts, since the former
concept is more specific and is easier for students to grasp.
d. None of the above

5. Which classroom arrangement is most appropriate for young students in

Kindergarten or 1st grade?

a. Child-sized desks and chairs are placed in a neat grid so that the teacher can
always see whether or not the students are in place and on task. All personal
belongings, supplies and class work are kept inside individual desk cubbies.
b. Lamps, rugs, and cozy pillows create a home-like atmosphere. Artwork and
'found' objects decorate the halls and tables. When group lessons are given, the
students simply listen from wherever they are in the classroom.
c. Certain curriculum areas each have a designated classroom space. Seating is
provided in each area and is designed to match the nature of the activities present.
Whole-class seating is available at long, arced tables in one area of the room.

d. The classroom chairs and desks are arranged in a U shape to promote discussion
and collaboration among students. The children alternate between desks and
outdoor play.
Answers & Explanations

1. D: Howard Gardner first introduced the concept of multiple intelligences. His

theory rests on the idea that there are multiple ways to understand or 'to know.'
Every individual will have strengths and weaknesses in learning, but everyone will
learn in different ways. The seven commonly identified intelligences are:
verbal/linguistic, existential, logical/mathematical, interpersonal, intrapersonal,
visual/spatial, musical/rhythmic, bodily/kinesthetic, and naturalist. Each intelligence
can be used to help identify the way in which a student understands the world
around him or her.

2. B: When teaching a new group of students, the teacher must design instruction
that will be at an appropriate level of challenge. If course work is too easy or too
challenging, the students may lose confidence and interest early on. If samples of
past work or performance on tests are available, the teacher should review these
whenever possible. Doing so will give him or her insight into the students' past
instruction and abilities. However, the teacher should also be sure to provide a
current assessment of some type to account for changes in classroom environment
and knowledge retention. The teacher should ensure that students meet objectives
for the end of the term or course, but will need to begin at an ability-appropriate
level for the students.

3. C: Using extensions is a vital part of classroom instruction: students must have

opportunities to take the learning process beyond information presented by the
teacher inside the classroom. All students need opportunities to use what they have
learned in class and apply (or extend) the information to other skill areas. The third
choice provides students with a direct application of classroom material on
biodiversity by observing plants and animals at the lake. Students also incorporate
journaling and research techniques to complement their studies. Finally, each entry
must incorporate classroom material so that students are making connections
between what they have learned and their current activities.

4. C: Metaphors and analogies are often taught in Language courses, but can be
useful teaching tools in all subjects. When a teacher presents new concepts, he or
she can use these tools to help students compare them to previously-learned

information. For example, the teacher might help students understand how their
eyes work by comparing them to a camera. Metaphors and analogies use slightly
different language to accomplish the same goal: comparing two unlike things.
However, one method need not be used before or in place of another.

5. C: Young children at a Kindergarten or 1st-grade level are still learning to sit still,
read and write fluently, and increase attention spans. For these reasons, the
classroom environment should provide a variety of activities and seating spaces.
Certain activities require certain body positions; for instance, when writing, students
should be seated at a desk of the appropriate height, but for a group lesson or
discussion, students might be able to sit in a circle on the floor. In this choice, each
activity determines the type of seating and space allotted, increasing likelihood that
students will achieve the intended learning outcomes.

separation of church & state

Constitutional Amendment 2

Right to keep & bear arms

Constitutional Amendment IV

unreasonable search & seizure

Constitutional Amendment X

responsibility of education rests at state & local levels since Constitution does not
mention it as a federal duty

Constitutional Amendment XIV

life, liberty, property without due process

McKinney-Vento Act

homeless children cannot be segregated


Plyler v. Doe

illegal immigrants cannot be denied school enrollment, it violates equal protection

clause of XIV amendment

code switching

alternate use of 2 languages interchangeably


extending a grammatical rule by applying it inappropriately such as adding -ed to

the end of irregular verbs; for example 'goed' instead of 'went'


overdoing a grammatical rule by applying it unnecessarily such as adding -s to a

plural form of a noun; for ex peoples instead of people

Plessey v. Ferguson

'separate but equal' is a valid doctrine

Natural Approach

limited error correction, use of realia, lowered affective filter


emphasizes problem solving

students learn by doing & collaboration

Socratic Method

questioning & interacting
uses knowledge & reason
(not hands-on experience)

Orbis Pictus

1st children's book

by John Amos Comenius

Process Approach Model



Erikson's Theory

trust v. mistrust birth - 18 months

autonomy v. doubt 18 mos - 3 yrs
initiative 3-6 yrs old
industry 6-12 yrs old
identity v. role confusion 12- 18 yrs
intimacy v. isolation young adult
generativeity v. self absorption middle adult
integrity v. despair late adult



reinforcement to shape behavior

drill & practice - teaching strategy


discovery learning
project based learning
inquiry learning

learner centered approach

activate prior knowledge

W.Va State Board of Ed v. Burnette

students not REQUIRED to participate in flag salutes

divergent thinking

open ended




starts w basic assumptions or facts - proceeds to a logical conclusion


involves looking at a # of specific examples & try to identify a pattern or trend to

determine a general rule


Lulac etal v. Fla Board of Education

Florida Consent Decree

protects the rights for ESOL students

criterion-referenced test

compare scores against a predetermined minimum standard of competency


dame schools - taught for pay by women in the community in their homes


1 room schools - town school


social level @ which language is spoken - context of the situation determines the
socially appropriate register for the speech used

1943 landmark case W.Va State Board of Ed v. Burnette

schools are prohibited from requiring students to participate in flag salutes

socratic method

develops the mind through knowledge & reason (not hands on experience)


emphasizes problem solving, students learn by doing and collaboration


withdrawing reinforcers to discourage undesirable behavior

constitutional amendment II

guarantees the right of the people to keep & bear arms

constitutional amendment IV

protects against 'unreasonable searches & seizures'

constitutional amendment VI

accused person 'the right to a speedy & public trial'

constitutional amendment X

grants the 'powers not delegated to the United States by the constitution to the

Formative assessment

takes place before & during the learning process - gives feedback to teacher about
instructional process - may be formal or informal

Needs assessment

Self evaluation by an organization


average - adding all scores and dividing this sum by the total # of scores that were


the midpoint in a distribution of scores from highest to lowest


the score in a distribution that appears most frequently


the greatest score minus the least score in a set of scores

standard deviation

measure of the dispersion of a set of data values about the mean of the data set,
the more teh data values vary from the mean the greater the standard deviation,
meaning that the data set has more spread

raw score

total number of correct responses on an assessment



Yuan always waits at his neighbor Gerald every morning. He enjoys seeing
him while biking and imitates the actions of Gerald while he rides his own bike. Who
is the proponent of Social Learning Theory which applies in the situation?


C. Bruner



D. Skinner

RATIONALIZATION: A- Albert Bandura developed the Social Learning Theory and

advocated that children learn from what they see in the environment.
A child submitted a poor written report but packaged with brightly colored
paper. This showcases_______.

Art over academics

C. art over science


Substance over porma D. porma over substance

RATIONALIZATION: D- When a student focuses more on designs and embellishments

rather than of content of a report, then it shows porma over substance.

With the use of mnemonics, the students are able to _____information.



C. understand



D. remember

RATIONALIZATION: D-mnemonics like My Dear Aunt Sally to mean multiplication,

division, addition and subtraction help students remember information easily
According to Krathwohls affective domain of objectives,________ is the lowest
level of affective behavior.


C. responding



D. characterization

RATIONALIZATION: C-the arrangement of Krathwohls affective domain is

responding, valuing, organization and characterization.
A boy is closer to his mother and a girl is close to her father. These instances
are under_.

Oedipal complex

C. phallic stage


Latent stage

D. Pre-genital stage

RATIONALIZATION: C-when a boy is closer to the mother (Oedipus complex) and a

girl is closer to her father (Electra complex), these instances are under Freuds
phallic stage in the Psychosexual Development Theory.
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Teacher Abi asks one of her students, What do you want to become when
you grow up? This question is an indication of what kind of philosophy?


C. Existentialism



D. Idealism

RATIONALIZATION: D-idealism because it stresses the existence of ideas

independent from the material world. Ideas that which exist in the mind are the only
Teacher Jessy has not only explained the concept of Philosophy of Education
but also imparted this to her students. This demonstrates what kind of philosophy?


C. Realism



D. Perennialism

RATIONALIZATION: C-realism concerns with what is real, actual. For ideas to be

realized, they must be transferred or demonstrated.
Which pillar of learning aimed in the acquisition of the instrument of
understanding in order to develop the students learn-to-learn skills?

Learning to do

C. learning to live together


Learning to know

D. learning to be

RATIONALIZATION: B- learning to know implies learning how to earn by developing

ones concentration, memory skills and ability to think, acquiring the instrument of
In his class, Teacher Jakob always presents principles and values so as to
encourage his students to examine them and decide for themselves whether to
accept them or not. What kind of philosophy does he practice?



C. Humanism



D. Existentialism

RATIONALIZATION: D-Existentialism is a philosophy that emphasizes subjectivity,

freedom and responsibility.
When a teacher emphasizes that mans sense should be trusted because they
are the only way to acquire knowledge, the teacher can be regarded as____.


C. Empiricist



D. Pragmatist

RATIONALIZATION: C-empiricism upholds that the only source of knowledge is the

senses and sense-based experience.
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The school conducted a general student election for the Supreme Student
Council. The election is patterned after the COMELEC system. The school is using
what kind of technique?




C. Panel discussion
D. Dramatization

RATIONALIZATION: B-simulation is an activity that simulates almost real-life

situation. Other applications of simulation are the following: simulated flight for
aviation students, assigning student to be the mayor of the day.

During problem solving method, the teachers primary role is:



C. lecturer



D. judge

RATIONALIZATION: B-during problem solving activities, the teacher acts as a clarifier

especially when students are in doubt how to go about the problem.

Which among the following devices can be a scaled replica of a certain object?


Mock ups

C. globes



D. maps

RATIONALIZATION: B- models like Heart Models are scaled replicas.

Which of the following would be the best choice if a teacher would like to focus
on attitudinal change?



Field study

C. role play
D. simulation

RATIONALIZATION: C-role playing allows the child to shows his own personal
emotions and therefore is a good option when focusing on attitudinal change.

This method relies heavily upon showing the learners a model performance.





C. reporting
D. field study

RATIONALIZATION: B- demonstration includes Teacher-Directed Demo, StudentDirected Demo, Teacher-Student Directed Demo and Resource Person-Directed
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v Act #74-enacted in January 21, 1901. It provides for the establishment of
Department of Public Instruction and establishment of PCAT now TUP and PNS now
v Act #1870 founding of UP (June 18, 1908)
v Act #2706 Private School Law (enacted March 10, 1917)
v Commonwealth Act #1- preparatory military training shall begin in Elementary
grade school at age 10. This act was amended by PD 1706 (August 8, 1980)
requiring all citizens to render civil welfare service, law enforcement service and
military service.
v Commonwealth Act #80- (October 26, 1936) established the Office of Adult
Education (vocational training in an effort to eliminate illiteracy)
v Commonwealth Act#578 (June 8, 1940) conferred the status of PERSONS IN
AUTHORITY upon teachers
v Commonwealth Act #586 Education Act of 1940-reduction of number of years in
elementary (from 7 to 6), fixing school entrance age 7 years old, national support of
elementary education, compulsory attendance in the primary grades for all children
enrolled in grade one, introduction of double single session
v Commonwealth Act #589-(August 19, 1940) established school rituals in private
and public schools
v RA #137 (June 14, 1947) enacted the Board of Textbooks
v RA #896 (June 20, 1953) Elementary Education Act of 1953. This law repealed
Commonwealth Act #586 (restoration of grade 7, abolition of double single session,
compulsory completion of elementary, compulsory enrolment of children in public
school upon reaching 7 years old)
v RA #1124 (June 16, 1954) created the Board of National Education
v RA #1265 (June 11, 1955) compulsory daily flag ceremony in all educational
v RA #1425 (June 12, 1956) teaching life, works and writings of Rizal especially Noli
and Fili in all public and private schools
v RA #4760 (June 18, 1966) Magna Cart of Public School Teachers

v RA #1079 (June 15, 1959) provided that civil service eligibility shall be permanent
and valid lifetime
v RA #6655 (May 25, 1988) Free Public Secondary Act of 1988
v RA #7722 (May 18, 1994) created CHED
v RA #7743 (June 17, 1994) established public libraries and reading centers in
every barangay
v RA #7784 (August 4, 1994) established Centers of Excellence and Teachers
Education Council
v RA #7796 (August 25, 1994) established TESDA
v RA #7836 (December 16, 1994) Phil Teachers Professionalization Act (supercedes
v RA #7877 (February 14, 1995) Anti-Sexual Harassment Act
v EO #27 (July 4, 1986) inclusion of human rights courses or subjects
v EO #189 (June 10, 1987) Basic Salary and COLA of public school teachers will be
paid for by national government
v PD 6-A-(September 29, 1972) Education Development Decree of 1972
v PD 146-(March 9, 1972) NCEE (superceded by RA7731 on June 2, 1994)
v PD 688-(April 22, 1975) gave power to CSC the authority to give appropriate
exam to all public school teachers
v PD 907-(March 11, 1976) all honor graduates of colleges and universities are
granted civil service eligibility
v PD 1006 (September 22, 1976) PBET
v DECS Order #30 s 1993- NEAT
v DECS Order #30 s 1994- NSAT
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CURRICULUM APPROACHES (Curriculum Development)

The curriculum approaches reflect the developers philosophy, view of
reality, history, psychology, social issues and the domains of knowledge. Analysis of
an approach provides information about personal and collective commitments to a
particular viewpoint and the values deemed important by individuals, school and


The curriculum developers which may include specialists, superintendents,

principals and coordinators are likened to engineers and architects who use
instruments and empirical methods in preparing a blueprint with well defined
elements orderly-sequenced procedures and quality control measures to increase
the probability of success in its implementation


It is a means-end approach. Curricula developed through this approach become the

actual blueprints which prescribe the roles of key figures in the educative process.
Viewing the curricula as the means and instruction as the end is a behavioral



Motivate interest of all stakeholders. Encourage participation and involvement of all

stakeholders. Synthesize divergent viewpoints. Monitor curriculum implementation.
Create a climate of innovation and change.


It emphasizes the importance of theories and principles in curriculum planning. This

model is influenced by the philosophy of John Dewey.


Flexible and less structured without pre-determined objectives to guide the learningteaching process. Contends that not all ends of education can be known nor indeed
to be known in all cases.


It argues that those who favor the rational approach miss the artistic and personal
aspects of curriculum and instruction. It is rooted in progressive philosophy which
promotes the liberation of learners from authoritarian teachers.



It criticizes the technocratic-scientific models as not sensitive to the inner feelings

and experience of individuals. It reflects on existentialist orientation. The aim of
education is not to control instruction in order to preserve existing order.


The school is an institution of social reform. It criticizes the progressivists for putting
too much emphasis on the individual learner to the neglect of the needs of society.


Oftentimes, Filipino educators, in particular, prefer eclectic models (halo-halo) which

are a combination of several approaches, rather than commit themselves to one
particular approach only. Eclectic models are not mere patchwork (pagtagpi-tagpi)
but a synthesis (pagbuo(pagbuo o paghahabi) where desired features from several
models are selected and integrated into a new whole. - See more at:
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Legal Bases of Philippine Education

Hinihingi ng mabisa at mabilis na pagtuturo ang pag-gamit ng mabubuting

pamamaraan ng pagtuturo. Nakasaalay sa mabuting pamaraan ng pagtuturo ang
matagumpay, kawili-wili at mabisang pagkatuto ng mag-aaral at pagtuturo ng guro.
Walang isang paraan lamang na masasabing sadyang mabisa para sa lahat ng uri
ng paksang aralin o isang pamamaraan kaya na angkop gamitin sa lahat ng
pagkakataon. Kaya ang guro ang nagbabalak at nagpapasya sa pamamaraang
kanyang gagamitin na angkop sa bunga ng pagkatuto na nais niyang makamtan ng
mag-aaral, angkop sa sitwasyon, angkop sa kakayahan ng mag-aaral at gayon din
sa uri ng paksang-aralin at asignaturang kanyang itinuturo.



Ang pamaraang ito ay angkop na angkop gamitin sa pagtuturo kaugnay ng

pagbubuo ng tuntunin o pagkakaroon ng isang paaglalahat o generalization. Ang
pamamaraang ito, kung minsan ay tinatawag na Limang Pormal na Hakbang sa
Pagtuturo o dili kaya ay Herbatian Method sapagkat ipinakilala ito sa larangan ng
pagtuturo ni Herbert. Sinasabi rin ito na nagsimula sa nalalaman patungo sa hindi
nalalaman. Nagsisimula sa mga halimbawa patungo sa tuntunin kayat nasasabing
ito ay egrule na pamamaraan. Ang pamamaraang ito ay may limang hakbang 1)
paghahanda o preparation, 2) paglalahad o presentation, 3) paghahambing at
paghalaw o comparison and abstraction, 4) paglalahat o generalization at 5)
paggamit o application.



Ang pamaraang pasaklaw ay kabaligtaran ng pamaraang pabuod. Samantalang ang

pamaraang pabuod ay nagsisimula sa mga halimbawa patungo sa paglalahat o
pagbubuo ng tuntunin, ang pamaraang pasaklaw naman ay nagsisimula sa
paglalahat ng tuntunin patungo sa pagbibigay ng mga halimbawa kaya may
taguring rule o rule of example. May limang hakbang ito 1) panimula o
introduction, 2) pagbibigay ng tuntunin o katuturan o giving of rules/generalization
3)pagpapaliwanag ng tuntunin o interpretation of the rule, 4) pagbibigay ng
halimbawa o giving examples 5) pagsubok o testing.



Ang pamaraang ito ay angkop na angkop gamitin sa pagtuturo ng Edukasyong

Panggawain. Angkop din naming gamitin sa pagtuturo ng anumang asignatura na
may nilalayong magsagawa ng proyekto. Sa pamamaraang ito, nalilinang sa mga
mag-aaral hindi lamang sa kakayahan at kasanayang pagpaplano, sa pagsusuri, sa
pagpapahayag at sa pagpapasiya kundi gayundin naman ang mga kapangkat at
ang kakayahan sa pagtanggap ng puna nang walang pagdaramdam o sama ng
loob. Ito ay may apat na hakbang 1) paglalayon o purposing 2) pagbabalak o
planning 3) pagsasagawa o executing 4) pagpapasiya o evaluating/judging.



Ang pamaraang pagtuklas ay isang pamaraaan ng pagtuturo na bukod sa

nagdudulot ng kawilihan ay humahamon pa sa kakayahan ng mga mag-aaral. Ang
pamamaraang ito ay nagbibigay ng pagkakataon sa mga mag-aaral na siyang
makatuklas ng kaalaman, konsepto, kaisipan, simulain at paglalahat. Ang mga magaaral ay aktibong kasangkot sa pagtuklas ng karunungan at hindi basta na lamang
taagatanggap ng kung anu-anong mga idinidikta sa kanilang mga kaisipaan at


PAMARAANG PROSESO (Process Approach)

Ang process approach ay ginagamit sa pagtuturo ng mga asignatura sa aghaam at

iba pang disiplina. Ito ay isang pagdulog na ang binibigyang- diin ay hindi ang
pagkakamit ng mga mag0aaral ng maraming kabatirang ipasasaulo sa kanya kundi
manapay ang pag angkin ng mga mag-aaral ng mga batayang kasanayang
intelektuwal na kailangan niya sa pagkatuto.
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[SET 2 - PART 1]

1. Which assumption underlies the teacher's use of performance objectives?

A. Not every form of learning is observable.

B. Performance objectives assure the learrier of learning.
C. Learning is defined as a change in the learner's observable performance.
D. The success of learner is based on teacher performance.

2. In the parlance of test construction what does TOS mean?

A. Table of Specifics
B. Table of Specifications
C. Table of Specific Test Items
D. Team of Specifications

3. A student passes a research report poorly written but ornately presented in a

folder to make up for the poor quality of the book report content. Which Filipino trait
does this practice prove? Emphasis on __________.

A. art over academics

B. substance overporma

C. art over science

D. pormaover substance

4. In a criterion-referenced testing, what must you do to ensure that your test is


A. Make all of the questions true or false.

B. Ask each student to contribute one question.
C. Make twenty questions but ask the students to answer only ten of their choice.
D. Use the objectives for the units as guide in your test construction.

5. Which does Noam Chomsky, assert about language learning for children?
I. Young children learn and apply grammatical rules and vocabulary as they are
exposed to them.
II. Begin formal teaching of grammatical rules to children as early as possible.
III. Do not require initial formal language teaching for children.

A. I and III
B. II only
C. I only
D. I and II

6. Which Filipino trait works against the shift in teacher's role from teacher as a
fountain of information to teacher as facilitator?

A. Authoritativeness
B. Authoritarianism

C. Hiya
D. Pakikisama

7. If a teacher plans a constructivist lesson, what will he most likely do? Plan how he

A. do evaluate his students' work

B. do reciprocal teaching
C. lecture to his students
D. engage his students in convergent thinking

8. Who among the following needs less verbal counseling but needs more concrete
and operational forms of assistance? The child who __________.

A. has mental retardation

B. has attention-deficit disorder
C. has learning disability
D. has conduct disorder

9. How would you select the most fit in government positions? Applying Confucius
teachings, which would be the answer?

A. By course accreditation of an accrediting body

B. By merit system and course accreditation
C. By merit system
D. By government examinations

10. Which types of play is most characteristic of a four to six-year old child?
A. Solitary and onlooker plays
B. Associative and coooperative plays
C. Associative and onlooker plays
D. Cooperative and solitary plays

11. A teacher's summary of a lesson serves the following functions, EXCEPT

A. it links the parts of the lesson

B. lt brings together the information that has been discussed
C. it makes provisions for full participation of students.
D. it clinches the basic ideas or concepts of the lesson.

12. All of the following describe the development of children aged eleven to thirteen
EXCEPT __________.

A. they shift from impulsivity to adaptive ability

B. sex differences in IQ becomes more evident
C. they exhibit increase objectivity in thinking
D. they show abstract thinking and judgement

13. Teacher T taught a lesson denoting ownership by means of possessives. He first

introduced the rule, then gave examples, followed by class exercises, then back to
the rule before he moved into the second rule. Which presenting technique did he

A. Combinatorial
B. Comparative

C. Part-whole
D. Sequence

14. "In the light of the facts presented, what is most likely to happen when ... ?" is a
sample thought question on

A. inferring
B. generalizing
C. synthesizing
D. justifying

15. Teacher E discussed how electricity flows through wires and what generates the
electric charge. Then she gave the students wires, bulbs, switches, and dry cells and
told the class to create a circuit that will increase the brightness of each bulb. Which
one best describes the approach used?

A. It used a taxonomy of basic thinking skills

B. It was contructivist
C. It helped students understand scientific methodolgy
D. It used cooperative learning

16. Teacher B uses the direct instruction strategy. Which sequence of steps will she
I. Independent practice
II. Feedback and correctiveness
III. Guided student practice
IV. Presenting and structuring
V. Reviewing the previous day's work


17. Which are direct measures of competence?

A. Personality tests
B. Performance tests
C. Paper-and-pencil tests
D. Standardized test

18. Under which program were students who were not accommodated in public
elementary and secondary schools because of lack of classroom, teachers, and
instructional materials, were enrolled in private schools in their respective
communities at the government's expense?

A. Government Assistance Program

B. Study Now-Pay Later
C. Educational Service Contract System
D. National Scholarship Program

19. Which activity should a teacher have more for his students if he wants them to
develop logical-mathematical thinking?

A. Problem solving
B. Choral reading

C. Drama
D. Storytelling

20. An effective classroom manager uses low-profile classroom control. Which is a

low-profile classroom technique?

A. Note to parents
B. After-school detention
C. Withdrawal of privileges
D. Raising the pitch of the voice

21. Your teacher is of the opinion that the world and everything in it are ever
changing and so teaches you the skill to cope with change. What is his governing

A. Idealism
B. Existentalism
C. Experimentalism
D. Realism

22. To come closer to the truth we need togo back to the things themselves.This is
the advice of the
A. behaviorists
B. phenomenologists
C. idealists
D. pragmatists

23. Test norms are established in order to have a basis for __________.

A. establishing learning goals

B. interpreting test results
C. computing grades
D. identifying pupils' difficulties

24. A stitch on time saves nine, so goes the adage.. Applied to classroom
management, this means that we __________

A. may not occupy ourselves with disruptions which are worth ignoring because
they are minor
B. must be reactive in our approach to discipline
C. have to Jesolve minor disruptions before they are out of control
D. may apply 9 rules out of 10 consistently

25. Which criterion should guide a teacher in the choice of instructional devices?

A. Attractiveness
B. Cost
C. Novelty
D. Appropriateness