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9/21/2015

SAP ABAP Interview Question | SAP Consultancy @ SC.in

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APRIL 6, 2013
ABAP

SAPCONS2

INTERVIEW QUESTIONS, SAP

SAP ABAP Interview Question


After Observing many interviews. Finally i come up with the following
questions which are mostly asked in all the Big companies including
SAP Labs, Accenture, IBM , Deloitte , TCS , Infosys etc
1. Can we write the code both call transaction and session
method in single program?
Ans. Yes it is possible to write call transaction and session in one
program.
2. Which BDC you prefer?
Ans. If we want to transfer large amount of data and when we need to
use more than one transaction code we prefer session method. For
small or less amount of data and for single transaction use call
transaction.
(This is more genric answer but you can add more on to this if you
have worked on BDC)
3. When u prefer LSMW?
Ans. When we need to update medium amount of data we use
LSMW. LSMW is also used when the person like functional
consultant has less programming language.
5. Difference between .include and .append?
Ans.
Include structure allows to add one or more structure into structure or
table.Also placed positioning anywhere. Upto 6 include structure can
be used in a table.
Append structure can be placed only at the end of a structure or table
which also stops further insertion of fields.Only one append structure
can be used
6. Preformance techniques
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Ans.
1. The sequence of fields must be same as per database table
2. During writing select query write all fields in sequence as per
database table.
3. Never write select statements inside loop.endloop.
4. Use st05 SQL trace, se30 run time analysis, code inspector,
slin,etc.
5. Use select single * statement instead of select *
6. Always use primary key
7. Use binary search but before using binary search sort that table.
7. How to debug sapscripts ?
Ans.
Two ways to debug sapscript . first way is goto SE 71 and from menu
bar select Utilities->activate debugger .then goto SE38 execute the
print program ,it automatically goes to debugging mode ..the other
way is , run the program RSTXDBUG in se 38 . execute it . a
message will show that debugger is activated .now open the print
program in se 38 u vll notice that the print prgm is automatically
diverted to debugging mode.
8. What is partner selection?
Ans. This concept is mainly used in IDOC where u select the partner
profile using Tcode We20 .with Tcode SM59 you create RFC(remote
function call) to create communication link to a remote system.
10. What is occurs in internal table?
Ans. Occurs addition to the Declaration will give initial size to that
table.occur statement allocates 8kb of memory to the internal table.
11. What is page window?
Ans : page window is nothing but a container of a page ,which
uniquely identifies a set of data for example while creating invoice
we create logo window , billing document header window , customer
window , terms and condition window etc
12. What is the difference between scrolling a table horizontally
and vertically..??
Ans: In table control when you scroll a table vertically presentation
server needs to call application server to fetch the next record and
display in the table while in case of horizontal scroll there is no need
to call application server.
13. What are Field Groups?
Ans: A group that combines several fields fewer than one name, at
runtime, the INSERT command is used to define which data fields are
assigned to which field group are called Field Groups. It should always
be a HEADER field group that defines how the extracted data will be
sorted; the fields grouped under the HEADER field group sort the data.
14. List the events in ABAP/4 Language?
Ans: The events in ABAP/4 are load of program ,Initialization,
Selection Screen, Start of Selection, End of Selection, Top of page,
Line selection, User command, End, First.
15.How the values will be passed to RFC Function module
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PassbyValue or Passbyreference?
Ans: always Pass by Value.
RFC is Remote Function call so it cant access the values with Pass
by reference.
16. Buffering concept usage?
Ans: There are three type of buffer
1 single record
2 generic buffer
3 full buffer
Buffering is use for improve performance. it improves performance 10
to 100 times more
17. Select up to 1 row and select single difference ?
Ans: Select single fetches first matching record. If more than one
matching records are there then only the first matching record will be
considered other records will not be taken into account. Where as
select up to 1 rows will fetch all the matching records from the
database.(Again it will assign only One Record to the internal
table/Work area)
18. What are the different buffering methods?
There are two different buffering methods
The system ensures that data transfer between the R/3 System and
the database system is as efficient as possible. To do this, it uses the
following techniques:
Table buffering: The program accesses data from the buffer of the
application server.
Database request buffering: Individual database entries are not read or
passed to the database until required by an OPEN SQL statement.
19. Different types of locks?
v Read lock (shared lock)
Protects read access to an object. The read lock allows other
transactions read access but not write access to the locked area of
the table.
v o Write lock (exclusive lock)
Protects write access to an object. The write lock allows other
transactions neither read nor write access to the locked area of the
table.
v o Enhanced write lock (exclusive lock without cumulation)
Works like a write lock except that the enhanced write lock also
protects from further accesses from the same transaction.
20. CHAIN END CHAIN?
Ans: Chain and end chain are used for multiple field validation in
Module pool programming .It is written inside the screen flow logic.
21.How to Debug RFC Function module?
Ans:
SE38 > Utilities > Settings > ABAP Editor > Debugging
Activate the external debugging and choose the New Debugger option
in ABAP debugger.
Go to the particular place in the code and put break point, pop will
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appear then choose the HTTP break point.


If you are triggering the RFC from SAP portal make sure that both the
user ID should be same
If the users are different then provide the XI/Portal User ID in the users
field.
22.Why sapscripts are client dependent and smartforms are
client independent.?
Ans-: Smartforms create its own function module so it doesnt need to
transport the request through SCC1.As all the Development Object are
stored in client independent tables. Whereas Script doesnt generate
any function module while executing so we need to transport the
request number through SCC1.Sap script is stroed in side the client
depended table as a TEXT.so sapscripts are client dependent and
smartforms are client independent.
23. Difference between user exit and BADIs?
Ans: User exit is for single implementation and it is procedural
approach while BADIs are for multiple implementation and object
oriented approach.
Multiple implementation means Reusability because we use OOps
Concepts for BADI.
24. Control break events in ABAP:1. AT-FIRST: This is used when we want to execute the statements
before records are processed.
2. AT-LAST: This event is used when we want to execute the
statements after all records are processed.
3. AT-NEW: This event is used when we want to execute the
statement before group of records are processed.
4. AT-END: This event is used when we want to execute the
statements after processing of group of records.
25.I am uploading 100 records out of which say 59th record has
error so what will happen if i am using synchronous or
asynchronous method of BDC? Can we update the database
using local update mode how?
26. Suppose i am writing following code then what will be
output?
LOAD-OF-PROGRAM.
WRITE:/HELLO.
Ans: HELLO
(Explain the importance of LOAD-OF-PROGRAM Event.If you dont
know Tell the interviewer as this event is used in such cases when
you want to clear sum buffers or something Before calling that
Program)
27. What is TMG?
Ans. TMG stands for Table Maintenance generator. It is a tool
available in abap by which we can add or delete multiple records at a
time and it is executed or triggered by the transaction code SM30.
28. Difference between select option and ranges ?
Ans. The main difference between select option and ranges is that
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ranges implicitly or automatically creates internal table with fields like


OPTION,LOW,HIGH,SIGN,etc . Where as in case of select option we
have to explicitly create internal table.
When u declares a select options it will implicitly declare an internal
table (ranges) for you.
While using RANGES syntax u can declare internal table explicitly.
The only need of declaring ranges is when you r not taking input from
the user but you want make limit based selection at that time it will be
use full e.g. SELECT ** from ** where MATNR in val_range.
here u can use select-option or ranges : val_range.
29. is it possible to bring select option in module pool screens?
Ans.Create a SELECT-OPTIONS in module pool screen using two
methods as shown.
Method 1:a) Create a subscreen area in your screen layout where you want to
create the select options.
b) In the top include of your module pool program declare a selection
screen as a subscreen e.g.
SELECTION-SCREEN BEGIN OF SCREEN 100 AS SUBSCREEN.
select-options s_matnr for mara-matnr.
SELECTION-SCREEN END OF SCREEN.
c) In the PBO and PAI of the main screen where the select options
needs to be created do a call subscreen of the above screen (100).
CALL SUBCREEN sub_area INCLUDING <program> <screen>
This CALL SUBSCREEN statement is necessary for transport of
values between screen and program.
Note: All validations of the selection screen fields e.g. the s_matnr
field created above should be done in selection screen events like AT
SELECTION-SCREEN etc and not in PAI. These selection screen
validations etc should be done in the top include only.
Method 2:a) Create 2 separate fields in your screen layout one for the low
value and one for the high value. Insert an icon beside the high value
which will call the multiple selections popup screen on user
command. Use function module COMPLEX_SELECTIONS_DIALOG
to achieve this.
continued
struc_tab_and_field-fieldname = con_cust. KUNNR
struc_tab_and_field-tablename = con_k na1. KNA1.
CALL FUNCTION COMPLEX_SELECTIONS_DIALOG EXPORTING*
TITLE =
text = g_titl1 Customers
tab_and_field = struc_tab_and_field
TABLES RANGE = rng_k unnr
EXCEPTIONS
NO_RANGE_TAB = 1
CANCELLED = 2
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INTERNAL_ERROR = 3
INVALID_FIELDNAME = 4
OTHERS = 5.
IF NOT rng_k unnr[] IS INITIAL.
* Read the very first entry of the range table and pass it to
* dynpro screen field
*READ TABLE rng_k unnr INDEX 1.
IF sy-subrc = 0.
g_cust = rng_k unnr-low.
ENDIF.
ENDIF.
You can use the return table rng_kunnr to populate your own internal
range table with the values entered by the user. Basically here you are
just simulating the work of a select-options parameter by module pool
screen elements.
30.how we can retrive data using secondary index.explain with
simple example
Ans: First create secondary indexes on required fields of a particular
database table.
We can create one primary index and 15 secondary indexes.Once the
respective secondary indexes are created write select queries and
within select queries specify secondary indexes field name with where
clause.
31.How can we handle table control in BDC?
Ans.We can handle table control using line index
Line index indicates which line of Table control is to be use for BDC
transaction
Ex
perform bdc_field using RC29K-AUSKZ(01)
Indicates 1st line of table control is going to be used for transaction
which is Line index of Table Control
32. If i want to execute a BDC program only in background not
in foreground is there any option for this?
Ans.The sm37 transaction can be used for running a program in the
background. Also in the session method while processing the session
you can specify the processing type as background or foreground.
33.How Can We upload a text file having Delimiters in to
Legacy System
Ans.For up loading text file we use the pre-defined FM gui_upload. in
that FM we have the parameter has_field_seperator for that we assign
the default delimiter x.
HAS_FIELD_SEPERATOR X
X can provide the Whatever delimiter we used in flat file for
separation.
34. What is the land scape in sap.
Ans. In every organisation sap landscape involves three servers viz,
Development server, Quality server and Production server. Whatever
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new development we do as per clients requirement is done in


development server. Later to test the developed object we move it to
quality server for testing and finally once everything goes clear then
the object is moved to production server ,production server data is
ready for final business use.
35. Workbench request are client dependent or client
independent
Ans. Workbench request are client independent.
(Common Man Workbench request holds the Program , FM etc.
How it can be Client Dependent!!!!)
36. Tell me about workbench request and customization
requests.
Ans.Workbench (ABAP Dev) request is client independent when you
import it into one system it reflact it in all client in same system, but
customized request has to import in that client perticular client where
it is created, actually it is client dependent.
Other Interview questions
SAP SCRIPTS & FORMS
1. Can we write the code/program inside sap script?
2. How will u create sapscripts & smartforms in multiple language?
3.How to execute sap script & smart forms in Background?
4.How to do total & subtotal in scripts & forms?
=================================================
DATA DICTIONARY
1.Apart from .include & .append how will u do table enhancement?
2.what r the events of table maintainence generator?
3.what will happen if i use projection view and maintainence view
together?
4. I created ZEMP table now i want to add more data but prev. data
should not disturb how can i do this?
=====================================================
REPORTS
1.How will u print footers in alv report?
2.How will u edit fields from output list of alv?
====================================================
BDC
1.what r the fields u took during recording for mmo1,me21n?
2.If u want to do bdc for xd01 explain me how will be the flow?
=================================================
user exits
1.what r enhancement points?
2.How to write customer exits?
3.what is routine? how it is different from user exits?

Most frequently asked Differences in ABAP


interview
1.sapscript and smartforms
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Sap script is client dependent and smart form is client


independent.
Smartforms has Only 1 main window while Sap script has 99
main windows
You can not print labels using smart forms
2.BDC and LSMW
In BDC we have to take care of field mapping whereas field
mapping is taken care by sap in lsmw.
BDC is mostly used for customised data upload while LSMW
is used for uploading Master data.
In BDC we need to write large code but in LSMW small coding
is needed.
3. BADI and BAPI
BADI is business add ins, it is used to customize the standard
business flow
BAPI is Business application programming interface. It is
nothing but Remote enabled function module which can be
called from outside the SAP System.
4.user exit and customer exit
User exit is an include program given by SAP in that you can
write your code , It needs Access key from SAP while key is
not required in case of customer exit
5. Select single and select up to one row
Select single will fetch only one record while select up to n row.
Will fetch n rows from database
6. Normal (Classical) report and ALV report
To display the output in classical report you use WRITE
Statement.
To display the output in ALV we have different function modules
and class like REUSE_ALV_GRID_DISPLAY ,
REUSE_ALV_LIST_DISPLAY and CL_SALV_TABLE.
If you run the classical report in background after JOB finished
you can see its output which stored in spool, While in case of
ALV you need code extra to store the output as it will not
generate the spool.
7. ALV list display and ALV grid display
You cannot retrieve the output for the report which is displayed
using ALV GRID Display.As spool Request will not be created
for the same. While in case of list display Report out put will be
there in spool request.
8. Classical and drill down report
In classical report user cannot interact with report whereas in
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drill down report user can interact with report.


Drill down facility is not provided in classical report while in drill
down it is provided.
If they ask you in detail then tell the interviewer that interact
with the report means in drill down report we have one basic list
and 20 secondary lists so we can directly go to 5th list or 10th
list as per our requirement similarly we can come back to any
list. Drill down means showing data in basic list first and when
we double click on any field we get summarised list. NOTE:- to
go to next list in drill down report use following syntax SYLSIND = < list number> example: to go to 15th list SY-LSIND
= 15 to come to 5th list from 15th list use F3 KEY OR PRESS
BACK BUTTON
9. BAPI and RFC function module
BAPI is nothing but remote enabled function module
BAPI is provided as a method of business objects
10.sap 4.7 and ECC 6.0
SAP 4.7 is based on Web AS
ECC 6.0 is based of Netweaver 7.0.
11. get cursor and hide in interactive report
Get cursor will provide the location cursor position in the report
While hide is use to pass the data from basic list to secondary
list
12.normal function module and RFC
You cannot call normal function module from outside the
current system while RFC function module can be called from
outside the SAP system.
13. Subroutine and function modules.
Subroutine is local to the program while function module is
global.
To call subroutine from outside its main program you need to
write its main program name in the bracket
14.At selection screen and At selection screen output.
At selection screen output is called first
All dynamic commands and screen modification is done in AT
selection screen output.
15.direct input and batch input
The basic difference is validation is not done in direct input by
pre defined function while in batch input it is coved.
16.synchronous and asynchronous in BDC
Synchronous mode will wait until the BDC session gets over
while asynchronous mode will not wait for that
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17.at selection screen and at selection on field name


At selection screen is used to validate the whole screen
elements while at selection field is used to validate the
particular field.
When you display the error message in at selection on field the
focus will be on that particular field while in case of At selection
screen the focus will not be on any particular field.
18. PBO and PAI event in module pool
Process Before Output and Process after input.
PBO will be called before the screen is displayed to the user
while process after input is called once user interact with
screen.
19. Stop , check and exit
If you use the STOP statement within an event block, the
system stops processing the block Immediately.
If you use the EXIT statement within an event block but not in
a loop, the system stops Processing the block immediately
If you use the CHECK <expr> statement within an event block
but not within a loop, and the Condition <expr> is not fulfilled,
the system exits the processing block immediately. <expr>
can be any logical expression or the name of a selection table.
If you specify a selection table and the contents of the
corresponding table work are do.

20.free and refresh in internal table


You can use FREE to initialize an internal table (along with
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header line ) and release its memory space.


REFRESH will only initialize an internal table (along with
header line)
21.clear and delete.
The major difference is clear is used with internal table while
delete is used with database table.
22. collect and sum
COLLECT <line> INTO <itab>. The statement first checks
whether the internal table contains an entry with the same key.
If not,it acts like INSERT. If there is already a table entry with
the same key, COLLECT does not inserta new line. Instead, it
adds the values from the numeric fields of the work area <line>
to thevalues in the corresponding fields of the existing table
entry.
SUM.Can only be used in loops through internal tables.
Calculates the sums of the numeric fields in alllines of the
current control level and writes the results to the corresponding
fields in the workarea.
23. call transaction and session method
Call transaction is Synchronous Processing while session
(classical) method is Asynchronous Processing
In call transaction we can update the database both
synchronously and asynchronously. We can specify the mode
in the program. While in session method it is Synchronous
Database update.
In call transaction No batch input processing log is maintained
while in session method details log is maintained.
Call Transaction method is faster than the session method.
24. at first and at last control break event
As the name suggest AT FIRST executed for the first time
while AT LAST executed in last.
25. Enhancement point and Enhancement Section
Both the enhancement-point and section are available for you
to change standard SAP code. Difference is in fact that you
use Enhancement-point to add ABAP code to standard SAP
and enhancement-section to replace/extend standard SAP
code.
26.end of page and top of page
Top of page trigger when report encounter the first write, skip or
new-line statements.
End of page trigger when page size is over or report display
gets over.
27. Table and structure
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Table has physical definition into the underline database while


structure does exist physically in the data base.
28. table and views
Table has data init while view does not contain data in it. Both
exist in the data base. when u run the view it queries the
database and gives the respective data.
29.inner joins and for all entries
Inner join joins the table at database level whereas
For..All..Entries joins the table at application level.
In For..All..Entries when the condition gets satisfied data is
fetched in one single shot from database table whereas in inner
join data is fetched iteration by iteration
It is always good programming practice to join tables at
application level because if we join tables at database level
then there might be performance issue
30. Transparent table pool table and cluster table
Transparent Table: Exists with the same structure both in the
dictionary and database exactly with same data and fields. its
to store transaction data. Its one to one Relation table
Pool tables: These are logical tables must be assigned to a
table pool when they are defined. Its use to store control data.
its many to one relation table
Clustered tables: these also logical tables and must be
assigned to table cluster when they are defined. Its also used
to store control data, temporary data or text ex.,
documentation. Its also many to one relation table.
31. Top of page and top of page during line selection
Top of page is triggered for the basic list while top of page at
line selection triggers at secondary list.
32. Start_form and End_form in sap script
start_form function module is called if we want to use different
forms with similar characteristics in a single spool request ,it
must be closed by END_FORM function module
33. open dataset and close dataset
Open dataset is use to read / write file into application server
while close dataset is use to close that file.
34. data element and domains
Domain gives technical details like length , decimal etc..while
data elements gives description and business details
35. set screen and call screen
Set screen <no> set the next screen value and temporarily
override the next screen value in screen attribute. While call
screen <no> jump to the screen specified in <no>.
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36. Internal Session and External Session


External session is nothing but the window you have opened in
your screen .By Default you can open 6 external sessions( 6
windows = you can increase it via basiss setting). Internal
session is created when you call any Functional module or any
other task in your program. counts for internal sessions are 9.
37. Elementary and collective search help
An Elementary Search help defines the flow of a standard
input help. It is composed of a selection method that defines
where to get the data that will make up the hit list, An interface
consisting of search help parameters that define the exchange
of data between the screen and the selection method and a
dialog type that controls how the hit list will be displayed.
A Collective Search help is a combination of several
elementary search helps giving the user a different search
paths. The interface parameters of the elementary search help
are assigned to the parameters of the collective search.
38. What is the difference between Clustered Tables and
Pooled Tables?
A pooled table is used to combine several logical tables in the
ABAP/4 dictionary. Pooled tables are logical tables that must
be assigned to a table pool when they are defined.
Cluster table are logical tables that must be assigned to a table
cluster when they are defined.
Cluster table can be used to store control data they can also
used to store temporary data or text such as documentation.
39. user exits and customer exit.
User exit is sap defined includes so to modify it we need key
from SAP.while customer exit like function exit , screen exit we
dont need any key.
40. sapscript smart forms and adobe forms
Sapscript is client dependent whereas smartform is client
independent.
Main window is compulsory in scripts whereas main window
not compulsory in form.
Smartform output can be seen in web while in scripts it is not
possible.
smartform generates function module while scripts dont
generate function module.
41. screen and subscreens in module pool.
Screen has its own gui status while subscreen does not have
any gui status.Subscreens are part of main screen.
42. standard table and hashed tables.
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Standard table can be accessed by key as well as index while


You can only access hashed tables by specifying the key. The
system has its own hash algorithm for managing the table.

ABAP Interview Questions : The Massive List


Important
Question 1: What is the difference between User Exit and
Function Exit?
User Exit

Customer Exit

User exit is implemented in the form of


a Subroutine i.e. PERFORM xxx.
Example: INCLUDE MVF5AFZZ
PERFORM
userexit_save_document_prepare.

A customer exit can be


implemented as:

Function exit

Screen Exit

Menu Exit

Field Exit
Example: CALL
Customer function xxx
INCLUDE xxx.
You modify this include.

In case of a PERFORM, you have


access to almost all the data. So you
have better control, but more risk of
making the system unstable.

You have access only to


the importing, exporting,
changing and tables
parameter of the Function
Module. So you have
limited access to data.

User exit is considered a modification


and not an enhancement.

A customer exit is
considered an
enhancement.

You need Access Key for User Exit.

You do not need access


key.

Changes are lost in case of an


upgrade.

Changes are upgrade


compatible.

User exit is the earliest form of change


option offered by SAP.

Customer exits came


later and they overcome
the shortcomings of User
Exit.

No such thing is required here.

To activate a function
exit, you need to create a
project in SMOD and
activate the project.

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What is the difference between RFC and BAPI?


BAPI

RFC

Just as Google offers


Image/Chart/Map APIs OR
Facebook offers APIs for
Comment/Like, SAP offers APIs
in the form of BAPIs. BAPI is a
library of function modules
released by SAP to the public so
that they can interface with SAP.

RFC is nothing but a remote


enabled function module. So if
there is a Function Module in
SAP system 1 on server X , it
can be called from a SAP
system 2 residing on server Y.

There is a Business Object


Associated with a BAPI. So a
BAPI has an Interface, Key Field,
Attributes, Methods, and Events.

No Business Object is
associated with a RFC.

Outside world (JAVA, VB, .Net or


any Non SAP system) can
connect to SAP using a BAPI.

NonSAP world cannot


connect to SAP using RFC.

Error or Success messages are


returned in a RETURN table.

RFC does not have a return


table.

Question 3:What is the difference between SAPSCRIPT and


SMARTFORM?
SAPSCRIPT

SMARTFORM

SAPSCRIPT is client
dependent.

SMARTFORM is client
independent.

SAPSCRIPT does not generate


any Function module.

SMARTFORM generates a
Function Module when
activated.

Main Window is must.

You can create a SMARTFORM


without a Main Window.

SAPSCRIPT can be converted


to SMARTFORMS. Use
Program SF_MIGRATE.

SMARTFORMS cannot be
converted to SCRIPT.

Only one Page format is


possible

Multiple page formats are


possible.

Such thing is not possible in


SCRIPT.

You can create multiple copies


of a SMARTFORM using the
Copies Window.

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PROTECT ENDPROTECT
command is used for Page
protection.

The Protect Checkbox can be


ticked for Page Protection.

The way SMARTFORM is developed and the way in which SCRIPT is


developed is entirely different. Not listing down those here. That would
be too much.
Question 4:What is the difference between Call Transaction
Method and the Session method ?
Session Method

Call Transaction

Session method id generally


used when the data volume is
huge.

Call transaction method is when


the data volume is low

Session method is slow as


compared to Call transaction.

Call Transaction method is


relatively faster than Session
method.

SAP Database is updated when


you process the sessions. You
need to process the sessions
separately via SM35.

SAP Database is updated


during the execution of the
batch input program.

Errors are automatically handled


during the processing of the
batch input session.

Errors should be handled in the


batch input program.

Question 5: What is the difference between BDC and BAPI?


BAPI

BDC

BAPI is faster than BDC.

BDC is relatively slower than


BAPI.

BAPI directly updates


database.

BDC goes through all the


screens as a normal user would
do and hence it is slower.

No such processing options are


available in BAPI.

Background and Foreground


processing options are available
for BDC.

BAPI would generally used for


small data uploads.

BDCs would be preferred for


large volumes of data upload
since background processing
option is available.

For processing errors, the


Return Parameters for BAPI
should be used.This parameter

Errors can be processed in


SM35 for session method and in
the batch input program for Call

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returns exception messages or


success messages to the
calling program.

Transaction method.

Question 6: What is the difference between macro and


subroutine?
Macro

Subroutine

Macro can be called only in the


program it is defined.

Subroutine can be called from


other programs also.

Macro can have maximum 9


parameters.

Can have any number of


parameters.

Macro can be called only after


its definition.

This is not true for Subroutine.

A macro is defined inside:


DEFINE
.
END-OF-DEFINITION.

Subroutine is defined inside:


FORM ..
..
ENDFORM.

Macro is used when same


thing is to be done in a program
a number of times.

Subroutine is used for


modularization.

Question 7: What is the difference between SAP memory and


ABAP memory?

SAP Memory

ABAP Memory

When you are using the


SET/GET Parameter ID
command, you are using the
SAP Memory.

When you are using the


EXPORT IMPORT Statements,
you are using the ABAP
Memory.

SAP Memory is User Specific.


What does this mean?The
data stored in SAP memory
can be accesses via any
session from a terminal.

ABAP Memory is User and


Transaction Specific.What does
this mean? The data stored in
ABAP memory can be accessed
only in one session. If you are
creating another session, you
cannot use ABAP memory.

Important
Question 8: What is the difference between AT SELECTIONSCREEN and AT SELECTION-SCREEN OUTPUT?
AT SELECTION-SCREEN is the PAI of the selection screen whereas
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AT SELECTION-SCREEN OUTPUT is the PBO of the selection


screen.
Question 9: What is the difference between SY-INDEX and SYTABIX?
Remember it this way TABIX = Table.
So when you are looping over an internal table, you use SY-TABIX.
When you use DO ENDDO / WHILE for looping, there is no table
involved.
So you use SY-INDEX.
For READ statement, SY-INDEX is used.
Question 10: What is the difference between VIEW and a
TABLE?A table physically stores data.
A view does not store any data on its own. It can contain data from
multiple tables and it just accesses/reads data from those tables.
Question 11: What is the difference between Customizing and
Workbench request?A workbench request is client independent
whereas a Customizing request is client dependent.
Changes to development objects such as Reports, Function Modules,
Data Dictionary objects etc. fall under Workbench requests.
Changes in SPRO / IMG that define system behavior fall under
customizing requests.
An example would be defining number ranges in SPRO.
In short, generally a developer would end up creating a Workbench
request and a Functional Consultant would create a Customizing
request.
Question 12: What is the difference between PASS BY VALUE
and PASS BY REFERENCE?These concepts are generally used for
Function modules or Subroutines etc. and their meaning can be taken
literally.
Say we are passing a variable lv_var:
CALL FUNCTION DEMO_FM
EXPORTING
VAR = lv_var.
When we PASS lv_var by VALUE , the actual value of lv_var is copied
into VAR.
When we PASS lv_var by REFERENCE , the reference or the memory
address of lv_var is passed to the Function module. So VAR and
lv_var will refer to the same memory address and have the same value.
Question 13: What is the difference between Master data and
Transaction data?Master data is data that doesnt change often and
is always needed in the same way by business.
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Ex: One time activities like creating Company Codes, Materials,


Vendors, Customers etc.
Transaction data keeps on changing and deals with day to day
activities carried out in business.
Transactions done by or with Customers, Vendors, and Materials etc.
generate Transaction Data. So data related to Sales, Purchases,
Deliveries, Invoices etc. represent transaction data
Some important transactions here for Master Data:
Material: MM01 MM02 MM03
Vendor: XK01 , XK02 , XK03
Customer: Xd01 , XD02 , XD03
Some Important transactions for Transaction data:
Purchase Order: ME21n , ME22n , ME23n
Sales Order: VA01 , VA02 , VA03
Goods Receipt: MIGO
Invoices: MIRO

Important
Question 14: What will you use SELECT SINGLE or SELECT
UPTO 1 ROWS ?
What will you use SELECT SINGLE or SELECT UPTO 1 ROWS ?
There is great confusion over this in the SAP arena.
If you Google, you will see lots of results that will say SELECT
SINGLE is faster and efficient than SELECT UPTO 1 ROWS.
But that is 100% incorrect.
SELECT UPTO 1 ROWS is faster than SELECT SINGLE.
If for a WHERE condition, only one record is present in DB, then both
are more or less same.
However, If for a WHERE condition multiple records are present in DB,
SELECT UPTO 1 ROWS will perform better than SELECT SINGLE.
Question 15: What is the difference between .Include Structure and
.Append structure?
I have seen ridiculous answers for this at many places on the Web.
The true answer is this:
Lets say you want to use the Structure X in your table Y.
With .Include X, you can include this structure in multiple tables.
With .Append X, you specify that structure X has been used in table
Y and that this cannot be used in any other table now. So you restrict
structure X only to Table Y.
Important
Question 16: Can you describe the events in ABAP?
LOAD-OF-PROGRAM:
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INITIALIZATION: If you want to initialize some values before selection


screen is called
AT SELECTION SCREEN OUTPUT: PBO for Selection Screen
AT SELECTION SCREEN: PAI for Selection Screen
START-OF-SELECTION
END-OF-SELECTION
TOP-OF-PAGE
END-OF-PAGE
AT USER-COMMAND: When user click on say buttons in application
toolbar. SY-UCOMM
AT LINE SELECTION: Double click by user on basic list. SY-LISEL
AT PF##: When User Presses any of the Function Keys
TOP-OF-PAGE DURING LINE SELECTION
Question 17:
What events do you know in Module Pool Programming?
PBO: you know this . If not you should know this . Thats basic.
PAI: You know this. If not you should know this . Thats basic.
POV: Process on Value request i.e. when you press F4.
POH: Process on help request i.e. when you press F1.
Question 18: Can you show multiple ALVs on a Single Screen?
Yes, there are multiple ways of doing this:

If you are using OOALV, you can create multiple custom


containers
(cl_gui_custom_container) & put an ALV
control (cl_gui_alv_grid) in each of those.

You can even use a Splitter container control and place


multiple ALVs in each of
the split container.

If you are using Normal ALV, You can use the following FMS:
1.
REUSE_ALV_BLOCK_LIST_INIT
2.
REUSE_ALV_BLOCK_LIST_APPEND
3.
REUSE_ALV_BLOCK_LIST_DISPLAY
Question 19: A system has two clients 100 and 500 on the same
application server. If you make changes to a SAPSCRIPT on client
100, will the changes be available in client 500?
No. SAPSCRIPT is client dependent. You will have to transport
changes from client 100 to client 500. However, for SMARTFORMS,
Changes will be made both for client 100 and client 500.
Question 20: There are 1000s of IDOCs in your system and say you
no longer need some of them? How will you get rid of those IDOCs?
One way is to archive the IDOCs using transaction SARA.
But what the interviewer was expecting was How do you change IDoc
Status?
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There are different ways of doing this:


A) Use FM IDOC_STATUS_WRITE_TO_DATABASE
B) USE FMs:
EDI_DOCUMENT_OPEN_FOR_PROCESS and
EDI_DOCUMENT_CLOSE_PROCESS
Question 21: What is the difference between CHAIN ENDCHAIN
and FIELD commands in Module Pool?
If you want to validate a single field in Module Pool, you use the FIELD
Command.
On error, this single filed is kept open for input.
If you however want to validate multiple fields, you can use the CHAIN
ENDCHAIN command. You specify multiple fields between CHAIN
and ENDCHAIN.
On error, all fields between CHAIN ENDCHAIN are kept open for
input.
Question 22: What are the types of Function Modules? What is
an UPDATE function module?There are three types of Function
Modules: Normal , RFC , UPDATE.
The aim of the Update function module is either to COMMIT all
changes to database at once or to ROLLBACK all the changes. By
definition, an update function module is used to bundle all the updates
in your system in one LUW (logical unit of work).
This FM is called whenever COMMIT WORK statement is
encountered in the calling program and the way you call it is CALL
FUNCTION XXX IN UPDATE TASK.
Have a look at FM EDI_DOCUMENT_CLOSE_PROCESS_UPD and
do a where used.
This FM is used as Update FM in case you make changes to IDoc
contents/status via your program.
Question 23: How is the table sorted when you do not specify field
name and Ascending or Descending? On what criteria will the table be
sorted? Do internal table have keys?
Yes, internal table have keys.
The default key is made up of the non-numeric fields of the table line
in the order in which they occur.
Question 24: Explain what is a foreign key relationship?Explain
this with the help of an example.
Lets discuss about tables EKKO (PO header) and EKPO (PO line
item).
Can you have an entry in table EKPO without having an entry in table
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EKKO?
In other words can you have PO line items without the PO header?
How does this happen? The answer is foreign key relationship.
So foreign keys come into picture when you define relationship
between two tables.
Foreign keys are defined at field level.
Check the foreign key relation for field EBELN of table EKPO.
The check table is EKKO. This just means that whenever an entry is
made in EKPO, it is checked whether the entered value for EBELN
already exists in EKKO. If not, entry cannot be made to EKPO table.
Question 25 : What is the difference between a value table and
a check table?Check table is maintained when you define foreign
key relationships.
For Check table, read question above.
.
Value table is defined and maintained at a domain level.
At a domain level, you can mention allowed values in the form of:
1) Single values
2) Ranges
3) Value tableFor example, have a look at domain SHKZG. Only
allowed values are S and H for Debit/Credit indicator. Whenever and
wherever you use this domain, the system will force you to use only
these two values: S and H.
Another example is domain MATNR. For this domain the value table is
MARA.
So whenever and wherever, you use this domain the system will force
you to use values for MATNR in table MARA.
Question 26: How do you find BAPI?Approach1:
You can go to Transaction BAPI and then search for your desired
object.
Say you want to find a BAPI for creating users in the system, in such
case you can search for the User and find the relevant BAPIs.
Approach2:
Another way is to find a Business Object. Say you want to find a
BAPI for creating Material in SAP and you know the BO for Material is
BUS1001006. You can go to Transaction SWO1 and enter the BO
BUS1001006 in the BOR. Then have a look at the methods for this
BO.

Important
Question 27: How do you find BADI?
Approach1:
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Go to Class CL_EXITHANDLER in SE24 > Put a breakpoint in


method GET_INSTANCE.Now go and execute your transaction code
for which you want to find BADI.
You will find the BADI in the changing parameter exit_name:
Approach 2:
Go to Tcode SE84 Enhancements BADIs Definitions.
Find the package for the Tcode for which you are finding the BADI.
Enter it as shown and hit execute:

Are we done yet ? Definitely not !


Let the questions come and lets keep on updating this blog.
I will update the blog with the following questions soon:
Question: Synchronous and asynchronous methods in BDC ?
Question: What is the difference between inner joins and outer joins?
Question: What is the difference between INSTANCE methods and
STATIC methods?
Question: What is the difference between Implicit Enhancements and
Explicit Enhancements?
Question: What is the difference between Enhancement point and
Enhancement Section?
Question: How do you find Function Exit?
Question: How do you activate a Function Exit?

SAP ALE IDocs interview questions and


answers

ALE IDocs in SAP


ALE IDocs in SAP is a lot about configuration and a lot about Tcodes
. So if you have worked on at least one end to end scenario in ALE
IDocs in SAP , you probably already have answers to a lot of
questions.
Cheers!!
But if you havent , make sure you do this exercise. There are plenty
of step by step guides to ALE IDocs available on the internet . Make
sure you read one understand it all the way . Sending IDoc from client
800 to say client 810 on the same server is easy . If possible ,Try an
exercise in which you send an IDoc from one system to another
system.
Lets get started . Hope you get some value in these pages
Question 1: What is ALE ?
ALE stands for Application Link Enabling. As its name indicates , it
links two systems.
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ALE is a technology that can enable exchange of data between two


different Systems ( Sap Sap OR Sap Non Sap). ALE technology
enables distributed yet integrated installation of SAP systems.
ALE architecture comprises of 3 layers :
Application layer refers to the application data ( SD , MM , FI or
data for any SAP application ) . In this layer the data is collected to be
distributed and then sent to the distribution layer.
Distribution layer determines to whom should the data generated by
the application layer has to be distributed i.e. it is in the distribution
layer that the recipient is determined , the data is formatted or filtered
and then an actual is created.
Communication layer takes the responsibility of delivering the Idoc
to the receiving system and communicates to the receiving system via
tRFC , File ports , FTP or TCP/IP etc.
ALE uses IDoc as a vehicle to transfer data between two
systems.
Question 2: What is EDI ?
EDI stands for Electronic Data Interchange. It refers to the electronic
exchange of business data in a structured format between two
systems. The EDI subsystem generally converts the Idoc data into
one of the many EDI formats and generates an EDI file in an X12
format. The middleware then translates the X12 file to an IDOC format
and the IDOC is sent to the SAP system.
Question 3: What is an Idoc? What is IDoc Type? What is an
IDoc Extension ?
An IDoc (Intermediate document) is a vehicle that is used to transfer
data from one system to another.
IDoc is not a technology of some sort , but it is just a container
that holds data .
It holds data in a structured format i.e. in the Fields of the Segments.
IDoc Type vs. IDoc:
An IDoc Type is nothing but a collection of one or more structures
defined in a system with specific fields. It does not hold Data.
However, an IDoc is something that holds the values in the fields of
the structure defined by IDOC type.
The transaction code to view an IDoc type (Basic and extension)
is WE30.
Examples: ORDERS04, DEBMAS04, MATMAS04, CREMAS04.
These are all SAP standard Basic IDoc Types.
You can even have an IDoc extension in which you can use the
existing Basic IDoc type and add extra segments and fields to it.
Usually we extend an IDoc when the standard SAP IDoc type is not
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able to cater to the business process.


Question 4: What are the types of records in SAP ALE Idocs and
where is this information stored ?
There are three types of records in SAP ALE Idocs:
Control Records: Control record information for an IDoc is stored in
standard table EDIDC.
Data Records:
Control record information for an IDoc is stored in
standard table EDIDD.
Status Records: Control record information for an IDoc is stored in
standard table EDIDS.
Question 5: What is an Idoc status? What are the different types of
Idoc statuses that you know ?
When an IDoc is sent from one system to another , it goes through
variuos stages.The IDoc status indicates the stage that the Idoc in
currently in.
There about 75 IDoc statuses.There is no way you can remember
those all .
Dont even try to ! You will probably remember only those on which
you have worked .
But here are a few that you should know:
0-49 indicates an Outbound IDoc and 50-75 as Inbound IDoc.
01 IDoc generated
02 Error passing data to port
03 Data passed to port OK
51 Application document not posted
52 Application document not fully posted
53 Application document posted
Question 6: What is a Port ? What are the types of Ports ?
A port is a communication channel through which Messages can be
sent or received in SAP .
The sender and the receiver both specify the port through which they
will communicate.
The common port types are the TRFC Port and the File Port.
If both sender and receiver mention TRFC ports, data is exchanged via
RFC connections.
If however , a file port is mentioned , the IDOC is written in a flat file at
the specified location at the sender system.Then a FTP transfer
should be done from that location to the receiver system or a
Middleware that will send the file to the receiver system.
The transaction to maintain ports is WE21.
Question 7: What is a Message type and Idoc Type ? What is
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the difference between Message type and an IDoc type?


A Message type and an IDoc type are closely related . In fact, you will
find that a Message type is always associated with an IDoc
type.Whereas an IDoc type is a detailed version with all the segments
and fields , a Message type is used just to specify the kind of
information that a system can send or receive to or from another
system.
So If system SAP1 has a Partner Profile where it
specifies MATMAS as an outbound message type , it just means that
SAP1 can send material master data to say system SAP2.
If system SAP1 has a Partner Profile where it specifies MATMAS as
an inbound message type , it just means that SAP1 can receive
material master data from say system SAP2.
What all fields can be sent and received will be specified in the IDoc
type.
Some other message types: DEBMAS(
Customers), CREMAS(Vendors) belong to the Master data.
The link between a message Type and an IDoc type is maintained in
Tcode WE82.
Question 8: What is a partner profile ? What are the types of partner
profiles ?
To be able to communicate with a partner via an IDoc interface, each
system needs to maintain a partner profile. A partner profile is a
mechanism by which the system can specify what kind of messages
(message types) it can send or receive.
Partner profiles can be maintained in WE20.
Question 9: What is a distribution model in ALE IDocs ?
The distribution model describes how ALE messages flow between
different logical systems.
You can mention the sender and receiver logical systems, the
message type to be distributed and also distribute data(IDocs) based
on certain conditions by using the distribution model.
The ALE layer uses the distribution model to control which
systems will receive the information(IDocs) and also filter the data
based on certain conditions.
Distribution Models can be created and maintained in
transaction BD64.
Question 10: What are process codes ?
I dont want to make this post too big . So, I will stop here for the time
being.

More interview questions on ALE IDocs :


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Question 11:How do you read data from an IDoc in a program ?


Question 12:How do you send Idoc from a program ?
Question 13:How do you achieve filtering in a distribution model ?
Question 14:Can I create a flat file from an IDOC ? If Yes , How ?
Question 15:You want to create and send an IDOC to another the
moment a PO is created in your
system . How will you
achieve this ?
Question 16:How to Reprocess Idocs in SAP?
Question 17:What is a change Pointer?
Question 18:What is serialization of Idocs?
Question 19:Important tcodes in ALE Idocs.
Question 20:Important programs in ALE Idocs:

BDC Interview Questions


What is BDC and why do we use BDC ?
BDC ( Batch Data Communication ) also known as batch input is a
technique by which large volumes of data can be transferred from Non
Sap or Legacy systems to SAP systems.
BDC in SAP
Example: A Legacy system that is to be replaced by SAP has say
1000 Customers , 2000 vendors and 3000 materials. All this data
needs to be transferred to SAP . In such cases , We can use BDC.
If the old system is replaced by SAP, such a transfer is
called Conversion.
If the old system runs along with SAP, in that case the transfer is
called an Interface.
The two methods for BDC are:
Session Method
Call TRANSACTION Method
CALL DIALOG (Outdated)

ABAP interview questions on BDC:


Important:
Question 1:What is the difference between Call Transaction
Method and the Session method ?
Session Method
Session method id generally
used when the data volume is
huge.

Call Transaction
Call transaction method is when
the data volume is low

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Session method is slow as


compared to Call transaction.

Call Transaction method is


relatively faster than Session
method.

SAP Database is updated when


you process the sessions. You
need to process the sessions
separately via SM35.

SAP Database is updated


during the execution of the
batch input program.

Errors are automatically handled


during the processing of the
batch input session.

Errors should be handled in the


batch input program.

Important:
Question 2: How do you do BDC for a table control?With other
things as usual, there is a special trick that you have to use while
doing BDC for table control.
You need to use the BDC OKCODE =P+.
Its the BCD_OKCODE for Page down that can be used for scrolling
down in table control.
Important:
Question3: Is there any method apart from BDC for data upload
to SAP?Apart from BDC and LSMW, you can use BAPIs to upload
data into SAP.
BAPIs should be preferred over BDCs, because they process data
faster than BDC.
A BAPI is faster since it updates Database directly. Whereas BDC
calls transaction and goes through the whole screen sequence as any
user would do.
BAPI

BDC

BAPI is faster than BDC.

BDC is relatively slower than


BAPI.

BAPI directly updates


database.

BDC goes through all the


screens as a normal user would
do and hence it is slower.

No such processing options are


available in BAPI.

Background and Foreground


processing options are available
for BDC.

BAPI would generally used for


small data uploads.

BDCs would be preferred for


large volumes of data upload
since background processing
option is available.

For processing errors, the


Return Parameters for BAPI

Errors can be processed in


SM35 for session method and in

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should be used.This parameter


returns exception messages or
success messages to the
calling program.

the batch input program for Call


Transaction method.

Question 4: How do you process errors in Call Transaction


method ?
Lets have a look at the syntax for CALL TRANSACTION method.
Sample code:
DATA: BEGIN OF G_T_MESSTAB OCCURS 0.
INCLUDE STRUCTURE BDCMSGCOLL.
DATA: END OF G_T_MESSTAB.
CALL TRANSACTION MB11
USING G_T_BDCDATA
MODE E
UPDATE S
MESSAGES INTO G_T_MESSTAB.
All the error messages will be trapped inside G_T_MESSTAB.
Question 5: What is the use of program RSBDCSUB?
There are two ways to process the BDC sessions:
1) Go to SM35 > Choose session > hit process.
Now See Question no. 10.
2) Use program RSBDCSUB.
RSBDCSUB schedules the session to be processed in background.
Lets take an example to understand this.
The sessions are created at one point of time and processed at other
point of time and this may create a problem: For example: a BDC
program creates a session for updating 1500 customers in SAP.
However , before this session is processed via SM35 , a user inserts
100 customers in the system manually. In this case , the session will
have at least 100 errors when the session is processed from SM35.
One way to avoid this is to use the program RSBDCSUB in the
batch input program itself so that the session is processed as soon
as it is created.
RSBDCSUB schedules the session to be processed in background.
Question 6: What is the structure of the BDC table?The BDCDATA
consists of the following fields:
PROGRAM [CHAR 40] Online program name.
DYNPRO [NUMC 4] Screen number.
DYNBEGIN [CHAR 1] Flag to indicate the start of a new screen.
FNAM [CHAR 132] Field name of a screen field to be filled with
data.
FVAL [CHAR 132] The actual value to be filled into the specified
screen field.
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Sample Screenshot:

BDCDATA table structure


Question 7: What is the difference between BDC_OKCODE and
BDC_CURSOR?
BDC_OKCODE: is used for storing commands during the recording.
like /00 is the command for ENTER Key.
BDC_CURSOR: contains the cursor position. it contians the field in
which cursor will be.
Example code:
perform bdc_field
using BDC_CURSOR
PROJ-PSPID.
perform bdc_field
using BDC_OKCODE
=BU.
Question 8: What are the 3 methods that we use in sequence in
a Batch input session method ?
1) BDC_OPEN_GROUP for opening the Batch Input Session
2) BDC_INSERT for inserting the transactional data into SAP
3) BDC_CLOSE_GROUP for closing the Batch Input Session

If there are n records , the BDC_INSERT method should be called n


times.
BDC_OPEN_GROUP and BDC_CLOSE_GROUP are called only
once.
General Information about a session is stored in table APQI.
Transaction data for a session is stored in table APQD.
Question 9: What is your approach for writing a BDC program?
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Identify the Tcode and do the recording in SHDB to populate the


BDCDATA.

Once the recording is done , one can Transfer it to the Batch input
program.

In the batch Input program , The transactional data is read from the file
to an internal table.
Then one can loop over the transactional data in the internal table and
start uploading the data in SAP either by CALL TRANSACTION
method or by creating sessions through the batch input program.
Question 10: How do you process errors in Session method ?
You can go to Transaction SM35 , Choose the session name and
click on Process.
Question 11: What are the different modes of processing batch
input sessions?

The three modes are:


Foreground
Display Errors Only
Background
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Question 12: What is the difference between Synchronous and


Asynchronous Update ?
In Synchronous update , the database is updated before the next
transaction is taken for processing in a batch input.
In Asynchronous update , the system doesnt wait for updating the
database before the next transaction is taken for processing in a
batch input.
Question 13: What is the transaction for Recording BDC ?
The Tcode is SHDB.
Question 14: How do you read files from the Application
server ?
You can use the commands:
OPEN DATASET > opens the file(dataset) either in read /write
mode.
READ DATASET > Read the file
CLOSE DATASET > Close the dataset once the date has been
read .
Question 15: How do you read files from the presentation
server ?
You can use the Function Modules :
GUI_UPLOAD > To read data from file into an internal table
GUI_DOWNLOAD > To write data from internal table to a file on
presentation server
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