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# Lecture Notes

## Introduction to Control Systems

Instructor: Dr. Huynh Thai Hoang
Department of Automatic Control
Faculty of Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology
Email: hthoang@hcmut.edu.vn
huynhthaihoang@yahoo.com
Homepage: www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/

11 October 2011

H. T. Hoang - www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/

Chapter 5

## ANALYSIS OF CONTROL SYSTEM

PERFORMANCE

11 October 2011

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Content

Performance criteria
Transient response
p
The optimal performance index
Relationship between frequency domain performances and time
domain performances.

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Performance criteria

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yfb(t)

R(s)

+_

E(s)
Yfb(s)

Y(s)
G(s)

ess

r(t)

e(t)

H(s)

ess

## Error: is the difference between the set

set-point
point (input) and the feedback
signal.

e(t ) = r (t ) y fb (t )
E ( s ) = R ( s ) Y fb ( s )

## Steady-state error: is the error when time approaching infinity.

ess = lim
li e(t )
t

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ess = lim
li sE
E ( s)
s 0

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value
y(t)

y(t)

overshoot

ymax

yss

yss

ymax yss
yss

No overshoot

## Percent of Overshoot (POT) is an index to quantify the overshoot of

a system,
t
POT is
i calculated
l l t d as:

ymax yss
100%
POT =
yss
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## Performance criteria Settling time and rise time

Settling
S
ttli time
ti (ts):
) is
i the
th time
ti required
i d for
f the
th response off a system
t to
t
reach and stay within a range about the steady-state value of size
specified by absolute percentage of the steady-state value (usually
2% or 5%)
Rise time (tr): is the time required for the response of a system to
rise from 10% to 90% of its steady
state value.
value
y(t)

y(t)

(1+)yss
yss
(1)yss

yss
0.9yss

t
0

ts

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0.1yss
0

t
tr

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11 October 2011

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R( )
R(s)

+_

E( )
E(s)
Yfb(s)

G(s)

Y( )
Y(s)

H(s)

Error expression:

R( s)
E (s) =
1 + G (s) H (s)

sR ( s )
ess = lim sE ( s ) = lim
s 0
s 0 1 + G ( s ) H ( s )

## Remark: Steady-state error not only depends on the structure and

parameters
t off the
th system
t but
b t also
l depends
d
d on the
th input
i t signal.
i l

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## Steady--state error to step input

Step input: R( s ) = 1 / s

with

1
ess =
1+ Kp

K p = lim G ( s ) H ( s )
s 0

(position constant)
yfb(t)

yfb(t)
1

## G(s)H(s) does not have

deal integral factor
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## G(s)H(s) has at least 1

ideal integral factor

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## Steady--state error to ramp input

Ramp input: R( s ) = 1 / s 2

1
Kv

ess =

s 0
s

with

yfb(t)

yfb(t)
r(t)

yfb(t)
r(t)

r(t)
ess 0

ess = 0

e(t)
t

## G(s)H(s) does not have

deal integral factor
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integral factor

## G(s)H(s) has at least 2

ideal integral factors

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## Steady--state error to parabolic input

P b li input:
Parabolic
i
R( s) = 1 / s 3

ess =

1
Ka

K a = lim s 2G ( s ) H ( s )

with

(acceleration
constant )

s 0

yfb(t)

yfb(t)
r(t)

r(t)

## G(s)H(s) has less than 2

ideal integral factors

r(t)
ess0

e(t)

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yfb(t)

ess= 0

integral factors

## G(s)H(s) has more than 2

ideal integral factors

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Transient response

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First--order system
First
R(s)

Transfer function:

K
Ts + 1
G (s) =

Y(s)

K
T +1
Ts

1
First order system has 1 real pole:
p1 =
T
1 K
Transient response: Y ( s ) = R ( s )G ( s ) = .
s Ts + 1

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y (t ) = K (1 e t /T )

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First

y(t)

Im s

Re s
1/T

(1+).K
K
(1).K
0.63K

## Pole zero plot

of a first order system

t
T

ts

Transient response
of the first order
y (t ) = K (1 e t /T )

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## First--order system Remarks

First

First order system has only one real pole at (1/T), its transient
response doesnt have overshoot.

Time constant T:
Ti
T is
i the
h time
i
required
i d for
f the
h step response off the
h
system to reach 63% its steady-state value.

## The further the pole (1/T)

( 1/T) of the system is from the imaginary
axis, the smaller the time constant and the faster the time response
of the system.

## Settling time of the first order system is:

1
ts = T ln
l

where = 0.02
0 02 (2% criterion) or = 0.05
0 05 (5% criterion)
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First--order system
First
The relationship between the pole and the time response

The further the pole of the system is from the imaginary axis, the
smaller the time constant and the faster the time response of the
system.
Im s

y(t)
K

Re s
0

## Pole zero plot

of a first order system
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Transient response
of the first order

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## Second--order oscillating system

Second

R(s)

K
T 2 s 2 + 2Ts + 1

Y(s)

## The transfer function of the second-order oscillating system:

1
K
Kn2
(n = , 0 < < 1)
G( s) = 2 2
= 2
2
T
T s + 2Ts + 1 s + 2n s + n

## The system has two complex conjugate poles:

p1, 2 = n jn 1 2

1
Kn2
Transient response: Y ( s ) = R ( s )G ( s ) = . 2
s s + 2n s + n2

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e nt

y (t ) = K 1
sin (n 1 2 )t +
1 2

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(cos = )

18

Second

Im s

cos =

j n 1 2

n
n

y(t)

Re s

(1+).K
K
((1)).K

0
j n 1 2

## Pole zero plot of a second

order oscillating system

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t
tq

## Transient response of a second

order oscillating system

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Second

## A second order oscillation system has two conjugated complex

poles, its transient response is a oscillation signal.

If = 0,
0 transient
i
response is
i
a stable oscillation signal at
the frequency n n is
called natural oscillation
frequency.
If 0<<1,, transient response
p
is a decaying oscillation
signal is called damping
g the value
constant,, the larger
, (the closer the poles are to
the real axis) the faster the
response decays.

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=0
= 0.2
= 0.4

= 0.6

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Second

## Transient response of the second order oscillating system has

overshoot.
The percentage of overshoot:
o ershoot:

POT = exp
2

.100%

## larger the value , (the

closer the poles are to the
real
ea axis)
a s) thee smaller
s a e thee
POT.
The smaller the value ,
(the closer the poles are to
the imaginary axis) the
larger the POT
The

POT ((%)

The relationship
between POT and
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## Second--order oscillating system Settling time

Second

Settling time:
5% criterion:

2% criterion:

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ts =
ts =

n
4

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Second

## Relationship between pole location and transient response

The second order systems that have the poles located in the same
rays starting from the origin have the same damping constant, then
the
h percentage off overshoots
h
are the
h same. The
h further
f h the
h poles
l
from the origin, the shorter the settling time.
Im s

cos =

y(t)
K

R s
Re
0

## Pole zero plot of a second

order oscillating system
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## Transient response of a second

order oscillating system

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## Second--order oscillating system

Second
Relationship between pole location and transient response (cont
(cont))
The second order systems that have the poles located in the same
distance from the origin have the same natural oscillation
frequency. The closer the poles to the imaginary axis, the smaller the
damping constant, then the higher the percentage of overshoot.
y(t)

Im s

R s
Re

0
t
0

## Pole zero plot of a second

order oscillating system
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## Transient response of a second

order oscillating system

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## Second--order oscillating system

Second
Relationship between pole location and transient response (cont
(cont))
The second order systems that have the poles located in the same
distance from the imaginary axis have the same n, then the settling
time are the same. The further the poles from the real axis, the smaller
the damping constant, then the higher the percentage of overshoot.
Im s

y(t)

Re s

0
t
0

## Pole zero plot of a second

order oscillating system
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## Transient response of a second

order oscillating system

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## Transient response of high order system

High-order
High
order systems are the system that have more than 2 poles.
poles
If a high order system have a pair of poles located closer to the
imaginary axis than the others then the high order system can be
approximated to a second order system. The pair of poles nearest to
the imaginary axis are called the dominated poles.
y(t)

Im s

Response off hi
highh
order system

Re s
0

Response of second
order system with the
dominated poles
0

## High order systems

have more than 2 poles
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## A high order system can be approximated

by a dominated-pole second order systems

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Performance indices

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## Integral performance indices

IAE criterion
(Integral of the Absolute Magnitude of the Error )

J IAE =

e(t ) dt
0

ISE criterion
(Integral of the Square of the Error)
+

J ISE = e 2 (t )dt
d
0

ITAE criterion
(Integral of Time multiplied by the Absolute Value of the Error)

J ITAE = t e(t ) dt
0
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Optimum systems

## A control system is optimum when the selected performance index is

minimized
J IAE min when 0.707
Second order system:
J ISE min
i
when 0.5
J ITAE min when 0.707
y(t)

=0.3
=0.5

=0.707
=0.9
0

## Transient response of second order systems

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## An n-order system is optimal according to ITAE criterion if the

denominator of its transfer function has the form:

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y(t)

1st order
d system

## 3rd order system

4th order system

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Relationship
p between frequency
q
y domain
performances and time domain performances

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## Relationship between frequency response and steady state error

R(s)

G(s)

Y(s)

K p = lim G ( s ) H ( s ) = lim G ( j ) H ( j )
0

s 0

K v = lim s G ( s ) H ( s ) = lim jG ( j ) H ( j )
0

s 0

K a = lim s G ( s ) H ( s ) = lim( j ) 2 G ( j ) H ( j )
2

s 0

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R( )
R(s)

G(s)

Y( )
Y(s)

## Steady state error of the closed-loop

closed loop system depends on the
magnitude response of the open-loop system at low frequencies but
not at high frequencies.

## The higher the magnitude response of the open-loop system at low

frequencies, the smaller the steady-state error of the closed-loop
s stem
system.

## In particular, if the magnitude response of the open-loop system is

infinityy as frequency
q
y approaching
pp
y
error of
the closed-loop system to step input is zero.
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R(s)

G(s)

Y(s)

## In the frequency range <c , because G ( j ) > 1 then:

G ( j )
G ( j )
Gcl ( j ) =

=1
1 + G ( j ) G ( j )

G ( j )
G ( j )
Gcl ( j ) =

= G ( j )
1 + G ( j )
1

## Bandwidth of the closed-loop

closed loop system is approximate the gain
crossover frequency of the open-loop system.
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11 October 2011

## Bode plot of the corresponding

closed-loop system

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R(s)

G(s)

Y(s)

## The higher the gain crossover frequency of open-loop

open loop system,
system the
wider the bandwidth of closed-loop system the faster the
response of close-loop system, the shorter the settling time.

4
< tqd <
c
c

The higher the phase margin of the open-loop system, the smaller
the POT of closed-loop system. In most of the cases, if the phase
margin of the open-loop
open loop system is larger than 600 then the POT of
the closed-loop system is smaller than 10%.
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## Example of relationship between gain crossover frequency and settling time

R(s)

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G(s)

Y(s)
10
G (s) =
s(0.1s + 1)(0.08s + 1)

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## Example of relationship between gain crossover frequency and settling time

R(s)

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G(s)

Y(s)
G ( s) =

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50
s(0.1s + 1)

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## Example of relationship between phase margin and POT

R(s)

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G(s)

Y(s)
G (s) =

6
s(0.1s + 1)(0.08s + 1)

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## Example of relationship between phase margin and POT (cont)

R(s)

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G(s)

Y(s)
6
G ( s) =
s (0.1s + 1)

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