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Computer's Architecture and Organization

1/ Architectures :
Von Neumann Architecture : architecture for a digital computer, model for
designing and building computers. Has 3 characteristics :
1/ Consists of 3 sub-systems :
*Central Processing Unit (CPU) which consists of :
-- Arithmetic & Logic Unit (ALU), Processor Registers
(small fast
storage units) -> Processing Unit (PU)
-- Instruction Pointer (IP) (Program Counter : PC),
Register (IR), Instruction Decoder ->
Control Unit (CU)
*Main Memory (RAM) where are stored and loaded both Data and

when being used/executed. Erased after each shut down

*Mass/Secondary Storage : long term storage (backups) : to

retain data and
program code between each shut down and restart.
*Input/Output System (I/O) : To CPU, I/O devices are considered
as memory
since CPU can write data on an output device and read it from an
input one (they
have @s too)
2/ Program instructions and data used by program are stored/load into the
same main memory (RAM) when program is executed by OS (Computer is a storedprogram
Program Instructions : one-way (only fetched and read by CPU)
Data : two-way (read/write state)
Same address/ data buses : used for both fetching/reading instructions
and reading/writing data
3/ Program instructions are dealt with (fetched+decoded+executed)
one by one when required by CPU
Earlier, only data was stored in memory. Software code consisted of the way the
computer was wired, thus no need to be stored.
-CPU : where all computations take place

Processing Unit
-- ALU : performs all arithmetic mathematical operation (+,-,*,/...) and logic
(<,<=,>,>=,OR,AND,NOT...) requested by program.
Circuitry designed to do these operations (array of logical gates, switches)
-- Processor Registers : small very fast local memory cells inside CPU.
Used to store intermediate results of ALU, operands and operations from
--Internal Bus connects the two

Control Unit
Program instructions and data are stored in memory in a form of bits, in readwrite state (binary representation), as machine instructions in binary (000101
in opcode means..)
--Instruction Pointer (IP) : contains the address of the next instruction in
memory to be fetched then decoded and executed (points to it).
Gets incremented after each fetch by CU
--Instruction Register (IR) : where CU loads temporarly the instruction that
it fetched
from memory, during its decoding and execution
--Instruction Decoder : decodes the instruction present in IR. Determines
what to be done. Executes it by sending appropriate signals to concerned parts of
computer by
instruction (ALU, Memory, I/O) and activating, thus, necessary
CU continues this sequencially until encoutering HALT instruction (interrupt) or
fatal error