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Computer's Architecture and Organization

1/ Architectures :
Von Neumann Architecture : architecture for a digital computer, model for
designing and building computers. Has 3 characteristics :
1/ Consists of 3 sub-systems :
*Central Processing Unit (CPU) which consists of :
-- Arithmetic & Logic Unit (ALU), Processor Registers
(small fast
storage units) -> Processing Unit (PU)
-- Instruction Pointer (IP) (Program Counter : PC),
Instruction
Register (IR), Instruction Decoder ->
Control Unit (CU)
*Main Memory (RAM) where are stored and loaded both Data and
Instructions
(volatile)

when being used/executed. Erased after each shut down

*Mass/Secondary Storage : long term storage (backups) : to


retain data and
program code between each shut down and restart.
*Input/Output System (I/O) : To CPU, I/O devices are considered
as memory
since CPU can write data on an output device and read it from an
input one (they
have @s too)
2/ Program instructions and data used by program are stored/load into the
same main memory (RAM) when program is executed by OS (Computer is a storedprogram
computer)
Program Instructions : one-way (only fetched and read by CPU)
Data : two-way (read/write state)
Same address/ data buses : used for both fetching/reading instructions
and reading/writing data
3/ Program instructions are dealt with (fetched+decoded+executed)
sequencially
one by one when required by CPU
Earlier, only data was stored in memory. Software code consisted of the way the
computer was wired, thus no need to be stored.
-CPU : where all computations take place

Processing Unit
-- ALU : performs all arithmetic mathematical operation (+,-,*,/...) and logic
ones
(<,<=,>,>=,OR,AND,NOT...) requested by program.
Circuitry designed to do these operations (array of logical gates, switches)
-- Processor Registers : small very fast local memory cells inside CPU.
Used to store intermediate results of ALU, operands and operations from
instructions
--Internal Bus connects the two

Control Unit
Program instructions and data are stored in memory in a form of bits, in readwrite state (binary representation), as machine instructions in binary (000101
in opcode means..)
--Instruction Pointer (IP) : contains the address of the next instruction in
memory to be fetched then decoded and executed (points to it).
Gets incremented after each fetch by CU
--Instruction Register (IR) : where CU loads temporarly the instruction that
it fetched
from memory, during its decoding and execution
--Instruction Decoder : decodes the instruction present in IR. Determines
what to be done. Executes it by sending appropriate signals to concerned parts of
computer by
instruction (ALU, Memory, I/O) and activating, thus, necessary
circuitry
CU continues this sequencially until encoutering HALT instruction (interrupt) or
fatal error