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Donovan Mixon Ear Trainin 9 includes two CDs Se eae a RU TO Cee classical movable ‘Do’ system into a clearly defined concept for jazz cece Caste Ry relationships withi Pee CREM eae COS a Cenc crn TABLE OF CONTENTS CD Procrast Irropvenion How 10 Use tis Book CD Demo Tour Basics Movable DO Memorization, ‘Sing Then Play ISTP] Inner Hearing ‘Sruny Concrors Harmonic Bass Lines ‘Tendency Tone Exercises Straight Line Bvercise Cycle of Fourths Exercises Harmonie Tonal Tensions ‘Tension Groups ‘Tension Melodies Guide Tone Lines Phrase Superimposition Avrespix 10 Study Progressions 6 Study Tunes My Foolish Harve “Take That Train W's You I Can Go To Modal Interchange Blues Goodbye, Fall Allo Me Self Generated Dictations Solo Transcriptions Final Thoughts About the Author 10 n LR 28 30 31 4 38 46 58 6 n 8 84 90 7 108 109 3 na 116 nr Lis 19 120 BL 136 136 CD 1 PROGRAM HEH Movance DO Introduction Movable DO with Harmonic Bass Lines swith Tendency Tones with Straight Line Exercises with Interval Exercises with Harmonic Tonal Tensions CD Demo Tour HERE Sis Trex Pray STP) STP with Tendency Tones with Interval Exercises with Harmonic Tonal Tensions with Tension Melodies HBB sre Heanine Inner Hearing with Melodies with Inverval Exercises with Progressions with Tendency Tones ‘Orne Reconoeo Exanptes Harmonic Bass Line Bossa Nova Bass Line Intervals Procedure 1 Intervals Procedure 5 Tension Melody “Tension Melody with Approach to the 71h, Guide Tones with Tensions Guide Tones with Approaches Phrases I and 4 Phrases I and 4 Dorian Phrase Superimposition Phrase Superimposition i Ei 34 35 68 110 50 109 “4 9 100 103 105 6 CD 2 PROGRAM funing Note A-440 10 Srupy Progressions Progression 1 109 Progression 2 109 Progression 3 no Progression 4 10 Progression 5 110 Progression 6 i Progression 7 Mt Progression 8 Ml Progression 9 m Progression 10 nz 6 Stupy Tunes Tune 1 13 Tune 2 m4 Tune 3 116 Tune 4 u7 Tune 5 us Tune 9 ‘Suue-Genenarep Dicrarions Harmonic Lesson 1 & 2 Lesson 3.& 4 Tendency Tone Lesson 5 & 6 Lesson 7 & 8 Interval 2nds & Sed ths & Sths 6ths & Tehs Mixed Intervals 127 Tension 128 Dharase Superimposition 129 Melodic 1 130 2 130 3 130 4 130 Sovo Transenrrions The Comet 132 Ms J. 14 Musicians and Recording Information Donovan Mixon ~ guitar Bruno Cesselli- piano Enzo Zirlli— drums Dario Deidda — bass Recording Studio ~ Centro Musica, Modena, Italy (Other Recording ~ Waltz Audio, Boston, Massachusetts, USA ‘Technical Engineer ~ Peve Peloguin, Digital Editing ~ Studio Gogamayoya, Bologna, laly ‘Technical Engineer ~ Gianluca Gada t ¥ purpose for writing this book sto pro. vide some techniques and concepts of study that wll help you to develop the ability co sing, play and hear melodies and chord changes with a heightened awareness. To iécorm plish this I use the Movants DO system, because the solfege monosyllables automatically identity the motes and chords of a tune in gelation to a key centre, Through the various activities in this text you will sharpen your intellectual and physical sen sibility to notes in relation to the key (horizontal Iy) and in relation to the provided or impiued harmony atthe time of occurrence (vertically) used the word physical because it is ideally a physical, nae response that we all want to devel ‘op and with which we want to function. The SiNc Tuen Pay concept is fundamentally based within. this idea of a physical response to the sounds we hhear. The practice of first singing a note of an exer- cise and then following it up with the same note on the piano can be easily seen as a method of provide ing immediate feedback. However, if after playing the note on the piano you sustain it and then sing the next note of the exercise overlapping with it, feeling the quality of dissonance, and repeat this process with the remaining notes, you are in the ‘process of absorhing and physically remembering the relationships. ‘The opposing concepts of “insideness” and “outsideness” are basic to the idea of Inne Heanino. Generally speaking, singing can be thought of as external or outward reaching, while hearing ean he seen asa form of internal by singing a few notes and then imagining (inner-heating) the next few notes, you will be putting together in a single exercise the extemal and internal in a way that will develop your ability co accurately imagine musical sounds, rg. When you perfor an entire melody In the Srtr-Genenarep Dicrarions concept, | encourage you to make dietations for ‘yourself direétly from the exercises you are studying as a form of rethforcement of the fentite process. “This part of your development us a musician is pethaps the most important and probably the slowest to develop. But keep in mind it is @ process that goes on your entire This isa book of stady concepts that can be used with many other exercises and cunes. One other thing, the word “perform” is used throughout the text. Ass always to sing the exercise but then master ic instrumentally as well, How To Use Tuis Book obeneft fom thi book you mut aeady have functional go nowlege of keys, scales, chords and progresions You $36 thouldpoumn an overage bly to tead nui Some expe SE rience with improvisational topics would be helpful but not neces- sae About The Numbering System ‘Thece are three sets of numbers that coordinate the components of this book: 1. Disk numbers: The two enclosed CDs are numbered and refereed to as disk L and disk 2. 2. Program numbers: The locations of each example or demon stration found on the CDs. 3. Page numbers: Use these to locate specific entries in the text For example, the numbering system is expressed as in the following: Disk number = JG] Program number To Get Started Read the following sections: About Basics, About Study Concepts and About Dicta- Listen codisk 1, programs 1-25. You will hear a series of demonsteations by the author of the various study concepts and techniques presented in this text. ‘You will find all of the demonstrated examples in the CD Demo Tour section of the text. They will guide you through the demonstrations in the onder that they are presented on the recording Plan to listen to some parts many times, performing the exercises along with the recond- ing. In addition, you are urged to pause the recording at angtitne to study other examples inthe chapters Turn to the Hanwontc Bass Lars chapter, page 38 in the text, read the General Guidelines, the 4-Day Working Guide, and the main body of the chapter. Listen again tothe recorded demonstration if you feel the need. Begin working by following the r4-Day Working Guide for Hanaontc Bass Luves and Jearn the frst three ofthe 10 Sruoy ProcRessions as instructed. Afvetvards follow the 14-Day Working Guide for Texpency Tones and all the other stady concepts, In this way, you will aequire comprehensive overview ofthis method and cover considerable ground in a relatively short time. CD Demo Tour an Welcome eo PeRsorMance Ear Trainin. The following CD Demo Tour is a series of recorded exercises extracted from various parts of the text to demonstrate the study con- cepts. Programs 2-15 demonstrate the usefilaess of the solfege syllables and the Movants DO system. Programs 16-20 show how you would émploy the Sie Tew Pay technique with the study concepts while INNER HeaRine isthe topic of programs 21-25. ace Movable DO (page 28): 1 v 1 v I v do (P5) sol do (05) so do (P5). sot Movable DO (page 28): ae Movable DO (page 29) ee ee (== 2 ==> = eS oe eS Se ° Movable DO with Harmonie Bass Line (page 40) abma7 Bo ca ce 0 7 aee thay eo & © 7 = cA 7 Ss Movable DO with Harmonie Bass Line (page 41): hoy: Cajor Fo? 8-765) €-7 AT D7 o7 cma ol “ « Movable DO with Tendeney Tones (page 48) ee Gee bed — 6 fi ai Le . u é = Movable DO with Straight Line exercise (page 61) Fr aby 7 et = aby Fy 7 87 7 rc) ai aeo Movable DO with Cycle of Fourths Incerval exercises (page 66): Cycle of Fourths Procedure x - Thirds ascending - vp ep ep u : ol io Procedure += Thi decening o,-) L jj =i 6a a z z = | o fee: * a e Ben ‘Movable DO with Cyele of Fourths Interval exercises (page 72) maiz ce D7 ie Fray Fe Gert def eietie ts == © et fe Sa ee al aaa wan mit ow nar nee Movable DO wth Harmonic Tonal Tension exer (pe 80) cna? Oe 9 : . = 6, er = . 3 + f 7 ee ope eee fa? o— =F as ft oe F ‘is eee ao Movable DO with Harmonic Tonal Tension exeries (pe 81) maj7 Faiz Bhmaj7 Bmaj7 Abmaj7 Mio 8570 Fo ee ' _s oe oe d mos domi Endofteccding geo } Gee Movable DO with Harmonie Tonal Tensions (page 82) Tension group 1-3-5-7 with chtomatic approaches. | It I W Ot nO = eG 7 Scale pattern on which the following Sing Then Play exercise is hased (page 31): geo ‘Sing Then Play technique with scale pattern (page 33) Tine Ton ener wpon wich he Sing Then Pay demonstaton is based (page 50): oe 4 —— ; SS ee = 7: oe 2 4 = . ee eee = ——= | 3 7+ a : neo Perform Sing Then Play with a loose sense of time Proceed very slowly, concentrating on every note. Remember to perform STP very slowly. Always sustain the previous note on your instru- ment as you advance through the exercise singing the following note, overlapping with the sound. Emulate the performance on the recordings re Sing Then Play technique with Cycle of Fourths Interval exercises (Procedure 4, page 70) 6 —} ; - . f os © 2 = . ae Sing Then Play technique with Harmonie Tonal Tensons (page 8: or 7 7 o7 ee srr - ba r=. * ’ f - ae Sing Then Play technique with Tension Melodies (page 86): 7 2 : - va? Yoke 8H o7 Ma frp me Instrument gee Tner Hearing technique with seale patcern (page 34): = mer Hear are Inner Hearing technique with melody (page 35) Key: G minor =——- — sy 3 do a k Sng - == der Hear Sing === er Hear Sing G major scale arranged in fourths, upon which the following exercise is based (page 68): Sing Inner Hear Sing Inner Hear = 2 — 7 2 sing Inner Hear i omer Hear Ogee Inner Hearing technique with Harmonic Bass Line (page 110) The notes are written for demonstration only, You should strive to sing harmonic bass lines from chord symbols only The imagined notes are expresied as whispered notes on the recording, In reality, ou ae ro practice inner hearing without 1 making sound, —. = | | emt) A769) + + + = a =f = ca 5, . -aie oe ee rf os tm | dof searing 7 AT D7 G-7 7 Fai : _ =a 3 ——— aoe coo a4 ——— rn | Fa] Inner Hearing technique with @ Tendency Tone exercises (page 50) sing Inner Hear About Basics Read and study the examples in the Basics chapter. Al of the study concepts and activities wll ue the Movasus DO solfege system and its important that you understand this con- cept thoroughly. Sie Twaw Pay, Insven Haine and Seue-Grneraren DICTATIONS are snudy techniques thar you should use as much as you feel there is need. They are “open ideas and should he approached that way. This means that you should née hesitare to use our own abilities co create challenges for yourself based upon these techniques. Doall exercises at che piano in a slow, éxaggerated inanner, vocally'sustaining all notes and chords always allowing sufficient time to think about the next note or chord, These txerctes can be done again. and again in a routine manner over time. Do a great deal of work vocally a che piano Before working with the recorded tracks. Work in short concen trated periods and take as much time as you need co master a progression of study concept. Important: You must ais all of your studies towards performing from music notation and ‘heed symbols only Ie is understandable that you may.need to wete syllables under some ofthe noves or chords in thé Beginning, but you must make a cénscious effort to function fom the notation only! To get used to Movanie DO, practice transcribing written melodies to other keys, thinking the solfege syllables as you go. Bor example, i the first notes ofa melody (written {nD major) are: D, Ff, Be, A; you would sing the melody da, mi, le, sol (fist, third, lowered sath, and fifth degrees). When you write in another key, think che sollege degrees as you wit in the new key. The notes do, mi, le, sol in the key of Bb major would be: Bb, D, Gb, and E Reading solfege melodies in various keys using Movants DO is another, excellent ‘ay to get inside thisgstem. At the beginning, use melodies that move primarily by step vith simple rhythms. Gradually move on to melodies that use larger intervals and more ‘amples rhythms. 3 About Study Concepts The study concepts are eight separace hur related sets of exercises designed ro help you ingegrave and organize the sounds you hear with your thinking processes. Hanwonte Bass Loves ‘Tenoency Tones ‘Sreaicur Line Exencrses Cycus oF Fourris berenvat Exincises Hanwosie Tonat Tensions “Tension Metooies Guine Tone Lines Phrase Surseisrosirion With’ most of the concepts you will use che 10 Srupy Procressions and the 6 Stuy ‘Tus s vehicles for practice. The 10 Sruny Paoonsssiongure short contrived sequences of choras.that establish tonal centeés from which they temporarily depart and return, sing normal harmunic,devices found in songs and jaz: tunes. The 6 Srupy Tunss you will find ta be very similar tothe chord changes of some Famous standards. Your rhythm of studylpractice should follow his pattern: 1. Spend considerable time learning the harwonic bass line for toro or three of the Stuy Procnesstons. Strive to sing and play them from memory to assufe thar you know the sound of each very wel. 2. Apply a single study concept (Tension Metonits, for exam ple) to these two to three progressions until you are perform. ing at a level of comfort. Work at the piano very slowly and carefully before trying ro perform it with the recorded tracks. 3. When you can perform the study concept at the piano in a smooth and relaxed manner, begin working with the recorded tracks for the progressions with which you are studying, ‘Then you will apply the same concept to one of the 6 Srupy Tunes: 1, Memorize the harmonic bass ine. 2. Initially work at the piano while practicing the same study concept (Tension Metooiss) with which you worked pre viously. 3. Eventually practice with the recorded tracks of the 6 Stupe Tones. 4 About Dictations On the enclosed CD 2 are dictation challenges, Try the dictations only.after you have dooe considerable practice and after you are experiencing nocable success with a study concept. These dictations are not to approached fn the usual'manner. Generally, you are ‘olsen to the dictation examples while delaying to check your responses for as long as posible Ifyou listen to an exercise for a period without your instrument, contirming or curecting your previous responses each day, you are in esence, practicing to respond to sounds Self-Generated Dictation Exercises (Greate practice dictations directly related ro your exercises asa regular part of your eat ‘ining, Generally you should ask of every exercise astigned: How can I create a dictation from this asugnment? The main Features ofthese self-generated dictations should be ‘They are derived from a specific exercise ‘They are short (1 or 2 minutes) ‘They are improvised Ger one of those inexpensive rape recorders with the big buttons on the front. They cedure abuse and can be placed on top of a piano and operated with one hand, Inthe example below the idea is represented with tendency tones, one of the study con- cepts. Tendency tones are practiced in pairs of notes therefore they are recorded that way in random order with the fundamental sustaining in the bass to help you maintain your sense of key. Piano ditation You tendency tone dictation is improvised. In this way you will not remember what you recorded the previous day: Routinely ereate and use examples like ths asa regular part of ur study, 235 al . Harmonic Bass Lines: Create dictations by playing tonic-third bas lines of short progres sions, or have a friend play tonic-third bass lines very slowly as you respond in real time. Tntervals: Create intervallic dictations similar to your tendency tone dietations. Record random diatonic intervals both harmonically and melodically over a sustained bass nore or vamp. With a study partner you could both take tums playing intervals firzeach other over a recorded vamp. Think of this as a creative proces, With a licee imagination, you will find many ways to create useful and specific éhallenges for yourself ‘Tension Melody Dictation: Below is an example of a self generated rension melody dieta- tion that you eauld record over the chords of a progression that you are studying. The sixth or thirteenth was played above the roots of each chord. This isnot a dictation in the usual sense because itis an exercise you would have to compose. You would then use it asa con sinwing listening aciiey over a week or wo ata time Study in the following ways: (Over each chord in time; perform the roots flowed by the interval ofa sixth as deseribed in the Cyeus oF Fourris Exrr- ‘xses chapter. Use solfege syllables, [Asa tension melody (see Tension Metootes chapter) After « period of repeated listenings try to sing (on 2 neutral syllable) tension 6 as a tension melody on the changes of simi- lar progressions. Gmay ar b7 may 7 AT on v7 67 BAaAsies ¥ Movas_e Do x & ~MEMORIZATION 4% SING THEN PLay (STP) 4 INNER HEARING Movaste Do ‘ovate DO, is a system in which the solfege syllables do re mi fa sol. lai doy are assigned to particular degrees of the scale regardfess of zhe key. TBerefore} do takes on. a Terger meaning than jut the note C as in the fixed do system. When you sing the syllable fa for cexainple, you are saying in one word: “Fourth icgree of the scale.” So now, not only can you Identify @ perfect fifth (or any, interval), you eam also communicate which particular fifth you are heating within a tonality. The intervals in the examples below are perfect fifths. They have identical functions Fhecause they are located at the first and fifth degrees of their réspective scales: C, G and F major. Therefore they are all sung do-sol nee v 1 1 v 6 4 Ss do (P5)_ so do (PS). sol do (P5) sal ‘The two perfect fifths below happen at other places in their respective keys. The firs is {hroguced at the fourth and fist degrees in the key of F major and sung fardo, The second interval in G major is at the second and sixth degree and sung rela v 1 u vl a Se rn 5) 38 ‘The congept of Movants DO is best shown through the example ofa simple transposed relady, Consider the following example in C major. The same exaraple transposed to E> ‘aor sung as shown below: Gea —a doo mi fami ve om ff sol eal SS oa mi fa mi we mi fi sol le sol do The diatonic syllables will be abbreviated with the first letter only; do = dv fas f,sol=s,la=l, time. The chromatic syllables are always spelled out The syllables used in this book are 1H 223 4s 6 7 1b 7 by 6 be 5 bs 4 4 3 bo 2 be 7 = : tee fe der taf Ac PL eke et et Witha tonic F tonality, for example, the chromatic scale would appear asin the example telow. Notice that there are sjllahes for the lowered fgst and fourth* degrees as well TH2 RI 4h SH 6717 oh Shs 4 a 2 ed p errerreinl eae ae (tarp be rin telie ake oe davumfasania bedae elks f fe mmer md The general wowel sound for sharped notes is an (ee) sound like in the word tree, while the lated notes use an (ch) sound lke in the word peg. Notice that che h2 dere is wre teo.as (and pronounced withthe (ah) sound asin che syllable (f) » MEMORIZATiON 55] eso xx 4 eS SH ‘emorization is a crucial component of the ear ‘raining process. You can.use memorization develop relative pitch, which is the ability to tccurately perceive notes and chords in relation to one another When you sing from memory, you ereate an intimate rningling of yourself with che notes and intervals of a amelely. This mingling is central to the process of memo- fization, As you continue. this process, you develop the ability to remember and recognize like relationships be tween notes in other melodies For most of the exercises, strive t peeform them from memory as soon you can. When performing with your instrument, think the slfege as you play. While writing is useful tool for memorization, there is even a stronger henefie if you transpose some of your melodies and enercses as you write, singing the slfege as your pencil moves across the page Memorization, when combined with other practices, isa very good strategy for developing your perception of notes and chords in ceation,t0 one another I recommend applying the practice immediately. 30 SING THEN PLay (STP) ith the Sin Tax Par (STP) tech- nigue you will develop your ability to think and inner-hear melodically while strengthening your sense of harmonic intervals. Everyone quickly réatizes that ewo notes played melodically (one after the other) become a different “challenge to hear when played harmonically (together) Asa musician, you must develop your ability to hear both ways. Below san exercise of broken triads in the C major scale. Ie réqures you to hear and sing. alfith from each degree of the scale and then sing down to the thind and the root of each thord. Listen to the Sine Tuen Pay demonstration recording ater reading this section, 3 Step By Step Play the example above through on the piano or guitar. Play a G major chord Release the chor and sing loudly che frst note of the example Gordo. ‘Then play the note Gon the piano, overlapping your voice with the sound of the instrument, Sustain and listen to your voice, decide if you are singing in tune, Ifyou decide that you are not singing in tune, start again from the beginning. Slowly and repeatedly play the note G on the piano with the sustain pedal depressed Look at the next note D in the exercise, imagine, inner-heae the sound, |When you think you've got it sing the note D or sol (the fifth) against the pedal G that you are playing on the piano, ‘After you centre in on a note that you think is sol, begin to play the note D on the keyboard continuing to hold the sastain pedal down to sustain it Again, determine if there isa big difference between the note you ate singing and that ofthe piano. If there isa large discre- paney, begin playing the note G (the tonic) again on the piano and try inner hearing und then singing the note D or sol again, agains it Continue to work like this, note by note, through the exercise. It takes many words to explain but ony afew minutes odo. Sing then play cach note, listening nd overlapping for afew seconds cach time; enough to intemalize the intervals and receive immediate feedback, ie: sharpness and flatnes kis best to practice this with an acoustic instrument because they produce eheit own sound fll of overtones Proceed very slowly, sustaining the notes with the proper solleye syllables. The previous exercise is graphically represented on the next page a it would be studied ‘sing STP. Listen to the demonstration recording (disk I, tack 16), Some of the exercises in this book that you will study will not need such particular attention o every interval. At the beginning however, suggest that you use this procedu- reas a regular par of your study. You can use this techie with virtually all of your stady activities. As you have probably urndied, the STP concept is alo very useful or develop ing good intonation 3 ae | End of demonstration recording 3° INNER HEARING » ‘music in your mind, The following exercises were designed to help you develop this important skill. ‘The basic idea isto use your memory to mentally recreate notes that you have already sung or heard as part of a tone row, pattern or chord progression. You sing of perform one note, or part of an exercise, and then inner-hear the next note or part continuing this pattern of vacillaring between singing and inner hea- sing I= hearing is the ability to accurately perceive Qe @ D> Generally, you “perform” the inner hearing parts at the same tempa.axyou perform the singing parts. Hest results will be achieved ehrough short, concentrated, daily practice session. Ie better to have wo short practice sessions everyday than one marathon study period. With time will come the ability to look at ‘musical notation and “heat” parts or all of the music in your mind! DYE Dp QE Refer to the following examples as you listen to the demonstration recording @& How ro use inner hearing with an intervallic exercise As you can see in the previous example, you sing the first cwo notes, imagine or inner-heat the second two notes, then sing the thind pair and so on. You could aso reverse the proce- dure; inner-hearing the first pair 4 Ps aon Hl Another cechnique you could apply to patterns isto sing “across” the groupings of which the patter is made. In the case of the previous exercise, you could perform three note ipoipings as shown in example below. ] : \ {eteond re nd contin peroming in rot efter Tos inner ering with mls sing inner hear every the es kein he Key: G minor 4 = foes —_ = i == = ? ee ae ne ee es 2s z z Sie fe =a Pactice inner hearing with the sttaight line exercise deseribed in this text. You can de- tile to perform with any number of notes. The straight line exercise in the following taamyle, is performed using inner hearing in groups of two notes, a eDh—hLhUmUmUmrCCCUC oe di di e aa ¥ — fe - =| Wee a) ee : Inner Hear "nner Hear Inner Hear f Summary of Ways to Practice Inner Hearing Sing two notes ot bars nd inner-hear (wo notes or bars. Inner-hear two notes or hars and sing two notes or bars. Play (om your instrument) evo bars and sing two bars. ‘Sing two bars and play (on your instrument) two bars Play (on your instrument) two bars and inner-hear two bars. Inner-heae two hars and play (on your instrument) two bars Vary the activity by performing three or four notes at a time. When practicing fo janer- hhear measures, one measure is enough. Use your imagination to create challenges for yourself, Remember that the general idea isto work within some predetermined scheme. 36 St: Cone Bas er VEG HARMONIC Bass LINES TENDENCY TONE EXERCISES STRAIGHT LINE EXERCISES CycLe OF FOURTHS EXERCISES HARMONIC TONAL TENSIONS TENSION MELODIES ~ GUIDE TONE LINES PHRASE SUPERIMPOSITION HARMONIC BASS LINES sdemonstration leson. Try singing along With the syllables (disk L, programs 5, 6, 24, 26, and 27). Follow the 14-Day Working Guide, doing as much of the suggested assignments as you can within the ewo week period. Then move on to the next study concept. General Guidelines ‘After you have mastered and memorized harmonic hass lines for two or three of the 10 ‘Sropr ProGRESsiONs, practice to master a bass line for the first of the 6 Srupy TUNES. ‘Then retum to the progressions; completing three and then doing another of the tunes. ‘Take your time, comaut all to memory; singing them in solfege and playing them insteu- mentally. When you are able to perform bass lines to all ten study progressions in a smooth, relaxed manner, vocally and instrumentglly. begin with the Tenpency Tones chapter. You will use these ten progressions as awvehicle of study for almost all ofthe study concepts in the hook. Therefore itis very important that you are very familiar with the sound of these progressions, On the 10 Stony Procnessions, the sllales are provided to aid your progzess with the harmonic basslines. However forthe 6 Stuy Tunis or other progressions, never write the syllables undtemeath dhe notes or chord symbols on the staf. Asa fies step, when you begin co study a progression, practice singing just the roots of the chords to familia yourself with the general sound of the progressions, The following titles are standard tunes that have progressions which you will ind very useful for practicing harmonic bas lines Satin Doll, Allof Me, Misty, A Fine Romance, A Foggy Day, Alice in Wonderland, Alone Together, Bewitched, But Beautifed, Could le Be You, Don't Blame Me, Don't Get Around Much Anymore, (On Green Dolphin Seret, Hello Young Lovers, 1.Can’t Get Started, I Could Write a Book, Inq Mellow Tone, Just Friends, Out of Nowhere ‘You will ind endless possiiliies in many fakehooks that are now available. 8 14-Day Working Guide Asafint step, read the section How to Use this Book and the following Harmonic Bass Line chapter fora detailed explanation of how to work with harmonic bass lines B Listen to disk 1, tracks 5, 6, 24, 26, and 27. Days 3 {Practice to master vocally and instrumentally the harmonic ‘nas line to Study Progressions 1, 2,and 3 (page 109). Days 47 Practice to master vocally and instrumentally the Harmonic, Bass Line to Tune 1 (My Foolish Harve), disk 2, track 12, page 113, Continue each day with Stucly Progressions 1, 2, and 3, Days 810 ratice to master the Harmonic Bass Line to Study Progres+ sions 4, 5, and 6. Continue each day with Study Progressions Vand Tune 1. Dass 1-14 Practice to master the Harmonic Bass Line to Tune 2 (Take That Train). Continue each day with Stady Progressions 1-6 and Tune 1 era couple of days, try one of the Harmonic Dictations as described at the end ofthis dapter. Continue to review the Harmonic Bass Lines to the firs three Study Progressions and Tines I and 2. You need to be very familiar with the sound of these progressions to benefit fll fom the Study Concepts. STOP. Goon to Tendency Tones. 39 [Below i an example of how to sing a bass Line that outlines the harmonic progression of song. The basic idea i to sing within the context of the key; the tonic, third, seventh and tonic again of each chon ina 4/4 walking bass style, The bassline is written in bass clef for che purpose of demonstrations Ordinarily, you perform harmonic bass lines only froma the chord symbols and in an appropriate range for your voice or instrument In 4/4 time with two chords per measure, perform only the tonic and third 1-3 of each, chord. Sing the bass note and follow with chord tones (ct*) for triads in inversion. ee i he eet fase nee (ex) (et) Dee eg pte dom di ss m 5 . For chords chat last che entire measure, sing tonic, third, seventh (below the tone) and then conie agin (1-3-7-1). For triads in inversion, perform chord tones (ct*) Dipce octaves (*) teely as you perform your harmonic bassline through chord changes Fa choad lasts for juse one beatin a measure as shown below, perform che root only, ot tthe as eighth nots if the tempo isnot to fast ao ey: major Fra? 8-765) E-7 AT D7 G7 cay 4 In 5/4 time with a medium tempo, use a dotted quarter note rhythm ro sing a tot-third bassline as shown below. GYD map? v9 “7 a 61s . =: = — : 21a 7. oe | es cmp cmp & # 2 = —— —— 3 Fe a A Bossa Nova A very useful stuly variation isto sing the toot and fifth of each chord with a bossa nova, rhythm as is shown below. I recommend that you perform this variation with every pro- ae Ce LS Ff — = ~ 6 : = z 7 Se Soe e 2s dd f oe Dictation This activity is strsight-ahead figuring out progressions by ear. After you have done the fs lines ro all ten ofthe practice progressions and a few ofthe study tunes, choose one of the harmonic dictations to listen to for a few days. Write down your responses each day. Delay checking your responses until you can sing a harmonic bas line with the recording and are fairly sure of your responses. You ean continue this activity as you progress from ‘nestuly topic to another Hanwonie Hanwonte Hanwose Hanwoxic Harnoxtc Hanwonie Dicranion 1 Dicranion 2 Dicranion 3 Dictation 4 Dictation 5 Dicrarton 6 a U6 bars - 2x 32 bars Lac and fade 32 bars -2x 32 bars -2x 16 bars -2x TeNDENCY TONE EXERCISES en he ri dain flow and pages 3840 of R secret is ns ed hw sty Tefercy Tens ie od pe gains 1211, and 2 Fallow the 1#Doy Working ate ‘The cadence is a point of strong harmonic activity in a song or progression that will often lead your ear to another tonality, change of section or toa sense of rest oF pause. At this point. in the barmony, you can Sense more sharply the natural tendencies ofthe notes, to glavitate towards the fundamental ofthe current key centre, In the following examples, you can see and hear the natural tendencies of notes in the context of cadences moving towards a tonic chord vr 1 VI I vw I v avn 1 Ne 1 by a ‘ — =e e = + ; oc: o wnt m oe a i | * : sien ® “The tendency tone stu activities are i wo pars + The Basie Row (a rou of notes interpreted an sung in pairs, on which the entire exercises based) ‘The Tendeney Tone Exercise (the pairs of notes from the basi row in randoms onder). 14-Day Working Guide For detailed explanation of how to work with tendency tones, read How to Use this Book and the following Tendency Tone chapter. You will not use the study progressions and tunes with this study concept. # Listen to disk 1, tracks 7, 17, and 25, Day £ Study the Basic Row (lesson 1). Daya. 4 Review hasic row, Perform Sing Then Play (STP) and Inner Hearing techniques with your study of the Basie Row. Days 3-7 ‘Review the Basic Row. Begin the Tendency Tone Exercise for lesson 1, utilizing STP and Inner Hearing techniques (as explained in the Basies section), Day8 4 Study the Basic Row (lesson 2). Dayo {Perform STP and Inner Hearing with the Basic Row of leson 2 Day 10-14 4 Boyin Tendency Tone Exercise for lesson 2, utilizing STP and Inner Hearing techniques. Perform the dictation for lessons ‘one und two as described in the How to Use this Book ~ Ahout Dictations section, STOP and go on to the St a General Guidelines and Lessons Perform the following steps with all rendency tone lessons: Sing and memorize che Basic Row of the frst tendency tone activity as written Play a C major choed, sustain the fundamental in the lower register of the pian while singing. Lesson 1 - Basic Row ae When you can sing the Basie Row as written smoothly from memory, play a cadence in a new key on the piano (F major, for example) and sustain a low F to represent the new tonality. Then, sing the Basic Row from the second pair of notes (rd) and perform all the tendency tones in order complecing a citele as in the example below. ‘When you play che new tonic key, don't sing, imagine or inner hear the first pair of notes (t-do), then hegin singing from the second pair (rd). key: Fmajor sing fom 2nd pai. é 8 sutuindsonthepiann or od of om ff s 1 8 ¢ dos ad ¢ @ Next, change key again asin the example below Sing from the third pair of notes ‘of the Basic Row (in this case, fa-mi) and perform in a circular pattern as before. key: Boamajor fee deen erie Notice that the notes change while the syllables stay the same. With the Movants DO system, the syllables communicate the scale step degrees of the the notes in any key. In the previous example in the key of Bb major; the notes for fa-mi are E> and D, the third and fourth steps of the Bb scale. 8 Yu should strive co sing the Basic Row, starting from any of the pairs completely from, senor}: When you change keys you will only have to think the sound of the scale step degrees, not the specific notes! Continue in chis fashion; changing keys and beginning the basic row with the next pair of tendency tones and completing the ciel. Remember to sing very slowly. Listen to the tonal quality of cach note against the sustained bass note. Practice for about 15-20 minutes like this before going on to the Tendeney Tone Exercise Tendency Tone Exercise Aer each basic row, you will see the tendency tone pairs presented in random order. hile sustaining a low do on the piano, perform the pairs using the SiN: Tien Prat tech- nique as desribed in a previous section, A good practice isto restatt from the beginning tech ime that you fail to perform a pair of tendency tones while using STP. Go very slow- Iyand instead of thinking to complete an exercise, work in 15-20 minute periods before applying inner hearing exercises. Use inner hearing to practice the tendency tones. Sing and imagine in groups of twos as indicated in the example below, Remember to sustain doin the lower register of the piano bile performing this exercise inner-hear 2 sing? sustain do on piano Innerhear and sing the tendency tone pairs in groups of three! Study the example below inner-hear 3 0 ‘The Tenklency Tone Exercises will normally he presented as inthe example below, with- cout parenthesis or written instructions. They will also appear in different keys! The follo- ‘wing example is the Tendency Tone Exercise for lesson 1 Lesson 1 - Basie Row — — gS a eo 7 aes - ‘Always apply the suggested techniques with care and patience. When you feel comfortable ‘with a lesson, advance to the next which will add another pair of tendency tones. sponaing ro the tendency tone dictations voeally and instrumentally in *real time” without stopping the recording. Don’t worry if you don't get all of them immediate: ly. With study, your response time will shorten. Practice Each day, practice listening and responding to the same dictation exercise, but no more than two times per session, until you are responding with ease both vocally and instru ‘mentally, Delay checking the solutions until you are sure of your responses Don't guess or “fish” for the notes on your instrument, instead make a decision as t0 what you think the notes are and play. You will know immediately if you are correct. Begin working with the dictations for lessons one and two only after you have mastered the exercises of course. [tis at this time, while routinely using the dictations for lesson fone and two, that you begin to study the exercises for lessons three and four, Continue rays performing the dictations for the previous wo lessons. Suiyleson two in the same fashion as was deseribed for lesson one: practice first with the Basic Row and then with the Tendency Tone Exercise. Lesson two adds the $7 t0 6 degrees, tela * Leon 2 - Basic Row bey: C major ._ 2 = Oe — a ‘The Tendency Tone Exercise below contains the addition of ela. Remember to sustain do inthe low tezister while performing this exercise. Another idea isto perform tendency tunes over a one-note bass line that you make and record youtsel Tendency Tone Exercise Sing the fall range of the notes represented. Ifa pair of notes fall outside of your vocal tang, don’t worry ahoue it, displace chem an octave in either direction and sing them bere you can Lesson 3 - Basie Row ker Fmir gg —— —— ee “Tendency Tone Bxample GP — —— oe al ae f° ew a * =, oe oe oes .- Lesson 4 Basic Row ey C major 7 4 om @ i Tendency Tone Example = be Se tee _—— je oe had ° oe = Lesson 5 - Basie Row ey. G major e . pepe (a a “ye c* 3. _ tee co ~ : eee) ae 7 Lesson 7 - Basic Row ey: Fina ‘Tendency Tone Example Fe setts te bey eel be Lesson Bis in the same key asthe previous exercise, add e-sol Pay close attention to all accidentals. Lesson 8 - Basic Row ks ‘Tendency Tone Example 54 Forlesons 9 and 10 use all the previous tendeney tones introduced. Lesson g - More Practice eG major lesson 10 - More Practice bey: Bomajoe oo 55 Dictation Practice responding to the tendency tone dietations vocally and instrumentally in “real time” without stopping the recording. Don't worry if you don’t get all of them immediate ly. Wath stady, your response time will shorten. Each day, practice listening and responding to the same dictation exercise, but no more chan two times per session until you are responding with ease both vocally and instrumen- tally, Delay checking the solutions until you are sure of your responses. Don't guess or “ish” for the notes on your instrument, instead make a decision 36 10 what you think the notes are and play. You will know immediately if you are correct Begin working with the dictations for lessons one and two only after you have mastered the exercises of course, It is at this time, while routinely using the dications for leson one and two, that you begin to study the exercises for lessons three and four. Continue this patter; always performing the dictations for the previous two lessons Lisson 1 aN 2 Lussons 3 AND 4 Lessons 5 aND 6 Lessons 7 an 8 56 TRAIGHT LINE E> sCISE A a first step, read the Straight er Line Exercise chapter. Listen many times to the recorded Cs examples. Try singing along with the recording. Be careful to use the correct solfege syllables. Listen to: disk 1, tracks 8, and. Follow the 14-Day Working Guide, Do a8 much of the suggested assignments as you ean within the two week period. Then move on tothe next stady concept. With the Straight Line study concept you perform ascending and descending stepwise lines through a harmonic progression. To do this you have to think and perform in the correct mode of each choral while ar the same rime thinking and singing the notes in rela sion to the key In effect, you perform sales through the chord changes. Ik is a good idea to have already mastered harmonic bas lines tothe progressions with which you intend to practice the steaghe line exercise. Perform your sales within one octave and hegin all of your studies with long notes, eventually progresing to shorter note values. General Guidelines Continue to study harmonic bass lines to the ten study peo- ressions ina routine fashion. Commit to memory the six scale qualities presented in this chapter. Be sure to master them both vocally and technically fon your instrument, Perform vocally and inserumencally 1 for a couple of the study progressions from the frst deg the key; do to do while looking only atthe chord symbols. Later, perform a Straight Line Exercise from the first degree of the Key; do to do with one of the study tunes Repeat the above with a couple other progressions but begin, from the second note of the toni scale re. Perform within an octave: re toe Straight Line Exercise of Follow it up by performing another of the study tunes begin ning from the second degtee ofthe scale. Continue this pattern Work exclusively with the piano before trying to perform with the recorded tracks forthe progressions and tunes. As much as possible, always review the previous day’ work. Real Life Dictation Chee Baker, Thought About You (har 1 of solo), Chet Baker Mest che Space Jaze Trio {illogy) Inthis recording you can find an example of Chet using the Straight Line technique as a fart of his improvised solo! 14-Day Working Guide Fora detailed explanation of how ro work with the S ‘Use this Book and the following Straight Line chapter # Listen to disk 1, tracks 8, and 9. Straight Line Exercise, read How to Days 13 ‘Practice the Lydian $7 and Dorian scales in the keys of C, F and Bo. Follow the suggestions in the chapter and perform a Straight Line from do to do over Study Progressions 1 and 2. Days.47 {While continuing to practice the Straight Line Exercise over the first wo Study Progressions, begin to practice a Straight Line over the chord changes of Tune 1 (My Foolish Harve), Days 810) ‘Perform a Straight Line from re to re over Study Progressions 1 through 4 Days 11 4 While continuing to practice the Straight Line Exercise over the frst four Study Progressions begin co practice a Straight Line over the chord changes of Tune 2 (Take That Train) rom do to do, and from re to 1e, always within one Practice STOP Straight Line activity, go.on to the Cycle of Fourths Interval Exercises. 50 Learn the Sound of these scales by singing them with the proper solfege syllables over a low sustained C- ‘Work to master them on your instrument in all keys You will use the six scales below to perform the Straight Line activity. ‘The natural fourth or eleventh degrees respectively produce minor second and minor ninth intervals above the third. They ate perceived 48 non-harmonic tones in major and are avoided most ofthe time except in a passing tone context. Therefore we will use the 4 (411) from Lydian on major chords and che # from Lydianb7 on dominant seventh chords ‘The flat second degree is found in the Locrian seale but i also a non-harmonie tone and therefore is usually avoided on minor seventh flat five chords. We will use the major ninth, ‘on —1(05) chords derived from the Locrian¥2 scale the mode produced at sixth degree of melodic minor. ban Dolan 7 (#) (#4, b7) mar c - ci i Of ew feu d Oe ee Mati Minor Doran cs) oun car) aS Sf ea ea Aan’ Whole ons bon Diminthed 765) cor sp yg Sete [Begin learning the sound of these seales by singing scale patterns with each one. With, your instrument, study one scale a day in all keys thinking the solfege as your play. Com- ‘mit them ro memory. Straight Line n to develop your ability to sense the character of individual rote within the context of a chord progression. You will also lear a practical way t0 sy modes Inthis setion, you will be ind scales Perfor the Straigh Line Exercise over the progressions as shown and explained on the recording. Use the 10 Study Progressions whose basslines you have already learned, eo perform the Straight Line Exercise with the variations described: beginning from ocher ots of the tonic key, beginning with a descending line, performing quarter and eighth- rote lines, ete. fi The following example shows how you can start from any degree of the seate, as long as youre performing an appropriate tension forthe chord at that point. a oy 7 a, 27 7 o a7 Fr 7 f Below is an example of performing a quarter-note Straight Line through chord changes may (Lydian) 7 (ydianb7) Fay? (Lydian) F7_ (Mixolydian) = fi e bmg? (Lydian) B-7(65)(Acolian b5) Cima (Lyin) | aut | ° “ “The following example begins with a descending line nay? 07 ow ° 4, \ : Orr =" et = = a ‘ 1 7 A : « a Fa or ema Grr : 6 = ~ = S : = r : 1 ‘ o CYCLE OF FOURTHS EXERCISES st step, read the entire chapter for a detailed explan: on of this approach. Listen many times to the recorded examples. Try singing along with the recording, Be careful to use the correct solfege syllables (disk 1, tracks 10, 11, 18, 23, 28, and 29). Follow the 14-Day Working Guide, doing as much of the suggested assignments as you can ‘thin the wo week period. Then move on to the next study concepr. The following exercises use the diatonic eyele of fourths from which to perform specific ines. There are five variations ofthe exercise. They are referred to asthe Five Proce- es and are indicated with a P and 2 number. VERY IMPORTANT: Practice one interval ata time. Begin with diatonic intervals. Study droautic “fixed” intervals (explained in the chapter) after you have completed diatonic seconds through seventh, Always sustain a ronie do as you sing very lowly, using the STP technique, overlapping ‘mes with the piano. When playing the exercises work to memorize and think the solfege ‘you go. As soon as you can, perform without looking at the page. You should perform these exercises on your instrument as well, changing the key each day and thinking the tafge a you play: Do not skip the singing aspect ofthese activities? Practice with progressions and tunes only fier you have achieved some suecess with the (je of Fourths Exercises. General Guidelines Practice the cycle exercise as described in the chapter, all pr ‘cedures with diatonic seconds (2s). Practice diatonic seconds (procedure 1 [P1] and procedure 4 [P4] only) with two or three of the study progressions. (See Inervallic Procedures with Chord Progressions, page 72.) Later, apply diatonic seconds, PI and P4 only, to one of the study tunes located at end of the book. Repeat the above with thirds Practice the Cycle Exercise as described, all procedures with diatonic thirds (3rds) but continue to review 2nd. Practice diatonic thirds and seconds (procedure 1 [PI] and procedure 4 [P4] only), with the previously used progressions. Apply diatonic thirds and seconds, Pl and P4 only, to the pre viously used study tune, 63 Continue to review all previous intervals as you advance through from seconds to sevenths. Or you can choose to study in a routine fashion, one interval at a time, while you advance through the other study concepts in the book. Always remember 10 reinforce your work by performing harmonic bass lines to the pro sressions with which you are working. Use your own judgement in terms of your pace of stuly If you are making.a lot of errors with the cycle of fourths interval exercises and can ‘not perform in a slow bur smooth manner, you are not ready ¢o go on to the next challen- sg, which is performing intervals on the chord changes of a cure, Perform all the above exercises with other muues and scales. For example, to perform dia tonically the cycle of fourths with the Dorian seale you would sing: do, fa, te (67), me (63), la, re, sol, do! The Five Procedures ‘The five procedures are hased upon the diatonic eycle of fourths in major With procedure | you perform a diatonic interval above and then return to each degree around the diatonic eyele of fourths. Procedure 1 ~ Diatonic seconds gee 64 = Ss —__—_-__. ~ caeteFowns Inprocedure 2, you perform the interval above and below each note. Procedure 2 Procedure 3 is similar to procedure 1, except that there is no return in between, Procedure 3 ‘Wich procedure 4, you simply perform the same diatonic interval in one ditection with no eur. Procedure 4 With procedure 5, perform the same interval above and below with no return in between. Procedure 5 ae 4 otf oe 1S = Ie is advisable to sustain a fundamental as @ bass note when you sing the cycle of fourths interval exercises. Before trying these exercises, listen and study the recorded examples. Allof the directions of the intervals can be reversed Cyele of Fourths [Notice thar the five procedures have the same “shape” as before hut now are performed with thirds Procedure 1 - Diatonie Thirds geo 66 Paorm all intervals as wricten and then in the opposite direction. Procedure 3 Procedure 4 - Diatonic Thirds Procedure 5 ‘efove trying the dictation exercise, read the section about dictation at the end of this hapter. 6 Cycle of Fourths Procedure 1 - Diatonie Fourths are Procedure 2 Perform procedures I and 4 only with the lager intervals. Procedure 1 - Diatonic Fifths Procedure 4 6 Cycle of Fourth # ——<$—— oe == ———— e = T isi Procedure x - Diatonic Sixths Procedure 4 Procedure 1 - Diatonie Sevenths 3 Chromatic Intervals non-diatonic intervals with the diatonic Below are rwo examples of performing “fixe cycle of fourths ‘The first example shows how to perform all minor seconds, In the second example itis shown how to perform all major thirds. Cyele of Fourths Crmajor Procedure 1 (all minor seconds) al a aul) we Eventually, you perform all intervals: m2, M2, M3, M3, P4, +4, P5, +5, m6, M6, m7, M7. For the wider intervals, use only procedure 1 and 4. You may find it necessary at some point to change the key of the exercise to accommodate your voice, As was mentioned before, you can perform all of these exercises with other scales or modes. Perform the Intervallic Procedures with a Chord Progression Use only one procedure at a time when singing a specific interval through a progression. The quality ofthe intervals performed (major, minor, ete.) depend upon the quality chord at thar point in the harmony. For mote on this see Harmonie Tonal Tensions. ‘Study the examples helow, For the sake of demonstration, only procedure 1 is shown, using different sized intervals performed on the same set of chord changes. Use only procedures 1 and 4 as ascending intervals through chord changes. Procedure 1 - Seconds cmp ce 07 ob cre e7 Fray Fe aon di ni dw fi fos fi ads are performed in the example above. Notice at the Df diminished chord the syl- lable ((a) is sung for the Bf! We have no syllable for the raised third, therefore fais sung instead. (* The C/E chord isa triad, there ate no ninths or sevenths available, only chord tones.) The next example shows procedure 1, using the interval of a fourth. Notice the different quality fourths that you must sing. As explained in Harmanie Tonal Tensions, the sharp fourth is performed on major and dominant chords. Procedure x -Fourths cma ce Fayre to —- ° = + = Gert tt BSS fi di ft dé mi fit fi 2 The next example below shows procedure 1, using the interval ofa sixth! As you can see, the hap always stays the same for procedure 1; that is, you pesform the interval and return directly tothe tonic of each chord. You may have to perform wider intervals insteu- ‘mentally frst while thinking the solfege co internalize the sounds. However, the greatest car training benefit will come from the effort to sing them. Procedure 4 - Sixths cma ch o-7 of ce 7 Fai? Fe a 4 ae 6a =z z = Go 6c i FS SSS SS SS Se di di i 1 di fi fi Procedure 41 ed inthe next example psfrming the Interval ofa sth cach tne, Almost exclave inthe beginning, prasce hese exercles very lowly cut of tempo at thepiane Peron onl ascending intervals with procedure 1 or 4 through chord changes. Procedure 4 Sts cma ce ov of ce 7 Fmaj7 Fe * 2 = z - = te 2 ot + fp = or f a 14-Day Working Guide For a detailed explanation of how to work with the Cycle of Fourths Interval Exercises, read the entire Cycle of Fourths Exercises chapter. Listen to disk 1, tracks 10, 11, 18, 3, 28, and 29. Days v2 ¢ Practice seconds with all five procedures Days 2-4 « Perform diatonic seconds (procedures 1 and 4 only) to Study Progressions 3, 4 and 5. Days 5-7 Continue to review all Perform diatonic seconds to Tune 1 (My Foolish Harve). Days 8-9 2 Practice thirds all procedures as described in the book and demonstrated on the CD. Days 10-11 4 Perform diatonie thirds (proce Progressions 3, 4, and 5, es 1 and 4 only) to Study 4 Continue to review all. Practice diatonic thinds to Tune 1 (My Foolish Harve), Work for a couple of days with the dictations for seconds and thirds as deseribed in the How to Use this Book ~ About Dictations section, STOP and go on to Harmonic Tonal Tensions. ™ Dictation Tctice responding to the interval dicrations snner described for the ten dency tone dictations: voeallyfinstrumentally in idhout stopping the recor ‘ng, Don’t “fish” for che notes and listen no more than two times in one practice session ntl you are at ease with the dictation. Resist checking the solutions until you are fairly the same sre of your responses Master the exercises for seconds and thirds before working with che dictations as scribed above. While you ate responding to these dictations, begin working with the cacreises for fourths and fifths. Continue this pattern for the rest of the lessons. Use these dictations as a model to create your own dictations when you begin working vith fixed chromatic intervals 2ndfrds Aths/Stbs ‘6ths/7ths mixed diatonic 8 HARMONIC TONAL = =NSIONS sa first step, read the entire Har monic Tonal Tensions chapter foradetailed explanation. Listen many times 0 the reconded examples. “Tey singing along with the recording. Be careful to use the correct solfege syllables P (disk 1, tracks 12, 13, 14, 15, and 19). Follow the 14-Day Working Guide, doing as much ofthe suggested assignments as you can within the two-week period. ‘Then move on to the next study concept. ‘These activites were designed to help you get inside the sound of chord qualities. You will not use the progressions and tunes with this study concept. Memorize the available tensions for each chord quality. Generally, chord tones are the degrees 1-3-5 and 7, while rensions are 9-11 and 13. For both, simply the word tension (T) and a number will be used from hete on. The following Tonal Tension exercises are four rote groups composed of the available tensions for particular chord qualities. Belo the six qualities of seventh chords that you will use with the following exer- or =—te— Pt jot = === £ noB BS 7 wt TB noB oS bw pan Ts {nary cr ' 2 et — 5 oe pe now 7 om ™ 73 nots os by ow Tm TB c-705) on eS EB * a : ae nos es by ow Tm TB Tbs ts thy we TH 3 ” TENSION GRouPS General Guidelines © With tension group 1-3-5-7, singlperform four permutations ‘over major seventh chords whose roots sre moving around the cyele of fourths Perform EACH permutation of 1- major seventh chords whose roots are 5-1 individually over joving around the eyele ‘of fourths. In other words, you sing the same permutation on all the chor. Perform a different permutation of the tension group over ‘major seventh chords whose roots are moving around the eyele of fourths Do the same for dominant seventh. Repeat process for all chord qualities, (Change tension groups only when you feeling comfortable with the one chat you are studying ‘Tension groups and permutations 1357 35-71 5143 7135 35-19 5193 71935 935-7 5-79-11 TOMS 915-7 15.7.9 P9AMLAS | VASAT EAT EETE oer at 3a 2 EER) SETI SADE FETE LOSE OUSLY For dominant seventh chords, work with these tension groups one at atime and their permutations: ST94I-3 = 94LL-IST—HL-1357-9 1337-9411 bT4941143 OAL HLETZIT9. 135749411 STADANNAS 2 APATLAI397 = AULT 2) ABTOATT wrOHTsIs 1 9ALLASHN EET SISAL PASS POMELISELS RE £22 HELIS VALET SO ALS TETAS ESAT, 8 14-Day Working Guide 2 Linen to dk 1 rch 12,13, 1,15, and 18, Days es “Practice step 1 nulor th quality) as descr inthe chaeer and demonstrated on the CD. Days 5-4 4 Review step I, ad step 2 Days 5-7 Review steps 1 and 2, add step 3. Days8-9 Seep 1 (dominant 7th quality). Continue to review major seventh quality (steps 2 and 3) Days to-r1 4 Review step 1, add step 2 (dominant seventh). Days 12-14 Review steps 1 and 2, add Step 3 STOR. Go on to Tension Melodies. ou Tensions 1-3-5-7 cement “To get inside the sound of these chords and their tensions you will study one chord quality ata time with one cension group at a ime. Sing the exercises while sustaining the appro- priate chord quality or tonic in the left hand on the piano. As needed, use your right hand to play the notes but in the asanner as described in the STP and Inner Hearing tech- niques If you are thoroughly familiar with the major quality and can perform the tension group ‘exercise with no problems, go on to the next quality. Ifthe key is mot good for your voice, perform the examples in another key, using Movaste DO. Step 1: With tension group 1-3-5-7, sing/perform four permutations ‘over major seven chords whose roots are moving around the cyele of fourths as shown below, a. aos ofl = fra? ; * : . , ——f eS —* f at Poe Ae Ae oa Inthe example above continue wit the chord bm? then Eom, et ‘Step 2: Optional: Perform each permutation of 1-3-5-7 individually tet aloe oevench chords weet rot! te moving aud the ejle of fourths sin the fllowing example Fry omar ! : 1 Japp ee fo be 2 SS oe ee ; In the example above, the chords continue around the cycle of fourths, Abmaj7, Domaj?, cetc., while the order of the tension group 1-3-5-7 remains the same. You can perform this step with 3-5- 7-1, 5-7-1 3 and 7-1-3-5 for more practice 80 Step 3: Perform a different permutation of a tension group over major seventh chords whose roots are moving around the cycle of fourth, as in the example below. maiz Fmaj7 sbmaj7 ebmai7 Abmaj7 se se ss hl 9 t Py - f ¢ mabe be oC. === = (Ee soe | 4 ™ ee a For all the exercises, part of the challenge isco inner-hear the fist note of the permuta- tion that you are performing. Do not vocally sing up the scale to the note desired, inner- hear it before singing. Do the previous exercise for sll che other tension groups and chon ualities ‘Tension group 3-5-7-9 on minor seventh chords for example would be performed as shown in the following example Continue with the minor seventh chords around the cycle: Bb-7, then Bb-7, ete. Step 2: Perform tension group 3-5-7-9 over minor seventh chords ‘whose roots are moving around the cycle of fourths as shown below. “81 In the previous example, the chords continue around the eyele of fourths, Ab-7, Db-7, ctc., while che onder ofthe tension group 3-5-7-9 remains the same. Perform this step with 5-793, 793-5, and 93-541 Step 3: Perform a different permutation of the tension group over minor seventh chords whore roots are moving around the cycle of fourths, as shown in the example below. m7 BHT by AT s 7 9 63 b7 9 bss 9 bs 5b bs s by 9 . + : == iP bese teat poe f pee Pe Use single chromatic approach notes with your tension groups, In example 32, you perform chromatic approaches to each note of the tension group 1-3-5-7 exercise shown previously ar example 30. Fach note is preceded by a single chromatic approach note from above. [As before: perform these over major seventh chords whose roots are moving around the cyele of fourths. Change chord quality laer. With these exercises, | suggest chat you study ‘with your instrument before atcempting to sing them. end of reconding ee (ees CS J yea ee In the example above, the progression continues as before: Fmaj7, Bbmaj7, ete. As you ‘become comfortable with the activity, change chord quality andjor tension group. Remember: do not vocally sing up to the first note of each group. inner-hear it fist! a TENSION MELODIES [Asa fitsr step, road the entire Tension Melodies chapter for detailed explanation. Listen many times to the recorded exercises. Ty singing along with the reconling. Be careful to tse the correct solfeye syllables. Listen to: disk 1, programs 20, 30, and 31. Follow the 14-Day Working Guide, doing as much of the suygested assignments as you can within the two week period, Then move on to the next study concept. General Guidelines With these exercises, you will perform the same tension on each chord of a progression, You then will perform these tensions with chromatic approach notes. Make use of the four-step process described below as much or as little as you feel the need, Practice exclusively with the piano at fist to perform a specifi tension with two or three of the study progressions at a time. When you can perform in a smooth, relaxed ‘manner, use the recorded tracks. You will eventually perio ons and tunes; vocally and instrumentally, of course. Your goal isto be able to perform tensions only from chord symbols all tensions on all progress Choose a tension group (3-5-7-9 for example) and perform Harmonic Tonal Tension Exercises to warm up. Practice the chord qualities ofthe progressions with which you will perform tension melodies. Using a couple of the study progressions at a rime, practice tension melodies. Apply tensions 3-5-7-9, one at a time as descrhed in the chapter. ‘After you have performed with some success, apply tensions 3- 5-7-9 as Tension Melodies to one of the study tunes. Later: Repeat the above with another tension group. Eventually do the same for all the tension groups, study progressions, and study tunes, 8 14-Day Working Guide Days 1-2 4 Using Study Progressions 1 and 2, perform vocally and instru: mentally tension 3 (T3) on each chord, as described in the ‘Tension Melodies chapter. As a warm-up, use che previous exercises described in Harmonic Tonal Tensions, tension, group 1-3-5-7 (major, minor and dominant seventh qualities). Days 3-4 ¢ Perform TS on the first two Study Progressions. Days5-7 { Perform T7 on the first two Study Progressions. Perform T3 to ‘Tune 1 (My Foolish Harve) Days8-9 4 Perform T3 on Study Progressions 3 and 4. Continue to prac tice T3 with Tane 1. Days 10-11 { Perform T5 on Study Progressions 3 and 4. Review Progressi- fons Land 2 Days 13-44 Perform T7 on Study Progressions 1-4. Perform T7 to Tune L Delay ty and thirteenths. STOP. Go on to Guide Tone Melodies, 85, the tension dictations until you have done some work with ninths, elevenths Below is the four-step process shown graphically on the staf Step 11 Memorize the harmonic bass line to the progression hefo trying singing tensions on the chords Step 2: Sing the TS for example, of each chord, over the sustained fundamental of the key. The key ofthis example is C major. cmyy 8-765) t7 o7 aa cma i ' 1 m : Step 3: Sing TS of each chord while playing the roots of the chord on the piano. Try recording a root bass line and sing with the recording Br) ET o-7 a Fri? may i ——-F 7 ‘Step 4: Perform TS in the manner shown below while playing the chords ofthe progression, cma 8-70) e7 D7 ag Fra? cma SS = Te = An additional step is to perform Single Chromatic Approaches to T5 of each chord instr mentally may 8-705) ev D7 az Fray Coal 86 Perform as many or few of the steps that you find necessary. The point isto hear the notes in relation to the key and in relation ta the harmony at their points of occurrence. The ten progressions are in different keys hecause of the necessity to be able to think and fune- tion in all keys. Continue to use Movant DO and all the appropriate solfeve syllables Below is progression 2 of the 10 Study Progressions. It is shown here with T7 as a ten sion melody with single chromatic approaches. This is for demonstration only. Ultimately, you should perform from only the chord symbols. Use all of the progressions to practice tension melodies, bas lines, ete Perform the tensions vocally and instrumentally. Later, with your instrument, apply chromatic approaches. Progression 2 aby eb7 eb7 Fa b7 ==: 4 ——— fe bd ob e == a — « we « f f eb pc woe oS — Real Life Dictation (Observe how tensions are used in the form of melodic sequences during improvised soles Alll the Things You Are, bars 9-11; Chet Baker performs the same melodic shape from the third of C-7 and then from the ‘hind of BO7 (The Pacific Jaxx Years, 4 CDs, Pacific Jazz) Road Song, bars 20-21: Wes Montgomery performs melodic sequence from T9 (Road Song, A SM), Press Enter, bars 40-43: Kenny Werner performs a tonal-shape sequence (Peter Erskine, Suzet Soul, RCA Novus). 8 Tension Dictation Perform this daily dictation in a different manner: frst, practice responding vocally, iden. Liiying the notes with solfege syllables, Refrain from using your instrument unl you feel confident with the entire exercise and can perform i from memory ‘The tonal tensions in this dictation are recorded with single chromatic approaches as in the exercises es Melodic Dictation Four simple harmonised melodies have been included as part of your dictation activites. Begin listening and responding to them afier you have completed the interval exercises 1nd dictations for thieds and fourths. Listen no more than two times during a single prac- tice session, Resist checking the solutions until you are fairly sure of your responses. Per- form this activity vocally exclusively. Finally, the old fashioned way still works, Put on a CD and transcribe a melody ot pro: aression Maton: Dictation Mevoni: Dictation 2 Bhars- 1x Matonie Dictarion 3 Bhars- 1x Matonic Dictarion 4 3 Bhars- Ix GuibE TONE LINES 1 first step, read the entire Guide Tone Line chapter for a detailed explanation. Listen many times (0 the recorded exercises. Try performing along with the recording. Listen to disk 1, tracks 32, and 33. Follow the 14-Day Working Guide, doing as much of the suggested assignments as you ‘can within the two week periad. Then move ‘on to the next study concept Guide tone lines are predominantly stepwise lines composed of either the third, seventh or altered notes of the chords in a progression. These notes outline the harmonic colour of 1 progression and are often used asa basis for background horn and string arrangements ‘They are used in composition and improvisation because of their economy and strength to communicate the harmonic situation. The famous melody of All the Things You Are is, composed mostly ofthe thirds of the chords, which helps make it such a strong melody, Included in this section are written examples of guide tone lines beginning from the thind of the first chord and then again beginning from the seventh of the first chord, However, you should strive to perform guide cone lines only from chord changes. Learn and play the examples on your instrument with the recorded tracks after you have master- ced them vocally in solege General Guidelines Be sure that you have mastered both voeally and instrumental ly the harmonic bass lines to the study progressions with which ‘you will be working With two of three study progressions at a time, practice per- forming vocallyfinstrumentally guide tone lines. Study from the chord symbols only. Do not write the guide tones. Ie is t0 your benefit to be able to think the thirds and sevenths of chords right away. Besides, if you have been doing harmonic bas lines, this should be relatively easy. Work at the piano before practicing with the recorded tracks. Later ‘Add one of the study tunes to your daily practice, Always Iknow which notes you are singing; be sure to use the correct solfege syllables. After you have mastered guide tones ro a progression or tune, instrumentally perform the improvisation topic, guide tones with SCAs and tensions as described in the next section, 90 14-Day Working Guide racks 32, and 33. Asan initial tep, write the Guide Tone Lines as necessary, but then begin working toward performing only from the chord symbols as soon as possible # Listen to disk 1, Days roa 4 Practice performing Guide Tone Lines with Seudy Progressions 1, 2and 3. (Warm up by reviewing the harmonic bassline for the frst three progressions and performing thieds and then sevenths over the chords as described in the Tension Melodies chapter). Days 5-7 4 Add Tune 1 (My Foolish Harve) to your practice period, per- forming Guide Tone Lines to the progression, Days 8.14, {Practice performing Guide Tone Lines with Study Progressions 1 through 6 and continue with Tune 1 (My Foolish Harve), STOP. Go on to Phrase Superimposition cone roneume When performing guide tones, you move to the closest third, seventh or indicated altered note of the next chord, creating a stepwise line wherever possible. From the first chord ofa progression, start from the thied or seventh of the chord. Ifthe chord symnbol has a b5 or 49, for example, try beginning from that note. maz Ay of Bhar? G7 cma? from the 3rd oe ° 4 9 tomer | ; = = cf = ee a oe fromthe 3rd [EC j z * Ee a from the 7th a — = = 9 e-n) A109) C7 FT Fey tbr chara fis 2 2 eo be fromihevsth [PE i © bo E : from the 7th Ge = f = 2 from the 3rd fom the 6th Av 7 ch765) FANG) BTA may from the 3rd Se = = == fom the 7th Practice these at the piano as an introduction until you ean perform them smoothly with: ‘out stopping. If you don’t have piano skills, just play the roots of the chords while you. sing. Use STP and Inner Hearing techniques as part of your stu. 9% RELATED IMPROVISATION TOPICS 1. GUIDE TONES WITH TENSIONS Below is « blues progression with a guide tone line that begins on the seventh of the F7 chord. The progression is shown again with three tensions following each guide tone note. What to Do Les Lease to sing it with the correct solfege syllables. Perform i from memory, or while looking only at the chord this exercise as written on your instrument. symbols. Repeat this process with the 10 Study Progressions and the 6 Study Tunes. When you find it necessary, cise as a firs ste, ite out the exer: nomom 67 7 7 or T san on mom 2, GUIDE TONES WITH SINGLE CHROMATIC APPROACHES AND TENSIONS In this blues progression, the guide tone notes are preceded by notes one half step below, functioning as chromatic approach notes. As you can see, they automatically provide additional melodic contour to the exercise. They also provide hatmonic interest through the use of dissonance. What to Do Give it the same treatment as the last exercise Learn this exercise as written on your instrument Leach to sing it with the correct solfege syllables, including the chromatic approaches. Perform it from memory, or while looking only at the chord symbols. [Repeat this process with the 10 Study Progressions and the 6 ‘Study Tunes. 7 aby 7 Ca a7 aby Fr ot = ir 5 pA Q 2 bee te 95 3. STRAIGHT LINE EXERCISE WITH TENSIONS Combine the Straight Line Exercise with Tensions to ereate # continuous line through progression that alternates between movement by step (scales) and movernent in thirds (arpeggios). What to Do Give it the same treatment as the lat exercise. Learn this exercise on your instrument as written. Learn to sing it with the correct solfege syllables, including the chromatic approaches. Perform it from memory, or while looking only at the chord symbols = Repeat this process with the 10 Study Progressions and the 6 Study Tunes. If necessary, weite our the exercise asa frst step. 7 by 7 = Se Souhthe = Sih in "as 87 aby "7 o7 ‘Sai ine Tens Sigh tne o7 a 7 7 oe ee oe Tins Seni tne Tenors Sigh ine Options Start from any chord tone or tension, Perform un arpegyio in the first har. Begin with a downward line. Perform the Straight Line with Tensions for more than one bar, as shown, in bars seven and eight. Use chromatic approaches to any note. Use other note values, i.e, quarter notes, eighth ores. Superimpose a rhythmic unie (one quarter, wo eighth notes, for example) throughout the exercise, 6 PHRASE SUPERIMPOSITION a first step, read the entire Superimposicion chapcer for detailed explanation. Listen &S__ many vimes to the recorded examples. Tey to perform along with the record Ing. Listen to disk 1, tracks 34, 35, 36, and 37 Follow the 14-Day Working Gulde, doing as much of the suggested assignments a8 you eam, within the ewo week period In this section, you will study a technique designed to develop your ability to hear small melodic alterations over chord changes us well as your melodic intuition when improvis ing ‘One of your goals s to learn all ten phrases in the six modes previously presented in the Straight Line chapter: Lydian, Lydian’7, melodic minor, Dorian, Loerian#2 and ditmin- ‘shed. Work to perform them from memory on your instrument and vocally with the cor rect syllables Remember: take your time, This isa very gradual process, Lear one phrase at a time, keeping in mind that, with these activities, y learn them instrumentally first. You don't have ta wait to learn all ten phrase in all modes before beginning to superimpose phrases cover changes. Follow the instructions, listen to the demonstration recording and do the 4-Day Working Guide asa first step General Guidelines Each day as routine: Study t0 perform all phrases instrumentally and then vocally as written from memory in the six scales. Make the necessary chromatic adjustments, Write and learn to play phrase 1 over the 10 Study Progres- sions as demonstrated in che lesson, making all necessary cho: matic adjustments ‘As soon as you can play phrase 1 with progression 1, work very slowly atthe piano to sing it with the proper solfege syllables. ‘Vocally, you may find ie difficule to perform the phrases perfec- tly with the recorded tracks. This is not a problem, however. ‘The benefit ism the effort to sing the notes accurately ‘When you can play and sing phrase | with study progression 1, apply ic to the fist of the study eunes located at the end of the book, Continue the above parrern with phrase I and the remaining progressions and tunes. Or yen can decide to work with phrase 2 7 14-Day Working Guide Listen to disk 1, tacks 34, 35, 36 437 Days 15 “Practice to perform phrase 1 in the Lydian and Lydian? ‘modes from memory. Days 4-7 4 Continue a daily review of phrase 1 in Lydian and Lydian}7. Write phase 1, using the Lydianb7 scale over the changes of study progression 1, page 109. Use the examples in the chapter asa model, Lean to play your written exercise instrumentally by memory, increasing your speed as you gain mastery. At the piano and very slowly, practice singing phrase 1 with the corrvet solfege sjlables on the changes of study progres: sion Days 814 4 Review daily all of the above and finish the week with a rou- tine practice of phrase 1 using the recorded track for study pro- agession 1, disk 2, track 2 Delay listening to the recorded dicrations for this study concept until you have done at leas three of four ofthe phrases overall the study progressions and rwo or three tunes. STOP. At this point you ean return to any topic and do as much concentrated work as needed or desited. You should have a good idea how to practice within any of the Study Concepts Memorizing Phrases Master the following ten phrases in the six modes previously presented in the Straight Line chapter (Lydian, Lyslianb7, melodic minor, Dorian, Locrian#2 and diminished). The phrases below are written in F major Fed are * Phrase 1 Phinee 2 Phrases 1-4 Learning to sing and play phrases in different modes will develop your aural sensitivity Ins also a useful tool for improvisation. Jaz player often use this technique to play melo dlically through chord changes while maintaining a sense of line and continuity. shown below written in Dorian and Lydian modes. _ 2 pS Phrase 1 F Lydian (#4) Phrase 2. f 4 Phrase 3 Phrase 4 = => : = 5 ss, . - = © SA ‘The following shows phrase I written in the remaining modes. é === . Phrase 1 tr) Melodic minor > = —= SS SS F705) Phrase 1 _ Diminished =e é Io the following exercises, you will have to sing and perform these phrases through chord progressions making slight changes (mostly chromatic) to the line as you go, Perform your phrases in the six scales everyday asa preparatory exercise Superimpose a Phrase over Changing Harmony Develop your melodic sensibility over chord changes by performing a learned phrase or melody making chromatic alterations as you proceed through a progression. For example, hhere is phrase 2as previously writen in F major So Phrase 2 as it could be performed over chord changes: co Bohr ‘The basic character and shape were maintained while certain notes were altered t0 account for the harmony at that place in the tune. This is a way to exercise and develop your ability to hear vertically and horizontally at the same time. Iti also a useful rool for improvisation. Jaze players use this technique to develop a single idea through the chang- ing harmony of a Remember ty to keep your alterations no more than a step away from the original Real Life Dictation You can find examples of phrase superimposition at: Koko, bars 5-8 Charlie Parker (Charlie Parker, Cherokee, Savoy 12079) ‘On Green Dolphin Street; Ist chorus, bars 17-24, 2nd chorus, bars 1-8: Joe Diorio, guitar (Joe Diorio & Mick Goodick, Rare Birds, RAM). Road Song, bars 17-22: Wes Montgomery solo (Wes Mont- ‘gomery, Road Song, A SM). Press Enter, bars 20-23: Kenny Werner, piano solo (Peter Erskine, Sweet Soul, RCA Novus). Litele Buterfly (aka Pannonica), bars 18-19: Erie Gunnison, piano, short plrase played in sequence (Carmen McRae, Car- ‘men McRae Sings Monk, RCA Novus). Below isan example of how phrase 2 could be performed over the changes of a tune. Frnay on Fa asm) 07 Gauss o7 Cast C7 = oe & =a ara se 2 = ‘To practice this activity: Choose a phrase to superimpose over the changes of a pro- sression or rune, ‘Write the study out as demonstrated above. ‘Study it on your instrament until you can. play ie smoothly then, learn to sing i (very slowly) with the proper solfege syllables over the harmony of the rune. 103, Displace Your Phrases As a variation of phrase superimposition, leatn to perform and therefore hear rhe same phrase displaced in the harmony of a progression. At this stage, for eae training purposes, it is most practical to displace the phrase one measure, Below is an example of phrase 2 beginning on the second bar of the previous chord progression. This activity produces interesting results because it changes the tonal and rhythmic tensions ofthe notes within the context of the tune. In effect you hear the phrase in a new way. Fma7 aby Fay A105) D7. Oi a7 or — G7 oh co | ar o7 G7 c7 : : oe : 6S eS SS a a a J een theme! . . ° brett Fer = i 3 wot Oras e = 6 fi an Lf — 6: a te 04 Progression 6, Key: C The following two Phrase 1 gral cmap 7 Fm? Fr [aes pe sy 27s | — aby 7 7 cour amples are played together on disk 1, track 37. Progression 6, Keys C (phrase displaced 1 bar) Phrise | cma cr Fra "7 Dictation ant from the s For this dictation topic you will use your inst Listen to each phrase no more than ehree times in coral. In between hearings, stop the recording and try to sing the phrase (on a neutral syllable) to retain the notes enough to reproduce them on your instrument, keeping in mind at this stage to never to play along with the recording. After the third listen and attempt, go co the next phrase which, due to the nature ofthis topic, will be very similar to oF even an exact repeat of the first phrase. Go to the next phrise even if you are not sure that you have successfully captured the first phrase! Repeat steps one and ewo for all the phrases. When you arrive at the end of the tune, you are done for the ay with this dictation exercise Contin like this daily until you are fairly sure of your respon: ses. At that point, check your response by playing along with the recording forthe fist time, from memory, of course. As a last resort, you ean consult the written answers in the book. Pe[eT el oe [| 106 Ne Se oe oe %& 10 StuDY PROGRESSIONS 6 Stupy TUNES %& DICTATIONS % SOLO TRANSCRIPTIONS 8 FINAL THOUGHTS 3 BIOGRAPHY 10 STUDY PROGRESSIONS low are the ten progressions refereed co th i the book. Ultimately, your goal to sing harmonic bass lines co all of them from memory. Use these progressions to Practice the study concepts as described in the guidelines for each chapter. ELE Tuning Nove A 440 BEE Propesion 7 abr 7 & LZ Z FEL FAA Se ee aa abr ‘7 o7 rag 3 = LIL FP _ I me f f t me - d m te d L di s l so ° 7 7 Ga = = iZ EZ : fi d , s . i s a m te a s ' - hr or 7 a7 a Se =z = Tee fee Fee br or o-7 or 4 oe 7 Zz LPL FSS - f 1 me f : 1 mf a ™ te d m s 1 di cr 7 oh oo 7 be — = $ 2 LoS = =a rf aor oe « f + d@ mw @ + f s 4 EAP ED Progression 5 '7 aby "7 co 7 8b7 B°7 Fraj7_ G7 AT D7 = = - LD LTT ee o7 o ey 6 a a a oe ae IF — f a r s t - s te t le te we r ke te EAP Progression 4 fog? a oe e705) -A708) iy 7 . d m I d , : . t ™ s t di t - m si br otbe Aor eo a Foo? CLL TOLLS TF TL = 3 = 1 a - le m s t a - - s t a m ' d Fai £75) A709) D-7 G7 c-7 7 a eae E = E = . d m t d t r ™ i f ad > fi s te a m ab7 a7 AT o7 $e 2 fos - al = f 1 me ‘ f le me f m s r m i di s 1 67 ° tm 7 nc] & 47 = Z =z 7 Fa? 7 - S=S= : 5 J a Bb? obey ba 67 may . we Y te a we - | 5 1 d m t d 7 me o7 =a THE Zz i 7 cmap FZ ff a d m t d 1 me f tha sy ohmap SDL LDS eee eae na? ema x Z = reese ees Ohm? cra nay 7 & £ FSS SF = de ra a ad m t d t ai t t Pr ee £765) ants) 7 7 zz F j = fi fa m fi t Wi t t r s t f s oy ena ay fso@dmeedfinf. 6 Stupby TUNES TUNE 1 My Foolish Harve aro C major: C= do cma Ema Ea Az o-7 a7 oe =z FF Ze 7 : = er e7 Av eb7 D7 D-705) 6709) 62 2A = i | 6 = may oa cr Fray B75) E79) TUNE 2 Take That Train aro Practice with the study concept only after you have learned to sing a Harmonic Bass Line through the chord changes. Study Concept: Straight Line Keep in mind that you may use the progression of Tune 2 to practice any of the study concepts described in the text. Below isan example of how to use this progression to perform the Straight Line Exercise through the changes. Work extensively at the piano before using the music track. Be sure to use the correct solfege syllables and good intonation. Use STP and Inner Hearing as port of your practice. cma pain 9 | Cm C7 Fa «07 D7 o7 Cima 7am) 2 07 7 cma sng Improvise your own Straight Line Sing a straight exercise through the changes from the given start notes. Stay within an, ‘octave, in this case mi to mi, since it hegins on the thied ofthe scale. Remember that you are functioning within the context of the key ofthe tune, making alterations where neces- sary for any non-iatonic chords. This exercise challenges you to think harmonically as you go wlong. Work only with the piano before performing with the recording, Afier you have mastered this activity, you can then perform shorter note values (quarter note, eighth noe) or you can just goon to dhe next ality and earn ea this popes sion late. cmap ox 6k f ; f = oe . 07 67 may aT \ IN] \ \ » | cm c7 Fray? 8 cma p7gn) ns TUNE 3 It’s You I Can Go To Beal Remember: Harmonie Bass Line! ‘Study Concept: Intervals Use Tune 3 to practice any of the study concepts. Shown below is how you can perform sevenths above the tonics of the chords as an exercise. Use Procedure 4 (P4). Review Intervals chapter for explanation. ebmai7 87 bil ee : my 7 ov aoa? aha 7 ° bray 7 7¢9) G7 cr i = #3 Zz DFT SS ‘o = z Cee : on Activity Variation Perform P4 (Procedure 4) up to the seventh as hefore but then for each chord that lasts for aan entite measure, perform stepwise (Straight Line) to the end of the measure as shown below 6 TUNE 4 Modal Interchange Blues ae8 Take special care to sing this harmonic bas line. It takes you around the eyele of fourths fora bitand then challenges your ability to maintain a sense of overall tonality with some chromatic LV. abr er aro or or rao LL, LAPS =e ha abr De oh7 oh = = pe a= 7 7 o7 67 C20 6 = FE Zz = = 6 = u7 TUNE 5 Goodbye, Fall Bee rudy Concept: Guide Tone Lines After leaning the harmonic bass line to this progression [E minor: E = dot), you can use ‘Tune 5 to practice any of the study concepts. For cxample, use it to study guide tone melo- dics as previously described, ‘The firs four hars are written in the exanple below beginning from the seventh of the AZ chord. Continue the exercise (one note each chord), petforming from the chord sym- bls only. Do not write the rest of the exercise. After you have mastered this guide tone line, begin another that begins fom the third of the A~7 chon. Later you ean try some of the related improvisation ropies, E minor: do ve me fa sol lace do (natural minor scale) AT D7 Gri? cmay rm FR-TO5) 8709) a7 7 «Ae o7 maz CLS : (Za © = =| Feb) 8709) ‘7 oy >-7 ob 2 Coa 87(9) Ea 7 8 TUNE 6 Also Me Ben Perform a harmonic bass line to the progression, ‘Study Concept: Phease Superimposition ‘As with the others, tine 6 can be used eo practice all study concepts. Below isan example ‘of how you can employ phrase superimposition. Instrumentally, perform phrase 1 from the Phrase Superimposition chapter over the chord changes as writen. When you can play it smoothly with the rhythm tracks, learn ro sing it with the proper solfege syllables. Work at the piano before trying to sing with the recorded tracks. Commit this to memory, thinking through the chord changes. Go very slowly when singing with the piano, being conscious of every note, Don’t worry about achieving a perfect performance right away. Instead, concentrate on. ‘maintaining a daily practice routine Phrase 1 ‘Asa vartation, displace the phrase one measure. Listen to disk 1, track 37, n9 DICTATIONS Harmonic Dictation 1 8? F eb7 7 co ca son aby 7 Aq b7 a a LZ © = > G7 cr co 7 cr co Harmonic Dictation 3 ?@ ow 7 ov cr + Ema ca cr Fay ov A 07 5 | . - : = 6 7 Sj : 7 7 i & a a — — a _ LL} g . o [ z Fe = So ee FPP LF 5 Harmonic Dictation 4 8? Bhmajé G7 C7 ‘7 abmays G7 C7 F7 > ef ZS PAE : abmao Bb emai? bz b-7 G7 pa 7 2 Bhmaié by Ebay 7 D7 G7 C7 F7 Brel a Harmonic Dictation 5 8? By Ar eg a soa a7 &7 A707 | Grape oe iz —— maiz s7 mar o+ ne = ce my 7 87 "7 $5 xe Z =| 6 = = Soa o7 Gms “7 Zz Z f 7 LaF PP) 6 = = » oR? Aa 87 7 A? 7 + : . - 7 Fe 6 c 2 - 3 Harmonic Dictation 6 Be bar D705) G70) C7 BT 27 Aba? fa ema co 2 Fr Fe Bb Pa Z Zz TZ 124 Tendency Tone Dictation for Lesson 1 & 2 B? El ue Sto as Tendency Tone Dictation for Lesson 7 & 8 . 5, Interval Dictation - 2nds & 3rds B?H i = — = oS SSS ¢= SS = o ——SSa, = = == SSS = 7 = Interval Dictation - 6ths @ 7ths B?H Tension Dictation B28 138 Phrase Superimposition Dictation B? Hl Fa? eben pamerst Recording fades out after this point Melodic Dictations 1-4 B? HIEIESED | th * = ies i Sa } D7 bb cma Gmaj7 G7 cma maj BS dl i {| 130 SOLO TRANSCRIPTIONS he following are two improvised solos that you can use for transcription practice I As I said at the beginning of the book, this i the old-fashioned and perhaps best method of ear training, Take your time and use your instrument as much as you wish. The poine of the activity is to provide experience transcribing the notes, harmonies and rhythms of a solo as performed. Your e ‘raining practice will speed up your ability to hear andjor find the corzect notes and rhythms. Be The Comet Donovan Mixon sete slo img) 7 p = f ft * ft == A105) D769) ae tte a Omar bray 8-765) ers) A705) o7s) map) 20d Chore ne “ee 2 gf F — £ . a 7a ee ons) bai? 133 A-7O5) 2709) Meloy: Guitarax Bmay bras) Gray Bray 2 A gi 2 2, s—— a = — + —— bo ——— 7 ee A705) 79) Dmg Bhai? : ae —— ix ge = z — © Sat = 8-705) Enis) Amis) abr) Abad) war . _ fh SS = — 3 Frm CD Lonk Ma No Hand! © 1990- Phislogy Recon 1990 Pim Mi 133 Ms. J G?@ (first chorus only) robes Gaia Sol Pck Fa Fer ov cbr Impl Sb A? Ab7 pb or 7) te ft be bg - sete pile be ehetite es, gi $e = SSS SSS abs? aba ob hoy? e7 a be be be stot bee ?® whe OP be 5 . —f ER From CD Lack Ma Np Han © 1990 -Pullgy Recs FINAL THOUGHTS with whom I have worked for many years. The \Ehelp. The reason for this is thar the endeavour is an extremely personal path for every musician. Some find it extremely dificult ro master this skill (I did), others do so with relative experience is very similar for everyone: a deeper love of music, heightened respect for musicians, inspiration, creativity and pride hope that you find this hook useful. I sincerely think thar you will I wrote i out of my care for music and for students of mu tone of the book is largely that of After overcoming this, however, the cater understanding and respect for the world, Many of the happiest times of my life have occutred about two weeks after mid-term exams, when the more diligent students in my classes hegin to sense that they are under- going a gentle transformation that will ultimately lead them to their dream of becoming, ‘musicians. Usually, by that time in the semester, a natural warmth has set in. We are fr ends. Ie isn't said outwardly, but it is felt. Ie is well worth the effort, and effort it certainly ist Hang on in there BloGRAPHY ‘onovan Mixon, American composer and jaz: guitarist, Jhas performed with Alan Dawson, Billie Pierce, George Garzone, Eddie Henderson, Minew Cinelu, ¢ Ford, Bob Cranshaw, Steve Nekon, John Blake, Victor ind others. In Italy and across Europe, he actively per Jubs and festivals, including the ¥ the annual Berklee College of forms as a lea ler in § LUnbeia Jazz Festival, as part Mosic jazz clinics. His recording experiences include: Philology: solo CD) release, Look Ma, No Hands!; trio recording with Lee Konit entitled Free With Lee; and a (Quad Phone imposers’ collective CD, Donovan's career as a composer has been punctuated by a verformance of his composition, Culmination, by the Boston. (Orchestra and Chorale, and a jazz composition award from the National Endowment for the Arts. His performing activities include backing such notables as Nancy Wilson, Dishann Carroll, Englebert Humperdinck, Phylicia Rashaad of The Cosby Show, Sammy Davis Jz and Buddy Rich. Mr. Mixon holds a Masters of Music degree from the Manhattan School of Music in ja and commercial music and has taught for seven years on the faculty of Berklee College of Music in Boston, Massachuserts as Associate Professor of Ear Training. He currently lives in Italy, where in addition to a busy schedule of composing, perform ing, private teaching and recording, he conducts Performance Ear Training clinics inte Montclair, New Jersey: Rutgers University, New: 2 D.AM.S of Bologna, Italy ally for many modem schools of music, including Montclair State University, k, New Jersey: and Universita di E-mail: don@stnet.net Webs heepsvwwstnetnetidon, 136