Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 15

BOOKLET BIOL 101, T4

TEST AP101-4

Immune System

Questions:

96 Multiple-Choice Questions

Test Duration:

115 minutes

Reading Time:

10 minutes

INSTRUCTION:
Only Bilingual Dictionaries allowed, NO NOTES. This test consists of one part, 185 multiple choice questions
(numbers 1 to 185) to be answered on the computer answer sheet (185 marks). Write your name and student
number in the spaces provided on the computer answer sheet. Carefully fill in the shapes on the computermarked answer sheet under your name and ID number with a 2B pencil. You must only use a 2B pencil on the
computer answer sheet. Please read the instructions on the answer sheet carefully and follow them precisely.
Select the best answer to questions. If you are unsure of an answer, eliminate the alternatives that you know
to be incorrect and select answer from the remaining alternatives. To indicate your selection, use a 2B pencil
to blacken the corresponding oval on the computer answer sheet, AP101-1. No marks are deducted for wrong
answers. So students are advised to move on quickly without wasting too much time on one question. Advanced questions; require further reading or online research.

OPEN BLOOKLET ONLY WHEN TIMER IS READY

Immune System: General & Specific Defences


1. Which of the following incorrectly matches each of the following types of immune response with the
correct immunotherapy?
A. passive artificial; immunity gained from injections of clonal antibodies to fight off a current pathogen
invasion
B. active artificial; immunity gained through injections of dead or attenuated strains of the disease
causing agents
C. passive natural; immunity gained from transport of antibodies across the placental membrane or
through the mother's milk
D. active natural; immunity gained only after fully recovered from the illness
2. ________ are substances that can trigger the adaptive defenses and provoke an immune response:
A. interleukins
B. antigens
C. antibodies
D. haptens
3. Helper T cells:
A. release B7 proteins
B. function in the adaptive immune system activation
C. bind tightly to target cells and release a lymphotoxin called perforin
D. often function to decrease the immune response
4. Which of the following is not true?
A. innate system is defenses we are born with
B. adaptive system is defenses we gain through life experiences and exposure to antigens
C. immunoglobulins are humoral hormones that attach to antigen
D. complement is system of proteins that lyse cell membranes
5. Select the correct statement about lymphocytes:
A. B cells produce plasma cells, which secrete antibodies into the blood
B. T cells are the precursors of B cells
C. T cells are the only form of lymphocyte found in lymphoid tissue
D. the two main types are T cells and macrophages
6. Functions of the lymphatic system include:
A. transport of excess tissue fluid to the blood vascular system
B. excretion of excess dietary fat
C. transport of red blood cells to the blood vascular system
D. maintenance of blood pressure in the venous circulation
7. The only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells are the:
A. cytotoxic cells
B. helper cells
C. suppressor cells
D. plasma cells
2

Immune System: General & Specific Defences


8. Which statement below is characteristic of a secondary humoral response?
A. it triggers fever
B. it results in less memory cell circulation
C. it occurs much more rapidly than a primary response
D. it results in less antibody secretion
9. The innate system is also called:
A. the non-specific defence system
B. the adaptive defence system
C. the specific defence system
D. the immune system
10. Which of the following is not a role of a phagocyte?
A. engulf bacteria
B. engulf old or damaged cells
C. specifically recognise a particular pathogen
D. engulf general cell debris
11. The second line of defence in the innate defence system uses:
A. phagocytes
B. B cells
C. T cells
D. the skin and mucous membranes
17. Which of the following is not a role of the inflammatory response?
A. sets the stage for repair
B. disposes of cell debris and pathogens
C. prevents the spread of damaging agents to nearby tissues
D. B cells and T cells produce the response
18. Which of the following is a nonspecific barrier defense?
A. natural killer cells
B. complements
C. mucous membranes
D. macrophages
19. The process whereby neutrophils and other white blood cells are attracted to an inflammatory site is
called:
A. chemotaxis
B. diapedesis
C. phagocytosis
D. margination

Immune System: General & Specific Defences


20. Without __________ there is no adaptive immune response.
A. plasma cells
B. B lymphocytes
C. antibodies
D. T lymphocytes
21. Which nonspecific defense cells specialize in attacking cancer cells and virus-infected cells?
A. basophils
B. natural killer cells
C. macrophages
D. helper T lymphocytes
22. The primary immune response:
A. is another name for immunological memory
B. occurs when memory cells are stimulated
C. has a lag period while B cells proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells
D. occurs more rapidly and is stronger than the secondary response
23. Select the correct statement about active and passive immunity.
A. a vaccination is an example of the introduction of passive immunity into the body
B. the antibodies utilized in active immunity are acquired from another organism
C. immunological memory is established by passive immunization
D. active and passive humoral immunity are both mechanisms of specific immunity that use antibodies
24. Humoral immunity is provided by:
A. complement proteins
B. T cells
C. antibodies
D. interferons
25. Which of the following is associated with passive immunity?
A. infusion of weakened viruses
B. booster shot
C. long-term immune protection
D. passage of IgG antibodies from a pregnant mother to her fetus
26. Self-reactive B cells are eliminated in the:
A. bone marrow
B. spleen
C. thymus
D. lymph nodes

Immune System: General & Specific Defences


27. Which cells stimulate both arms of the immune response?
A. plasma cells
B. helper T cells
C. killer T cells
D. complement cells
28. Which of the following is a characteristic of a secondary immune response?
A. a secondary immune response is started by nave lymphocytes, while a primary immune response is
initiated by memory cells
B. a secondary immune response does produce as many antibodies compared to a primary immune
response
C. a secondary immune response lasts longer than a primary immune response
D. a secondary immune response is slower than a primary immune response
29. Antibodies that act against a particular foreign substance are released by:
A. macrophages
B. Helper T cells
C. plasma cells
D. bone marrow
30. Which of the following are the major phagocytic cells in the body?
A. T and B lymphocytes
B. neutrophils and macrophages
C. erythrocytes
D. basophils and eosinophils
31. When the body is exposed to an antigen for the second time, which of the following events is/are likely to
occur?
1) No difference to the initial exposure
2) Earlier appearance of specific antibody than during initial exposure
3) A rapid conversion of B memory cells to plasma cells
4) Delayed production of specific antibody due to memory cell conversion to plasma cells
5) Antigen presentation and activation by Helper T cell prior to antibody production
A.
B.
C.
D.

1,2
2, 3
1,2,4
2,3, 5

32. Select the correct statement about the function of antibodies.


A. antibodies may directly destroy "invaders"
B. neutralization is the process by which antibodies cause invading cells to clump together
C. complement fixation is the main mechanism by which antibodies provide protection
D. A & B are correct
5

Immune System: General & Specific Defences


33. The consequences of a loss of helper T cells from the immune system would be:
A. loss of the go signal for the appropriate specific response
B. no conversion of helper T cells into cytotoxic T cells
C. loss of the ability to confirm the presence of a threat during a first exposure
D. A and C are correct
34. Which of the following correctly match the following antibody types with their characteristics?
A. IgG; most abundant antibody found in the plasma
B. IgM; found in body secretions such as milk, saliva, and sweat
C. IgE; levels greatly reduced during severe allergic responses
D. IgA; first class released by plasma cells and is indicative of a current infection
35. A vaccination works to establish:
A. artificial passive immunity
B. natural active immunity
C. artificial active immunity
D. natural passive immunity
36. Specific immune response
A. require Helper T cell activation
B. are also called the adaptive immune responses
C. could not occur if the thymus gland did not develop
D. all of the above
37. Specific (Adaptive) immunity:
A. acts immediately when the bodys barriers are broken
B. cause inflammation to occur at sites of tissue
C. takes 4-6 days before specific antigen recognising cells are made to attack unwanted invaders
D. includes the flushing action of tears
38. The inflammatory hallmark of pain is caused by:
A. vasodilation
B. prostaglandins
C. oedema
D. both b and c are correct
39. Phagocytes:
A. alert the specific defences to a foreign threat using MHC II
B. some are antigen presenting cells
C. alert the specific defences to a foreign threat using MHC I
D. A and B are correct

Immune System: General & Specific Defences


40. MHC I is found on _____ and its role is to ________.
A. all cells except erythrocytes, assist in the identification of the presence of a foreign threat
B. antigen presenting cells, assist in the identification of the presence of a foreign threat
C. all cells except erythrocytes, assist in the identification of altered self-cells
D. cytotoxic T cells, assist in the identification of altered self-cells
41. Which of the following correctly matches each of the following cells with the specific immune response?
A. plasma cells; produce antibodies that attack and lyse cells that are not "self"
B. memory B cells; bind to antigen-presenting cells to begin the process of co-stimulation
C. cytotoxic T cells; remember and attack antigens from one exposure event to the next
D. none of the above
42. A cell that initiates a cascade of inflammatory responses is :
A. antigen presenting cell
B. mast cells
C. helper T cell
D. neutrophils and macrophages
43. Why bronchioles in the airways is predominantly affected by histamine during asthma attacks?
A. because they have smaller diameters
B. because they have smooth muscle that can narrow
C. because there are more mast cells
D. because antigen can only penetrate through bronchioles
44. In immunisation, the:
A. immune system attacks normal body cells
B. body is deliberately exposed to a particular antigen of interest
C. body receives antibodies produced by another person
D. genes for an antibody are introduced into the body
45. Your patient has been bitten by a snake. Injection of an antivenom containing antibodies is a type of
_______ because the protection is _______.
A. passive immunity, not permanent
B. active immunity, permanent
C. passive immunity, providing memory B cells so the person does not have to make their own
D. active immunity, not permanent
46. When a localized area exhibits increased capillary filtration, hyperemia, & swelling, it is an indication that:
A. antibodies are phagocytizing target cells
B. inflammation is occurring
C. an immune response is underway
D. fever is developing

Immune System: General & Specific Defences


47. A muscle cell was isolated and analysed for the presence of major histocompatibility complex (MHC).
Which of the following would be expected to be present?
A. MHC I only
B. MHC II only
C. MHC I and II
D. neither MHC I or MHC II
48. Which of the following is NOT an innate defense mechanism of the body?
A. blood cells
B. ectoderm and endoderm
C. B lymphocytes
D. inflammation
49. A six-year-old female is diagnosed with a bacterial infection of the respiratory system. Which of the
following will most likely try to fight the antigen?
A. antibodies
B. cytotoxic T cells
C. antigens
D. helper T cells
50. The immune cell that allows for subsequent recognition of an antigen, resulting in a secondary response,
is called a(n):
A. antigen-presenting cell
B. helper T cell
C. plasma cell
D. memory cell
51. ________ are released by activated T cells and macrophages to mobilize immune cells and attract other
leukocytes into the area.
A. cytokines
B. perforins
C. interleukin 1 proteins
D. interleukin 2 proteins
52. Which of the following is not a component of the innate immune system?
A. B cells
B. skin
C. phagocytes
D. natural killer cells
53. Saliva and lacrimal fluids contain this enzyme that destroys bacteria.
A. trypsin
B. lysozyme
C. keratin
D. hydrochloric acid
8

Immune System: General & Specific Defences


54. When the non-specific defence mechanisms fail to remove all the microbes, what non-specific defence
cell type can communication this problem to the specific defences?
A. B lymphocytes
B. macrophages
C. neutrophils
D. both A and B
55. Which of the following is present in upper respiratory tract which prevents entry of particles into lower
respiratory tracts?
A. goblet cell
B. mucociliary escalator
C. ciliated cell
D. lactoferrin
56. Which is correctly matched?
A. B cells: suppress the immune response once the foreign antigen has been cleared from the body
B. regulatory T cells: make antibodies
C. cytotoxic T cells: activated by antigens bound to MHC I
D. helper T cells: recognize virus-infected cells
57. Which of the following is not a function of the inflammatory response?
A. prevents the spread of the injurious agent to nearby tissue
B. replaces injured tissues with connective tissue
C. disposes of cellular debris and pathogens
D. sets the stage for repair processes
58. Lymphocytes that develop immunocompetence in the thymus are:
A. NK cells
B. B lymphocytes
C. T lymphocytes
D. basophils
59. MHC II proteins are found on:
A. antigen-presenting cells
B. red blood cells
C. T cells
D. all body cells, except erythrocytes
60. The role of the helper T cell is critical for the specific defences because:
A. it is responsible for killing cancerous cells
B. it is responsible for confirming the presence of a threat
C. it provides the go signal for the appropriate specific response
D. B and C are correct

Immune System: General & Specific Defences


61. B cells respond to the initial antigen challenge by:
A. reducing its size
B. immediately producing antigen-specific antibodies
C. forming of a large number of cells that are unlike the original B cell
D. producing plasma cells and memory cells
62. In the presence of MHCI and antigen, the helper T cell will:
A. be activated into a cytotoxic T cell and directly kill the target
B. use cytokines to give an antigen matched B cell the go signal to produce plasma cells and memory
cells
C. use cytokines to give an antigen matched cytotoxic T cell the go signal to kill the target
D. all of the above
63. Which of the following is true of cells of the immune system and their functions?
A. neutrophils; migrate to the site of an infection within a few hours
B. macrophages; derived from circulating monocytes
C. natural killer cells; a small subgroup of lymphocytes that will attack cancerous cells
D. all of the above
64. What group of antibodies are usually produced to provide immunity to infection?
A. immunoglobulin E
B. immunoglobulin A
C. immunoglobulin G
D. immunoglobulin D
65. Which of the following contains the antibacterial enzyme called lysozyme?
A. saliva and tears
B. skin
C. stomach mucosa
D. all of the above
66. The ability of antigens to stimulate proliferation of specific lymphocytes and antibodies is:
A. immunological memory
B. immunogenicity
C. immunocompetence
D. immunodeficiency
67. Why do some vaccines require boosters for maximum protection?
A. the concentration of the antigens is not sufficient in one dose to generate a response
B. the immune system may not be stimulated enough with one dose to produce a memory response
C. the vaccine is not effective
D. all vaccines require boosters

10

Immune System: General & Specific Defences


68. Which of the following incorrectly matches a defence cell with the correct characteristic?
A. helper T cells; coordinate humoral and cellular immune responses
B. macrophages; a common antigen presenting cell
C. mast cells; invoke fever when IgA cross links to them
D. plasma cells; produce immunoglobulins
69. Which of the following is not true?
A. acid mantle covers the skin and limits bacterial growth
B. gamma globulin is a plasma protein
C. leukocytosis is characterised by high numbers of lymphocytes
D. opsonization encourages phagocytosis
70. Which of the following is true of immediate hypersensitivities (allergy)?
A. they are very common in developing countries due to poor hygiene
B. they are adaptive immune responses to disease organisms
C. lactose intolerance is an example of this type of hypersensitivity
D. they involve IgE antibodies and the release of histamine from mast cells
71. Active artificially acquired immunity is a result of:
A. antibodies passed on from mother to fetus through the placenta
B. contact with a pathogen
C. antibodies passed on from mother to baby through breast milk
D. vaccination
72. Which of the following is not one of the cardinal signs of inflammation?
A. polyuria
B. oedema
C. redness
D. pain
73. When pathogens break through the first line of defences, which of the following events are likely to
occur?
1) some fragments bind to MHC II
5) exocytosis
2) phagocyte adheres to pathogens
6) lysosome fuses with phagosome
3) microbes in phagolysosome are digested
7) chemotaxis
4) endocytosis
A.
B.
C.
D.

2, 7, 5, 6, 3, 1, 4
7, 2, 5, 3, 6, 1, 4
2, 7, 4, 3, 6, 1, 5
7, 2, 4, 6, 3, 1, 5

11

74. Complement proteins work by:


A. creating an impermeable barrier
B. neutralization of antigens
C. forming pores in the membranes of target cells
D. phagocytosis of target cells
75. Which of the following is not a surface barrier to pathogen influx?
A. saliva and tears
B. complement cascade
C. skin secretions
D. mucous membranes
76. The site of lymphocyte production is:
A. red bone marrow
B. thymus
C. tonsils
D. lymph nodes
77. Histamine is an inflammatory mediator that increases more blood pouring into the injured area by :
A. increasing vascular permeability
B. increasing diameter of blood vessels
C. increasing the heart rate and blood pressure
D. both A and B
78. The first step in inflammation is:
A. tissue injury
B. phagocyte mobilization
C. the release of pro-inflammatory signals
D. vasodilation
79. Which of the following is not a sign of inflammation?
A. redness
B. fever
C. swelling
D. impairment of function
80. In the list below, which type of cell is involved in adaptive immunity?
A. natural killer cells
B. macrophages
C. B cells
D. neutrophils

12

81. Which of the following is considered to be a major component of the second line of defence?
A. phagocytes
B. inflammation
C. cell-mediated immunity
D. both B and C
82. Which of the following incorrectly matches the antibody and its characteristic?
A. IgG; most abundant class of antibodies
B. IgM; antigen receptor found on B cells
C. IgD; found in saliva and for this reason, known as secretory IgD
D. both B and C
83. Which of the following is mismatched?
A. B cells: can be activated to produce antibodies
B. helper T cells: directly target and kill cancer cells
C. regulatory T cells: release inhibitory cytokines to dampen the immune response
D. cytotoxic T cells: carry out cellular immune responses
84. The influx of plasma fluid by inflammatory response:
A. dilutes bacterial toxins
B. activates plasma protein systems
C. causes oedema
D. all of the above
85. Which of the following is brought to the injured site by inflammatory response?
A. clotting proteins
B. plasma fluid
C. inflammatory mediators
D. all of the above
86. In acute inflammation, the main initiator of both increased vascular permeability and vasodilation is:
A. prostaglandins
B. kinins
C. histamine
D. leukotrienes
87. Swelling of lymph nodes may indicate:
A. infections
B. sore throat
C. breast cancer
D. all of the above

13

88. Which cells of adaptive immune system protects the body against external cellular threats?
A. helper T cells
B. B lymphocytes
C. cytotoxic T cells
D. natural killer cells
89. The primary humoral immune response has a lag period about 3-6 days because:
A. antibody production by plasma cells is a slow process
B. only few B cells are specific for the antigen
C. antigen has to penetrate the first line of defences
D. both A and B
90. Which of the following type of vaccines most strongly provokes the immune response?
A. inactivated
B. live-attenuated
C. subunit
D. toxoid
91. Which of the following produces the mucus that traps microbes and irritants in airway?
A. ciliated epithelial cells
B. squamous epithelial cells
C. goblet cells
D. plasma cells
92. Which of the following occurs during asthma attacks?
A. mucus hypersecretion
B. bronchoconstriction
C. both A and B
D. none of the above
93. In the absence or destroyed helper T cells, which of the following is most likely to occur?
A. increased risk of viral infections and cancer development
B. increased risk of tissue damage
C. increased risk of opportunistic infections
D. both A and C
94. Which of the following correctly matches the antibody type is present in the mucus in the upper
respiratory airway, with its roles?
A. IgA protects against bacteria, virus and toxins trapped in the mucus
B. IgG triggers mast cells to release inflammatory mediators
C. IgA helps immune cells to recognise foreign materials in the mucus
D. IgG protects against bacteria, virus and toxins trapped in the mucus

14

95. Which of the following event would trigger the second line of defence?
A. antigen presentation in lymph nodes
B. when skin or mucosa is breached
C. when body cells burst, releasing its enzymes that damage the tissue
D. both B and C
96. Which of the following cell is not an antigen presenting cell?
A. neutrophil
B. macrophage
C. dendritic cell
D. B lymphocyte

For personal use only, last update:


26th September 2015 by Incognitus
16th February 2014 by RD
incognitus94@gmail.com

15