0 Votes +0 Votes -

60 vues40 pagesg

Sep 28, 2015

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT ou lisez en ligne sur Scribd

g

© All Rights Reserved

60 vues

g

© All Rights Reserved

- The Radium Girls: The Dark Story of America's Shining Women
- Periodic Tales: A Cultural History of the Elements, from Arsenic to Zinc
- The Application of Green Solvents in Separation Processes
- Biochemistry For Dummies
- Organic Chemistry: Structure, Mechanism, and Synthesis
- Soul Detox: Clean Living in a Contaminated World
- Organic Chemistry: Made Simple
- Molecular and Cell Biology For Dummies
- Organic Chemistry II For Dummies
- Night Fire: Big Oil, Poison Air, and Margie Richard's Fight to Save Her Town
- Handbook of Valves and Actuators: Valves Manual International
- Thermodynamics For Dummies
- Chemical Process Equipment - Selection and Design (Revised 2nd Edition)
- Pharmacology: Principles and Practice
- Piping Materials Guide
- Habits of a Happy Brain: Retrain Your Brain to Boost Your Serotonin, Dopamine, Oxytocin, & Endorphin Levels
- Natural Gas Processing: Technology and Engineering Design
- The Big Thirst: The Secret Life and Turbulent Future of Water
- Pressure Vessel Design Manual
- Chemistry For Dummies

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 40

2.1. Introduction:

The flowsheet is the key document in process design. It shows the

arrangement of the equipment selected to carry out the process; the

stream connections; stream flow-rates and compositions; and the

operating conditions. It is a diagrammatic model of the process. The

flow-sheet will be used by the specialist design groups as the basis for

their designs. This will include piping, instrumentation, equipment

design and plant layout. It will also be used by operating personnel for

the preparation of operating manuals and operator training. During plant

start-up and subsequent operation, the flow-sheet forms a basis for

comparison of operating performance with design. The flow-sheet is

drawn up from material balances made over the complete process and

each individual unit. Energy balances are also made to determine the

energy flows and the service requirements.

4/7/2014

Flow-sheets may be drawn by hand at preliminary stages of a project, but

with process simulators and CAD software packages, it is a simple

matter to develop flow-sheets with a consistent set of intricate

configuration often is represented simply by a circle or rectangle. Since a

symbol does not usually speak entirely for itself but also may carry a

name and a letter-number identification, the flow-sheet can be made clear

even with the roughest of equipment symbols. The letter-number

designation consists of a letter or combination to designate the class of

the equipment and a number to distinguish it from others of the same

class, as two heat exchangers Operating conditions such as flow rate,

temperature, pressure, enthalpy, heat transfer rate, and also stream

numbers are identified with symbols called flags.

4/7/2014

vertical vessels often are arranged at one level, condenser and

accumulator drums on another level, re-boilers on still another level, and

pumps more or less on one level but sometimes near the equipment they

serve in order to minimize excessive crossing of lines. Streams enter the

flow-sheet from the left edge and leave at the right edge.

2.2.1. Block diagrams

A block diagram is the simplest form of presentation. Each block can

represent a single piece of equipment or a complete stage in the process.

They are useful for showing simple processes. With complex processes,

their use is limited to showing the overall process, broken down into its

principal stages; as in Example 2.1 (Vinyl Chloride). In that example

each block represented the equipment for a complete reaction stage: the

4/7/2014

to represent process units and arrows to

represent the flow of materials to and from

the units.

Fresh feed

Distillation

steam

Reactor

Heater

Flash

4/7/2014

Product

5

Water

Raw material

Energy

Auxiliary materiales

Unit

Operation

Product

(expected)

byproduct

(usable)

Waste

Waste easily

assimilated by

the

environment

4/7/2014

Inert waste

always available

toxic/dangerous

waste

6

Raw

materials

Gaseous emissions

Plant, Process

or Unit

Operacin

Catalyst

Air/Water

Energy

Recycle

Products

By-products

Wastewater

Liquid waste

operation

4/7/2014

Solid waste

reactor, separators and distillation columns. Block diagrams are useful for representing

a process in a simplified form in reports and textbooks, but have only a limited use as

engineering documents. The stream flow-rates and compositions can be shown on the

diagram adjacent to the stream lines, when only a small amount of information is to be

shown, or tabulated separately. The blocks can be of any shape, but it is usually

convenient to use a mixture of squares and circles, drawn with a template.

Example 2.1

The block diagram shows the main steps in the balanced process for the production of

vinyl chloride from ethylene. Each block represents a reactor and several other

processing units. The main reactions are:

Block A, chlorination

C2H4 + Cl2 C2H4Cl2.

yield : on ethylene 98 %

Block B, oxyhydrochlorination

C2H4 + 2HCl + 1/2O2 C2H4Cl2 + H2O.

4/7/2014

on HCl 90%

Block C, pyrolysis

C2H4Cl2 C2H3Cl + HCl.

The HCl from the pyrolysis step is recycled to the oxyhydrochlorination step. The flow

of ethylene to the chlorination and oxyhydrochlorination reactors is adjusted so that the

production of HCl is in balance with the requirement. The conversion in the pyrolysis

reactor is limited to 55 per cent, and the unreacted dichloroethane (DCE) separated and

recycled.

4/7/2014

Using the yield figures given, and neglecting any other losses, calculate the flow of

ethylene to each reactor and the flow of DCE to the pyrolysis reactor, for a production

rate of 12,500 kg/h vinyl chloride (VC).

Solution

Molecular weights: vinyl chloride 62.5, DCE 99.0, HCl 36.5.

12.500

VC per hour = ---------------- = 200 Kmol/h

62.5

Draw a system boundary round each block, enclosing the DCE recycle within the

boundary of step C.

Let flow of ethylene to block A be X and to block B be Y, and the HCl recycle be Z.

Then the total moles of DCE produced = 0.98X + 0.95Y, allowing for the yields, and

the moles of HCl produced in block C

(0.98X + 0.95Y) 0.995 = Z

Consider the flows to and product from block B

4/7/2014

10

4/7/2014

11

On the detailed flow-sheets used for design and operation, the

equipment is normally drawn in a stylized pictorial form. For tender

documents or company brochures, actual scale drawings of the

equipment are sometimes used, but it is more usual to use a simplified

representation.

2.3. Material Balance; Introduction:

Material balances are the basis of process design. A material balance

taken over the complete process will determine the quantities of raw

materials required and products produced. Balances over individual

process units set the process stream flows and compositions. Material

balances are also useful tools for the study of plant operation and trouble

shooting. They can be used to check performance against design; to

extend the often limited data available from the plant instrumentation; to

check instrument calibrations; and to locate sources of material loss.

4/7/2014

12

Einstein showed that mass and energy are equivalent. Energy can be converted into

mass, and mass into energy. They are related by Einsteins equation:

E = mc2

(2.1)

where E = energy, J,

m = mass, Kg

c = the speed of light in vacuum, 3 X 108 m/s.

The loss of mass associated with the production of energy is significant only in nuclear

reactions. Energy and matter are always considered to be separately conserved in

chemical reactions

4/7/2014

13

Lumped Parameter System

A system wherein process variables are spatially

homogeneous (do not vary in spatial dimension)

but may vary with time.

A system wherein process variables are spatially

heterogeneous (vary with space) and may vary

with time.

4/7/2014

14

Steady-State System

Chemical processes that operate at steadystate conditions, i.e. the inputs and the

outputs of the process(es) or process

variables do not change with time.

Dynamic System

Chemical processes for which inputs and

the outputs of the process(es) change with

time, i.e. they have a dynamic behavior.

4/7/2014

chemicals

15

Steady State

Dynamic

operations

assumed for all units

small to medium

medium to large

4/7/2014

16

Lumped Parameter System

Steady State

Algebraic

Equations

Linear

Dynamic

Steady State

Dynamic

Differential

Equations

Differential

Equations

Partial

Differential

Equations

Non-Linear

Single

Variable

4/7/2014

MultiVariable

17

Differential Balance Equations

Equations are derived by considering what is happening in

a system at any instance in time. Each term of the equation

is a RATE (rate of input, output etc.)

Equations are derived by considering the state of a system

at two distinct time. Each term of the equation is an

AMOUNT of the balance quantity

4/7/2014

18

Rate of

Rate of

Rate of

Rate of

Rate of

Output

Input

Control Volume = V

4/7/2014

19

Output

Input

Control Volume = V

Rate of

Rate of

INPUT OUTPUT

4/7/2014

Rate of

ACCUMULATION

20

Output

Input

Control Volume = V

Rate of

Rate of

Rate of

Rate of

Rate of

4/7/2014

21

Balance Equation

Input + generation Output =

Accumulation

Control

Volume

4/7/2014

22

For non-reacting systems Generation = 0

For systems operated at steady state

Accumulation = 0

Mass and Energy Balances reduce to

Input = Output

4/7/2014

23

Separations Calculation

V moles

40% C2H5OH

100 moles

10% C2H5OH

90% H2O

Magic

Separating

Machine

80 moles

x % C2H5OH

4/7/2014

24

Separation Calculation

V moles

40% C2H5OH

Magic

100 moles

10% C2H5OH

Separating

Machine

90% H2O

80 moles

x % C2H5OH

V =20

Conservation of moles of C2H5OH 100*.1 (.4*V+x*80) = 0

4/7/2014

x = 2.5%

25

The general conservation equation for any process system can be written

as:

Material out = Material in +Generation _ Consumption _ Accumulation

in nuclear processes, mass is neither generated nor consumed; but if a

chemical reaction takes place a particular chemical species may be

formed or consumed in the process. If there is no chemical reaction the

steady-state balance reduces to

Material out = Material in

species present, elements, compounds or radicals; and for the total

material.

4/7/2014

26

Example 2.2

2000 kg of a 5 per cent slurry of calcium hydroxide in water is to be prepared by diluting a 20 per cent slurry. Calculate the quantities required. The percentages are by

weight.

Solution

Let the unknown quantities of the 20% slurry and water be X and Y respectively.

Material balance on Ca(OH)2

In

20

___

100

Out

5

= 2000 *

___

(a)

100

(100 20)

(100 5)

X ________ + Y = 2000 * _______

100

100

From equation (a) X = 500Kg

Substituting into equation (b) gives Y = 1500Kg

Check material balance on total quantity

X + Y = 2000

500 + 1500 = 2000 correct

Balance on water

4/7/2014

(b)

27

When specifying a composition as a percentage it is important to state

clearly the basis: weight, molar or volume.

The abbreviations w/w and v/v are used to designate weight basis and

volume basis.

Example 2.3

Technical grade hydrochloric acid has a strength of 28 per cent w/w,

express this as a mol fraction.

4/7/2014

28

A balance equation can be written for each independent component. Not all the

components in a material balance will be independent.

Physical systems, no reaction

If there is no chemical reaction the number of independent components is equal to

the number of distinct chemical species present. Consider the production of a nitration

acid by mixing 70 per cent nitric and 98 per cent sulphuric acid. The number of distinct

chemical species is 3; water, sulphuric acid, nitric acid.

If the process involves chemical reaction the number of independent components will

not necessarily be equal to the number of chemical species, as some may be related by

the chemical equation. In this situation the number of independent components can be

calculated by the following relationship:

Number of independent components = Number of chemical species _

Number of independent

4/7/2014

chemical equations

(2.2)

29

Example 2.4

If nitration acid is made up using oleum in place of the 98 per cent sulphuric acid, there

will be four distinct chemical species: sulphuric acid, sulphur trioxide, nitric acid, water.

The sulphur trioxide will react with the water producing sulphuric acid so there are only

three independent components

4/7/2014

30

PROBLEMS

The best way to tackle a problem will depend on the information given; the information

required from the balance; and the constraints that arise from the nature of the problem.

No all embracing, best method of solution can be given to cover all possible problems.

The following step-by-step procedure is given as an aid to the efficient solution of

material balance problems. The same general approach can be usefully employed to

organise the solution of energy balance, and other design problems.

Procedure

Step 1. Draw a block diagram of the process.

Show each significant step as a block, linked by lines and arrows to show the stream

connections and flow direction.

Step 2. List all the available data.

Show on the block diagram the known flows (or quantities) and stream compositions.

Step 3. List all the information required from the balance.

Step 4. Decide the system boundaries.

4/7/2014

31

Step 5. Write out all the chemical reactions involved for the main products and

byproducts.

Step 6. Note any other constraints,

such as: specified stream compositions,

azeotropes,

phase equilibria,

tie substances.

Step 7. Note any stream compositions and flows that can be approximated.

Step 8. Check the number of conservation (and other) equations that can be written, and

compare with the number of unknowns. Decide which variables are to be design

variables; This step would be used only for complex problems.

Step 9. Decide the basis of the calculation.

The order in which the steps are taken may be varied to suit the problem.

4/7/2014

32

2.9.1 GENERAL ALGEBRAIC METHOD

Simple material-balance problems involving only a few streams and with a few

unknowns can usually be solved by simple direct methods. The relationship between

the unknown quantities and the information given can usually be clearly seen. For more

complex problems, and for problems with several processing steps, a more formal

algebraic approach can be used. The procedure is involved, and often tedious if the

calculations have to be done manually, but should result in a solution to even the most

intractable problems, providing sufficient information is known.

Algebraic symbols are assigned to all the unknown flows and compositions. Balance

equations are then written around each sub-system for the independent components

(chemical species or elements). Material-balance problems are particular examples of

the general design problem. The unknowns are compositions or flows, and the relating

equations arise from the conservation law and the stoichiometry of the reactions. For

any problem to have a unique solution it must be possible to write the same number of

independent equations as there are unknowns.

4/7/2014

33

2.9.1.1. STOICHIOMETRY

Stoichiometry (from the Greek stoikeion element) is the practical application of the

law of multiple proportions. The stoichiometric equation for a chemical reaction states

unambiguously the number of molecules of the reactants and products that take part;

from which the quantities can be calculated. The equation must balance. With simple

reactions it is usually possible to balance the stoichiometric equation by inspection, or

by trial and error calculations. If difficulty is experienced in balancing complex

equations, the problem can always be solved by writing a balance for each element

present.

The chemical equation and stoichiometry

1.Write and balance chemical reaction equations.

2.Know the products of common reactions given the reactions.

3.Calculate the stoichiometric quantities of reactants and products given the chemical

reaction.

4.Define excess reactant, limiting reactant, conversion, degree of completion,

selectivity, and yield in a reaction.

5.Identify the limiting and excess reactants and calculate the percent excess reactant(s),

the percent conversion, the percent completion, and yield for a chemical reaction

with the reactants being in non-stiochiometric proportions.

4/7/2014

34

Problem 2.5

A solution composed of 50% ethanol (EtOH), 10% methanol (MeOH), and 40% water

(H2O) is fed at the rate of 100 kg/hr into a separator that produces one stream at the rate

of 60 kg/hr with the composition of 80% EtOH, 15% MeOH, and 5% H2O, and a

second stream of unknown composition. Calculate the composition (in %) of the three

compounds in the unknown stream and its flow rate in kg/hr.

Solution

We will follow the steps in the analysis and solution of this problem.

Step 1

The problem is to calculate the percent of the three components in the unknown stream

and its flow rate. Assume the process in the steady state over a sufficiently long period

of time.

Steps 2, 3, and 4

The figure is shown with all known values entered as numbers (with units) and all

unknown values entered as symbols.

4/7/2014

35

4/7/2014

36

Step 5

Four mass balances can be written for each set of variables, one total and three component balances, but only three of the balances are independent.

In addition you know one more independent equation holds for the components in W

4/7/2014

37

Step 6

Because the equations involving the product of w and W are nonlinear, the equations

involving m are often selected for solution of the problem, but if W is calculated first,

then both sets of equations are linear and uncoupled (can be solved independently).

Step 7

The solution of the equations is (using the total and first two component balances)

Problem 2.6

A liquid adhesive, which is used to make laminated boards, consists of a polymer

Dissolved in a solvent. The amount of polymer in the solution has to be carefully

controlled for this application. When the supplier of the adhesive receives an order for

3000 kg of an adhesive solution containing 13 wt % polymer, all it has on hand is (1)

500 kg of a 10 wt % solution, (2) a very large quantity of a 20 wt % solution, and (3)

pure solvent. Calculate the weight of each of the three stocks that must be blended

together

to fill the order. Use all of the 10 wt % solution.

4/7/2014

38

Solution

Step 6 Two unknowns: B and C . (A is not an unknown since all of it must be used).

Step 7 and 8 Two component balances and one total balance can be made. Only 2 of the

balances are independent.

4/7/2014

39

4/7/2014

40

- lesson plan 2 assessmentsTransféré parapi-468928698
- Chemical Engineering Projects List for Final YearTransféré parRajnikant Tiwari
- stoichiometryTransféré parapi-280572108
- Stoichiometric TablesTransféré parSKR
- algebra1 t1 curriculum planTransféré parapi-276672489
- touch math adding and subtracting within 20Transféré parapi-331738474
- 5.Single ReactionTransféré parIzzan Nur Aslam
- ch_19_gr1Transféré parCasey Coleman
- Errata digital signal processing prokis manolakisTransféré parAjinkya Kale
- lessonplanmar1011equationswithtwooperationinv 3 3Transféré parapi-285462241
- chap11Transféré parqloria
- Mole conceptTransféré parDEVKINANDAN
- Final Math Project Unit 8Transféré parOlivia Gardiner
- online alg 2 syllabusTransféré parapi-272554038
- StoichiometryTransféré parZiad Ali
- SCH 3U Stoichiometry Practice TestTransféré parFirmino Gonçalves
- feb 26 - march 2 6thTransféré parapi-389591300
- module 6 lesson plan 3 edu 640Transféré parapi-493862292
- PH-Notes-Ch.-9Transféré paryijie123456
- chapter 11 stoichiometry ppt pdfTransféré parapi-239855791
- The-extraction-of-engineering-parameters-from-mathe_1988_Mathematical-and-Co.pdfTransféré parvahid
- coplanning gridTransféré parapi-467445171
- STOICHIOMETRY.pptxTransféré paranggi
- CHM116 Lecture 2- Student SlidesTransféré parMounkeymouse2011
- lessonplan2Transféré parapi-311206006
- New_OOI CHEL GEE_005093 %28RED2&3%29 (1)Transféré parChoo Shyan Lee
- Group B-4Transféré parMuhammad Anwar
- PrelimTransféré parWaseem Tariq
- 11th Chemistry Unit 1 Questions English Medium (1)Transféré parSaikant Shinde
- C4 Practice A5Transféré parKonstantinos Konstantinou

- Children Book for PetroleumTransféré parDeep Chaudhari
- HelkewtTransféré parHalkawt G Muhammad
- lecture 4Transféré parHalkawt G Muhammad
- InstrumentalTransféré parHalkawt G Muhammad
- Graduation Project 2014-2015Transféré parHalkawt G Muhammad
- QURHRUVTaHBVUHdzTS00SVJLeHhCcUJkM1EySDBFQ05oUTBZdjg4bHJMZEo2ZEh0TDdtc19mTmxtV0VVdENDSWlWM3BtZUhZbnlkMzBWaE5DdXpBZU80cDdRQWQ0bDB1V3FEYV9FM09NWDRVSl82WjZMaFdxbjhxRHlzRzM2SlNGaXFNR2NPV3lkZUM=Transféré parHalkawt G Muhammad
- for wordTransféré parHalkawt G Muhammad

- Data Communications and Networking (5th Edition) - Behrouz a. Forouzan Ch3Transféré parMehar Usman
- Nuclear Physics PT.pdfTransféré parTalal Qadir
- ASC_ASTM-ISOStandardsSampleTransféré parHuynh Nam Quang
- colebrook1939.pdfTransféré parDiego Cumbe
- Electro Final Press AshishTransféré parJithin V Lukose
- Hydra Stroke Bumper SubTransféré parradicipta
- AbstractTransféré parjyotimishr2002
- Presentation slide (Ignite-2016).pptxTransféré parKelvin Lim
- EmfTransféré parLakshmiKoteswarama
- A7s Picture Profile DatabaseTransféré parMartin Segredo
- EE4645 Lecture NotesTransféré parEdwin Tan Pei Ming
- 702001-100753-PDFTransféré parpedro
- ME6601-Design of Transmission SystemsTransféré parBala Murugan
- maths symmetry post testTransféré parapi-248335941
- digital-mammo-buyers-guide.pdfTransféré parAnonymous 2gLSPe
- Dosage - Chapter 3 and Chapter 4Transféré parAira Abella
- Experiment 4Transféré parsamuel rodriguez
- Model 01Transféré parhoangductuan
- EXP 2016 2 Pavement EngineeringTransféré parEfrain Torres Julian
- 5.K-7018(AP)_Brochure_R3Transféré parSun Sun
- MAIN PAGE of ReportTransféré paryogesh dhaker
- Theoretical Modelling and Experimental Investigation of the PerfoTransféré parWis Rrio
- Dot GainanddensTransféré parDaniel Gureanu
- Managing Safely Online Project v3.1(Original)Transféré parpresidentofasia
- Mold Capitolul8Transféré parEmilian Popa
- High Pressure Crystallography: Status Artis and Emerging OpportunitiesTransféré pareggwash
- High Velocity Impact ComminutionTransféré parhuangyuan33
- CREPEC 2010preliminary ProgramTransféré paralakipalaki
- Mathematical Model.pdfTransféré parCasey Long
- Viracon Saflex Silent GlassTransféré parRenzo Arango

## Bien plus que des documents.

Découvrez tout ce que Scribd a à offrir, dont les livres et les livres audio des principaux éditeurs.

Annulez à tout moment.