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PRIST

UNIVERSITY
PUDUCHERRY CAMPUS
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING &TECHNOLOGY

FLUID MECHANICS AND STRENGTH


OF MATERIAL LABORATORY

PRIST UNIVERSITY-PUDUCHERRY CAMPUS (SM-FM LAB MANUAL)

PRIST UNIVERSITY, PUDUCHERRY CAMPUS

Faculty of engineering & technology


Department: Mechanical engineering

LABORATORY RECORD

2013
Certified that this is a bonafide record of work done by
register no..Name:..Of
IInd year / Mechanical in fm and sm laboratory during the
year 2013.

Signature of the staff in-charge

HOD

PRIST UNIVERSITY-PUDUCHERRY CAMPUS (SM-FM LAB MANUAL)

Submitted for the practical examination held on..

INTERNAL EXAMINER

EXTERNAL EXAMINER

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS OF SM
S.N
O

DATE

NAME OF THE EXPERIMENT

1.

Tension test on a mild steel rod

2.

Torsion test on mild steel rod

3.

Impact test on metal specimen

4.

Hardness test on metals - Brinell and


Rockwell Hardness Number

PAG
E
NO

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SIGN

5.

Compression test on helical springs

6.

Deflection test on beams

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS OF FM
S.N
O

1.

DATE

NAME OF THE EXPERIMENT

PAG
E
NO

Determination of the Coefficient of


discharge of given Venturi meter.
Determination of friction factor for
a given set of pipes

2.

3.

Conducting experiments and


drawing the characteristic curves
of centrifugal pump

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SIGN

4.

Conducting experiments and


drawing the characteristic curves
of reciprocating pump.

5.

Conducting experiments and


drawing the characteristic curves
of Pelton wheel.

6.

Conducting experiments and


drawing the characteristics curves
of Francis turbine

COMPLETED / NOT COMPLETED


STAFF IN-CHARGE

SIGNATURE OF THE

1.Tension test on a mild steel rod


Aim:
To determine the tensile strength of specimen
Specimen and equipments
1. Universal testing machine
2. Specimen
Figure 1.a

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Figure.1b

Theory
The tensile test is most applied one, of all mechanical tests. In this test
ends of a test piece are fixed into grips connected to a straining device
and to a load measuring device. If the applied load is small enough, the
deformation of any solid body is entirely elastic. An elastically deformed
solid will return to its original position as soon as load is removed.
However, if the load is too large, the material can be deformed
permanently. The initial part of the tension curve (fig.8), which is
recoverable immediately after unloading, is termed as elastic and rest of
the curve, which represents the manner in which solid undergoes plastic
deformation is termed plastic. the stress below which the deformation is
essentially entirely elastic is known as the yield strength of material. In
some materials (like mild steel) the onset of plastic deformation is
denoted by a sudden drop in load indicating both an upper and lower
yield point. However, some materials do not exhibit a sharp yield point.
During plastic deformation, at larger extensions strain hardening cannot
compensate for the decrease in section and thus the load passes trough a
maximum and then begins to decrease. As this stage the Ultimate
strength , which is defined as the ratio of the specimen to original cross
sectional area, reaches a maximum value. Further loading will eventually
cause neck formation and rupture.

PRIST UNIVERSITY-PUDUCHERRY CAMPUS (FM-SM LAB MANUAL)

Usually a tension test is conducted at room temperature and the


tensile load is applied slowly. During this test either round or flat
specimens (fig.7) may be used. The round specimens may have smooth,
shouldered or threaded ends. The load on the specimen is applied
mechanically or hydraulically depending on the type of testing machine.

Stress strain diagram


Procedure
1 Measure the dimensions of a specimen
Diameter,
Total length of a specimen,
Cross sectional area = Ao
Mark gage length (Lo) at three different portions on the
specimen, covering effective length of a specimen.(this is
required so that necked portion will remain between any two
points of gage length on the specimen.)
2 Grip the specimen in the fixed head of a machine. (Portion of the
specimen has to be gripped as shown in the fig.7.
3 Fix the extensometer within the gauge length marked on the
specimen. Adjust the dial of extensometer at zero.
4 Adjust the dial of a machine to zero, to read load applied.
5 Select suitable increments of loads to be applied so that
PRIST UNIVERSITY-PUDUCHERRY CAMPUS (FM-SM LAB MANUAL)

corresponding elongation can be measured from dial gauge.


6 Keep speed of machine uniform. Record yield point, maximum
load point, point of breaking of specimen.
7 Remove the specimen from machine and study the fracture
observes type of fracture.
8 Measure dimensions of tested specimen. Fit the broken parts
together and measure reduced diameter and final gage length.
Observations
Specimen prepared from M.S bar/CI/Al
1. Diameter ( d )= __________ mm
2. Gage length (lo) _______________mm
3. Original cross sectional area of the specimen (A o) = _________
mm2
4. Final gage length obtained( Lo)= _____________________mm
5. Final diameter obtained =________________mm

PRIST UNIVERSITY-PUDUCHERRY CAMPUS (FM-SM LAB MANUAL)

Observation table 1
Sr. Load applied (N)
No
(p)

Area of a
specimen
(Ao)

Stress Modulus of
N/mm2 elasticity (E)
N/mm2

Observation table 2.
Contraction
Sr. in
No diameter (dd)
(mm)

Deformatio
n
Lateral
in length
strain
(mm)

Linear
strain

Poisson
ratio

PRIST UNIVERSITY-PUDUCHERRY CAMPUS (FM-SM LAB MANUAL)

Tabulation:
S.NO

LOAD

STRE
SS

EXTENSOMETER
READINGS
DIVISION
MM

STRA
IN

REMAR
KS

Graph:
Graph between stress (y-axis) and strain (x-axis). From the graph,
for a chosen stress, read the corresponding strain.

PRIST UNIVERSITY-PUDUCHERRY CAMPUS (FM-SM LAB MANUAL)

Results
a Modulus of elasticity
Hooks law states that stress is always proportional to strain
within elastic limit. The ratio of stress and strain is constant,
called modulus of elasticity or youngs modulus (E)
E= Stress/strain
b Yield stress (fy)
The point, at which strain increases without increase in stress, is
known as Yield point. Stress measured at yield point is called
yield stress.
c Tensile strength:
Maximum carrying capacity of a material in tension is called
tensilestrength
Tensile strength= maximum tensile load/ original cross
sectional Area.
d Percentage elongation:
The extension produced in a gage length, expressed as a
percentage of its original value(LO)
% Elongation=[(LO Lo)/Lo] X 100
where Lo is final gage length after fracture.
e Percentage reduction in area:
= [(AoAo)/Ao ] X100
whereAo is final reduced cross sectional area after fracture.

PRIST UNIVERSITY-PUDUCHERRY CAMPUS (FM-SM LAB MANUAL)

2. Torsion test on a mild steel rod


Aim:
To find the modulus of rigidity.
Apparatus required:
1
2
3
4

A torsion testing apparatus,


Standard specimen of mild steel or cast iron.
Twist meter for measuring angles of twist
A steel rule and calipers and micrometer.

Figure.9.

Theory:
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A torsion test is quite instrumental in determining the value of rigidity


(ratio of shear stress to shear strain) of a metallic specimen. The value of
modulus of rigidity can be found out through observations made during
the experiment by using the torsion
equatio
n:
C
T q or C Tl
I =
=
l
I pq
p

Where
T=torqueapplied,
Ip= polar moment of
inertia,
C=modulus of rigidity,
= Angle of twist (radians),
and l= gauge length.
In the torque equipment refer fig. One end of the specimen is held by a
fixed support and the other end to a pulley. The pulley provides the
necessary torque to twist the rod by addition of weights (w). The twist
meter attached to the rod gives the angle of twist.
Procedure:
1 Prepare the testing machine by fixing the two twist meters at some
constant lengths from fixed support.
2 Measure the diameter of the pulley and the diameter of the rod.
3 Add weights in the hanger stepwise to get a notable angle of
twist for T1 and T2
4 Using the above formula calculate C

PRIST UNIVERSITY-PUDUCHERRY CAMPUS (FM-SM LAB MANUAL)

Tabulation:

LOAD

TROPTOMETER
READINGS
INITI
FINA DIFFEREN
AL
L
CE

ANGLE OF TWIST IN
DEGREES

TORQUE IN
NM

PRIST UNIVERSITY-PUDUCHERRY CAMPUS (FM-SM LAB MANUAL)

RIGIDI
TY

Graph:
Graph between twist (y-axis) and torque (x-axis).

Result:
Modulus of rigidity of the shaft was found as

PRIST UNIVERSITY-PUDUCHERRY CAMPUS (FM-SM LAB MANUAL)

3. Impact test on metal specimen


Aim :
To determine the impact toughness (strain energy
throughizod test and charpy test
Apparatus required:

1. Impact testing machine-charpy type and izod type


2. Vernier caliper
3. Scale
Theory
In a impact test a specially prepared notched specimen is fractured by a
single blow from a heavy hammer and energy required being a measure of
resistance to impact.
Impact load is produced by a swinging of an impact weight W (hammer)
from a height h. Release of the weight from the height h swings the weight
through the arc of a circle, which strikes the specimen to fracture at the
notch (fig..
Kinetic energy of the hammer at the time of impact is mv 2/2, which is equal
to the relative potential energy of the hammer before its release.
(mgh),where m is the
mass of the hammer and v = 2 gh is its tangential velocity at impact, g is
gravitational acceleration (9.806 m/s 2) and h is the height through which
hammer falls. Impact velocity will be 5.126 m/s or slightly less.
Here it is interesting to note that height through which hammer drops
determines the velocity and height and mass of a hammer combined
determine the energy.
Energy used can be measured from the scale given. The difference
between potential energies is the fracture energy. In test machine this value
indicated by the pointer on the scale. If the scale is calibrated in energy
units, marks on the scale should be drawn keeping in view angle of fall ()
and angle of rise (. Height h1 and h2 equals,
h1= R (1cos q) and h2= (1cos q).
With the increase or decrease in values, gap between marks on scale
showing energy also increase or decrease. This can be seen from the
attached scale with any impact machine.
Energy used in fracturing the specimen can be obtained
approximately as Wh1Wh2
This energy value called impact toughness or impact value, which will be
measured, per unit area at the notch.
PRIST UNIVERSITY-PUDUCHERRY CAMPUS (FM-SM LAB MANUAL)

Izod introduced Izod test in 1903. Test is as per the IS: 1598
Charpy introduced Charpy test in 1909. Test is as per the IS: 1499.
a. Izod test
Specimen and equipment
1. Impact testing machine.(fig.3)
2. Specimen and v notch is shown in the fig.4. Size of the specimen is
10mm X 10mm X 75mm
Mounting of the specimen:
Specimen is clamped to act as vertical cantilever with the notch on tension side.
Direction of blow of hammer is shown in fig. (). Direction of blow is shown in fig
Figure. 3.a

Izod Impact testing equipment

PRIST UNIVERSITY-PUDUCHERRY CAMPUS (FM-SM LAB MANUAL)

Figure 3.b

Schematic impact testing

Figure 4

Position of specimen for Izod test

PRIST UNIVERSITY-PUDUCHERRY CAMPUS (FM-SM LAB MANUAL)

Procedure:
1. Measure the dimensions of a specimen. Also, measure the dimensions
of The notch.
2. Raise the hammer and note down initial reading from the dial, which will
be energy to be used to fracture the specimen.
3. Place the specimen for test and see that it is placed center with respect
to hammer. Check the position of notch.
4. Release the hammer and note the final reading. Difference between the
initial and final reading will give the actual energy required to fracture
the Specimen.
5. Repeat the test for specimens of other materials.
6. Compute the energy of rupture of each specimen.

TABULATION:
S.NO

MATERIAL OF THE
SPECIMEN

SIZE OF THE
SPECIMEN

Observation:
1. material of the given specimen=
2. types of notes=
3. length of the specimen=
4. breadth of the specimen=
5. depth of the specimen=
6. position of groove from one end=
7. depth of the groove=
8. width of the groove=
9. width of the groove=
10. initial charpy scale reading=
11. final charpy scale reading=
Result :

ENEGY ABSORBED TO
BREAK THE SPECIMEN

Strain energy of given specimen is

b. Charpy test
Specimen and equipment:
1. Impact testing machine. (Fig.6)
2. U notch is cut across the middle of one face as shown in (fig.5).
Figure 5

Specimen for Charpy test

Figure 6

Charpy impact testing equipment


Mounting of specimen
Specimen is tested as a beam supported at each end (fig.7). Hammer is allowed
to hit then specimen at the opposite face behind the notch.
Figure.7

Mounting of specimen

Procedure:
1. Measure the dimensions of a specimen. Also, measure the
dimensions of The notch.
2. Raise the hammer and note down initial reading from the dial, which
will be energy to be used to fracture the specimen.
3. Place the specimen for test and see that it is placed center with
respect to hammer. Check the position of notch.
4. Release the hammer and note the final reading. Difference between
the initial and final reading will give the actual energy required to
fracture the Specimen.
5. Repeat the test for specimens of other materials.
6. Compute the energy of rupture of each specimen.

Tabulation:
S.NO

MATERIAL OF
THE SPECIMEN

SIZE OF THE
SPECIMEN

Observation:
1. material of the given specimen=
2. types of notes=
3. length of the specimen=
4. breadth of the specimen=
5. depth of the specimen=
6. position of groove from one end=
7. depth of the groove=
8. width of the groove=
9. width of the groove=
10. initial charpy scale reading=
11. final charpy scale reading=
Result : Strain energy of given specimen is

ENEGY ABSORBED TO
BREAK THE SPECIMEN

4. Hardness test on metals - Brinnell and Rockwell


Hardness Number
Rockwell Hardness test
Aim:
To determine the hardness the Hardness of the
given Specimen using Rockwell hardness test.
Apparatus required:

Rockwell hardness testing machine.


Black diamond cone indenter,
Hard steel specimen.

Theory:
Rockwell test is developed by the Wilson instrument co U.S.A in 1920.
This test is an indentation test used for smaller specimens and harder materials.
The test is subject of IS: 1586.In this test indenter is forced into the surface of a
test piece in two operations, measuring the permanent increase in depth of an
indentation from the depth increased from the depth reached under a datum
load due to an additional load.
Measurement of indentation is made after removing the additional load.
Indenter used is the cone having an angle of 120 degrees made of black
diamond.
Precautions:
1. Thickness of the specimen should not be less than 8 times the
depth of indentation to avoid the deformation to be extended to the
opposite surface of a specimen.
2. Indentation should not be made nearer to the edge of a specimen
to avoid unnecessary concentration of stresses. In such case
distance from the edge to the center of indentation should be
greater than 2.5 times diameter of indentation.
3. Rapid rate of applying load should be avoided. Load applied on the
ball may rise a little because of its sudden action. Also rapidly
applied load will restrict plastic flow of a material, which produces
effect on size of indentation.
Procedure:
4. Examine hardness testing machine (fig.1).
5. Place the specimen on platform of a machine. Using the elevating
screw raise the platform and bring the specimen just in contact with
the ball. apply an initial load until the small pointer shows red mark.

6. Release the operating valve to apply additional load. Immediately


after the additional load applied, bring back operating valve to its
position.
7. Read the position of the pointer on the C scale, which gives the
hardness no
8. Repeat the procedure five times on the specimen selecting
different points for indentation.
Observation
1. Take average of five values of indentation of each specimen.
Obtain the hardness number from the dial of a machine.
2. Compare Brinell and Rockwell hardness tests obtained.

Tabulation:
S.
NO

MATERIAL

LOA
D IN
KGF

INTENT
ER
SCALE

TRIAL NUMBER

TRIAL
1

0
1

MS

0
2

BRASS

0
3

ALUMINIU
M

Figure .1

TRIA
L2

TRIAL
3

ROCKWELL
HARDNESS(H
RB)

Result:
Rockwell hardness of given specimen is
Brinell hardness test.
Aim :
To determine the hardness of the given specimen using Brinell
hardness test.
Apparatus required:

1. Brinell hardness tester (fig.2)


2. Aluminum specimen
3. Ball indenter.
Specification of the given m/c
Load range
Maximum test height
Depth of throat
Gross weight
Height
Size of base

In stages of 500kgf up to 3000kgf


254mm
150mm
210 kg ( approx)
900mm
495x255mm

Precautions
1. Thickness of the specimen should not be less than 8 times the depth of
indentation to avoid the deformation to be extended to the opposite surface
of a specimen.
2. Indentation should not be made nearer to the edge of a specimen to avoid
unnecessary concentration of stresses. In such case distance from the edge
to the center of indentation should be greater than 2.5 times diameter of
indentation.
3. Rapid rate of applying load should be avoided. Load applied on the ball may
rise a little because of its sudden action. Also rapidly applied load will restrict
plastic flow of a material, which produces effect on size of indentation.
4. Surface of the specimen is well polished, free from oxide scale and any
foreign material.
Theory
Hardness of a material is generally defined as Resistance to the permanent
indentation under static and dynamic load. When a material is required to use
under direct static or dynamic loads, only indentation hardness test will be useful
to find out resistance to indentation.

In Brinell hardness test, a steel ball of diameter (D) is forced under a load (F) on
to a surface of test specimen. Mean diameter (d) of indentation is measured
after the removal of the load (F).

Tabulation:

S.
NO

MATERIAL

0
1

MS

0
2

BRASS

0
3

ALUMINIUM

LOA
D IN
KGF

DIAMET
ER OF
THE
INTENT
ER IN
MM

DIAMETER OF THE
INTENTER

BRINELL
HARDNESS
NUMBER(BH
N)

AVG

Observation
1.

Take average of five values of indentation of each specimen. Obtain the


hardness number from equation (!).
2.
Compare Brinell and Rockwell hardness tests obtained.
Procedure

1. Apply the load as per the tabular column shown.

Loads and indenter for brinell hardness test


BALL
INDENTOR(D)

FERROUS
MATERIALS
(STEEL AND IRON)
30D X D

LOAD IN KILOGRAMS
NON-FERROUS MATERIALS
BRAS
S
10XD
XD

ALUMINI
UM
5XDXD

SOFT BEARING
MATERIAL
2.5XDXD

10MM

3000

1000

500

250

5MM

750

250

------

-----

2.5MM

187.5

-----

-----

-----

Tabular column for various metals


2. Apply the load for a minimum of 15 seconds to 30 seconds. [if ferrous metals
are to be tested time applied will be 15 seconds and for softer metal 30 seconds]
3. Remove the load and measure the diameter of indentation nearest to 0.02 mm
using microscope (projected image)
4. Calculate Brinell hardness number (HB). As per IS: 1500.
5. Brinell hardness number

2F
(1)

pD D- D2 -d2

where D is the diameter of ball indenter and d is the diameter of indentation.


Hardness numbers normally obtained for different materials are given below
(under 3000 kg and 10 mm diameter ball used)
Ordinary steels medium
500 carbon

100 to
130 to 160

Structural steel

800 to 900

Very hard steel


Note: Brinell test is not recommended for then materials having HB over 630.
It is necessary to mention ball size and load with the hardness test when standard
size of ball and load are not used. Because indentation done by different size of ball
and load on different materials are not geometrically similar. Ball also unergoes
deformation when load is applied. Material response to the load is not same all the
time.
6.Brinell hardness numbers can be obtained from tables 1 to 5 given in IS: 1500,
knowing diameter of indentation, diameter of the ball and load applied.
Figure 2

Result:
The Brinell hardness number of the specimen is

5. Compression test on helical


springs
Aim:
To determine the modulus of rigidity and stiffness of the given
compression spring specimen.
Apparatus and specimen required:
1. Spring test machine
2. Compression spring specimen
3. Vernier Caliper

Procedure:
1. Measure the outer diameter (D) and diameter of the spring coil (D) for the
given compression spring.
2. Count the number of turns (i.e.,) coil (n) in the given compression specimen.
3. Place the compress spring at the centre of the bottom beam of the spring
testing machine.
4. Rise the bottom beam by rotating right side wheel till the spring top touches
the middle cross beam.
5. Note down the initial reading form the scale in the machine.
6. Apply a load of 25kg and note down the scale reading. Increase the load at the
rate of 25kg up to a maximum of 100kg and note down the corresponding
scale readings.
7. Find the actual deflection of the spring for each load by detecting the initial
scale reading from the corresponding scale reading.
8. Calculate the modulus of rigidity for each load applied by using the following
formula
Modulus of rigidity, N=64Pr3n / D4
Where,
P=load in Newton
R=mean radius of the spring in mm
D=diameter of the spring coil in mm

=deflection of the spring in mm


D=outer diameter of the spring in mm

9. Deter mine the stiffness of each load applies by using the following formula:
stiffness,
10. Find the value of modulus of rigidity and spring constant of the given spring
by taking average values.

Observation:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Material of the spring specimen=spring steel


Outer diameter of the spring, D =
Diameter of the spring coil, d=
Number of coils /turns, n =
Initial scale reading=

TABULATION:
S.NO

APPLIED LOAD IN

SCALE
READING IN

KG

CM

MM

ACTUAL
DEFLECTI
ON
IN MM

MODULU
S OF
RIGIDITY
IN
N/MM2

STIFFNE
SS
IN
N/MM2

AVERAGE

MODEL GRAPH:

Result:
The modulus of rigidity of the given spring =.
The stiffness of the given springs=..

6.DEFLECTION TEST VERIFICATION OF


MAXWELLS
RECIPROCAL THEOREM
Aim:
To verify Maxwells reciprocal theorem by conducting deflection test for the
given specimen.
Maxwells reciprocal theorem:
In any beam, the deflection at a point A due to the load at a point B is equal to the
deflection at the point B due to the same load at the point A and vice versa.
Apparatus and Specimen required:
1. Bending table or Bench type apparatus
2. Beam specimen
3. Dial gauge with stand
4. Set of weights with load hanger
5. Vernier caliper and scale.
Procedure:
1. Measure the length (L), breadth (b) and depth (d) of the given beam specimen.
2. Place the beam specimen over two knife edge supports in the bending table
apparatus and measure centre to centre distance between the supports. The
distance is known as span of the beam (l).
3. Mark two points A and Bin the beam at a distance of l/3 and 2l/3, respectively
from left support.
4. for first case (case I), place the load hanger at a point A and dial gauge at point
B. Now adjust the dial gauge reading at zero.
5. Apply kg load on the load hanger and note down the dial gauge reading.
Increase the load at the rate of kg and note down the corresponding dial gauge
reading. After the maximum loading, remove the load at the rate pf kg and note
down the corresponding dial gauge readings.
6. For the next case (case II), change the dial gauge to point Aand the load hanger
to point B and adjust the dial gauge reading to zero. Repeat the same procedure in
step.4.
7. Find the average value of loading and unloading dial gauge readings for both
the cases.

8. Find the actual deflection by multiplying the average value with least count of
the dial gauge.
Discussion:
When a load of -----------N applied at point A gives a deflection of
---------------mm at B. When the same load applied B gives a deflection of
----------------mm t A. Both these deflections are --------------------.

Observation:
1. Material of specimen
2. Length of the specimen, (L)
3. Span of the specimen, l
4. Breadth of the specimen, b
5. Depth of the specimen. D
6. Least count (LC) of the dial gauge

=
=
=
=
=
=

CASE I
LOAD

DEFLECTION AT B

mm
mm
mm
mm
mm

CASE II
DEFLECTION AT A

AT A
IN
K N
g

DIAL GAUGE READING IN


DIVISION
LOADI
NG

MODEL GRAPH:

UNLOADI
NG

AVERA
GE

Actual
deflect
ion
in mm
(L.C x
Avg.)

DIAL GAUGE READING IN


DIVISION
LOADI
NG

UNLOADI
NG

AVERA
GE

Act
defle
in m
(L.C x

Result:
Since the deflection are ------ for both the cases, which proves reciprocal theorem.

1.Determination of the Coefficient of discharge of


given Venturi meter
AIM:

To Determination of the Coefficient of discharge of given


Venturi meter
Apparatus Required:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Venturi meter.
Stop watch.
Sump tank.
Measuring tank
Pump set.
Pipe lines.
DESCRIPTION OF THE MAIN PARTS

SUMPTANK:
The suitable capacity sump tank made by mild steel to store
sufficient water circulates independently through the unit. Inside of the
tank is lined by FRP. It is having a drain arrangement to drain the water
wherever the unit is in idle. The sump tank is placed on a sturdy iron
stand.
MEASURING TANK:
The suitable capacity measuring tank made of mild steel with FRP lining
and drain valve, piezometer, glass tube, scale arrangement.
PUMP SET:
HP, single phase mono block pump set of size 1x 1 suitable to
pump the water throughout the unit for independent circulation.
PIPE LINES:
Two G.I. pipe lines of size 25mm and 20mm with fittings and
control
valves and pressure tapings, PVC hoses to connect
manometer.

MANOMETER:
A 1 m differential u-tube manometer with mercury provided to
measure the differential head from venturi meter . A common unit having
separate valves for taking reading either by 25mm or 20mm pipe line.

SPECIFICATION FOR VENTURI METER:


Venturi meter size :

25mm.

& 20mm

Throat size

14.79mm

& 11.8mm

Diameter Ratio

: 0.5916 & 0.59

Area Ratio

0.35 &

PROCEDURE

Before starting close the gate vales and manometer cocks.


Switch on the power supply and gradually open the gate value of the
venture meter pipe line and manometer cocks. Fill the water in the
manometer glass to remove the air.
Note down the manometer readings h1 and h2. Take the differential
head (h=h1h2)
Close the drain value of the measuring tank. Take the time taken for
10 cm raise of meter in the piezo meter by means of stop watch.
Adjust the 25 mm gate value for next reading the same procedure
repeated for 20mm value also.
By using manometer reading we find out the theoretical discharge
and by measuring tank find out the actual discharge.
Pipe Diameter = 25mm
Pipe Area

= a1 =

pipe dia = 20 mm
d 1
4

Pipe Area = a2 =

d 2
4
Throat dia d1 = 14.79 mm
Orifice area a1 =

Throat dia = 11.8 mm


Orifice area a2 =

TABULAR FORM
SNO

Manometer readings mm
of Hg
H1

H2

Theoretical
discharge m3 /
sec.
Qt

DIAGRAM OF VENTURIMETER:

Time for 10
cm raise of
water sec

Actual
discharge
m3/s.
Qa

Cd= Qa
Qt

MODEL GRAPH:

FORMULA:

a 1a 2 2

m3/s
a1 a 2 2 gH

1. Theoretical discharge Qt =

H= (h1-h2)10.3
760

2. Actual discharge Qa=

AH
T

m3/s

A=area of measuring tank


H= raise of water level (10 cm)
T = Time taken for H raise of water.

3. Co-efficient of discharge

Cd

Qa
Qt

RESULT:
The co-efficient of discharge through venturi meter is. (No unit)

2. Determination of friction factor for a given set of


pipes.
AIM:
To determine the friction factor for a given set of
pipes.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1. Closed circuit pipe friction apparatus.
2. Stop watch
3. Sump tank
4. Measuring tank
5. Pump set
6. Pipe lines
7. Manometer
DESCRIPTION OF THE MAIN PARTS
SUMP TANK:
The suitable capacity sump tank made by mild steel to store
sufficient water circulates independently through the unit. Inside of the
tank is lined by FRP. It is having a drain arrangement to drain the water
wherever the unit is in idle. The sump tank is placed on a sturdy iron
stand.
MEASURING TANK:
The suitable capacity measuring tank made by mild steel to
measure the quality of water pump by the submersible pump at various
delivery heads. It having the arrangement to provide the gauge glass and
scale arrangement. It also has a arrangement to drain the water by a poly
propylene valve with an elbow to allow the water to the sump tank. The
whole arrangement is placed on the sump tank.
PUMP SET:
HP, single phase mono block pump set of size 1x 1 suitable to
pump th water throughout the unit for independent circulation.

PIPE LINES:
Two G.I. pipe lines of size 25mm and 20mm with fittings and
control valves and pressure tapings.
MANOMETER :
A m differential manometer with mercury provided to measure the
differential head.
PROCEDURE:

Before starting close the gate vales and manometer cocks.


Switch on the power supply and gradually open the 25mm gate
value fully. Open the manometer cocks and remove the air from
the glass tube by filling water.
Move down the manometer readings h1 and h2. Take the
differential head (h=h1h2)
Close the drain value of the measuring tank. Take the time taken
for 10 cm raise of meter in the piezometer by means of stop
watch.
Adjust the 25 mm gate value for next reading the same
procedure repeated for 20mm value also.
FORMULA:
(A)

hf =

4 fl v 2
2 gd

Where hf = manometer difference in (m) of water


f = friction factor
l = length of the pipe (distance between two pressure
Tapings in m).
v = Velocity of flow (m/s)
g = Acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m/s2)
d = Diameter of the pipe (m)

Manometer head h= h1-h2 m.

in mm of Hg.
Manometer head in m of water
h

10.3
760

Where h in mm of Hg.

Actual discharge of water = Q =

Ah
T

m3/s

A = Area of measuring tank. m (0.4 0.3)


h = Raise of water level, 10cm (0.1 m)
T = Time for hraise of water In Seconds.
2

Area of the pipe(a) = d /4 m2


d = diameter of the pipe in m
Velocity v= Q/a m/s
Q= discharge
a= area of pipe
TABULAR COLOUMN
Left limb reading, h1
:
m
Right limb reading, h2
:
m
Loss of head, hf
: ( h1 h2) x 13.6 m of water
Diameter of pipe, d
:
m
Area of the pipe, a
: ( /4)d2
Rise of water level in the collecting tank, h
:
m
Time taken for h m of water level rise, t
:
sec
Discharge of water, Q
: Ah/t m3/sec
Velocity of water, V
: Q/a m/s
Area of measuring Tank
: 0.4 0.3
Velocity head hf
: v2/2g m
h
F
: 2gd f /LV2
Tabulation:-

Differential manometer
Reading in mm of Hg

h1

h2

Difference
in level
(x)

Loss of
head
H

Time for
10 cm
rise of
water
T

Discharge of
water
Q

Velocity of
water
V

Velocity head
hf

RESULT:
Friction factor for the given pipe
1. Analytical method..
2. Graphical method..
3.Conducting experiments and drawing the characteristic
curves of centrifugal pump

AIM:
Conducting experiments and drawing the characteristic curves of
centrifugal pump
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Closed circuit Centrifugal pump test rig.


Stop watch.
Sump tank
Measuring tank
Centrifugal pump
Electric motor
Panel board.
Pipe fitting.
DESCRIPTION OF THE MAIN PARTS:

SUMP TANK:
The suitable capacity sump tank made by mild steel to store
sufficient water circulates independently through the unit. Inside of the
tank is lined by FRP. It is having a drain arrangement to drain the water
whenever the unit is in idle. The sump tank is placed on a sturdy iron
stand.
MEASURING TANK:
The suitable capacity of measuring tank made by mild steel to
measure at the various delivery heads. It having the arrangement to
provide the gauge glass and scale arrangement. The measuring tank
placed on a study iron stand.
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP:
A pump of size 25 25 mm to discharge about 100 LPM at 5m
head, pipeline with gun metal foot valve & gate valve.
MOTOR:

An induction motor of 1HP capacity with stepped pulley for speed


variation.
PIPE FITTING:
1 delivery pipe consist of pipe fittings, pressure gauge with cocks
and a control valve. 1 suction pipe consist of suction pipe and fittings,
vaccum guage with cocks and PVC strainer foot valve. All fittings
connected with the centrifugal pump.
PANEL BOARD ARRANGMENT:
Consist of a single phase double pole on/off switch to start or stop
the motor. An energy meter provided to measure the input power to the
motor by number of thickening of light which is provided with the
energy meter.
PROCEDURE:
Before starting the pump check all the joints are tight and leak
proof.
Fully open the gate valve of the delivery side and close the
pressure and vacuum gauge cocks.
Now start the pump and open the gauge cocks.
Slightly close the delivery valve and create some reading on the
pressure gauge.
Now close the delivery valve of the measuring tank, the water
level increases in the gauge glass. Now start the stop watch, take
the time taken for 10 cm raise water level.
Time taken for 5 flickering of light on the energy meter also noted
by the stop watch.
Note the readings on pressure and vacuum gauge.
The whole procedure is repeated for different delivery heads
(pressure gauge readings) for 5 or 6 readings.
Do the calculation and find out the performance of the centrifugal
pump.
Graph also is plotted for self readings.

ENERGY METER CONSTANT = 3200 lpm/ Kw.hr.


MEASURING AREA OF MEASURING TANK =0.6 X 0.4
DISTANCE BETWEEN THE TWO GAUGES (X) = 0.5 m

SL.N
O

PERSSURE
GUAGE
READING
Kg/cm2

FORMULA:

VACCUM
GAUGE
READING
mm OF
Hg

TOTAL
HEAD m

TIME
FOR 10
cm raise
of oil
sec.

Discharge
m3/sec.

Time for
5 flicking
of light
sec.

Input power Kw

Output
Kw

power

Efficiency %

1. Total Head H =

2. Discharge Q =

( Vaccum gauge760Reading X 10.3 )+ Datum Head (m)

( Pr . gauge Reading X 10 ) +

A Xh 3
m /sec
T

A = Area of measuring tank m2 (0.6 0.4 )


h = Raise of water level (10cm)
T = Time for hraise of water S.
3. Output power = Q H Kw
4. Input power =

Where ( = 9.81)

X 3600
X
X 0.8 k . w
t
EMC

x = number of illuminated of light.


T = time for x illumination
EMC = Energy meter Constant 3200 lmp/Kw hr.
0.8 = Efficiency of motor (80% )

5. Efficiency of pump =

MAINTENANCE:

OUTPUT POWER
X 100
INPUT POWER

As these units are built very sturdily, they do not require any routine or regular maintenance. However, we recommend
the following to be done about once in a year to increase the life of the elements.
Lubricate all the working parts where provision for lubrication is made. Grease cups are provided for lubricating ball
bearings.
Never run the pump without water in it, as this would cause damage to stuffing box, bush bearing etc.
Never try to throttle the suction side of the pump to control discharge as it would seriously affect the performance of
the pump.

Drain the water from the sump when the unit is in idle.

Model graph:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Actual discharge vs. total head


Actual discharge vs. efficiency
Actual discharge vs. input power
Actual discharge vs. output power

View of centrifugal pump:

RESULT:
Thus the performance characteristic of centrifugal pump was studied and the maximum efficiency was found
to be. %
4. Conducting experiments and drawing the characteristic curves of reciprocating pump
AIM:
To Conduct experiments and draw the characteristic curves of reciprocating pump
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Closed circuit reciprocating pump test rig.


Stop watch.
Sump tank.
Measuring tank.
Reciprocating pump.
Electric motor.
Panel board.
Pipe fitting.
DESCRIPTION OF THE MAIN PARTS

SUMP TANK:

The suitable capacity sump tank made by mild steel to store sufficient water circulates independently
through the unit. Inside of the tank is lined by FRP. It is having a drain arrangement to drain the water whenever
the unit is in idle. The sump tank is placed on a sturdy iron stand.
MEASURING TANK:
The suitable capacity measuring tank made by mild steel to measure at the various delivery heads. It having
the arrangement to provide the gauge glass and scale arrangement. The measuring tank placed on a study iron
stand.
RECIPROCATING PUMP:
A pump of size 25 20 mm to discharge about 1730 LPH at 40 meters head, pipeline with gun metal foot
valve & gate valve. (BORE: 40mm, STROKE: 45mm, SPEED: 250 rpm)
MOTOR:
An induction motor of 1 HP capacity, A.C. with stepped pulley for multi speed variation.
PIPE FITTING:
3/4 delivery pipe consist of pipe fittings, pressure gauge with cocks and a control valve. 1 suction pipe
consist of suction pipe and fittings, vaccum gauge with cocks and PVC strainer foot valve. All fittings connected
with the reciprocating pump.
PANEL BOARD ARRANGMENT:

Consist of a single phase double pole on/off switch to start or stop the motor. An energy meter provided to
measure the input power to the motor by number of thickening of light which is provided with the energy meter.
PROCEDURE

Before starting the pump check all the joints are tight and leak proof.
Fully open the gate valve of the delivery side and close the pressure and vacuum gauge cocks.
Now start the pump and open the gauge cocks.
Slightly close the delivery valve and create some reading on the pressure gauge.
Now close the delivery valve of the measuring tank, the water level increases in the gauge glass. Now start
the stop watch, take the time taken for 10 cm raise water level.
Time taken for 5 flickering of light on the energy meter also noted by the stop watch.
Note the readings on pressure and vaccum gauge.
The whole procedure is repeated for different delivery heads (pressure gauge readings) for 5 or 6 readings.
Do the calculation and find out the performance of the centrifugal pump.
Graph also is plotted for self readings.

ENERGY METER CONSTANT = 3200 lpm/ Kw.hr.


MEASURING AREA OF MEASURING TANK =0.3 X 0.3
DISTANCE BETWEEN THE TWO GAUGES (m) = 0.3 m

SL.N
O

PERSSUR
E GUAGE
READING
Kg/cm2

VACCUM TOTAL
GAUGE
HEAD
READIN m
G
mm
OF Hg

NOTE: the pressure should not exceed 3

TIME
FOR
10 cm
raise
of
water
sec.

Discharg
e m3/sec.

Time
Input
for 5
power Kw
flicking
of light
sec.

Output
Efficiency
power Kw %

bar

FORMULA:

6. Total Head H =

( Vaccum gauge760Reading X 10.3 )+ Datum Head (m)

( Pr . gauge Reading X 10 ) +

7. Discharge Q =

A Xh 3
m /sec
T

A = Area of measuring tank m2


h = Raise of water level (10cm)
T = Time for hraise of water S.
8. Output power = Q H Kw

9. Input power =

Where ( = 9.81)

X 3600
X
X 0.8 k . w
t
EMC

x = number of illuminated of light.

T = time for x illumination


EMC = Energy meter Constant 3200 lmp/Kw hr.
0.8 = Efficiency of motor (80% )

10.Efficiency of pump =

OUTPUT POWER
X 100
INPUT POWER

Model graph:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Actual
Actual
Actual
Actual

discharge
discharge
discharge
discharge

vs.
vs.
vs.
vs.

total head
efficiency
input power
output power

View of reciprocating pump:

RESULT:
The performance characteristics of the reciprocating pump is studied and the efficiency is
calculated..%

5. Conducting experiments and drawing the characteristic curves of Pelton wheel


AIM:
Conducting experiments and drawing the characteristic curves of Pelton wheel
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Pelton turbine
A supply pump set to supply water to above pelton turbine
Flow measuring unit consisting of a venturimeter and a manometer
Piping system

GENERAL DESCRIPTION:
The unit is essentially consists of casing, with a large circular transparent window kept at the visual
inspection of the impact of the jet on the buckets, a rotor assembly of shaft, runner and brake drum, all mounted on a
suitable M.S. frame work, a rope brake arrangement is provided to load the turbine. The input to the turbine can be
controlled by adjusting the spear position by means of a hand wheel fitted with indicator arrangement. The water inlet
pressure is measured by a pressure gauge and RPM tachometer for measurement of speed.
CONSTRUCTIONAL SPECIFICATION:
CASING

is of closed grained cast iron.

RUNNER

is of gunmetal, designed for efficiency operation


Accurately machined and smoothly finished.

SHAFT

is made of EN-8 accurately machined and provided

with a gunmetal sleeve.

NOZZLE

is of gunmetal designed for smooth flow.

SPEAR

is of steel designed for efficient operation.

INLET BEND

of cast iron.

BRAKE

consists of a machined and polished cast iron , ,


brake drum cooling
water pipe standard cast iron dead weights, discharge pipe, internal water scoop, spring
balance, rope brake etc, arranged for loading the turbine.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION:
PELTON TURBINE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Rated supply head


Discharge
Normal speed
Power supply
Jet diameter
Brake drum diameter
Brake rope diameter

:
:
:

45 m
400 lpm
:
1000 rpm
:
1 HP
20 mm
:
200 mm
:
15
mm

SUPPLY PUMPSET
1. Rated head

53 meters

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Discharge
Normal sped
Power required
Size of pump
Type

:
:
:

440 lpm
:
2880 rpm
5 HP
:
65mm x 50mm
Centrifugal medium speed, single suction volute.

FLOW MEASUREMENT UNIT


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Size of Venturi meter


Venturi meter area ratio
:
Throat diameter for Venturi meter
Inlet cone angle for Venturi meter
Diverging cone angle
Manometer
:

:
50 mm
0.35 mm
:
29.58 mm
:
20 (21)
:
10 (14)
Double column differential manometer

STARTING UP
Make sure before starting that the pipelines are free from foreign matter. Also note whether all the joints
are water tight and leak proof. The pump starts with closed gate valve. The spear in the turbine inlet should also be in
the closed position while starting the pump. See that all the ball bearing and bush bearing in the units are properly
lubricated. Then slowly open the gate valve situated above the turbine and open the cock fitted to the pressure gauge
and se that the pump develops the rated head. If the pump develops the required head, slowly open the turbine spear by
rotating the hand wheel until the turbine attains the normal rated speed.

Load the turbine slowly and take readings. To load the turbine standard dead weights are provided with figures
stamped on them to indicate their weights. Open the water inlet valve and allow some cooling water through the brake
drum when the turbine runs under load, so that heat generated by the brake drum is carried away by the cooling water. Do
not suddenly load the turbine. Load the turbine gradually and at the same time open the spear to run the turbine at the
normal speed.
TO SHUT DOWN
Before switching off the supply pump set, first remove all the dead weights on the hanger. Close the cooling
inlet water gate valve; slowly close the guide vanes to its full closed position. Then close the gate valve gradually.
Manometer cocks and Venturi meter cocks should also be closed, in order to isolate the manometer. Then switch off the
supply pump set. Never switch off the supply pump set when the turbine is working under load. Should the electric line
trips off when the turbine is working first unload turbine, close all the valves and cocks. Start the electric motor again,
when the line gets power and then operate the turbine by opening the valves in the order said above.
TESTING:
Water turbines are tested in the hydraulic laboratory to demonstrate how tests on small water turbine are
carried out, to study their construction and to give the students a clear knowledge about the different type of turbines and
their characteristics.
Turbines shall be first tested at constant net supply head (at the rated value of 45m) by varying the load,
Speed and guide vane settings. However the net supply head on the turbine may be reduced and the turbines tested in
which case the power developed by the turbine and the best efficiency speed will also be reduced. Through the turbines
can also be tested at higher head at the same time maintaining higher rate flow.
The output power from the turbine is calculated from the readings taken on the brake and the speed of the
shaft. The input power supplied to the turbine is calculated from the net supply head on the turbine and discharge through

the turbine. Efficiency of the turbine being the ratio between the output and input can be determined from these two
readings.
The discharge is measured by the Venturi meter of 50mm and with the manometer fitted with the
calibrated scale. Supply head is measured with the help of the pressure gauge. (Any calibration error of the gauges should
also be taken into account). The speed of the turbine is measured with the digital tachometer.
After starting and running the turbine at normal speed for some time, load the turbine and take readings. Note the
following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Net supply head (pressure & vacuum gauge readings plus height of pressure gauge over vacuum gauge).
Discharge (manometer readings)
Turbine shaft speed.
Brake weight (dead weight plus hanger and rope weight)
Spring balance readings.
For any particular setting of the setting of the guide vanes first run the turbine at light load and then gradually load
it, by adding dead weights on the hanger. The net supply head on the turbine shall be maintained constant at the rated
value, and this can be adjusting the gate valve fitted just above the turbine.
MAINTENANCE
As these units are built very sturdily, they do not require any routine or regular maintenance. However, we recommend
the following to be done about once in a year to increase the life of the elements.
Lubricate all the working parts where provision for lubrication is made. Grease cups are provided for lubricating ball
bearings.
Never run the pump without water in it, as this would cause damage to stuffing box, bush bearing etc.
Never try to throttle the suction side of the pump to control discharge as it would seriously affect the performance of
the pump.

Drain the water from the sump when the unit is in idle.

CALCULATIONS:
1. Input power

= Q H Kw
= 9.81
= discharge in m/s.
= total head in m

Q
H

2. Discharge

a1 =

a2

d1
4

a 1 a2

C d a 1 a 2 2 gH

where d1 = 50mm

d 22
where d2
4

= 29.58 mm

g
H

= Acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m/s2 )


= manometer difference in m of water

h1h
1000
2

X (13.6-1) m of water

Output power:
=
N
W

2 NW R e X 9.81
60,000

Kw

= Turbine speed in RPM.


= (W1-W2) +1 Kg.

Efficiency =

Output power
Input power

X 100

I MECH PELTON TURBINE TESTING:

Head (H)
(in
meters)

Speed (N)
RPM

Manometer reading (in


mm)
H1

H2

h= H1-H2

Load (in
kg)
W2

1
2
3
4
5
6
PRIST UNIVERSITY-PUDUCHERRY CAMPUS (SM-FM LAB MANUAL)

Page 71

W1

Efficiency

Spear opening

Output power inkw

Input power in kw

Discharge

Net weight (W) (in Kg)


(W2 W1)+1

Runaway speed

Discharge (Q) (in cu m/s)

Sl.no

Head

View of pelton wheel:

PRIST UNIVERSITY-PUDUCHERRY CAMPUS (SM-FM LAB MANUAL)

Page 72

PRIST UNIVERSITY-PUDUCHERRY CAMPUS (SM-FM LAB MANUAL)

Page 73

Model graph:

PRIST UNIVERSITY-PUDUCHERRY CAMPUS (SM-FM LAB MANUAL)

Page 74

PRIST UNIVERSITY-PUDUCHERRY CAMPUS (SM-FM LAB MANUAL)

Page 75

RESULT:
The performance characteristic of the pelton wheel is studied and the efficiency is
calculated..%
6.Conducting experiments and drawing the characteristics curves of Francis turbine
AIM:
To conduct experiments and draw the characteristics curves of Francis turbine
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
5. Pelton turbine
6. A supply pump set to supply water to above pelton turbine
7. Flow measuring unit consisting of a venturimeter and a manometer
4. Piping system
GENDRAL DESCRIPTION:
The Francis Turbine consists of a spiral casing and rotor assembly with runner, shaft and brake drum, all mounted
on a suitable fabricated M.S. sump. A straight conical draft tube is provided to know the kinetic energy. A transparent hollow
Perspex cylinder is provided in between the draught bend and the casing for the purpose of observation of flow at exit of runner.
PRIST UNIVERSITY-PUDUCHERRY CAMPUS (SM-FM LAB MANUAL)

Page 76

A rope brake arrangement is provided to load the turbine. The output of the turbine can be controlled by adjusting the guide
vanes which the handle wheel and a suitable link mechanism is provided. The net supply head on the turbine is measured by a
pressure and vacuum gauge.
CONTRUCTIONAL SPECIFICATION:
Spiral casing

is of closed grained cast iron.

Runner

is of gunmetal, designed for efficiency operation


Accurately machined and smoothly finished.

Guide vane

Shaft

consists of gunmetal guide vanes, operated by a handwheel through a mechanism. External dummy
guide vanes areprovided to indicate the position of the actual guide vanes working inside the
turbine.

is made of EN-8 accurately machined and provided with

a gunmetal sleeve.

consists of a machined and polished cast iron brake drum, cooling water pipe, standard cast iron
dead weights, discharge pipe, internal water scoop, spring balance, rope brake etc, arranged for
loading the turbine.

Brake
Arrangement

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION:
Francis turbine (reaction turbine)
8. Rated supply head

10.0 m

9. Discharge

800 lpm

PRIST UNIVERSITY-PUDUCHERRY CAMPUS (SM-FM LAB MANUAL)

Page 77

10.Normal speed

1000 rpm

11.Brake Power

1 HP

12.Runaway speed

1700 rpm

13.No. of guide vanes

8 nos

14.Brake drum diameter

200

mm

15.Brake rope diameter

15

mm

SUPPLY PUMPSET:
7. Rated head

15 meters

8. Discharge

1000 lpm

9. Normal sped
10.Power required

:
:

11.Size of pump

2880 rpm

5 HP
:

75mm x 65mm

6. Type
:
Centrifugal medium speed, single suction volute.
FLOWMEASUREMENT UNIT:
7. Size of Venturi meter
8. Venturi meter area ratio

:
:

65 mm

0.35 mm

PRIST UNIVERSITY-PUDUCHERRY CAMPUS (SM-FM LAB MANUAL)

Page 78

9. Throat diameter for Venturi meter

38.45 mm

10.Inlet cone angle for Venturi meter

20(21)

11.Diverging cone angle

10(14)

STARTING UP
Make sure before starting that the pipelines are free from foreign matter. Also note whether all the joints are water tight
and leak proof. Prime the pump and start it with closed gate valve. The guide vanes in the turbine should also be in the closed
position while starting the pump. See that all the ball bearing and bush bearing in the units are properly lubricated. Then slowly
open the gate valve situated above the turbine and open the cock fitted to the pressure gauge and se that the pump develops the rated
head. If the pump develops the required head, slowly open the turbine guide vanes by rotating the hand wheel (which operates the
guide vane through suitable link mechanism until the turbine attains the normal rated speed.
In addition to this on pump side, note the operation of the stuffing box (the stuffing box should show on occasional drip of
water. If the gland is over tightened, the leakage stops but the packings will heat up, burn and damage the shaft).
If the operation of the above parts is normal, load the turbine slowly and take readings. To load the turbine standard dead
weights are provided with figures stamped on them to indicate their weights. Open the water inlet valve and allow some cooling
water through the brake drum when the turbine runs under load, so that heat generated by the brake drum is carried away by the
cooling water. Do not suddenly load the turbine. Load the turbine gradually and at the same time open the guide vanes to run the
turbine at the normal speed.
TO SHUT DOWN:
PRIST UNIVERSITY-PUDUCHERRY CAMPUS (SM-FM LAB MANUAL)

Page 79

Before switching off the supply pump set, first remove all the dead weights on the hanger. Close the
cooling inlet water gate valve; slowly close the guide vanes to its full closed position. Then close the gate valve just above
the turbine. Manometer cocks and Venturi meter cocks should also be closed, in order to isolate the manometer. Then switch
off the supply pump set. Never switch off the supply pump set when the turbine is working under load. Should the electric
line trips off when the turbine is working first unload turbine, close all the valves and cocks. Start the electric motor again,
when the line gets power and then operate the turbine by opening the valves in the order said above.
TESTING:
Water turbines are tested in the hydraulic laboratory to demonstrate how tests on small water turbine are carried
out, to study their construction and to give the students a clear knowledge about the different type of turbines and their
characteristics.
Turbines shall be first tested at constant net supply head (at the rated value of 10m) by varying the load, Speed
and guide vane settings. However the net supply head on the turbine may be reduced and the turbines tested in which case the
power developed by the turbine and the best efficiency speed will also be reduced. Through the turbines can also be tested at higher
head at the same time maintaining higher rate flow.
The output power from the turbine is calculated from the readings taken on the brake and the speed of the shaft. The input
power supplied to the turbine is calculated from the net supply head on the turbine and discharge through the turbine. Efficiency of
the turbine being the ratio between the output and input can be determined from these two readings.
The discharge is measured by the Venturi meter of 65mm and with the manometer fitted with the calibrated scale.
Supply head is measured with the help of the pressure gauge. ( any calibration error of the gauges, should also be taken into
account). The speed of the turbine is measured with the digital RPM indicator.

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It is suggested that the turbine shall be tested at normal speed, 3 speeds below normal speed, and 3 speeds above
normal speed covering a range of 50% of the normal speed for each setting of the guide vanes. If eight such guide vane positions
are used about 70 observations can be made and these readings given a good range for drawing the characteristics of the turbine.
The runaway speed (the speed of the turbine at no load and at rated condition of supply head) and pull our torque (the maximum
torque at stalled speed) may also be observed. After starting and running the turbine at normal speed for some time, load the
turbine and take readings. Note the following:
6. Net supply head (pressure & vacuum gauge readings plus height of pressure gauge over vacuum gauge).
7. Discharge (manometer readings)
8. Turbine shaft speed.
9. Brake weight (dead weight plus hanger and rope weight)
10.Spring balance readings.
For any particular setting of the setting of the guide vanes first run the turbine at light load and then gradually load it, by
adding dead weights on the hanger. The net supply head on the turbine shall be maintained constant at the rated value, and this
can be adjusting the gate valve fitted just above the turbine.
MAINTENANCE
As these units are built very sturdily, they do not require any routine or regular maintenance. However, we recommend the
following to be done about once in a year to increase the life of the elements.
Lubricate all the working parts where provision for lubrication is made. Grease cups are provided for lubricating ball bearings.

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Never run the pump without water in it, as this would cause damage to stuffing box, bush bearing etc.
Never try to throttle the suction side of the pump to control discharge as it would seriously affect the performance of the pump.
Drain the water from the sump when the unit is in idle.

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I MECH FRANCIS TURBINE TESTING:


Head

Runaway speed

Discharge

Guide vane opening

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H h= H12 H2

W W
2 1

Efficiency

Output power

H
1

Input power

(in
meters
)

Load
(in kg)

(W2 W1) Net weight (W) (in Kg)

Speed
Manometer
(N) RPM reading (in mm)

Discharge (Q) (in LPM)

Sl.no

Head
(H)

1
2
3
4
5
6

CALCULATIONS:
For reading no:3. Input power = Q H Kw

Q
H

= 9.81
= discharge in m/s.
= total head in m

4. Discharge Q =

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a1

where

a2 =

d1

= 65mm

where

d2

g
H

= Acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m/s2 )


= manometer difference in m of water

= 38.45 mm

X (13.6-1) m of water

Output power:
=
N
W

Kw
= Turbine speed in RPM.
= (W1-W2)+1.5 Kg.

Efficiency =

X 100

View of francis turbine:

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Model graph:

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Result:
Thus the experiment has been conducted and the characteristics
curves of Francis turbine are drawn.

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