Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 3

Free vibration of skyscrapers after earthquake:

Lecture B4
Free Vibration of 1 DOF with Viscous Damping

CIE 4145, Module B

Karel N. van Dalen
Section: Structural Mechanics
Chair: Dynamics of Solids and Structures
Room: 6.61, Phone: 88388
K.N.vanDalen@tudelft.nl
http://www.tudelft.nl/knvandalen
Lecture 4

Content.

Learningobjectives

Free Damped Vibrations

Thestudentisableto

Equation of Motion

Aperiodic Motion

Critically Damped System

Damped Vibrations

Period of Damped Vibrations

Logarithmic Decrement

derivethegeneralsolutionofthe
equationofmotion(freevibrations),
forsubcritically,criticallyandsuper
criticallydampedSDOFs

explainthephysicalbehaviourinthese
differentregimes,andhowthisis
visibleinthemathematics

Explainhowthedampingcoefficient
ofasystemcanbemeasured
2

Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences

Delft, The Netherlands

Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences

Delft, The Netherlands

Equation of Motion

Characteristic Equation and Its Roots

Equation of Free Motion:

Derivation of Equation of Motion

mx cx kx 0

x(t)

F t FSPRING t FDASHPOT t mx

derivetheequationofmotionofa
dampedsingledegreeoffreedom
(SDOF)system

Lecture 4

Force mass acceleration

Characteristic Equation:

s 2 2ns n2 0

F(t)

Parameters:
x

k m n natural frequency

FSPRING t kx

Characteristic Exponents:
s1 n n2 n2 ,

s2 n n2 n2

of undamped vibrations
c m 2n damping factor

FDASHPOT t cx

kx = F t
mx+cx+
Lecture 4

x 2nx n2 x 0
3

The motion of the system depends

crucially upon the ratio
n
c
c

n 2 km ccrit

Lecture 4

Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences

Delft, The Netherlands

Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences

Delft, The Netherlands

Aperiodic Motion
Case 1. n > n

Case 2. n = n

Particular initial conditions

x 0 x0 , x 0 0

s1 n n real, negative
2

Critically Damped System

2
n

s2 n n2 n2 real, negative

x0
x t
s1 exp s2t s2 exp s1t
s1 s2

s1 s2

s1 n

real, negative

s2 n

real, negative

Particular initial conditions

x 0 x0 , x 0 0
x t x0 exp nt 1 nt

The general solution:

x t X 1 exp nt X 2t exp nt

x0

x0

No Vibrations! The motion is

called aperiodic

Still no vibrations!
t

Lecture 4

t
5

Lecture 4

Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences

Delft, The Netherlands

Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences

Delft, The Netherlands

Damped Vibrations

s1 n n2 n2 complex

With this notation

x t exp nt A cos 1t B sin 1t

s2 n n2 n2 complex
Re s1 0, Re s2 0

x t A0 exp nt cos 1t 0

General initial conditions

x 0 x0 , x 0 v0

v nx
A0 x02 0 0
1 1

New notation:

1 n2 n2 real, positive
s1 n i1
s2 n i1

v
nx
x t exp nt x0 cos 1t 0 0 sin 1t

1 1

v
nx
x t exp nt x0 cos 1t 0 0 sin 1t
1 1

A0exp(-nt)

A0

2
T 1=

x0

Case 3. n < n

Damped Vibrations

v nx0
0 arctan 0

x01

t
-A0 exp(-nt)

Lecture 4

Lecture 4

Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences

Delft, The Netherlands

Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences

Delft, The Netherlands

Amplitude and Frequency in Practice

Measurements of damping.

x t A0 exp nt cos 1t 0

Period:

T1 2 1

Then

2
T1 =

x0

x1
exp s 1 nT1
xs

A0 exp nt

and xs a displacement after s 1 cycles.

A0exp(-nt)

A0

Amplitude:

x t A0 exp nt cos 1t 0

Let x1 be a displacement at t

n2 n2

Phase angle: 0

Lecture 4

x
log 1 s 1 nT1
xs
2 n
nT1
logarithmic decrement
n2 n 2

-A0 exp(-nt)

or

The frequency of damped vibrations

is normally approximated by
the natural frequency of
the undamped system
The reason:

1 n2 n 2 n 1

Lecture 4

Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences

Delft, The Netherlands

Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences

Delft, The Netherlands

n2
n
2n2

10