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Free vibration of skyscrapers after earthquake:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EQaHyY9-Fuw

Lecture B4
Free Vibration of 1 DOF with Viscous Damping

Dynamics of Mechanical Systems

CIE 4145, Module B


Karel N. van Dalen
Section: Structural Mechanics
Chair: Dynamics of Solids and Structures
Room: 6.61, Phone: 88388
K.N.vanDalen@tudelft.nl
http://www.tudelft.nl/knvandalen
Lecture 4

Content.

Learningobjectives

Free Damped Vibrations

Thestudentisableto

Equation of Motion

Characteristic Equation and Its Roots

Aperiodic Motion

Critically Damped System

Damped Vibrations

Amplitude of Damped Vibration,

Period of Damped Vibrations

Logarithmic Decrement

derivethegeneralsolutionofthe
equationofmotion(freevibrations),
forsubcritically,criticallyandsuper
criticallydampedSDOFs

explainthephysicalbehaviourinthese
differentregimes,andhowthisis
visibleinthemathematics

Explainhowthedampingcoefficient
ofasystemcanbemeasured
2

CIE 4145 Dynamics and Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences


Delft, The Netherlands

Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences


Delft, The Netherlands

Equation of Motion

Characteristic Equation and Its Roots


Equation of Free Motion:

Derivation of Equation of Motion

mx cx kx 0

x(t)

F t FSPRING t FDASHPOT t mx

derivetheequationofmotionofa
dampedsingledegreeoffreedom
(SDOF)system

Lecture 4

CIE 4145 Dynamics and Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Force mass acceleration

Characteristic Equation:

s 2 2ns n2 0

F(t)

Parameters:
x

k m n natural frequency

FSPRING t kx

Characteristic Exponents:
s1 n n2 n2 ,

s2 n n2 n2

of undamped vibrations
c m 2n damping factor

FDASHPOT t cx

kx = F t
mx+cx+
Lecture 4

x 2nx n2 x 0
3

The motion of the system depends


crucially upon the ratio
n
c
c

n 2 km ccrit

Lecture 4

CIE 4145 Dynamics and Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

CIE 4145 Dynamics and Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences


Delft, The Netherlands

Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences


Delft, The Netherlands

Aperiodic Motion
Case 1. n > n

Case 2. n = n

Particular initial conditions


x 0 x0 , x 0 0

s1 n n real, negative
2

Critically Damped System

2
n

s2 n n2 n2 real, negative

x0
x t
s1 exp s2t s2 exp s1t
s1 s2

s1 s2

s1 n

real, negative

s2 n

real, negative

Particular initial conditions


x 0 x0 , x 0 0
x t x0 exp nt 1 nt

The general solution:


x t X 1 exp nt X 2t exp nt

x0

x0

No Vibrations! The motion is


called aperiodic

Still no vibrations!
t

Lecture 4

t
5

Lecture 4

CIE 4145 Dynamics and Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

CIE 4145 Dynamics and Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences


Delft, The Netherlands

Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences


Delft, The Netherlands

Damped Vibrations

s1 n n2 n2 complex

With this notation


x t exp nt A cos 1t B sin 1t

s2 n n2 n2 complex
Re s1 0, Re s2 0

x t A0 exp nt cos 1t 0

General initial conditions


x 0 x0 , x 0 v0

v nx
A0 x02 0 0
1 1

New notation:

1 n2 n2 real, positive
s1 n i1
s2 n i1

v
nx
x t exp nt x0 cos 1t 0 0 sin 1t

1 1

v
nx
x t exp nt x0 cos 1t 0 0 sin 1t
1 1

A0exp(-nt)

A0

2
T 1=

x0

Case 3. n < n

Damped Vibrations

v nx0
0 arctan 0

x01

t
-A0 exp(-nt)

The motion is completely defined by the amplitude, period and phase


Lecture 4

Lecture 4

CIE 4145 Dynamics and Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

CIE 4145 Dynamics and Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences


Delft, The Netherlands

Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences


Delft, The Netherlands

Amplitude, Period, Phase

Amplitude and Frequency in Practice


Measurements of damping.

x t A0 exp nt cos 1t 0

Period:

T1 2 1

Then

2
T1 =

x0

x1
exp s 1 nT1
xs

A0 exp nt

and xs a displacement after s 1 cycles.

A0exp(-nt)

A0

Amplitude:

x t A0 exp nt cos 1t 0

Let x1 be a displacement at t

n2 n2

Phase angle: 0

Lecture 4

x
log 1 s 1 nT1
xs
2 n
nT1
logarithmic decrement
n2 n 2

-A0 exp(-nt)

or

The frequency of damped vibrations


is normally approximated by
the natural frequency of
the undamped system
The reason:

1 n2 n 2 n 1

Lecture 4

CIE 4145 Dynamics and Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

CIE 4145 Dynamics and Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences


Delft, The Netherlands

Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences


Delft, The Netherlands

n2
n
2n2

10