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Integration of Technologies to Treat

Eagle Ford Shale Flowback Water


for Discharge or Reuse
Brian
J Mastin,
Ph.D. Report
Compensation
Committee
Behrang (Ben) Pakzadeh, Ph.D., P.E.
B. Chatterton, J. Renew, D. Philbrook,
J. Min and A. Chan

Presented to:
International Petroleum Engineering Conference
Houston, TX

October 13-17, 2014

Acknowledgement

Research Partnership to Secure


Energy for America for Project
Funding

Kent Perry of RPSEA for his support

Introduction
Objective:
To develop an innovative approach for shale
hydraulic fracturing water treatment, to meet sitespecific water quality objectives for:
1. Reuse and/or
2. Discharge: National Pollution Discharge Elimination

System (NPDES) quality water

Project Objectives:
Perform bench-scale efficacy studies with MBC
Perform bench- and pilot-scale efficacy studies with FMX & RO
Perform solidification and stabilization experiments
Process integration and optimization
Field demonstration experiments
Risk evaluation and economical analysis of final integration
compared to conventional treatment technologies
This presentation provides preliminary:

Process interpretation data


Preparation for field demonstration

Process Integration
To
Reuse

To
Reuse

Magnetic Ballast Clarification (MBC)

Clarification using magnetite and polymer

Fully oxidized form of iron (Fe304)

Polymer attaches suspended solids to magnetite,


forms a dense magnetic floc, and settles rapidly

Magnetic floc removed from the water by gravity and


magnetically

Magnetite is cleaned and recycled in-situ

Magnetic Ballast Clarification (MBC)

FMX - Technical Background


Patented Fouling Resistance
Membrane Filtration System
Treatment of high solids, density, &
viscosity wastewaters
Reduces chemical cleaning
requirements
Karman Vortex - strong turbulence
with minimum energy
Foulants on the boundary layers are
disrupted and carried away by the
feed stream

Vortex Generator
System

Initial Characterization of Water Samples


Parameter

Bakken Produced
Water - Williston

Eagle Ford
Flowback Water Galvan

Eagle Ford
Flowback Water
- Gonzalez

5.49

4.33

7.58

TDS (mg/L)

357,527

1,493

1,832

TSS (mg/L)

3,134

1,559

479

Chloride (mg/L)

186,755

<100

302

Sodium (mg/L)

97,182

125

231

Calcium (mg/L)

18,520

99

209

Magnesium (mg/L)

1,287

19

31

Potassium (mg/L)

6,957

17

50

Boron (mg/L)

451

0.9

Silica (mg/L)

118

23

27

Iron (mg/L)

157

7.6

0.5

Strontium (mg/L)

81

0.06

0.09

Barium (mg/L)

29

0.5

0.34

pH

Purpose of MBC Clarification

Protect the FMX filter


Remove Suspended Solids
Remove Oil and Grease

Total Suspended Solids

3 test waters
Multiple polymer
combinations tested
Most conditions
exceeded 90% TSS
removal
All tests exceeded
80% TSS removal

Oil and Grease

3 test waters
Wide range of
polymer and
coagulant aides
Feed 1,800 mg/L
oil and grease
Overflow < 70 mg/L

MBC Efficacy

Flowback Water
from Eagle Ford

Treatability test with polymers/chemicals


and magnetite

Purpose of the FMX Ultra-Filter (UF)

Remove remainder of TSS


Remove some TDS
Generate a water suitable for reuse in
additional fracturing operations
Protect downstream RO filter from TSS

FMX - TSS Results

Preferred
Operating Range
< 500 mg/L

Removal of 80-99% of the remaining TSS that escaped the


clarifier in the preferred operating region.

FMX - TDS Results

Likely Range of TDS


Loading at Field Site
1,200-30,000 mg/L

Expect FMX filter to remove 30-60% of the TDS from influent, depending
on weave, ion selectivity, as well as flowback water composition

Eagle Ford Galvan:


Bench-Scale Membrane Trials
NF

Concentrate

Feed

Permeate

Purpose of the RO Filter


To generate highly purified water that can meet
NPDES requirements.
RO Results - TDS
Four tests performed using FMX permeate as
a feed stock
Influents: 367 to 769 mg/L TDS
RO Permeates - non-detect

Preliminary Performance Model


Better understand the data generated, to date
Better understand the entire process and its interrelationships
Estimate forward flows and return flows in regard
to solids management design
Prepare experimental design for field demonstration

Simple Model Flow-sheet

Feed
MBC

Finished Water

Permeate

Overflow
FMX

RO

Concentrate
Underflow

Concentrate

Answer Simple Questions:


How Much of What from Where?

Example Flow Model Results


Assumption: Treat 1,000 liters per day based
on data and reasonable engineering estimates
from the Eagleford Galvan data sets.

How much water is produced?

1,000 L of Feedstock generates 615 L of clean water and


385 L of various concentrated sludges/slurries.

How does the water change during the process?

The RO permeate is likely NPDES quality. The FMX permeate


is of high quality and likely good for most reuse applications.

What type of solids need to be handled?

Each process generates a distinctive waste, MBC generating


slurry type materials and RO generating concentrated salts.

Summary of Bench-scale Results


Process expectations have been developed based on
lab and bench experiments.
Both the MBC and FMX can treat waters similar to the
Eagleford samples.
A single FMX membrane has been selected for field
scale.
A process model is being developed to aide in the
transition to the field.
CONTINUE to evaluate the detailed chemical
experimental results for clearer concepts of whether the
waters can be REUSED and/or DISCHARGED.

Future Work
Detailed analysis of the chemical test results
Better understand the range of chemical characteristics
of the waters available at the field test facility.
Continue to improve the simple process model to
include specific constituent removals.
Obtain a better understanding of the composition and
volumes of waste solids generated.
Analyze the solids handling data hydrogel adsorption
and solidification/stabilization
Go to the field.

Questions??