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RevueLISA/LISAe

journal
Littratures,HistoiredesIdes,Images,SocitsduMondeAnglophone
Literature,HistoryofIdeas,ImagesandSocietiesoftheEnglishspeakingWorld

vol.XIIn2|2014:
CriticalPerspectivesonGabrielJosipovici
LesVariationsJosipovici

[A]llcomesaliveandstartsto
dance:The29thChapterof
GabrielJosipovicisGoldberg:
Variations
Chapitre29deGoldberg:VariationsdeGabrielJosipovici

GNTHERJARFE

Rsums
FranaisEnglish
Cetarticlesedonnepourobjectifdedterminerlesensetlafonctionduchapitre29de
Goldberg:Variations de Gabriel Josipovici. plusieurs gards, ce chapitre sedmarque
desautrespartiesduromanetrequiertuncommentairepart.Nousdmontronsquece
chapitrereprendledbutduromanafindefigurerlajoiedelissueheureusedelavisite
deGoldberg.Dunepart,lascnededanseprendsonsensenrelationavecleschapitres18
et27quirecourentlamtaphoredeladanseafinderendrecomptedelalibration
que permettent la forme musicale de la fugue et la crativit. Dautre part, on peut
dmontrer laffinit entre le chapitre 29 et la dernire variation de Bach. Josipovici

proposeunquivalentromanesqueduquolibetdeBach.Toutcommeladernirevariation
deBachestconsidrecommelecouronnementdelacomposition,lechapitre29peuttre
perucommelepointculminantduroman.
This paper tries to determine the meaning and function of chapter 29 of Gabriel
JosipovicisGoldberg:Variations.Inseveralrespects,itgoesbeyondthescopeoftherest
ofthebookandcriesoutforacomment.Mythesisisthatchapter29retellsthebeginning
ofthenovelinsucharemarkablydifferentwayinordertoconveythecertaintyofandthe
delight in a happy outcome of Goldbergs visit. The evidence presented is twofold. First,
thereisthedancescene,thesignificanceofwhichcanbeinferredfromchapters18and27.
Bothemploydancemetaphoricallytodescribetheliberatingeffectofanartform,likethe
fugue,andoflivingoneslifecreatively.ThedancingshowsWestfieldhavingfinallyfreed
himselffromhisanxietiesandhavingbecomethelordoftime.Second,thereistheclose
correspondencethatcanbeshowntoexistbetweenchapter29andBachslastvariation.By
combiningsingingincanonanddancingroundthetableandpresentingthissceneina
very stylized fashion Josipovici tries to create a narrative equivalent to Bachs quodlibet.
Within their respective contexts, both pieces perform a similar function. Just as Bachs
finalvariationissaidtobethecrowningachievementofthewholesequence,sochapter29
maybeseenasthesuccessfulculminationofthenovel.

Entresdindex
Indexdemotscls: JosipoviciGabriel,angoisse,clbration,crativit,danse,Goldberg
:Variations,canon
Indexbykeywords: GabrielJosipovici,Goldberg:Variations,anxiety,celebration,
creativecapacity,dance,canon
Indexgographique: GreatBritain,GrandeBretagne
Indexchronologique: 20thcentury,21thcentury,XXesicle,XXIesicle

Texteintgral
1

GabrielJosipovicisGoldberg:Variationshasrepeatedlybeencalledapuzzle.
PartofthispuzzlehasconvincinglybeensolvedbyWernerWolf,whohasshown
that the very heterogeneous thirty chapters of the book can all be read as
variationsontwothemes:
mostconspicuouslythecreativecapacity(157)explicitlymentionedin
chapter22,and(b.)somewhatlessconspicuouslyrelationsbetweentwo
humanbeings,inparticularemotionalonesandrelationsthatmanifest
themselvesindialogue.1

Thisholdsgoodforthe29thchapter,too.Apartfromthat,however,itstands
outasuniquefromtherestofthebookbecauseitincludestheportrayalofalively
party with dancing and singing. And yet, as far as I can see, critics have never
dealtwithitsofar.ThatiswhyinthispaperIwanttoconcernmyselfwiththe
specialqualityofthischapteranditsfunction.Beforeacloserlookcanbetakenat
chapter29,itmustbeascertainedhowGoldbergcarriesoutthetaskhehastaken
onandhowhecopeswiththemassiveproblemsheencounters.For,asIhopeto
show, chapter 29 which, at a quick glance, simply retells the beginning of
Goldbergs visit (his arrival, reception, and the first reading session), if in a
strikinglydifferentway,isreallymeanttocelebratehishardwontriumph.

GoldbergsMissionandHowHe
SucceedsinAccomplishingIt
3

What we learn about the way Goldberg handles his mission is mostly to be

found in four letters he writes to his wife, i.e. chapters 1, 20, 24, and 28. The
numbersofthechaptersdonotexactlycorrespondtothechronologyoftheletters,
however.Asfarasthesequenceofeventsisconcernedthe24thchaptergoeson
fromthefirstandprecedesthe20th.
To briefly recapitulate the main points. Westfield, a rich landowner, suffers
from insomnia. He has invited Goldberg, a wellknown writer, to read to him
every night until he falls asleep. But during the very first night Westfield stops
himfromreadingandaskshimtositathisbedsideinstead:Tonightwewilltalk.
Tomorrowyouwillreadtomefromyournewwork.(4)Heisadamantaboutthis:
I will not have anything other than a new composition of your own. (3) This
changeoftheoriginalinstructions,thedemandtoproducesomethingnewevery
daybringsaboutwritersblockinGoldberg.Tofulfilhisobligationsnevertheless,
he writes a letter to his wife telling her about his problems (chapter 1). This,
however, is a poor substitute for a fictional composition and helps only
momentarily. Goldbergs recognition that he will not be able to come up to his
employersexpectationsplungeshimintoanidentitycrisis,whichalmostmakes
himtakerefugeinflight:ButofcoursewhatIhavelearnedinthepastfewhours
isthatIhaveneverbeenwhoandwhatIthoughtIwasandthatthereforeleaving
thisbehindisanecessarystep.(169)WelearnthisfromtheletterGoldbergmust
havewrittenshortlyafterfinishingthefirstone,whichisthecontentofchapter
24.Thenextletter(chapter20)showsthatGoldbergtookupthechallenge,after
all:IwentinatlasttoMrWestfield.(147)Andhere,whenGoldbergisonthe
vergeofbeginningtoreadfromasheafofpaperspossiblythefirstlettertohis
wife he is stopped again and asked to sit next to Westfields bed. Again they
haveaconversationinthedark.AndthisoneprovesvitaltoGoldbergsmission,
forGoldbergsucceedsindissolvingWestfieldsstateofnumbness,inmakinghim
understand the cause of his anxiety (and thus reduce its impact), and in
persuadinghimtoappreciatethevalueofthemoment:allowingeachmomentits
fullvalue.(151)
Part of the conversation, restricted to Westfields statements, is recorded in
chapter22.Eventually,Westfieldfallsintoadeepslumber.
HowGoldbergmanagedthistoughjobisonlyhintedat.Inhislastlettertohis
wife,writtenafterWestfieldhasfallenasleephesaysitwasakindofofferingof
myselfonsomesortofaltar.(182)Presumably,thisimpliestalkingabouthimself
andhisownanxietiesunreservedly.AtanyratehegetsWestfield[t]ospeakout
intothedark,notknowingbeforehandwhatoneisgoingtosay(161),andthusto
learnalotmoreabouthimself.IntheendheevensucceedsindrawingWestfield
outofhisshellsomuchthatthelattercanclaim:foramomentasIspokeIwas
nolongermyselfbutyou.(162)Thiswasapparentlythecrucialmomentintheir
conversationwhen,atGoldbergsinstigation,Westfieldmanagedtogainenough
selfknowledgeandempathytosecurehisreleasefromtheclutchoffear.

Chapter29:ItsSpecialQualityand
Function
7

WithinGoldberg:Variations,chapter 29 is unique as regards style as well as


content. From the beginning it exudes an air of pastiche of late 19th century
writing.Whatpeoplesayanddosoundsstiltedandremindsoneofpuppets.Here
isthebeginning:
In the late afternoon of July 19, 18 , the novelist and poet Samuel Goldberg
arrivedatSomertonHall,inthecountyofB,thehomeofTobiasWestfieldEsq.
Itwasafinesummersdayandthebirdswereinfullsong.

Welcome!saidthefootmanasheheldthecarriagedooropen.
Welcome!saidthebutlerastheysteppedinsidethehouse.
Welcome!saidthehousekeeper,andcurtsiedtohimonthestairs.
Yourroom,MrGoldberg,saidthemaidassheopenedthedoor..(184)
9

10

11

12

Thehighlystylizeddialogueandthevisionofsilverandcrystal(185)gowell
together.Readsuperficially,chapter29tellsastorywealreadyknow.Lookedat
more carefully, however, the chapter, while repeating some of the wellknown
facts,reallytellsanewstory(3),becauseitsretellingcontradictsmostofwhat
wehaveheardsofaraboutWestfield,hisfamily,hisfriendsandGoldbergsfirst
eveningatSomertonHall.Itistrue,inthefirstchapterGoldbergisalsoexpected,
shown to his room and given dinner, and later ushered into Mr Westfields
rooms.(1)Butthisisverymuchdifferentfromtheeffusivewelcomeaccordedto
Goldbergintheversionofchapter29.Here,Westfield,hissonsandclosestfriends
have assembled to celebrate Goldbergs arrival. He is guest of honour at an
elaboratedinnerparty.ToastsareproposedtoGoldbergandtothesuccessofhis
venture. There is an atmosphere of goodwill, joyful relaxation, and refined
sociability prevailing at this party. Smiling and almost casually, Westfield
announces the reason for Goldbergs visit: He has come to send me to sleep.
(186) Everybody seems well informed yet feels completely at ease. Later when
Goldbergmeetshishostagaininthelattersroomsheispouringhimselfaglass
of something golden. (188) They both drink to one anothers health and then
proceed to what Goldberg has been invited for. There is something rather
businesslike about the way Goldberg and Westfield are putting their agreement
intooperationasifgettingintobedandreadingfromasheafofpaperswasjusta
formality. All this contrasts sharply with what we were told earlier about the
relationshipbetweenWestfieldandhissons,theestrangementbetweenWestfield
and Ballantyne, and in particular Westfields despair. His predicament dwelt
uponatsuchlengthinchapters10,17,and22seemstohavedisappeared.
Why are we offered this fundamentally different version of Goldbergs first
evening at Somerton House, a version deliberately falling back on such
conventional elements of the novel as the dinner party, a minutely described
seatingplan,snippetsofpoliteconversation,glassesraisedseveraltimes,etc.?Is
it meant as a belatedly supplied ironic foil so that the peculiar features of the
earlier version stand out even more poignantly? Or is this resumption of the
beginningmeanttosupersede,asitwere,theearlierversionconveyingasitdoesa
remarkablydifferentviewonWestfieldssituationandqualities?
The answer, I take it, rests on a closer examination of the final phase of the
dinnerpartyusheredinbyWestfieldsyoungersonallofasuddenshoutingCat!
(187)Thistriggers off a scene which is clearly the chapters centre of attention.
FirstWestfieldannouncesthecatsmostremarkableabilitytodance.(ibid.)And
atagivensignal[t]hegingercatroseonhishindlegsandwavedhisarmsinthe
air.Atthatmomentsomethingmostextraordinaryhappens:Goldbergsinksto
hiskneesfollowingtheanimalsmovementswithhisown.Whileheiscutting
capersheintonestheverse:Thehugemightyoaksthemselvesdidadvance,[]
and leaped from the hills to learn for to dance (187, my italics), which is
immediatelytakenupandshoutedbytheelderofWestfieldssons.Thatinturn
leadstoWestfieldstandingupandaskingtheunknownladytodance.Goldberg
then sings the verse, and soon the whole company dances round the table and
alsosings:The huge mighty oaks themselves did advance, and leapt from the
hillstolearnfortodance!(myitalics)
Whiledancing,theyallseemtobeenjoyingthemselvesthoroughlybecausethey
continuetosinganothersong.ThistimeitisWestfieldwhobeginssinging:My
bonny lies over the ocean, My bonny lies over the sea, [] Oh, bring back my
bonnytome!(188,myitalics)

13
14

Andtherestjoininsingingtherefrain.
Dance and singing, Westfields unexpected liveliness and abandon, seem
completely out of keeping with what earlier chapters have revealed about his
formerdespondentself,abouthislonelinessandlackofinterestinhissons.Inthe
veryfirstchapterWestfieldexpressedasenseofreliefbecausehedidnothaveto
takecareofhissonshimself:Fortunately[]Ihavethemeanstokeepthemfrom
mypresence.(7)Here,however,hissonsarepresentfromtheverybeginning.So
what are we to make of this strange and amazing inconsistency? These two
stories, the old one and the new one, do not really go together, they blot one
anotherout,infact.BecauseifWestfieldwereinasgoodashapeasheseemstobe
onthisoccasion,hewouldnothaveneededtoinviteGoldberg,inthefirstplace.
Inaddition,wearefacedwithanotherproblem:thewaythechapteristoldina
formal,unnaturalstylecreatesadistancebetweennarrator,reader,andstory,
which is usually called irony and parody. How are these contradictions to be
resolved?Theanswerisassimpleasitisinescapable:inchapter29thebeginning
ofGoldbergsvisitistoldwithanawarenessofitshappyoutcome.Thisexplains
the note of exuberance the whole chapter resonates with. In composing chapter
29, Josipovici apparently wanted to attain two aims: (1) to create a special
opportunity for celebrating Goldbergs brilliant achievement separately and
appropriately (2) to find a way of conveying the sense of a happy ending
withoutbeingsuspectedofcateringtopeoplesshallowexpectations.Byshowing
Westfield and his guests in an extremely exuberant mood singing, dancing,
cuttingcapers,enjoyingthemselvesthoroughly(nowhereelseinthebookdowe
meet anything comparable) he conveys the feeling that Westfields problems
willeventuallybesolvedandanticipatesthereliefthatwillensuewithGoldbergs
missionaccomplished.Butbeingextremelyreticentaboutconveyingapositive
attitudeorsendingapleasantmessage,hehidesitinanironicwrapping.Byno
meansdidhewanttobeaccusedofproducingkitsch.Toavoidthishenarrated
thechapterinastylethatiselevatedandformal.

TheSignificanceoftheDanceandtheDance
Metaphor
15

16

This reading of chapter 29 cannot be proved. But it is possible to increase its


plausibility. Two features in particular present themselves as corroborating
evidence:thedancesceneand,basedonit,theconnection between this chapter
andthelastofBachsvariations.Bothoftheseclueswillbelookedintobriefly.
To begin with the dance scene. It is a most extraordinary situation with
Goldbergprancingroundthetablewiththeyoungerchildonhisshouldersand
therestofthecompanydancingandsingingBringback,bringback,Oh,bring
backmybonnytome,tome!(188,myitalics)Surelythemeaningwemayascribe
to this scene cannot be derived from dancing as the amusement activity known
andpractisedallovertheworld.Thatwouldbecompletelyinappropriateinthis
artificial context. Chapters 18 and 27, however, could possibly be of great help
here because they use dance metaphorically to describe art forms and lives
deemed successful and fulfilling. In Chapter 18, Goldberg remembers a
conversationhehasrecentlycomposedbetweenamiddleagedjudgeandayoung
friendofhis.Theytalk about the fugue. In this conversation the judge employs
danceasametaphorforallheadmiresaboutthemusicalformofthefugue.All
voicesintroduceoneandthesamethemeinsuccessionafterthisexpositioneach
voice repeatedly takes up the same theme again while all of them combine in a
constantlychangingway.Thustheyaremutuallydependentononeanotherbut,
atthesametime,enjoyequality.Itisthissubtleandsublimeinterplaybetween

17

18

19

thevoicesthatthejudgecallsadance:Theessenceofthefugueisdance,which
meanswellbeinginreciprocity.(133)
Inaddition,thestateofbeingmarriedisalsograntedtheattributeofadance.
Thisisbecausethejudgebelievesthatthedecisiontomakeofyourlifeonlyone
part of a whole which is made up of two parts turns [] every second into a
dance.(134)Thus,itistheartisticallyorarduouslyestablishedbalancebetween
differentpartsofawholethatguaranteesinartaswellasinlifethefreedom
ofreciprocity.(138)
Another important hint as to the significance of dance can be derived from
chapter 27. Klees WanderArtist, reproduced on the front cover of Josipovicis
novel,isassumedtobethespeakerofchapter27.AsWolfhasshown,thisfigure
canbeseenasanallegoricalembodimentofthecreativecapacity2.Assuch,the
WanderArtistassertsconfidently:Withmeallcomesaliveandstartstodance.
(179) This means: if you succeed in managing your life creatively, avoiding
routine, striving for liveliness a freedom from heaviness and sluggishness will
ensue: The world you thought you knew [] reforms in [an] unexpected way.
(180)
Dance, as employed metaphorically in chapters 18 and 27, is apparently a
highlyesteemed activity regarded as an emblem of being alive. If we apply this
concept to the dance episode of chapter 29, the following hypothesis as to its
meaning and function suggests itself. Dancing appears symbolic of Westfields
liberationfromaselfinducedlifelessness.Itcanbesaidtoanticipatehiscapacity
for empathy as well as his ability to devote himself to the present moment
allowingeachmomentitsfullvalue(151)bothofwhicharenotreleaseduntil
his conversation with Goldberg in the dark (chapters 20 and 22). The verse
intonedbyGoldberginwhichoaksareimplausiblysaidtoleapfromthehillsto
learn for to dance (my italics) may be taken as a metaphor for the almost
incredible transformation Westfield is here seen to have undergone. The verse,
incidentally, is taken from John Skeltons poem The Laurel3. It is surely no
coincidencethatGoldberg,thelearnedwriter,shouldatsuchadecisivemoment
fallbackontwolinesfromSkeltonspoem,for,asitsmoderneditorBrownlowsees
it, this poem not only turns the narrators misery into rejoicing4, but it also
formulatesapoetics according to which poetry renews, remakes, and ennobles
theworld.Italsoremakesthepoet5.Thisgoesverywellwithwhatthechapteras
a whole as pointed out before is trying to achieve, namely to be not just a
recapitulation of the first paragraphs of the opening chapter, but also to tell a
newstory,(3)thestoryofGoldbergstriumphandWestfieldsredemption.That
iswhyitisimbuedwithanawarenessofauniquefestiveoccasion.Justcomparea
fewsmalldetails.When,inthefirstchapter,Goldbergonhiswaybacktohisroom
from Westfields bed, comes to the drawingroom he opens the curtains. This is
whathesees:
[]inthedistanceloomedthegreattreesofthepark,indistinctgrey
shapes,likenothingsomuchaschairsandtableswhentheyarecovered
overtoprotectthemfromdustanddecaywhentheownerhasclosedupthe
house.(8)

20

This image suggests lifelessness. And Westfield is clearly suffering from it. In
chapter29,however,everythingseemstobefullofenergyandzestforlife.Itmay
also be significant that the birds and their singing in the first chapter are not
mentioneduntiltheendofWestfieldsandGoldbergsconversation in the dark:
WhenthebirdsstarttosingIknowthereisaworldoutthereandsleepatonce
opens its arms to receive me. (7) In the 29th chapter they are prominent right
from the beginning. This proof of a world out there makes itself heard with
Goldbergs arrival. Interpreted in this way, chapter 29 ingeniously combines

beginningandhappyendingandmustbeconsideredahighlightofthenovel.

CorrespondencesbetweenChapter
29andBachsLastVariation
21

22

Wolf in his paper on The Role of Music in Gabriel Josipovicis Goldberg:


Variations raises the interesting question whether there may be closer
connectionsbetweenindividualchaptersofJosipovicisnovelandsomeofBachs
variations.Heconcedesthatthereareafewpromisingcandidateslikechapter16,
which shows certain correspondences with Bachs variation n16. But, on the
whole, he concludes the expectation of analogies [] is more often frustrated
than fulfilled6. And he denies any such connection for variation n30: Bachs
last variation is a quodlibet on a popular song, yet Josipovicis chapter 30,
entitledTheFinalFugue,[]innowayechoesthisvariation7.
Thisiscertainlycorrect.Butthepremisesofhisstatementseemtomefaulty.I
would argue that when I am looking for analogies, it is not the number of a
chapteroravariationalonethatshouldbethedecisivecriterionformychoice,but
ratheritsdistinctivequalities.AndthethesisIwanttosubstantiatehereisthat
chapter 29 and variation n30 belong together because they possess several
conspicuoussimilarities.Letmebeginwithaquoteexplainingthetermquodlibet:
No.30isamedleyorQuodlibet(whatyouplease)andassuchalludestoa
longtradition,evenprobablyfamilytradition:makingmusicbysinging
successivelyorsimultaneouslyvariouspopulartunes,oftenwithracytexts.8

23

24

25

Themostobviousthematicandstructuralcorrespondencebetweenchapter29
and Bachs last variation is here emphasized: singing successively or
simultaneously various popular tunes. In the former a verse and a wellknown
song are chanted, in the latter two popular songs are contrapuntally combined
withthebassline. At Westfields party the verse Thehugemightyoaks [] is
introduced by Goldberg, taken up by the elder child, repeated by Goldberg and
finallysungbythewholecompany.LaterthesongMybonnyliesovertheocean
[]isfirstsungbyWestfield,therefrainispickedupbythechildren,andinthe
endrepeatedbytherestofthecompany.Fairlyobviously,Josipovicihereimitates
thebeginningandprogressofatypicalcanoninwhichamelodyisstartedbyone
voice, is then copied by another and finally repeated by all voices together. The
most important point of the analogy, however, is not the form of the canon as
such,butthespecialformofthequodlibetbecauseitcombinesthebeginningsof
twocompletelyunrelatedsongspopularatthetimewiththebassline.
One might also point out another similarity between Bachs and Josipovicis
pieces of artistic work. Just as in the first section of Bachs quodlibet the first
melody,Ichbinsolangnichtbeidirgewest(Ihaventbeenwithyouforsucha
longtime)appearsthreetimes,thesecondone,KrautundRbenhabenmich
vertrieben(Cabbageandturnipshavedrivenmeaway)fourtimes,sointhe
29thchapterofGoldberg:VariationsThehugemightyoaks[]isutteredfour
timesandBringback,bringback[]threetimes.
Itisfarmoresignificant,though,thatBachslastvariationlendsitselfeasilyto
acomparisonwiththelastphaseofWestfieldspartybecauseboththesongsBach
quotes in his quodlibet are clearly related to dancing. To quote from a recent
paper:
Thefirstmelodyincorporatedintothequodlibet(Ichbinsolangnichtbei
dirgewest)waspopularasaKehraus(i.e.thelastmerryorwilddanceat
thecloseofaparty)atdancesthesecondKrautundRbenwasa

popularmelodywhichcorrespondedtothemostfamousmelodyofthe
BergamascaofNorthernItaly.9
26

27

28

The last correspondence between chapter 29 and the quodlibet I want to


emphasize is the similar function they perform within their respective contexts:
they both constitute a brilliant climax by comparable means. It is true that
chapter29inJosipovicisnovelisnotthelast,butonlythelastbutonechapter.
ButevenWolfhascautiouslypointedoutthatchapter30inawaycorrespondsto
therepetitionofBachsAria:Thischapteristheshortestoneoftheentirenovel
[].Itevokesonceagainthebeginningofthenovel(andsoimitatestherepetition
ofthe Aria at the end of Bachs GoldbergVariationen10). It follows from this
thatchapter29isthetrueclimaxofthenovelandthuscorrespondstothelastof
thevariations.
InBachscasethevariationn30,thequodlibet,isaclimaxfortworeasons:(1)
because it is a showpiece (2) because it reveals an unfamiliar side of the
composer. To take the bass line which is thematic and remains the same
throughoutthesequenceandtocombineitinthelastvariation,notwithmelodies
Bachinventedhimselfasintheothervariations,butwithexistingpopulartunes
was, according to Bach scholars, a stroke of genius and showed his supreme
masteryasacomposer:itisaprimeexampleoftheconsummateartistryofBach
as a composer11. Similarly, Christoph Wolff comes to the conclusion: the
combinationofseveralthemeslockedinclosecanonicentries[]marksthepoint
offinalityandthecrowningofthetotalstructure12.Atthesametime,bymaking
useofpopulartunes,oneofwhichcouldevenfunctionasaKehraus,Bachmadeit
perfectlyclearthathewantedtoendthisseriouscompositiononacheerfulnote.
Andbymakingthisjokethefinalpiece,Bachshows,inaddition,anastonishing
degree of selfmockery. As John Butt remarks: there is no doubt that Bachs
intentwasmainlyhumorous,thecombinationofthethickfourparttexturewith
theungainlyfragments of traditional tunes poking fun at his own contrapuntal
inclinations13.
Thislastaspect,Bachsabilitytoputanironicdistancebetweenhimselfandhis
compositionconfirmsonceagainwhyandtowhatextentJosipovicischapter29
andBachsvariationn30belongtogether.Bycombiningsingingincanonand
dancingroundthetable,andbypresentingthissceneinaverystylizedfashion,
JosipovicitriedtocreateanarrativeequivalenttoBachsquodlibet.

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Notes
1WernerWolf,TheRoleofMusicinGabrielJosipovicisGoldberg:Variations,Style,
vol.37,2003,302.
2WernerWolf,op.cit.,304.
3 John Skelton, The Book of The Laurel, (ed.) F.W. Brownlow, London and Toronto:
AssociatedUP,1990,113,lines279280.
4Ibid.,53.
5Ibid.,79.
6WernerWolf,op.cit.,301.
7Ibid.,302.
8PeterWilliams,Bach:TheGoldbergVariations,Cambridge:CambridgeUP,2001,89.
9ChristianSchmittEngelstadt,ZuBachsGoldbergvariationen,DenenLiebhabernzur
GemthsErgetzung.<http://www.konzertorganist.de/varia.htm#Liebhabern>,accessed
11October2012,(mytranslation).
10WernerWolf,op.cit.,305.
11 Thomas Braatz, The Quodlibet as Represented in Bachs Final Goldberg Variation
BWV
988/30.
<http://www.bachcantatas.com/Articles/BWV988
Quodlibet[Braatz].htm>,accessed11October2012.
12 Christoph Wolff, Bach: Essays on his Life and Music, Cambridge, Massachusetts:
HarvardUP,1991,350.
13 John Butt, The Goldberg Variations, in Malcolm Boyd (ed.), Oxford Composer
Companions:J.S.Bach,Oxford:OxfordUP,1999,196.

Pourcitercetarticle
Rfrencelectronique

GntherJarfe,[A]llcomesaliveandstartstodance:The29thChapterofGabriel
JosipovicisGoldberg:Variations,RevueLISA/LISAejournal[Enligne],vol.XIIn
2|2014,misenlignele27mai2014,consultle27aot2015.URL:
http://lisa.revues.org/5852DOI:10.4000/lisa.5852

Auteur
GntherJarfe
PassauUniversity,Germany.GntherJarfeisEmeritusProfessorofEnglishatPassau
Universitywherehetaughtsince1985.HestudiedEnglishandGermanphilologyin

Freiburgi.Br.andHamburg.HereceivedhisPhDfromFreiburgUniversityandhis
HabilitationfromHamburgUniversity.HismainresearchareasareVictorianliterature
andculture,Modernism,andtheBritishshortstory.Amonghispublicationsarebookson
DanteGabrielRossettisTheHouseofLifeandW.H.Audensearlypoetryaswellasan
introductiontothemodernBritishshortstory.Hehasalsocoeditedananthologyof
modernshortstories.

Droitsdauteur
PressesUniversitairesdeRennes