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I.

Objectives:
At the end of the chapter, students
should be able to do the following:
1. Explain the nature of language, the
verbal symbol language;
2. Articulate sounds, words and
sentences correctly in language use
through proper application of theories
on segmentals and suprasegmentals;
3. Discuss the nature of non-verbal
communication behavior; and
4. Identify and talk about various types
of non-verbal symbols and cultural
differences in conveying these
symbols.
II. Topics to be covered:
Topics to be covered include:
Nature of language, the symbol
system of verbal communication
Language in use - its sounds, words
and sentences
Nature of non-verbal communication,
the communication without words
Types of non-verbal symbol
III. Discussion:
CHAPTER 4: Symbol System
The 2 languages (English and Filipino) are
different in detail, but are similar in broad
outline. For instance, Greenbergs study on
universals in language listed these
conclusions about syntax (Bolinger 18):
All languages use nominal phrases and
verbal phrases corresponding to the two
major classes of noun and verb and in all
of them, the number of nouns far exceeds
the number on verbs. One can be fairly
sure that a noun in one language
translates a noun in another.
All languages have modifiers of these
two classes corresponding to adjective
and adverb
All languages have ways of turning
verbal phrases into nounal [noun] phrases
(He went I know that he went)
All languages have ways of making
adjective-like phrases out of other kinds
of phrases (The man went The man who
went).
All languages have ways of turning
sentences into interrogatives, negatives
and commands.
All languages show at least two forms of
interaction between verbal and nominal
typically intransitive (the verbal is
involved with only one nominal as in Boys
play) and transitive (the verbal is
involved with two nominals as in Boys like
girls)
Lesson 1

Nature of Language, the Symbol System


of Verbal Communication
Definition of Language
Language is a system of sounds and
symbols used to communicate ideas and
feelings.
Features of Language
Language is a system - Language is a
vehicle by which the individual is able to
receive messages from inside (himself) or
outside (others).
Language is symbolic - Language is a
collection of symbols which possess
certain properties.
Language is conventional - Language is
the means accepted by a large number of
people.
Language is learned - Each culture
creates its own language to modify the
general language to meet its own needs.
Language changes - Language is one of
the ways by which groups identify
themselves. Unique expressions, new
words and distinct language patterns are
formed from language.
Language is a complex system of symbols
shared and used for communication by
members of the same community, the same
geographical area or the same cultural
tradition such as English, Spanish, Tagalog
and Waray.
Characteristics of Language
Language has symbols each language
contains elements which can create
meaning when put together in certain
ways
Language is a creative act. We are not
born with a language; we must learn it.
Language is rule-governed it is a
system and is, therefore, governed by
rules. There are at least 4 rules:
Phonological rules govern the
formation of sounds into words.
Syntactic rules govern the
arrangement of words into
sentences.
Semantic rules govern the way in
which the speakers of a language
interpret or attach meaning to a
particular symbol.
Regulative rules govern the
appropriate interpretation of a
message in a given context.
Meanings are in people, not words.
When words are transmitted between
communicators, only sound and light
waves reach them. Meaning cannot be
delivered like a bouquet of flowers or a
box of chocolate. Hence, when you say
the Filipino way of life, four listeners
can interpret it in four different ways
depending on their social, cultural,
individual orientations and schemata.
Language is culture-bound
Words do not have meanings,
but are capable of conveying

meanings to people of the same


culture people who can
perceive, identify and interpret
them.
To be able to understand what
somebody says, we must first
perceive the utterance. This
means that we have to hear it
spoken or see it written.
We must also identify its
elements and this is possible
only if we, the speaker/s and the
listener/s belong to the same
culture and language
community.
Language develops attitudes the
words we use actualize the way we
look at things around us; hence they
affect the way we behave. For
instance, the power of language
extends to the following:
-Personal names
-Style of speaking/writing
-Speakers fluency in the language and
his/her style of speech
-Names of peoples positions, roles or
functions
-Sexist and/or racist words
Language mirrors attitudes the way
we use words show our feeling of
control, attraction, responsibility and
the like.
Effective oral language is clear and
appropriate our language is clear
when it is grammatically correct and
when it uses exact, simple and easyto-understand words.
Facility in the use of language can be
developed we can hone our language
skills; we only need to have the
determination, willingness and
patience to attain it.
Lesson 2
Language in Use Its Sounds, Words, and
Sentences
The Sounds of Language
The English Language and its
inconsistencies
1. Formation of noun plurals
thief thieves , chief chiefs
box boxes , ox oxen
deer deer , goose geese
mouse mice , louse lice , die - dice
2. Spelling of words and their corresponding
pronunciations
- Letters of written English do not have
one-to-one correspondence with the sounds
of spoken English
Examples:
Stephen v
Shepherd p
Sopher f

International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)


- made use of symbols to
represent the sounds of the spoken English
- symbols are enclosed in
brackets [ ] to distinguish them from ordinary
letters of written English
The Oral Equipment or the Human
Speech Apparatus

Processes involved in speech production:


RESPIRATION, PHONATION, RESONATION,
& ARTICULATION

Parts of the Human Speech Apparatus


Articulation formation of discrete
individual sounds
Articulators: tongue and lower
lip (movable organs of the vocal
tract involved in articulation)
Parts of the tongue based
on position: tongue
front, tongue tip,
tongue dorsum,
tongue root, and
tongue center
Points of articulation: teeth
(cannot move but are involved
in the process
Producer of vocal sounds: larynx
or voice box
Acts as a resonance chamber
for vocal sounds: pharynx
(connects larynx and the oral
cavity
How is voice produced?
Exhalation (Respiration)
Vocal cords (muscles) contract closely
together

Air that passes through trachea vibrates


(Phonation)
Weak sound is produced and made louder
or resonated (Resonation)
The resonated sound is shaped by
articulators before it reaches the mouth
or nose (Articulation)
Separate sounds of our language system
are formed (Individual sounds or
segments)
Individual sounds and segments
Individual sounds or segmentals are
classified into: CONSONANTS, VOWELS
or DIPTHONGS

Consonants
Are articulated and shaped when there
is an attempt to close or obstruct the
passage of air (speech or vocal tract)
Exercise: a. Say the words: up and
aim
b. Say the words: if and of
In A, the speech tract was
completely closed
In B, the speech tract
was partially closed but
still, there was an
attempt of obstruction
Points of Articulation of Consonants
Bilabials formed by pressing the lower
lip near or against the upper lip
Ex: [p] pet
[m] more
Labiodentals formed by pressing the
lower lip near the upper teeth
Ex.
[f] fish
[v] - voice
Dentals - formed by pressing the tongue
tip behind the upper front teeth
Ex.
[] clothe
[]
cloth
Alveolars - formed by pressing the tip of
the tongue near the alveolar ridge
Ex.
[t] tone
[z] zoo
Alveopalatals - formed by pressing the front
of the tongue near the hard palate
Ex.
[] chalk
[J] jack
Velars formed with the back of the tongue
against the velum

Ex.
[k] kite
[g]
good
[] - sing
Glottal formed by narrowing of glottis so
that the air that passes causes friction but
does not have sufficient vibration to produce
voice
Ex.
[h] - hen
Manner of Articulation
Stops formed by completely closing the
oral and nasal cavities and opening the
mouth with explosion
Nasals - formed by the explosion of the
vocalized breath stream through the
nose, instead of mouth
Fricatives - formed by forcing air in a
continuous stream through a restricted
passageway
Affricates formed by rapidly combining
movements of the stop and fricative that
two sounds are heard as one unit
Semivowels - formed by smooth but
rapid and marked movement of the
tongue and lips during sound production
Lateral - formed with the tongues tip
pressed lightly against the upper teeth,
thus, allowing the vocalized breath
stream to laterally pass over both sides of
the tongue and out of the mouth
Voicing
The vibration or non-vibration of vocal
cords
Can be felt and heard
Exercise: Put your fingertips on
your Adams apple and or cover
both ears with your palms
a. Produce [m] and [v]
sounds
b. Produce [f] and [s]
sounds
In A, you feel some
vibrations and or buzzing
sound (VOICED +v)
In B, you do not feel any
vibrations and or buzzing
sound (VOICELESS v)
Vowels
Produced without any attempt to block
the mainstream, hence, there is free
flow of air
Articulation is dependent on four
factors:
Jaw height, tongue position,
muscle condition, and lip shape
Classification of Vowels
According to:
Section of the Tongue

Front vowels formed by placing the front


of the tongue higher than any parts of the
tongue
Central vowels formed by neither raising
the front or back of the tongue
Back vowels formed in which tongues
back is higher than any tongue parts
Height of the Tongue
High vowels formed by raising which
part of the tongue at a relatively high
level
Lower-high vowels - formed by raising
which part of the tongue at a relatively
lower-high level
Low vowels - formed by keeping low a
part of the tongue
Shape of the Lips
Rounded vowels - formed by positioning a
circular opening between lips
Unrounded vowels are not formed by a
circular opening of the lips
Articulatory Muscle Quality
Tense vowels formed by the muscles of
the tongue and neck
Lax vowels formed by relaxing the
muscles of the tongue and neck

Diphthongs
Each of the three diphthongs consists
of two combined vowels
Exercise: Say the following
words:
[ai] eye, my, light
[au] cow, loud, bough
[oi] oil, toy, coin

SUPRASEGMENTALS IN SENSEGROUPS
ACCENT OR STRESS
In a sense-group like a word, we make
one syllable prominent by making it
louder, longer and higher in pitch. This
special prominence is called accent or
stress.
Some words change their meanings
with the shift of the accent;
Example:
PROGress versus proGRESS
Rebel versus reBEL
Record
versus record

Most, However, are accented on the


same syllable, whether they are used
as noun/adjectives or as verbs.
Example:

rePORT, rePEAT, esCape, PURchase,


COMment, DELegate, TARget
STRESS
Is the prominence given to a
syllable or a single-syllable word.
It involves changes in pitch, force
and duration. This means that
stressed syllable or word is
usually higher in pitch, louder,
and longer than unstressed ones.
Four types of stress in English:
Primary Stress
- refers to heavy stress (). For
instance, the first Syllables of the following
words receive primary Stress.
Example:
ntice
ntary
rigin
vvid
mtinee
Sllable

Secondary Stress
- is lighter than the primary
stress (^). The first syllables of the following
words get the secondary stress. The primary
stress falls on the second syllables.
Examples:
smster
srvive
crton
rginal
rtrnch
nlss
Tertiary Stress
- is lighter than secondary stress ( ).
The second syllables of the following words
bear the tertiary stress.

Example:
ndrtke
vlnter
mnfcture
lmntary
crrespond
pprtnity

Intonation
Is the rise and fall of the voice. It
could also refer to the combination of
tunes on which we pronounce the
syllables that make up our speech.

There are four tunes of


pitch levels used in
speaking: (1) low, (2)
normal, (3) high and (4)
extra high. The low, normal
and high are the most
commonly used tunes and
are usually used by the
intonation patterns of

Standard American English.


The extra high tune is
seldom used except when
one expresses extreme fear,
anger, surprise or
excitement.
A shift occurs when there
is a movement from one
tune to another that takes
place between syllables.
Sometimes the voice slides
from one tune to another
while syllable is spoken.
This movement is called a
glide.

The Basic Intonation Patterns


1. Rising falling Intonatiom or 2-3-1
2. Rising Intonation or 2-3-3
3. Nonfinal
Intonation or 2-3-2
The Rising-Falling Intonation or 2-3-1
The Rising-Falling Intonation or 2-3-1
- A pattern starts with the
normal (2) tune and ends by raising the
voice to high (3) on the stressed primary
syllable of the sentence then falls to low
(1) as shown in the following
diagrams
a . (shift, when primary stress does not fall
on the lasts syllable)
b. (glide, when primary stress falls on the
last syllable)
This type of pattern is used in simple short
statement, commands and requests and
information questions (question that begin
with questions words like what, who, why,
how).
Note: The primary stress of a normal
sentence falls on the last content word (verb,
noun, and adverb, adjective) except when
last word is a preposition. In an emphatic
sentence, however, the emphasized word
gets the primary stress. The emphasized
word is any word in the sentence other than
the last content word or the preposition at
the end of the sentence.
Example:
The student is up early. (Statement of
fact)
Please clean up your room. (Request)
Smoking is allowed in the lounge.
(Command)
What would you like for lunch?
(Information question)
The student is up early. (Emphatic sentence)
The Rising Intonation or 2-3-3
- has the voice beginning on the
normal (2) tune and ending on a high (3)
tune on the primary-stressed word of
sentence. Syllables following the rise are
pronounced also on a high (3) note with the
last syllables slightly higher than the rest.
This type of intonation pattern is normally

used at the end of questions that are


answered by yes or no or yes-no questions,
echo statements seeking information and
deliberate counting and enumeration.
Example:
Did you rest well?
One, two,
three, four
Is he in the office?
You rested well?
Falling Intonation or 3-1
- It begins with a high tune (3) and
ends on a low one (1).
this pattern is used in one-word
and short commands and in counting-off
numbers.
Example:
Dive
One, Two, three, four
Dont panic. Run.
The Nonfinal Intonation or 2-3-2
- A pattern is used in the part of the
sentence which precedes the last primarystressed word. This type of pattern implies
incompetence of thought and signals that
the speaker still has something to say.
- The nonfinal pattern may be used
in the situations below in combination with
the rising-falling (2-3-2) or rising (2-3-3)
intonation patterns.
1. In function or content words which are
especially stressed that
precede the last
sentenced word.
Example:
Are they ready to sing?
2. In comparison and contrast
Example:
Im looking for a blue book not a red
book
3. On sentence where two or more
thought groups are divided by short pauses.
Example:
If she leaves now, youll have to go with
her.
The Intonation Patterns for Specific
Structures
- The normal (2) high (3) or 2-3 and the
normal (2) high (3) low (1) or 2-3-1
intonation pattern is used in sentences
having alternatives with or series with and,
direct address and tag questions.
1. Alternatives with or/ series with and
The 2-3, 2-3-1 intonation pattern is
also referred to as the choice question tune.
-for series with and, the last word of
the series is emphasized; for alternatives
with or, the contrast between or among the
choices are emphasized.
Example:
The visitor will depart either on Thursday
or Saturday.
My cousins are Jimmy, Addie, and Amy.

2. Direct address
-The word or name substituted for a
name that is addressed directly to the person
to whom one speaks is called direct address.
The direct address may come either at the
beginning, middle or end of the sentence but
it does not have an effect on the intonation
pattern of a sentence. The 2-3 or rising
intonation pattern is used followed by the 23-1 or rising-falling pattern.
Example:
Be very careful with the books, my dear.
Mina, would you like some coffee or tea?
3. Tag Question
- Two types of intonation patterns
are used when tag questions are spoken.
Tag Question with rising
intonation like yes-no questions uses the 2-32, 2-3 or the rising intonation pattern.
Example:
The people have spoken, havent they?
-tag questions with rising
intonation (2-3-1, 3-1) pertains to question of
confirmation or agreement.
Example:
The teacher is very happy with her class,
isnt she?
-

CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-VERBAL
COMMUNICATION
Non-verbal Communication
Gives hints of how people feel
Makes it impossible for people not to
communicate
Primarily involve attitudes not idea
provides cues not facts
Provides more information than verbal
communication

Functions of Non-Verbal Communication


Complementing
Contradicting
Accenting
Substituting
Regulating
Repeating
*emblem- non verbal behaviors that have
precise meaning.*
Process of Non-Verbal Communication

Kinesics
Paralanguage
Haptics
Proxemics
Chronemics
Personal Appearances

Kinesics
The study of body movement
Based on research:
*20,000 facial expressions
*700,000 physical signs
*1000 postures
*7,777 gestures in classroom
*5000 hand gestures in clinical
situation
Oculesics
the way we meet someone else's glance
during the communication process.
Maintaining Eye Contact
People generally maintain eye contact
when:
* discussing topic with which they are
comfortable
* they are interested with the person's
comment and reaction
* one person is trying to influence the
other.
Avoiding Eye Contact
People avoid eye contact when:
*discussing something that makes them
uncomfortable
*not interested in the topic or person
*embarrassed, ashamed, or trying to
hide something
Facial Expression/Display
this can be managed and controlled
Gesture
The purposive movement of a body to
suggest or emphasize something.
Posture
This is the way of bearing the body while
we are in standing or sitting position.

CULTURAL DIFFERENCES
Eye Contact
* US and Western Countries
- they expect eye contact
when communicating
* Philippines
- eye contact is expected
* Arabia

-eye contact is to
manifest keen interest
* Japan
- Adam's apple not eyes!
* Indonesia, China and rural areas of
Mexico
- too much eye contact
means bad manners.
Facial Expression/Display
* in the US, there are unwritten rules
for facial display at certain functions.
Gesture
* In the Philippines, affection between
and among friends of the same sex is
shown through gestures such as holding
hands, etc. in some European countries,
members of the same sex who hold
hands are mistaken as lovers.
Posture
considered
body.

* in Thailand, feet are


the most d egraded part of the

3. Full Voice
4. Chesty Voice
5. Thin Voice
Speed

Pitch

Is the highness or lowness of the voice


We raise or lower the tone of our voice
as we make it louder or softer and as
we show a change of emotions.
By using pitch patterns of inflections,
one can utter a statement as a
question constructed declaratively
This displays the capacity of pitch to
qualify meanings of verbal messages
Volume

* Head is the most sacred body


part in Thailand
PARALANGUANGE
Refers to the nonverbal sound
accompanying our oral language
such as
- tone of voice
- speed of speech
- pitch
- volume.
It is the nonverbal sound of what
we hear or how something is said
that is conveyed by certain
qualities of the voice and these
vocal cues can do much to change
the meaning of a sentence
Tone

Is the distinct sound of the voice.


No two persons have exactly the
same sound or quality of voice, so
that we can recognize the voice of
a person close to us even when we
do not see him/her.
Whatever kind of voice quality we
have, any slight change can
communicate the particular state
of our mind at the moment of
speaking

Five Common Voice Qualities:


1. Normal Voice
2. Breathy or Whispery Voice

Is the rate of how we speak.


We speak faster when we are excited,
happy, afraid or nervous; we speak
slower when we are emphasizing
something, or when we are trying to
solve a problem aloud.
Increased tempo or speed can also
emphasize intelligence and energy

Is the loudness or softness of the


voice. Although some of us normally
speak with a loud or soft voice, we
tend to make our voice louder or
softer, depending on the kind of
communication situation we are in
The impact pf our paralinguistic cues
is very strong
Even pauses and fillers (uh, um, er,
well, ok, you know) communicate
something about us as speakers

HAPTICS
Is the study of how touch is used to
convey meaning through the hands,
arms and other body parts.
Touch is culture-bounds; also, it varies
according to the age, sex and statues
of the people touching and being
touched
Heslin and Alper categorized touch into five
distinct ones depending on the function it
serves:
1. Functional/Professional Touches
(are used at work, or in the exercise of
profession)
2. Social/Polite Touches (are governed
by social norms)
3. Friendship/Warmth Touches
(harmless to show affection and
affiliation)
4. Love/Intimate Touches (permitted
and enjoyed among people who are
intimate with one another)

5. Sexual Touches (are pertaining to


and/or prompted by sexual love or
desire)
Cultural Differences
Some culture regard lots of touching
and contact as normal behavior;
hence, they believe that close is
positive and good and far is negative
and bad.
Other Cultures discourage frequent
touching and respect individual space.
PROXEMICS
Refers to the way people use space to
convey meaning such as permanent
structures, movable objects within
space and informal space
1. Permanent Structures
Are those in which we live or work that
cannot be moved.
The kind of houses or offices we have
reflects our lifestyle so when we rent,
buy or build them, we carefully select
those that fit the image we want to
communicate
2. Movable Objects
And their arrangements in a room in
our homes or places of work depend
on the effect we want to achieve.
3. Informal Space
Is the space around us at any given
time
Consciously or unconsciously, we feel
uncomfortable when someone
intrudes into what Americans call our
intimate space
Space-Types:
1. Intimate Space (0-18 inches) Private
conversations
2. Personal Space (18 inches 4 feet)
Casual conversations
3. Social Space (4-12 feet) Impersonal
business
4. Public Space (12 15 feet and farther)
Public communication
4. Cultural Differences
CHRONEMICS
Is the study of how people use
structure time
The use of time for communication
purposes is associated with duration,
activity and punctuality
Duration
Is the length of time that is considered
appropriate for an activity or event.

When the duration of the


activity/event differs significantly from
our expectations, we attach a certain
meaning to the difference
Activity
Refers to the specific action that
people generally regard as appropriate
to be taking place at a given time.
Most people sleep at night, work
during the day or rest from work
during a break
When someone does something
differently, people begin to react
negatively
Punctuality
Is being exact to the time agreed on.
It is the time dimension that most
closely affects our self-presentation.
Cultural Differences
In some small and densely populated
parts of the Philippines and other
Asian countries, somebody who works
at night and sleeps in the daytime is
thought of to be engaged in
something illegal like prostitution and
criminal syndicate.
In the United States, the majority
considers time as a commodity that
must be saved, spent and budgeted
and hence be measured carefully.
Americans divide their days into 24
hours, hours into 60 minutes and
minutes into 60 seconds.
PERSONAL APPEARANCE
The way we dress, adorn and fix
ourselves communicate a message
about us our social and cultural roles
and our personal qualities
In fact, one writer suggested that
clothing conveys at least ten types of
messages economic level,
educational level, trustworthiness,
social position, level of sophistication,
economic background, social
background, educational background,
level of success and moral character.
Cultural Differences
The business suit is used by the
corporate world and sports clothes
are donned by sports enthusiasts
Even clothes for funerals have
changes. Filipinos for instance are now
wont using white or any pastel-colored
apparel instead of the traditional
black.

For beach wear, more and more Asians


no longer have qualms about putting
on swimsuits
Tattoos, that used to stigmatize
criminals and prisoners and body
piercing that set minority tribal groups
apart from dominant cultures are seen
on the more daring young everywhere
in the world

III. Activities
We prepared an activity that was copied from
a segment in Showtime called Ansabe? The
instructions are simple where you must
guess the word that was saying by your
partner without a sound. But we added some
thrill on the game, where the one whos
saying a word without a sound must eat
polovoron. Let the game begin!
IV. Sources