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Insight Report

The Global
Competitiveness Report
20152016
Klaus Schwab, World Economic Forum

The Global Competitiveness Index 20152016 Rankings


Economy

Score1

Prev.2

Switzerland

5.76

Singapore

5.68

United States

5.61

Germany

5.53

Netherlands

5.50

Japan

7
8

Trend3

Economy

Score1

Prev.2

Trend3

Economy

Score1

Prev.2

48

Malta

4.39

47

95

El Salvador

3.87

84

49

South Africa

4.39

56

96

Zambia

3.87

96

50

Panama

4.38

48

97

Seychelles

3.86

92

51

Turkey

4.37

45

98

Dominican Republic

3.86

101

52

Costa Rica

4.33

51

99

Kenya

3.85

90

5.47

53

Romania

4.32

59

100

Nepal

3.85

102

Hong Kong SAR

5.46

54

Bulgaria

4.32

54

101

Lebanon

3.84

113

Finland

5.45

55

India

4.31

71

102

Kyrgyz Republic

3.83

108
106

Sweden

5.43

10

56

Vietnam

4.30

68

103

Gabon

3.83

10

United Kingdom

5.43

57

Mexico

4.29

61

104

Mongolia

3.81

98

11

Norway

5.41

11

58

Rwanda

4.29

62

105

Bhutan

3.80

103

12

Denmark

5.33

13

59

Slovenia

4.28

70

106

Argentina

3.79

104

13

Canada

5.31

15

60

Macedonia, FYR

4.28

63

107

Bangladesh

3.76

109

14

Qatar

5.30

16

61

Colombia

4.28

66

108

Nicaragua

3.75

99

15

Taiwan, China

5.28

14

62

Oman

4.25

46

109

Ethiopia

3.75

118

16

New Zealand

5.25

17

63

Hungary

4.25

60

110

Senegal

3.73

112

17

United Arab Emirates

5.24

12

64

Jordan

4.23

64

111

Bosnia & Herzegovina

3.71

n/a

18

Malaysia

5.23

20

65

Cyprus

4.23

58

112

Cape Verde

3.70

114

3.70

107

19

Belgium

5.20

18

66

Georgia

4.22

69

113

Lesotho

20

Luxembourg

5.20

19

67

Slovak Republic

4.22

75

114

Cameroon

3.69

116

21

Australia

5.15

22

68

Sri Lanka

4.21

73

115

Uganda

3.66

122

22

France

5.13

23

69

Peru

4.21

65

116

Egypt

3.66

119

23

Austria

5.12

21

70

Montenegro

4.20

67

117

Bolivia

3.60

105
120

24

Ireland

5.11

25

71

Botswana

4.19

74

118

Paraguay

3.60

25

Saudi Arabia

5.07

24

72

Morocco

4.17

72

119

Ghana

3.58

111

26

Korea, Rep.

4.99

26

73

Uruguay

4.09

80

120

Tanzania

3.57

121
117

27

Israel

4.98

27

74

Iran, Islamic Rep.

4.09

83

121

Guyana

3.56

28

China

4.89

28

75

Brazil

4.08

57

122

Benin

3.55

n/a

29

Iceland

4.83

30

76

Ecuador

4.07

n/a

123

Gambia, The

3.48

125

30

Estonia

4.74

29

77

Croatia

4.07

77

124

Nigeria

3.46

127

31

Czech Republic

4.69

37

78

Guatemala

4.05

78

125

Zimbabwe

3.45

124

32

Thailand

4.64

31

79

Ukraine

4.03

76

126

Pakistan

3.45

129

33

Spain

4.59

35

80

Tajikistan

4.03

91

127

Mali

3.44

128

34

Kuwait

4.59

40

81

Greece

4.02

81

128

Swaziland

3.40

123

35

Chile

4.58

33

82

Armenia

4.01

85

129

Liberia

3.37

n/a

36

Lithuania

4.55

41

83

Lao PDR

4.00

93

130

Madagascar

3.32

130

37

Indonesia

4.52

34

84

Moldova

4.00

82

131

Myanmar

3.32

134

38

Portugal

4.52

36

85

Namibia

3.99

88

132

Venezuela

3.30

131

39

Bahrain

4.52

44

86

Jamaica

3.97

86

133

Mozambique

3.20

133

40

Azerbaijan

4.50

38

87

Algeria

3.97

79

134

Haiti

3.18

137

41

Poland

4.49

43

88

Honduras

3.95

100

135

Malawi

3.15

132

Trend3

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42

Kazakhstan

4.49

50

89

Trinidad and Tobago

3.94

89

136

Burundi

3.11

139

43

Italy

4.46

49

90

Cambodia

3.94

95

137

Sierra Leone

3.06

138

44

Latvia

4.45

42

91

Cte dIvoire

3.93

115

138

Mauritania

3.03

141

45

Russian Federation

4.44

53

92

Tunisia

3.93

87

139

Chad

2.96

143

46

Mauritius

4.43

39

93

Albania

3.93

97

140

Guinea

2.84

144

47

Philippines

4.39

52

94

Serbia

3.89

94

Advanced
Economies

Middle East,
North Africa, and Pakistan

Emerging and
Developing Asia

Latin America
and the Caribbean

Commonwealth of
Independent States

Emerging and
Developing Europe

Sub-Saharan
Africa

Note: The Global Competitiveness Index captures the fundamentals of an economy. Recent developments, including currency (e.g., Switzerland) and commodity price fluctuations (e.g., Azerbaijan,
Qatar, Saudi Arabia), geopolitical uncertainties (e.g., Ukraine), and security issues (e.g., Turkey) must be kept in mind when interpreting the results.
1 Scale ranges from 1 to 7.
2 This shows the rank out of the 144 economies in the GCI 20142015.
3 The trend line shows the evolution in percentile rank since 2007; breaks in the trend line reflect years when the economy was not included in the GCI.

2015 World Economic Forum

The Global Competitiveness Report 20152016 | xv

2: Country/Economy Profiles

Morocco
Key indicators, 2014

GDP (PPP) per capita (intl $), 19902014

Population (millions) ........................................ 33.2


GDP (US$ billions) ........................................ 109.2
GDP per capita (US$) ................................... 3,291
GDP (PPP) as share (%) of world total ............ 0.23

Morocco

15,000

Middle East, North Africa, and Pakistan

12,000
9,000
6,000
3,000
0

Global Competitiveness Index


Rank
(out of 140)

Score
(17)

Institutions
7

Innovation

GCI 20152016 ...................................................... 72 ..... 4.2


GCI 20142015 (out of 144) ..................................... 72 ......4.2
GCI 20132014 (out of 148) ..................................... 77 ......4.1
GCI 20122013 (out of 144) ..................................... 70 ......4.1

Infrastructure

6
5

Business
sophistication

Macroeconomic
environment

4
3
2

Basic requirements (40.0%) .......................................55 ......4.7

Market size

1st pillar: Institutions ................................................. 47 ......4.2


2nd pillar: Infrastructure ............................................ 55 ......4.3
3rd pillar: Macroeconomic environment .................... 58 ......4.8
4th pillar: Health and primary education ................... 77 ......5.6

Health and
primary
education

Higher education
and training

Technological
readiness
Financial market
development

Efficiency enhancers (50.0%) .....................................82 ......3.9

Goods market
efficiency
Labor market efficiency

5th pillar: Higher education and training ................. 106 ......3.4


6th pillar: Goods market efficiency ............................ 64 ......4.3
7th pillar: Labor market efficiency ........................... 123 ......3.6
8th pillar: Financial market development ................... 70 ......3.9
9th pillar: Technological readiness ............................ 78 ......3.6
10th pillar: Market size.............................................. 53 ......4.3

Morocco

Middle East, North Africa, and Pakistan

Stage of development

Innovation and sophistication factors (10.0%) ...........92 ......3.4


11th pillar: Business sophistication .......................... 82 ......3.8
12th pillar: Innovation ............................................... 98 ......3.1

Transition
12

Factor
driven

Transition
23

Efficiency
driven

Innovation
driven

The most problematic factors for doing business


Score*

Access to financing ...........................................................17.9


Inefficient government bureaucracy ...................................15.6
Corruption .........................................................................12.2
Inadequately educated workforce ......................................11.2
Tax rates............................................................................10.0
Insufficient capacity to innovate ...........................................7.0
Restrictive labor regulations .................................................5.4
Inadequate supply of infrastructure ......................................4.8
Complexity of tax regulations...............................................4.7
Poor work ethic in labor force..............................................4.4
Foreign currency regulations ................................................4.1
Inflation ................................................................................1.0
Poor public health ...............................................................1.0
Crime and theft ...................................................................0.4
Government instability/coups ..............................................0.2
Policy instability ...................................................................0.2
0
*

10

15

20

25

From the list of factors, respondents were asked to select the five most problematic for doing business in their country and to rank them between 1 (most problematic) and 5. The score
corresponds to the responses weighted according to their rankings.

266 | The Global Competitiveness Report 20152016

2015 World Economic Forum

30

2: Country/Economy Profiles

Morocco
The Global Competitiveness Index in detail
INDICATOR

VALUE RANK/140

INDICATOR

1st pillar: Institutions

VALUE RANK/140

6th pillar: Goods market efficiency (contd.)

1.01
1.02
1.03
1.04
1.05
1.06
1.07
1.08
1.09
1.10
1.11
1.12
1.13
1.14
1.15
1.16
1.17
1.18
1.19
1.20
1.21

Property rights ....................................................... 4.7 ............42


Intellectual property protection ............................... 4.0 ............61
Diversion of public funds ........................................ 3.9 ............46
Public trust in politicians ......................................... 3.4 ............50
Irregular payments and bribes ................................ 4.1 ............58
Judicial independence............................................ 3.5 ............83
Favoritism in decisions of government officials ....... 3.5 ............46
Wastefulness of government spending ................... 3.6 ............43
Burden of government regulation ........................... 3.5 ............58
Efficiency of legal framework in settling disputes .... 3.6 ............72
Efficiency of legal framework in challenging regs. ... 3.5 ............64
Transparency of government policymaking............. 4.4 ............43
Business costs of terrorism .................................... 5.8 ............39
Business costs of crime and violence..................... 5.4 ............27
Organized crime ..................................................... 5.8 ............30
Reliability of police services .................................... 4.9 ............41
Ethical behavior of firms ......................................... 4.0 ............63
Strength of auditing and reporting standards ......... 4.7 ............62
Efficacy of corporate boards .................................. 4.6 ............83
Protection of minority shareholders interests ......... 4.3 ............51
Strength of investor protection, 010 (best)* .......... 4.6 ..........105

2.01
2.02
2.03
2.04
2.05
2.06
2.07
2.08
2.09

Quality of overall infrastructure ............................... 4.4 ............55


Quality of roads ...................................................... 4.3 ............55
Quality of railroad infrastructure .............................. 3.9 ............33
Quality of port infrastructure ................................... 4.8 ............41
Quality of air transport infrastructure....................... 4.6 ............58
Available airline seat km/week, millions* ............. 475.1 ............46
Quality of electricity supply ..................................... 5.4 ............51
Mobile telephone subscriptions/100 pop.* ......... 131.7 ............42
Fixed-telephone lines/100 pop.* ............................. 7.4 ............98

3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05

Government budget balance, % GDP*................. 4.9 ..........107


Gross national savings, % GDP* .......................... 28.1 ............30
Inflation, annual % change* .................................... 0.4 ............48
General government debt, % GDP* ..................... 63.9 ..........100
Country credit rating, 0100 (best)* ...................... 52.7 ............68

4.01
4.02
4.03
4.04
4.05
4.06
4.07
4.08
4.09
4.10

Malaria cases/100,000 pop.* ................................M.F. ...........n/a


Business impact of malaria ............................. N/Appl. ...........n/a
Tuberculosis cases/100,000 pop.* ..................... 104.0 ............92
Business impact of tuberculosis ............................. 5.7 ............68
HIV prevalence, % adult pop.* ............................... 0.2 ..............1
Business impact of HIV/AIDS ................................. 5.7 ............61
Infant mortality, deaths/1,000 live births* .............. 26.1 ............96
Life expectancy, years*......................................... 70.9 ............91
Quality of primary education ................................... 3.0 ..........110
Primary education enrollment, net %* .................. 98.3 ............21

5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07
5.08

Secondary education enrollment, gross %* .......... 68.9 ..........104


Tertiary education enrollment, gross %*................ 16.2 ..........100
Quality of the education system ............................. 2.8 ..........122
Quality of math and science education .................. 4.0 ............74
Quality of management schools ............................. 4.1 ............72
Internet access in schools ...................................... 3.5 ..........110
Availability of specialized training services .............. 4.0 ............84
Extent of staff training ............................................ 3.4 ..........120

2nd pillar: Infrastructure

6.06
6.07
6.08
6.09
6.10
6.11
6.12
6.13
6.14
6.15
6.16

No. procedures to start a business* .......................... 5 ............38


No. days to start a business* ............................... 11.0 ............59
Agricultural policy costs.......................................... 4.6 ............13
Prevalence of non-tariff barriers .............................. 3.8 ..........120
Trade tariffs, % duty* ............................................ 10.1 ..........107
Prevalence of foreign ownership............................. 4.8 ............54
Business impact of rules on FDI ............................. 5.2 ............22
Burden of customs procedures .............................. 4.2 ............57
Imports as a percentage of GDP* ........................ 49.3 ............63
Degree of customer orientation .............................. 4.5 ............73
Buyer sophistication ............................................... 3.1 ............96

7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06
7.07
7.08
7.09
7.10

Cooperation in labor-employer relations ................. 3.9 ..........114


Flexibility of wage determination ............................. 5.4 ............38
Hiring and firing practices ....................................... 3.5 ............99
Redundancy costs, weeks of salary* .................... 20.7 ............94
Effect of taxation on incentives to work .................. 4.0 ............49
Pay and productivity............................................... 3.5 ..........106
Reliance on professional management ................... 4.1 ............78
Country capacity to retain talent............................. 3.4 ............76
Country capacity to attract talent ........................... 3.6 ............59
Women in labor force, ratio to men* ..................... 0.34 ..........133

8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07
8.08

Availability of financial services ............................... 4.6 ............57


Affordability of financial services ............................. 4.2 ............61
Financing through local equity market .................... 3.9 ............49
Ease of access to loans ......................................... 3.1 ............47
Venture capital availability ....................................... 2.7 ............68
Soundness of banks .............................................. 5.2 ............54
Regulation of securities exchanges ........................ 4.9 ............35
Legal rights index, 012 (best)* ................................. 2 ..........106

9.01
9.02
9.03
9.04
9.05
9.06
9.07

Availability of latest technologies ............................ 5.1 ............51


Firm-level technology absorption ............................ 4.5 ............73
FDI and technology transfer ................................... 4.6 ............55
Individuals using Internet, %* ............................... 56.8 ............60
Fixed-broadband Internet subscriptions/100 pop.* .. 3.0 ............94
Intl Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user* ................ 10.8 ............98
Mobile-broadband subscriptions/100 pop.* ......... 26.8 ............94

10.01
10.02
10.03
10.04

Domestic market size index, 17 (best)*................. 4.1 ............50


Foreign market size index, 17 (best)* .................... 4.8 ............59
GDP (PPP$ billions)* .......................................... 252.4 ............55
Exports as a percentage of GDP* ........................ 36.3 ............76

11.01
11.02
11.03
11.04
11.05
11.06
11.07
11.08
11.09

Local supplier quantity ........................................... 4.6 ............55


Local supplier quality.............................................. 4.1 ............83
State of cluster development.................................. 3.4 ............95
Nature of competitive advantage ............................ 2.9 ..........109
Value chain breadth................................................ 3.8 ............68
Control of international distribution ......................... 3.7 ............77
Production process sophistication.......................... 3.5 ............94
Extent of marketing ................................................ 4.1 ............88
Willingness to delegate authority ............................ 3.6 ............82

12.01
12.02
12.03
12.04
12.05
12.06
12.07

Capacity for innovation........................................... 3.5 ..........108


Quality of scientific research institutions ................. 3.2 ..........102
Company spending on R&D................................... 2.8 ..........110
University-industry collaboration in R&D ................. 3.2 ............96
Govt procurement of advanced tech products ...... 3.0 ............96
Availability of scientists and engineers .................... 4.1 ............56
PCT patents, applications/million pop.* .................. 1.0 ............69

7th pillar: Labor market efficiency

8th pillar: Financial market development

3rd pillar: Macroeconomic environment

4th pillar: Health and primary education

5th pillar: Higher education and training

6th pillar: Goods market efficiency


6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05

Intensity of local competition .................................. 5.0 ............73


Extent of market dominance .................................. 3.6 ............74
Effectiveness of anti-monopoly policy ..................... 3.7 ............80
Effect of taxation on incentives to invest................. 4.1 ............34
Total tax rate, % profits* ....................................... 49.3 ..........110

9th pillar: Technological readiness

10th pillar: Market size

11th pillar: Business sophistication

12th pillar: Innovation

Notes: Values are on a 1-to-7 scale unless otherwise annotated with an asterisk (*). For further details and explanation, please refer to the section How to Read
the Country/Economy Profiles on page 89.
2015 World Economic Forum

The Global Competitiveness Report 20152016 | 267