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Abstract

Nuclear energy is the energy released by a nuclear reaction, especially by fission or

fusion. Nuclear energy is regarded as a source of massive power also called atomic

energy. Bangladesh wants to set up first nuclear power plant to meet its demand for

electricity. Bangladesh get green signal from IAEA. Bangladesh Government

acquired land in Rooppur and wants to install its first plant by 2015. Bangladesh

Atomic Energy Commission’s activities now limited in research Activities. If we can

complete this project it is possible for us to overcome our recent power crisis. And we

can also manipulate the cost that causes for the load shedding.
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Table of Contents

Sl. Contents Page no.


1. Introduction 5
2. About Nuclear Energy 5-6
3. Nuclear power plant mechanism 6
4. Energy policy of Bangladesh 6-7
I. Future of Nuclear Power Plant
II. Projects
III. Public Acceptance
5. Acquired land in Rooppur 7
6. Green Signal from IAEA 7
7. Cost of planting a nuclear plant 8-10
8. Signed a MOU with Russia 10
9. Ground work 10
10 Installation of first plant within 2015 11
.
11 Agreements signed 11
.
12 Present condition and Activities of BAEC 11-12
.
13 Conclusion 12
.

Introduction

Constant power crisis is one of the main problems for Bangladesh to attain the

projected goals of its socio-economic development. But due to limited indigenous

energy sources it is not possible to increase electricity production. Over the last four

decades scientist working in the nuclear field had been striving to fulfill the dream of

implementation of nuclear power plant to overcome the crisis of electricity but limited

resources and financial constraints are the major obstacles in the way of nuclear

energy of Bangladesh. However, the overall power crisis situation and the constant

efforts of the scientist made the Government of Bangladesh to take a decision of

establishing a nuclear power plant in the country. Feasibility study has been made

which has clearly identified nuclear option as appropriate and viable for the country.

A site has already been selected for the establishment of 1st nuclear power plant.
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About Nuclear Energy

Nuclear energy originates from the splitting of uranium atoms in a process called

fission and Fusion. At the power plant, the fission process is used to generate heat for

producing steam, which is used by a turbine to generate electricity.

Figure: Process of Nuclear fusion. Figure: Nuclear Fission

Source: The image of the Nuclear Fusion and Fission.

Electricity, which plays such an important role in our lives, is generated in a power

plant. (Source: Energy Story-Fission and Fusion)

Nuclear power plant mechanism

This interaction depicts a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) nuclear reactor. In a

PWR two types named Primary side and Secondary side system exists. First type have

pipe that contains the coolant called the Primary side and Second one have pipe that

contains steam to spin the turbine is called secondary side. Primary level and

secondary side water do not mix. Primary side water keeps in high pressure and

secondary side water keeps in a lower pressure. So the secondary side water boils and

become steam which spins the turbine. The spinning of turbine produces electricity.

(Source: Energy story- Nuclear power plant methods)

Present Energy policy of Bangladesh


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Nuclear energy has been introduced as an alternative source of energy mix in the

national energy policy in 2007. The Government of Bangladesh approved Bangladesh

Nuclear Power Action Plan (BANPAP) in 2000. Bangladesh’s energy policy now

highly recommends building a nuclear power plan because of recent power crisis.

Touching upon energy and power issues in A.M.A. Muhith budget speech, the finance

minister outlined a long-term vision to solve the gas and power crisis at present and in

future, and as part of it proposed an allocation of Tk 4,310 crore for the sector in the

next fiscal year (FY). Former finance minister A.M.A. Muhith declined to give a

definitive deadline for building a nuclear power plant but said the government plans

to implement a 1,000 megawatt nuclear power plant in Rooppur with self-finance.

• Future of Nuclear Plant: National energy policy has identified the necessity

of implementing of two medium size nuclear plants within 2015-2017.

• Projects: A development projects has been approved for the fiscal year 2008-

2010 to accomplish essential activities to implement Nuclear Power Plant.

• People’s Acceptance: The people of Bangladesh are accepting this idea

because of present crisis of power. Its gives some guarantee of consistence

power supply. (Source: Dr. Zakia Begum, 2008, p.2)

Acquired land in Rooppur

The proposal of building Nuclear power plant in Rooppur was first conceived in 1961.

The Rooppur site was selected at 1963 and 163 hectares of land was acquired. Land

for the plant (105.30 ha) and the residential colony (12.15 ha) was acquired and the

people affected were compensated and rehabilitated at a nearby place. (Source: K M

Rezaur Rahman, 2009)

Green Signal from IAEA


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Bangladesh submitted the work plan to the IAEA last October 2007, giving details on

how the country planned to install the nuclear power plant at Rooppur and maintain

safeguards with proper management of wastes. The IAEA was pleased with the

government commitment for setting up the nuclear power plant, selection of the

project site and assurance of utilizing the plant for peaceful purposes. The

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) approved energy-starved Bangladesh's

plan to set up a nuclear power station. Former Energy and Power Adviser Tapan

Chowdhury said, “The IAEA's response received recently was found to be very

positive towards installation of a nuclear power plant”. (Source: Du Guodong, 2007)

Cost of installing Nuclear Power Plant

The cost of generating power via nuclear energy can be separated into the following

components:

• The construction cost of building the plant.

• The operating cost of running the plant and generating energy.

• The cost of waste disposal from the plant.

• The cost of decommissioning the plant.

(The numbers in all the tables are the costs to generate electricity in US cents per

KWHr for different interest rates and construction times)

Case 1, Construction Cost = $1 Billion. (Westinghouse claim for its AP1000 reactor

after volume production.)

Interest rate 3 years 4 years 5 years 7 years

5% 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.7

6% 2.4 2.5 2.7 3.1

7% 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.6


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8% 2.8 3.0 3.3 4.4

9% 3.0 3.3 3.7 5.5

10% 3.3 3.6 4.2 7.2

Case 2, Construction Cost = $1.4 Billion. (Westinghouse claim for its first AP1000

reactor)

Interest rate 3 years 4 years 5 years 7 years


5% 2.6 2.8 2.9 3.3
6% 2.9 3.0 3.2 3.8
7% 3.1 3.3 3.6 4.6
8% 3.4 3.7 4.1 5.6
9% 3.7 4.1 4.7 7.1
10% 4.0 4.6 5.4 9.5

Case 3, Construction Cost = $2.0 Billion.

Interest rate 3 years 4 years 5 years 7 years


5% 3.2 3.4 3.6 4.1
6% 3.5 3.9 4.1 4.9
7% 3.9 4.2 4.6 6.0
8% 4.3 4.7 5.3 7.4
9% 4.7 5.3 6.1 9.6
10% 5.2 6.0 7.1 13.1
Source: Energy Bangla- The cost of installing nuclear plant Engr. Khondkar Abdus

Saleque)

The General Electric ABWR was the first third generation power plant approved. The

first two ABWR's were commissioned in Japan in 1996 and 1997. These took just

over 3 years to construct and were completed on budget. Their construction costs

were around $2000 per KW. In generally it can be built in only four years for a cost

ranging from $1,400 to $1,600 USD per kW, depending on the host country. (Source:

Nuclear plants and instrumentation). In our country it might take 4-5 years to

implement the planned 600-1000-MW nuclear power plant. The cost of the plant

might be $ 1.5-2.0 billion.


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Signed a MoU with Russia

Russia entered a race with China and South Korea on Sunday to win a contract to

build a 1,000 megawatt nuclear power plant for energy-starved Bangladesh. (Source:

Russia vies for Bangladesh nuclear power plant deal) Bangladesh and Russia signed a

memorandum of understanding (MoU) as an umbrella accord aimed at enhancing

cooperation between the two countries in peaceful use of nuclear energy, by way of

installing a nuclear plant in the first place. Minister for Science and ICT architect

Yeafesh Osman said, "This is a great moment for us. Through the signing of this

agreement, we are moving forward to implement our election commitment to build up

a nuclear power project in Rooppur". The immediate purpose of the deal signed

between the state-owned Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) and the

Russian State Atomic Energy Corporation-Rosatom-is to take necessary steps for

building a 600-1000-megawatt power plant in Bangladesh. (Source: “Nazrul Islam”

2009).

Groundwork

Dhaka is now ready for groundwork to install its first nuclear plant. As it previously

signed with Russia the engineers and some manpower visited IAEA nuclear plant and

they experienced the total mechanism of a Nuclear Plant. Russian engineers visits the

Rooppur site and now design the plant and estimate the total construction cost.

(Source: “Nazrul Islam” 2009)

Installation of first plant within 2015

Bangladesh wants to install its first nuclear power plant by 2015 to meet the country's

mounting electricity demand, as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has
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responded positively to its installation plan. This is having a generation capacity

between 700 MW and 1,000 MW. Bangladesh also wants to install two more units

within 2025. (Source: Du Guodong 2007).

Agreements signed

Bangladesh signed different agreements of IAEA like NPT, Safeguard Agreements,

Additional Protocols (TBT safety convention), RCA, and Convention on Physical

protection of nuclear material etc. (Source: K M Rezaur Rahman 2009)

Present condition and Activities of BAEC

Source: The image of the Bangladesh Atomic energy commission.

Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) is the national authority for

acquisition, development and application of Nuclear Science and Technology and

thus is playing the pioneering role for the development of the country’s nuclear

research programs. Being firmly committed to peaceful uses of Atomic energy,

program’s have been undertaken in physical sciences, Biological sciences,

Engineering and Nuclear Power Sector by Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission

and some of the results have been transferred from laboratories to hospital,

agriculture, industries and environment for practical applications. In spite of some

major constrains, presently BAEC’s activities have increased many folds and keeping

in view of the overall power crisis of the country effort have also been given to

establish Nuclear Power Plant in the country (Source: BAEC homepage, Primary

objectives)
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Conclusion

The main problem with conventional power stations, based on my own enquiries is

simply that we can have the equipment, technology, knowledge, plant and distribution

networks – but we can’t get the power to run the power station in the first place. That

is to say – our problem is first of all with the energy inputs. In spite of many of the

limitations scientists of BAEC are working hard for the socio-economic development

of the country on the basis of the peaceful use of atomic energy. We need to adopt a

power generating technology that is economically feasible and environmentally

sound. Bangladesh is not at the leading edge of technological research. This situation

gives us an opportunity to learn from other people's mistakes. Bangladesh needs to

develop an action plan for nuclear energy production, transmission, and supply. With

the current trend of globalization of trade and technology transfer, it will be possible

to adopt nuclear technologies that are both efficient and environmentally feasible for

Bangladesh in the 21st century. (Source: The Energy challenge, Md. Khalequzzaman

2009)

Reference List
• Bangladesh Atomic energy commission homepage, Retrieved 2nd October

2009 from http://www.baec.org.bd/

• Du Guodong (Ed.) (2007) Bangladesh eyeing nuclear power plant by 2015,

Retrieved 2nd October 2009 from http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2007-

12/25/content_7309462.htm

• Nazrul Islam (2009) Dhaka, Moscow signs deal on peaceful use of nuclear

energy, Retrieved 2nd October from

http://www.newagebd.com/2009/may/14/front.html#4
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Dr. Zakia Begum (2008), Status of Nuclear Activities of Bangladesh Atomic Energy

Commisssion. Retrieved 2nd October 2009)

• Energy Story, Chapter 13: Nuclear Energy- Fission and Fusion, Retrieved 2

October 2009 from http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter13.html

• Engr. Khondkar Abdus Saleque (2009) Bangladesh must go nuclear to meet

energy demand, retrieved 2nd October from

http://www.energybangla.com/index.php?

mod=article&cat=SomethingtoSay&article=1680

K M Rezaur Rahman, 2009 (09-11 June) Present status of Nuclear Power program in

Bangladesh

• Md. Khalequzzaman, The Energy challenge for 21st century Bangladesh,

Retrieved 25th November from http://www.eb2000.org/short_note_3.htm

Md. Khalequzzaman, Assistant Professor of Geology, Georgia Southwestern State

University, Americus, GA 31709, USA

• Nuclear plants and instrumentation-plants with greater efficiency and output.

Retrieved 2nd october, from

http://www.gepower.com/prod_serv/products/nuclear/en/index.htm

• Russia vies for Bangladesh Nuclear power plant deal. Retrieved 2nd October
2009 from http://uk.reuters.com/article/oilRpt...090322?sp=true