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Heat treatment

Phase diagram Iron-carbon diagram


TTT diagram for carbon steel
Heat Treatment processes
Annealing
Normalising
Tempering
Surface hardening

Heat treatment (HT) basics

HT is defined as a process of controlled heating and cooling procedures


performed to effects the microstructural changes in a material, which in
turn affect its mechanical properties without change in dimensions and
geometry of parts.

The basis of changing properties thro HT is essentially through


modification of internal structure of the material which characterized in
term of phase present, their size, shape and distribution in the material.

HT is used to enhance service life, easy for fabrication machining and


forming.

It can be done during the process process HT (annealing/hotworking) or


after the process HT (annealing)

Iron-carbide phase diagram

Iron-carbide phase diagram

Part of the equilibrium phase diagram for


the Fe-C system

25

L
+L
, Austenite

+ Fe3C
+L
, Ferrite

+ Fe3C

(Cementite) Fe3C
6.67

25

L
+L
, Austenite

+ Fe3C
+L
, Ferrite

+ Fe3C

(Cementite) Fe3C
6.67

25

L
+L
, Austenite

+ Fe3C
+L
, Ferrite

+ Fe3C

(Cementite) Fe3C
6.67

25

L
+L
, Austenite

+ Fe3C
+L
, Ferrite

+ Fe3C

(Cementite) Fe3C
6.67

TTT diagram quenching cycle

Time-Temperature path on isothermal


Transformation diagram

TTT diagram 0.8% C steel

Heat treatment Processes

Precipitation hardening
Annealing
Normalizing
Tempering
Surface hardening
Selective surface hardening

Precipitation hardening

Fine particles that block movement of dislocation and thus strengthen and
harden the metal
Common in non ferrous alloys
The alloy should have two phases at RT, when heated to a temperature it
should dissolve the other
Steps involved

Solution treatment
Quenching
Precipitation treatment

Annealing, Normalising & Tempering

To reduce hardness, remove residual stress, improve


toughness, restore ductility
Annealing heating to a predefined temperature (above upper
critical temperature), holding it for some time and then furnace
cooling/inert atmosphere which forms coarse pearlite
Normalising - heating to a predefined temperature (above
upper critical temperature), holding it for some time and then
air cool.
Normalising materials are hard than annealing
Spheroidization anneal for more than 6% C
Tempering To decrease the internal stress a secondary
heating below the lower critical temperature of 723 C and then
cooling in a prescribed rate

Surface Hardening

Thermochemical treatment
Carburizing heating in a carbon rich environment so that C is diffuse
into the surface.
Nitriding Nitrogen diffuse into surface
Carbonitriding Carbon and nitrogen rich
Chromizing high temperature , longer time
Bath

Gas carburizing
Pack carburizing
Liquid carburizing

Selective Surface hardening method

Flame hardening oxy acetylene flame


Induction hardening - ( permeability of material, resistivity)
Laser beaming hardening
Electron beam hardening

At a glance
HT
Phase diagram for Fe-C
TTT
Heat treatment
Surface treatment