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1.

What is evolution?
A.

A measure of the relative survival and reproductive success of an individual

B.

A cumulative change in the genetically controlled characteristics of a population

C.

A physical change during an organisms life that is inherited by its offspring

D.

A random change in the proportions of alleles from generation to generation


(Total 1 mark)

2.

Which of the following represent homologous features?


A.

Wings in birds and insects

B.

The appendix in humans and horses

C.

Fins in fish and wings in birds

D.

The striped coat of the zebra and the tiger


(Total 1 mark)

3.

Up to two additional marks are available for the construction of your answers.
(2)

(a)

Describe what is meant by a food chain using an example with four named organisms.
(4)

(b)

Outline how global warming may affect arctic ecosystems.


(5)

(c)

Explain how natural selection can lead to evolution using antibiotic resistance in bacteria
as an example.
(9)
(Total 20 marks)

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4.

Populations of threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus sp.), a fish living in small freshwater lakes
in British Columbia, Canada, are derived from the marine threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus
aculeatus). In order to investigate the process of speciation in these populations, three small
lakes were studied. Each lake contained two varieties of stickleback: a large, bottom-dwelling
variety that fed on invertebrates near the shore and a small, plankton-eating variety that lived in
the open water. The probability of breeding between pairs of individuals was measured under
laboratory conditions in the following breeding combinations:
I

different varieties (small large) from the same lake

II

different varieties from different lakes

III

same variety (small small) and (large large) from different lakes

IV

same variety from the same lake.

The data are summarized below.

[Source: Science by MOSES KING, Reproduced with permission of AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE
ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE in the format Journal via Copyright Clearance Centre]

(a)

Identify the highest and lowest probabilities of breeding for individuals of the same
variety from different lakes.
Highest probability: ....................................................................................................
Lowest probability: .....................................................................................................
(1)

IB Questionbank Biology

(b)

Identify the breeding combination that results in the lowest probability of breeding.
......................................................................................................................................
(1)

(c)

Analyse the probability of breeding between individuals from the same lake.
......................................................................................................................................
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(2)

(d)

Scientists concluded that speciation is taking place in these populations. Discuss the
evidence for speciation provided by the data.
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(3)
(Total 7 marks)

5.

The spontaneous origin of life on Earth is thought to have involved the non-living synthesis of
simple organic molecules.
(a)

List two other processes needed for the spontaneous origin of life.
......................................................................................................................................
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(2)

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(b)

Discuss possible locations where conditions would have allowed the synthesis of organic
compounds.
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(2)

(c)

Outline the role of prokaryotes in the development of an oxygen-rich atmosphere on the


Earth.
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(2)
(Total 6 marks)

6.

Fossils provide important evidence for evolution.


(a)

Outline how radioisotopes can be used to date fossils.


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(2)

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(b)

14

The half-life of the radioisotope C is approximately 5730 years.

Using the decay curve shown above, deduce the age of a fossil that contains 30% of the
14
original amount of C.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(1)

(c)

Describe two major trends that can be seen from fossil remains in the sequence
Ardipithecus ramidus, Australopithecus species and Homo species.
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(2)
(Total 5 marks)

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7.

Common guillemots (Uria aalge) are large sea birds of the auk family. They breed in colonies at
high densities but make no nest. Their single egg is incubated on bare rock. Alloparenting
behaviour is frequently observed, where non-breeding birds will take care of other chicks.
Scientists fitted electronic time-depth recorders onto twelve common guillemots and recorded
five different activities during the chick-rearing period: at the colony, in flight, resting or active
on the sea surface and diving. The pie charts below include pooled data from all birds showing
overall time budget and time budget at sea.

[Source: The Journal of Experimental Biology: jeb@biologists.org.]

(a)

State which activity takes up least of the overall time budget of the guillemots.
......................................................................................................................................
(1)

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(b)

Calculate the percentage of the overall time budget the guillemots spend resting on the
sea surface.

............................................ %
(1)

(c)

Outline the activity of guillemots at sea.


......................................................................................................................................
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......................................................................................................................................
(2)

(d)

Suggest two reasons, other than breeding, why birds spend more time at the colony than
any other activity.
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(2)
(Total 6 marks)

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8.

Competition between genetically similar species of birds may lead to changes of one or more
characteristics. One characteristic that results from this kind of selection is differences in the
beaks. Researchers studied the beak lengths of two species of warblers. The graphs below show
the beak lengths of Pine Warblers (Dendroica pinus) and Yellow-throated Warblers (Dendroica
dominica) from three geographically isolated areas in the USA.

[Source: R Ficken et al. 1968. Evolution. Vol 27. Pp 307314. Republished with the permission of Wiley-Blackwell.]

(a)

(i)

Identify the species with the shortest mean beak length.


...........................................................................................................................
(1)

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(ii)

Determine the difference in the mean beak length of the two populations of Yellowthroated Warblers in Midwest and Delmarva.
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii)

Compare the range of variation in beak length of the Yellow-throated Warblers in


Midwest to the beak length of the Yellow-throated Warblers in Delmarva.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Suggest an advantage for the longer beaks of Yellow-throated Warblers in Delmarva.


......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(1)

(c)

Using the Yellow-throated Warbler as an example, outline the concept of allopatric


speciation.
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(3)
(Total 7 marks)

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10

9.

Discuss the incompleteness of the fossil record and the resulting uncertainties about human
evolution.
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(Total 6 marks)

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11

10.

Triarthus was a trilobite that lived on Earth about 500 million years ago. The diagrams below
show its structure, viewed from above and below. The structure was discovered by studying
fossils of Triarthus.

[Source: R Fortrey, (2000), Trilobite!, page 62]

(a)

There are many animals living on Earth today that belong to the same phylum as the
trilobites, but there are no living trilobites. Deduce, with a reason, the phylum to which
Triarthus belonged.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

Outline the evidence for evolution provided by fossils.


......................................................................................................................................
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(2)

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12

(c)

Some trilobites swam in clear, shallow water and had very large eyes. Suggest how
species with large eyes could evolve from species with smaller eyes.
......................................................................................................................................
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(2)
(Total 6 marks)

11.

(a)

Define the term clade.


......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Distinguish between analogous and homologous structures, giving an example of each.


......................................................................................................................................
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......................................................................................................................................
(2)

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13

(c)

The table below lists five animals along with four morphological characteristics. A plus
sign (+) indicates that the animal has this characteristic while a minus sign () indicates
that the characteristic is absent.

Animal

Jaws

Limbs

Hair

Placenta

Salamander

Mouse

Jellyfish

Koala

Salmon

Based on the features above, a student constructed a cladogram. State the names of the
organisms missing in the following cladogram.

(2)

(d)

Describe the major anatomical features that define humans as primates.


......................................................................................................................................
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(2)
(Total 7 marks)

IB Questionbank Biology

14

12.

Discuss the endosymbiotic theory for the origin of eukaryotes.


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(Total 6 marks)

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15

13.

A study was undertaken of the evolution of two species of wasps, one the parasite of the other.
The parasite queen, Vespula squamosa, kills the host queen, Vespula maculifrons, and takes over
her role in the colony. Data was compiled for 13 colonies of V. squamosa and 37 colonies of V.
maculifrons to analyse the genetic structure of the two species.
Each point on the graphs represents the genetic distance and geographic distance between a pair
of colonies. The genetic distance indicates the number of differences in specific DNA markers
between a pair of colonies. The results are shown below.

[Source: Hoffman EA, Kovacs JL, Goodisman MAD. 2008. Genetic structure and breeding system in a social wasp
and its social parasite. BMC Evolutionary Biology. Vol 8. P 239. 2008 Hoffman et al; licensee BioMed Central
Ltd.]

IB Questionbank Biology

16

(a)

(i)

Determine the greatest genetic distance between any pair of colonies of


V. squamosa.
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Identify the greatest geographic distance between any pair of colonies of


V. maculifrons.
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Describe the relationship between the geographic distance and genetic distance in the two
species.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(1)

(c)

Compare the two species in terms of genetic distance between the pairs of colonies.
......................................................................................................................................
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(2)

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17

(d)

Data collected on eight specific alleles in the two species indicated that each species was
in HardyWeinberg equilibrium. Evaluate all the data regarding possible evolutionary
changes within the two species.
......................................................................................................................................
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(2)
(Total 7 marks)

14.

(a)

(i)

Distinguish between transient polymorphism and balanced polymorphism.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

State an example of transient polymorphism.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

IB Questionbank Biology

18

(b)

Describe an example of a barrier between gene pools.


......................................................................................................................................
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......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

Outline how variations in DNA can indicate phylogeny.


......................................................................................................................................
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(2)
(Total 7 marks)

15.

Which of the following are used as evidence for evolution?


I.

Homologous structures

II.

Selective breeding of domesticated animals

III.

Overproduction of offspring

A.

I and II only

B.

I and III only

C.

II and III only

D.

I, II and III
(Total 1 mark)

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19

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20

16.

Drosophila subobscura (shown in photograph below) is a species of fruit fly native to Europe.
The sample on the left is from Spain, latitude 39, and the one on the right is from Denmark,
latitude 56. The species was introduced into both South America and North America
approximately 20 years ago. The graph below shows the wing size in arbitrary units of
D. subobscura at different latitudes in the three locations.

[Reprinted from Mark Vellend, Luke J Harmon, Julie L Lockwood, Margaret M Mayfield, A Randall Hughes, John P Wares
and Dov F Sax. 2007. Effects of exotic species on evolutionary diversification. Trends in Ecology and Evolution.
Vol 22, issue 9. Pp 481488. Copyright (2007), with permission from Elsevier.]

(a)

Identify the relationship between wing size and latitude shown by D. subobscura in
Europe.
......................................................................................................................................
(1)

IB Questionbank Biology

21

(b)

(i)

Compare the data for wing size of D. subobscura in North and South America with
wing size in Europe.
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...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Suggest one reason for the differences.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(c)

Predict, with a reason, what might happen to D. subobscura in the future as a result of its
introduction to new areas.
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(2)
(Total 6 marks)

17.

(a)

State two processes needed for the spontaneous origin of life on Earth.
......................................................................................................................................
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IB Questionbank Biology

22

(2)

(b)

Outline the properties of RNA that may have allowed it to play a role in the origin of life.
......................................................................................................................................
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(2)
(Total 4 marks)

18.

(a)

14

Outline a method for dating fossils using C.


......................................................................................................................................
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......................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

Outline the trends illustrated by the fossils of Ardipithecus and Australopithecus.


......................................................................................................................................
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(3)
(Total 5 marks)

IB Questionbank Biology

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24

19.

Compare convergent and divergent evolution.

Convergent evolution

Divergent evolution

(Total 3 marks)

20.

(a)

Outline the process of adaptive radiation.


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(3)

IB Questionbank Biology

25

(b)

There has been a change of thinking; moving from gradualism to punctuated equilibrium
demonstrates the changing nature of science. Discuss these two ideas about the pace of
evolution.
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(4)
(Total 7 marks)

21.

(a)

Outline, using named hominid fossil species, trends in hominid skull evolution.
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(3)

IB Questionbank Biology

26

(b)

Discuss the correlation between diet and brain size.


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(2)
(Total 5 marks)

22.

Which of the following are used as evidence for evolution?


I.

Homologous structures

II.

Selective breeding of domesticated animals

III.

Overproduction of offspring

A.

I and II only

B.

I and III only

C.

II and III only

D.

I, II and III
(Total 1 mark)

23.

(a)

Outline the properties of RNA that may have allowed it to play a role in the origin of life.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(2)

IB Questionbank Biology

27

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(b)

Outline the evidence provided by DNA for the common ancestry of living organisms.
......................................................................................................................................
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......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

The cladogram below shows the classification of species A to D. Deduce how similar
species A is to species B, C and D.

......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(2)

(d)

Suggest two reasons for using cladograms for the classification of organisms.
......................................................................................................................................
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......................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 8 marks)

IB Questionbank Biology

29

24.

Discuss, using examples, the importance of cultural and genetic factors in human evolution.
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(Total 6 marks)

25.

(a)

Identify two processes needed for the spontaneous origin of life on Earth.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(2)

IB Questionbank Biology

30

(b)

Outline ideas about the pace of evolution according to gradualism and punctuated
equilibrium.
......................................................................................................................................
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......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

(i)

Define a clade.
...........................................................................................................................
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...........................................................................................................................
(1)

IB Questionbank Biology

31

(ii)

Analyse the relationship between the organisms in the following cladogram.

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(3)
(Total 8 marks)

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26.

Explain the biochemical evidence provided by DNA and protein structures for the common
ancestry of living organisms.
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(Total 6 marks)

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27.

Which of the following will promote variation in a species?


I.

Meiosis

II.

Fertilization

III.

Natural selection

A.

I only

B.

II only

C.

I and II only

D.

I, II and III
(Total 1 mark)

28.

Why has antibiotic resistance evolved in bacteria?


A.

All bacteria reproduce very quickly.

B.

Bacteria exposed to antibiotics developed a resistance to them.

C.

Varieties of bacteria resistant to antibiotics reproduce faster than non-resistant varieties.

D.

Bacteria showing resistance to antibiotics survive after antibiotics are used.


(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Biology

34

29.

(a)

The graph below shows the half-life of Strontium-90.

Define the term half-life using the graph above.


......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

Outline the date and distribution of Australopithecus afarensis illustrated by the fossils
found.
......................................................................................................................................
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(2)
(Total 4 marks)

IB Questionbank Biology

35

30.

(a)

Describe transient polymorphism.


......................................................................................................................................
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......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(3)

(b)

Explain how punctuated equilibrium affects the pace of evolution.


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(4)
(Total 7 marks)

IB Questionbank Biology

36

31.

Superoxide dismutase is an enzyme used by cells to protect themselves against oxidative


damage. These enzymes can have different metals as part of their structure.
A study to compare two dismutases from Escherichia coli bacteria and two dismutases from
eukaryotic cells was undertaken. The following enzymes were used:
E. coli dismutase with iron (Fe)
E. coli dismutase with manganese (Mn)
eukaryotic mitochondrial dismutase with manganese (Mn)
eukaryotic cytoplasmic dismutase with copper-zinc (Cu-Zn).
The following shows part of the amino acid sequences of these enzymes. Boxes enclose
identical amino acids in the sequence of the two E. coli and mitochondrial dismutases.

[Steinman, H M and Hill, R L. 1973. Sequence homologies among bacterial and mitochondrial superoxide
dismutases. PNAS. Vol 70, issue 12. Pp 37253729. Used with the permission of the authors.]

(a)

State how many amino acids are in the same position in the E. coli (Fe), E. coli (Mn) and
the mitochondrial dismutase sequences shown.
......................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

State the amino acids which are present in the same position in at least one bacterial
dismutase and in both eukaryotic dismutases.
......................................................................................................................................
(1)

IB Questionbank Biology

37

(c)

Compare the E. coli (Mn) and the mitochondrial dismutases.


......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(2)

(d)

Using the diagram, suggest whether the evolution of bacterial dismutase and cytoplasmic
dismutase is convergent or divergent.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(1)

(e)

The sequences of the two bacterial dismutases and the mitochondrial dismutase show a
high degree of homology. Discuss how this supports the endosymbiotic theory for the
origin of mitochondria.
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(2)
(Total 7 marks)

IB Questionbank Biology

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32.

(a)

Define the terms allele frequency and gene pool.


Allele frequency: ........................................................................................................
Gene pool: ...................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

State one assumption made when the HardyWeinberg equation is used.


......................................................................................................................................
(1)

(c)

Outline how variations in specific molecules can lead to phylogeny.


......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(3)

(d)

Outline the value of classifying organisms.


......................................................................................................................................
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(2)
(Total 7 marks)

IB Questionbank Biology

39

33.

Discuss the incompleteness of the fossil record and the resulting uncertainties concerning
human evolution.
................................................................................................................................................
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(Total 6 marks)

34.

Which process tends to reduce variety within a population?


A.

Natural selection

B.

Random fertilization

C.

Independent assortment

D.

Crossing over
(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Biology

40

35.

There is evidence that body size of animals tends to increase over time. In this study, fossils and
living species from the genus Poseidonamicus, deep-sea ostracods, were used to test this
hypothesis. The numbers on the dotted line represent the number of different Poseidonamicus
species found either as fossils or living. For each time period, the average valve length of all
species studied is plotted. Valve length is an indication of total body size. The continuous line is
the estimated temperature of their deep-sea habitat.

[Adapted from Gene Hunt and Kaustuv Roy. 2006. Climate change, body size evolution, and Copes Rule in deepsea ostracodes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Vol 103, issue 5. Pp 13471352 (Figure 1).
Copyright 2006, National Academy of Sciences, USA.]

(a)

Calculate the percentage increase in valve length between the species studied from 40
million years ago and the species from the present day.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(2)

IB Questionbank Biology

41

(b)

Suggest two reasons for the increase in the number of species of Poseidonamicus over
time.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

Evaluate the hypothesis that changes in size of Poseidonamicus are caused by changes in
sea temperature.
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......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 7 marks)

36.

(a)

Describe the processes needed for the spontaneous origin of life on Earth.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(3)

IB Questionbank Biology

42

(b)

Discuss the endosymbiotic theory for the origin of eukaryotes.


......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 6 marks)

37.

(a)

Describe two major anatomical features of humans that define them as primates.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

Discuss the implications of the incompleteness of the fossil record on our understanding
of human evolution.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 5 marks)

IB Questionbank Biology

43

38.

(a)

State two properties of RNA that would allow it to play a role in the origin of life.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

Outline the experiment of Miller and Urey into the origin of organic compounds.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 5 marks)

39.

(a)

Define the term gene pool.


......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Compare allopatric speciation and sympatric speciation.


......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................

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44

(4)

(c)

Explain the correlation between the change in diet and increase in brain size during
hominid evolution.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 7 marks)

40.

What is the mechanism of natural selection?


A.

Any individuals in a population can be selected entirely by chance.

B.

After a change in the environment a species will evolve adaptations to the new
conditions.

C.

If an adaptation to the environment is useful, an individual will develop it and pass it on


to its offspring.

D.

Variations amongst individuals of a population are selected by a changing environment.


(Total 1 mark)

41.

(a)

State one process needed for the spontaneous origin of life on Earth.
......................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Outline the contribution of prokaryotes to the creation of an oxygen-rich atmosphere.


......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 3 marks)

IB Questionbank Biology

45

IB Questionbank Biology

46

42.

(a)

Outline allopatric and sympatric speciation.


......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(4)

(b)

Explain the biochemical evidence for the common ancestry of living organisms.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(6)
(Total 10 marks)

IB Questionbank Biology

47

43.

The rate of nucleotide substitution is used as an indication of evolutionary change. A study was
carried out on mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA of different species of Acropora, a Pacific
Ocean coral.
The dark grey bars represent the range of genetic sequence divergence between the species for
specific mitochondrial DNA sequences (mtDNA) and the light grey bars represent specific
nuclear DNA sequences (nDNA).

[Shearer, T L et al. 2002. Slow mitochondrial DNA sequence evolution in the Anthozoa (Cnidaria). Molecular
Ecology. Vol 11, issue 12. Pp 24752487. John Wiley & Sons Inc. Reproduced with permission.]

(a)

Measure the percentage of maximum genetic divergence for the mtDNA2 sequence.
......................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Calculate the maximum difference in genetic divergence between the mtDNA5 sequence
and nDNA6 sequence.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(1)

IB Questionbank Biology

48

(c)

Compare the variations in the range of genetic divergence of the mtDNA and nDNA
sequences.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(3)

(d)

Discuss the significance of this data in terms of possible evolutionary changes in these
genes.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 8 marks)

44.

(a)

State one difference between cultural evolution and genetic evolution.


......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(1)

IB Questionbank Biology

49

(b)

Outline the pace of evolution as implied in the theory of punctuated equilibrium.


......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 3 marks)

45.

(a)

Using examples, distinguish between analogous characteristics and homologous


characteristics.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(4)

IB Questionbank Biology

50

(b)

Albinism, a lack of pigmentation in skin and hair, is caused by a recessive allele.


Albinism occurs in North America in approximately one in 20 000 persons. Explain how
the Hardy-Weinberg equation is applied in this example.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(5)
(Total 9 marks)

46.

Charles Darwin used domesticated animals to provide evidence for evolution by natural
selection.
What is this evidence?
A.

Differences between breeds show that selection can cause species to change.

B.

The ancestors of domesticated animals can be found in the fossil record.

C.

Some domesticated animals die because the environment cannot support them all.

D.

Variation in domesticated animals is due to sexual reproduction.


(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Biology

51

47.

(a)

State the conclusion drawn from the Miller-Urey experiment.


......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Outline two pieces of evidence that support the endosymbiotic theory for the origin of
eukaryotes.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 3 marks)

48.

(a)

Compare sympatric speciation and allopatric speciation.


......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

(i)

State one species in the genus Australopithecus.


...........................................................................................................................
(1)

IB Questionbank Biology

52

(ii)

For this species, state the geographical distribution and approximately how many
years ago it lived.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

Discuss the concept of punctuated equilibrium.


......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 8 marks)

49.

(a)

Compare sympatric speciation and allopatric speciation.


......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

Define analogous characteristics using one example to illustrate your answer.


......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(1)

IB Questionbank Biology

53

(c)

Outline two pieces of evidence that support the endosymbiotic theory for the origin of
eukaryotes.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(2)

(d)

List two anatomical features that define humans as primates.


1. ..................................................................................................................................
2. ..................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 7 marks)

IB Questionbank Biology

54

50. Explain the biochemical evidence for the common ancestry of living organisms.
................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................
(Total 6 marks)

51.

Which process has the greatest effect in determining which members of a population are most
likely to survive until reproductive age?
A.

Evolution

B.

Natural selection

C.

Meiosis

D.

Hybridization
(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Biology

55

52.

Up to two additional marks are available for the construction of your answers.
(2)

(a)

Draw and label a diagram of the molecular structure of DNA.


(4)

(b)

Explain the consequences of a base substitution mutation in relation to the processes of


transcription and translation.
(8)

(c)

Outline the evidence for evolution provided by homologous structures.


(6)
(Total 20 marks)

53.

The tree diagram (cladogram) below shows how closely related a group of species of spiders are
on the Hawaiian island group. Two of the species have not been given a scientific name. Three
pairs of the spiders spin very similar webs. These are shown on the diagram. The island on
which the spider lives is also indicated.
lo c a tio n :
T. la b o r io s a

IB Questionbank Biology

- M a in la n d - U S A

T. h a w a ie n s is

- H a w a ii

e m e ra ld
o v o id

- O ah u

T. lim u

- O a h u

e u ry lik e

- O ah u

T. a c u ta

- M aui

T. flic ip h ilia

- M aui

T. s te la ro b u s ta

- M aui

T. e u ry c h a sm a

- M aui

T. p e r k in s i

- H a w a ii

56

[Source: T A Blackledge and R G Gillespie (November 2004), Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101, (46),
pages 16228-16233]

(a)

State which species is most distantly related to T. perkinsi on the basis of the tree
diagram.
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Explain the evidence in the diagram for


(3)

(i)

convergent evolution
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

adaptive radiation
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(c)

Deduce whether spiders that spin similar webs or spiders that live on the same island are
more closely related.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 6 marks)

54.

(a)

Define sympatric speciation.


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................

IB Questionbank Biology

57

(1)

IB Questionbank Biology

58

(b)

Describe two examples of barriers between gene pools.


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 5 marks)

55.

(a)

Define half-life.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Discuss gradualism and punctuated equilibrium.


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(6)
(Total 7 marks)

IB Questionbank Biology

59

56.

Up to two additional marks are available for the construction of your answers.
(2)

(a)

Draw a labelled graph showing a typical sigmoid growth curve.


(4)

(b)

Outline the consequences of an increased greenhouse effect on arctic ecosystems.


(6)

(c)

Explain how natural selection leads to evolution.


(8)
(Total 20 marks)

57.

The cladogram below shows how closely related a group of species of spiders are on the
Hawaiian island group. Two of the species have not been given a scientific name. Three pairs of
the spiders spin very similar webs. These are shown on the diagram. The island on which the
spider lives is also indicated.
lo c a tio n :
T. la b o r io s a

- M a in la n d - U S A

T. h a w a ie n s is

- H a w a ii

e m e ra ld
o v o id

- O ah u

T. lim u

- O a h u

e u ry lik e

- O ah u

T. a c u ta

- M aui

T. flic ip h ilia

- M aui

T. s te la ro b u s ta

- M aui

T. e u ry c h a sm a

- M aui

T. p e r k in s i

- H a w a ii

[Source: T A Blackledge and R G Gillespie (November 2004), Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101, (46),
pages 16228-16233]
IB Questionbank Biology

60

IB Questionbank Biology

61

(a)

Deduce whether spiders that spin similar webs or spiders that live on the same island are
more closely related.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

Mitochondrial DNA from the spiders was analysed to produce the cladogram. Outline the
method of analysing the DNA to produce evidence for cladograms.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(c)

Explain the evidence in the diagram for


(3)

(i)

convergent evolution;
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

adaptive radiation.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(Total 8 marks)

IB Questionbank Biology

62

58.

(a)

Outline properties of RNA that may have played a role in the development of life on this
planet.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

State two types of molecules used in the experiments of Miller and Urey to simulate the
atmosphere of pre-biotic earth.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(c)

Outline the endosymbiotic theory.


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 7 marks)

IB Questionbank Biology

63

59.

Discuss the correlation between change in the diet and increase in brain size in early hominid
evolution.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(Total 5 marks)

IB Questionbank Biology

64