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Delta 5a

Module Two
Report for the Assessed Language
Systems and Language Skills Assignments
Candidate name
Centre name
Centre number
Candidate number

Assignment focus

Language Skills Language Systems

Assignment title

Raising Awareness of Adverbs of Frequency to low-level learners of English.

Date of assessment
Level of class
Number in class
Length of lesson

Elementary
Intermediate

Pre-intermediate
Upper intermediate

Advanced

12
60

Minutes
Tutor's / assessor's grade

Background essay

Fail x Pass Merit Distinction

Planning, Teaching & Post-lesson reflection and evaluation

Fail x Pass Merit Distinction

Overall grade

Fail x Pass Merit Distinction

Tutors / Assessors name


Cambridge ESOL Moderators comments:

Date:

Assessment criteria for the background essay

Quality of writing
Successful candidates demonstrate that they can effectively present an
essay which:
a) is written in language which is clear, accurate, easy to follow and is
cohesive and clearly ordered

Met

Not met

X
X
x

b) uses appropriate terminology accurately


c)

refers to and references key sources

d) follows the conventions of a standard referencing system for in-text

referencing and the bibliography

e) respects the word limit (2,000-2,500 words) and states the number of words
used.

Partially
met

Comment
1a) The essay is clearly ordered and reasonably easy to follow but there some parts that are not expressed
clearly enough such as page 1 Lower levels , adverbs with negative emphasis, the second sentence of
Learners Issues etc. There are many grammatical errors such as despite of, learners used to make
errors, to show how luxurious is his friends life .. etc There are also typos such as moth instead of
month. It is very important to proof-read your essay for LSA4 and/or to get someone else to do it for you.
1b) Usually, your terminology is accurate but note that on one page you say that expressions like every
week are indefinite adverbs of frequency and on another page that they are definite adverbs of frequency.
Strictly speaking, they are not adverbs of frequency anyway.
1c) You usually reference key sources but I think you should have referenced who defined adverbs of
frequency as definite and indefinite.
1d) You usually follow the conventions of a standard referencing system but note that on one page, you
quote Scrivener but you dont put the page number.
1e) You respect the word limit and state the number of words used.

Clarity of topic
Successful candidates demonstrate that they can effectively make clear
the topic of the essay by:
a)
identifying for analysis a specific area of the grammar, lexis,
phonology or discourse system of English, or a skills area (listening,
speaking, reading or writing)
b)

c)
d)
e)

defining the scope of the area they will analyse with reference to
e.g. learners, teaching approach, method, learning context, learner
needs or text type

Met

X
x

making all parts of the essay relevant to the topic and coherent

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Partially
met

explaining with reference to classroom experience, reading and


research why they have chosen this area
following through in later parts of the essay on key issues
identified in earlier parts.

Not met

X
X

Comment
2a) You have not put on the title page which system you are writing about.
2b) You have defined the scope by limiting yourself to adverbs of frequency and low level learners.
However, the scope is too narrow. Check the title of your LSA4 with a trainer before you start writing it!
2c) You havent explicitly stated this. Youve left it up to the reader to guess what your reason is. You should
begin one of your first paragraphs with the words The reasons I have chosen this topic are ...
2d) Given your title, in the body of the essay, there is too much about other types of adverbs and associated
grammar such as every day, which isnt an adverb of frequency. You also included in your essay aspects of
adverbs of frequency that we wouldnt teach low-level learners eg inversion after adverbs of frequency when
they begin a sentence, or I always do say thank you. However, if youd broadened your title to Raising
awareness of adverbs to low level learners of English, you could have included some of these other things.
2e) There is follow on.

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Analysis and issues


Successful candidates can effectively demonstrate an understanding of
the specific area by:
a) analysing the specific area with accuracy, identifying key points

Met

Not met

b) showing awareness of a range of learning and teaching problems


occurring in a range of learning contexts.

Partially
met
X
X

Comment
3a) The area is analysed with accuracy most of the time though there are sometimes puzzling assertions
such as They (adverbs of frequency) add to the meaning of the verb, adjective and clause. Im not sure
about the adjective here. Is this right? If it is, an example sentence would have helped the reader. Also, you
have rather skimmed over the difficulties students have with the pronunciation of adverbs of frequency.
Occasionally, rarely and usually, for example, are all difficult for students because they contain
unexpected sounds. You should have shown the phonemic transcription of all of the adverbs of frequency
you talk about.
3b) You have referred to a range of learning problems but not in a range of learning contexts. What
difficulties do Arabic speakers have compared to Spanish speakers, for instance?

Suggestions for teaching


Successful candidates demonstrate that they can effectively draw on
experience and research to:
a) Outline and show familiarity with relevant key procedures,
techniques, resources and/or materials
b) evaluate how the selected procedures, techniques, resources and or
materials might be used effectively in classroom practice
c)

demonstrate how the procedures, techniques, resources and/or


materials address points raised under 'Analysis and issues'.

Met

Not met

Partially
met
x

X
X

Comment
4a) You suggest a number of specific pieces of material. The timeline is reproduced and explained but you
dont say how it would be used. The next activity is called How often do you?. Unfortunately, I dont
understand how this works. You mention miming and flashcards but you dont say what the students have to
mime (is it activities such as brushing their teeth?) or what would be on the flashcards. Maybe you could
have included as an appendix some examples of the flashcards and the weekly schedule. Ditto the
tabulated chart and gapfill activity that you mention next. You go on to recommend a learners debate but
you need to say more about how this would work and how it would help learners to practise adverbs of
frequency. Lastly, you say that Using authentic conversation may help with stress awareness. This is much
too vague. You need to explain what the teacher would do and how it would help the students with adverbs of
frequency.
4b) This is not dealt with adequately. See my comments in 4a)
4c) There is not a clear enough link between issues and suggestions for teaching. For example, you rightly
point out in the Issues section that students often put adverbs of frequency in th wrong position in sentences
but you havent suggested an activity, procedure, technique or resource that might help students with this
problem.

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Overall comment on the background essay


The essay is not always easy to read and there are typos and grammatical mistakes. The scope of the essay
is too narrow. As a result, in order to fill it out, you have had to include things that are outside the scope of
the essay. Suggestions for teaching are either not explained clearly or too vague. There isnt a clear enough
link between suggestions for teaching and issues.

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Assessment criteria for Planning and preparation, Teaching and Post-lesson reflection and evaluation

Planning and preparation


Successful candidates have designed and presented a lesson plan and
supporting documentation which:
a) Includes
(i) a brief general overview of the group of learners and the course
(ii) information about individual learners relevant to the lesson
b) sets out clear and appropriate overall aims and learning outcomes for
the lesson in relation to language systems and/or language skills and
learner needs
c) provides relevant analysis of target language in terms of meaning,
use, form and pronunciation
d) outlines any relevant link(s) between this lesson and relevant aspects
of preceding and subsequent lessons, and if relevant the course as a
whole
e) states assumptions made about the learners knowledge, abilities and
interests relevant to the aims and learning outcomes of the lesson
f) anticipates and explains potential problems in relation to the lessons
aims and learning outcomes, the learners and the learning context,
and the equipment, materials and resources to be used
g) suggests appropriate solutions to the problems outlined in 5f
h) describes suitably sequenced procedures and activities appropriate to
achieving the stated overall aims and stage aims
i) states materials and/or resources to be used, which are appropriate to
the teaching and learning context, the learners, the lesson aims and
learning outcomes, and the time available, and includes a
copy/copies of suitably presented materials, sourced where
necessary
j) assigns realistic and appropriate timing for each stage and/or group
of stages in the procedure
k) includes a commentary, of between 500 and 750 words, which
provides a clear rationale for the lesson plan with reference to learner
characteristics and needs and the candidates reading and research in
the background essay.

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Met

Not met

Partially
met

x
X
X
x
X
X
X
X
x

Comment
5a) You have provided a class profile and individual profiles but you need to say why certain students will
find the lesson useful. For example, when we met the students, we identified that Celia has problems with
grammar and is hoping to take the PET exam in the future. This grammar lesson will therefore help her.
5b) Your aim is clear but it is not appropriate because you have only said that the students are going to
practise the target language. In your lesson plan, there is a stage in which introduce the target language so
your aim should be to introduce and practise adverbs of frequency.
5c) You have provided the minimum here. A cline showing the relationship between the different adverbs of
frequency, for example, would have shown that you had analysed the area more deeply. Also, you havent
mentioned the position in the sentence with compound tenses, which students might ask about.
5d) You havent explained how this lesson links to the one after. If it doesnt link, you need to explain why.
5e) You have mentioned one assumption about the students knowledge. Try to mention more then one in
your LSA4. You havent mentioned any assumptions about the students abilities or interests.
5f) You have anticipated some problems. Try to think of more for your LSA4.
5g) You have suggested suitable solutions.
5h) There is some confusion in the plan with stage names and aims. You have a pre-teach vocabulary stage
at the beginning but this is something we do in skills lessons not in grammar lessons. Apart from this, the
lesson is suitably sequenced.
5i) You have listed your materials and resources but you should say what the posters show. I dont
understand what Word cut out means.
5j) Your timing is realistic.
5k) In general, the commentary is fine. However, but you mention that you chose your target language
because it is suitable and necessary for the elementary level. However, the students you are teaching are
pre-intermediate level and wouldnt need to spend a whole hour revising 6 adverbs of frequency. I agree that
at this level, it is best to stick to mid-position. You should explain why you think a PPP method will help you
to maintain a communicative atmosphere. It is not clear to me. You say that understanding meaning may
help noticing form. You need to explain how.

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6 9 Teaching
Creating and maintaining an atmosphere conducive to learning
Successful candidates demonstrate that they can effectively:
a.

b.
c.
d.

teach the class as a group and individuals within the


group, with sensitivity to the learners needs and backgrounds, level
and context, providing equal opportunities for participation
purposefully engage and involve learners
vary their role in relation to the emerging learning and
affective needs of learners during the lesson
listen and respond appropriately to learner contributions.

Met

Not met

Partially
met

x
x
x

Comment
6a) You are very sensitive to students needs etc. You have a good rapport with them although sometimes
your comments can be a little sharp.
6b) The students enjoyed the lesson, worked hard and were engaged throughout.
6c) During the guided discovery activity, you monitored discreetly while the students did the task. There was
a variety of interaction, mingling, groups, pairs and individual.
6d) You listen and respond to students effectively. For example, A student said this is the infinitive. You said
No, this is not the infinitive. When do we add an s?

Understanding, knowledge and explanation of language and language skills


Successful candidates demonstrate that they can effectively:
use language which is accurate and appropriate for the
teaching and learning context
b)
adapt their own use of language to the level of the group and
individuals in the group
c)
give accurate and appropriate models of language form,
meaning/use and pronunciation
d)
give accurate and appropriate information about language
form, meaning/use and pronunciation and/or language skills/subskills
e)
notice and judiciously exploit learners language output to
further language and skills/subskills development.

Met

a)

Not met

Partially
met

x
x
x
x
x

Comment
7a) Your language is usually correct but beware of errors on worksheets. You put mob on a worksheet
instead of mop
7b) Your language is well-pitched for the level.
7c) You used the pictures to elicit everyday activities but the students gave you the present continuous
instead of the present simple. This is because they have been told that when you describe a picture, you use
the present continuous. They seemed confused for a while and Im not sure you really clarified this for them.
7d) You did some useful drilling of the adverbs of frequency. Maybe it could have been better to have drilled
the adverbs of frequency in sentences so that the students can practise stressing them?
7e) Usually good but note that in the drilling part of the lesson, some of the students still werent pronouncing
usually correctly.

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Classroom procedures and techniques


Successful candidates demonstrate that they can effectively:
use procedures, techniques and activities to support and
consolidate learning and to achieve language and/or skill aims
b)
exploit materials and resources to support learning and achieve
aims
c)
deliver a coherent and suitably varied lesson
d)
monitor and check students learning and respond as
appropriate.

Met

Not met

a)

Partially
met

x
x
x
x

Comment
8a) Some of your materials helped to achieve your aims such as the guided discovery worksheet but others
didnt help so much eg the How often do you..? grid activity. The reason this activity didnt work so well was
because you hadnt thought out what kinds of things the students were likely to say. To the question How
often do you wash (sic) the windows, the only possible answers on the grid are days of the week. I think you
were hoping the students would mark, say, Monday, Wednesday and Friday and then tell their partner I
sometimes wash the windows. But what if they only clean their windows once a year? Another piece of
material that I guess you found on the internet, showed an inverted triangle with adverbs of frequency
showing their relative degrees of frequency. However, this piece of material also contained adverbs of
frequency that you werent teaching so you had to tell students to ignore them. Despite this, you achieved
your aims but your aims werent really appropriate as the lesson was too easy for the students.
8b) Effective use of technology. You designed a very effective worksheet using a text which you had written
yourself and which included a guided discovery task designed to draw students attention to where adverbs
of frequency come in the sentence. However, you didnt do a lead in and gist reading task first. You gave the
students the text and immediately asked them to underline the adverbs of frequency. Getting students to
understand something about what the text means is a pre-requisite to doing language work based on the text.
8c) The lesson was certainly varied and reasonably coherent. You used the projector with powerpoint,
wallcharts, handouts, pictures etc
8d) Some of your questions at the end of activities arent always appropriate. Nice? sounds like you are
seeking approval. Right? sounds like you are checking understanding but this is not an efficient way of
checking understanding. A more efficient way is by asking concept check questions. Did you all get the
same answers? is something you can find out in more effective ways eg by getting students to raise their
hands. When eliciting answers, make sure you write the answers on the board as you elicit them.

Classroom management
Successful candidates demonstrate that they can effectively:
implement the lesson plan and where necessary adapt it to
emerging learner needs
b)
manage the classroom space, furniture, equipment, materials and
resources
c)
set up whole class and/or group and/or individual activities, as
appropriate
d)
ensure the learners remain focused on the lesson aims and the
learning outcomes.

Met

a)

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Not met

Partially
met

x
x
x
x

Comment
9a) You missed out some of the stages of the lesson eg you intended to do a gist reading about Kim and
Peter. Maybe have a shorter lesson plan for reference during the class itself.
9b) Usually you managed the classroom effectively except in the group comparison of answers stage at the
beginning of the lesson.
9c) The class are a lively bunch and sometimes you found it difficult to get their attention. As a result, in the
activity in which groups compared their wallcharts to another group, the students werent clear what they had
to do. While they were looking at each others charts, you were pointing out the answers on the powerpoint.
This part of the lesson felt a little disorganised. Other activities were set up appropriately but setting up was a
little bit patchy.
9d) Usually, you made sure that students were focused on lesson aims.

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10

Reflection and evaluation


Successful candidates demonstrate that they can effectively:
a)

reflect on and evaluate their own planning, teaching and the


learners progress as evidenced in this lesson
b)
identify key strengths and weaknesses in planning and execution
c)
explain how they will (would) consolidate/follow on from the
learning achieved in the lesson.

Met

Partially
met

Not met

x
x
x

Comment
10a) You have reflected on your planning and teaching.
10b) You have identified many weaknesses.
10c) You need to say here how you would follow on from this lesson if you were their permanent class
teacher.
Overall comment (Please summarise strengths and weaknesses with reference to the criteria)
STRENGTHS
Timing ( 5j) all criteria relating to creating and maintaining an atmosphere conducive to learning (6a-6d)
adapting your language (7b) giving accurate information (7d) noticing and exploiting language output (7e)
delivering a coherent and varied lesson (8c) managing the classroom space (9b) ensuring learners remain
focused on learning outcomes (9d) reflection and evaluation of planning etc (10a)
WEAKNESSES
Individual student profiles (5a) aims (5b) analysis of target language (5c) class fit (5d) assumptions (5e)
anticipated problems and solutions (5f and 5g) lesson plan procedures (5h) stating materials (5i) lesson plan
commentary (5k) your own language (7a) giving accurate models (7c) use of procedures, techniques and
activities (8a) exploiting materials (8b) checking learning (8d) implementing lesson plan (9a) setting up
activities (9c) identifying weaknesses (10b) explaining how you would follow on from the learning (10c)
University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations
Teaching Awards
1 Hills Road
Cambridge
CB1 2EU
Tel: +44 1223 553997
E-mail: deltaadmin@cambridgeesol.org
www.cambridgeesol.org

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