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SUBJECT TO THE REPORT

The report shall be limited to the Design, Installation, Operation


and Maintenance of Hot Water System Using Heat Pump to
Include Detailed Calculation of Piping, Storage Tank Design,
Pumps and Insulation of five (5) floors of Maxims Hotel guest
room and the Recovery of Cold Air for Machine Room Ventilation.
The heat pump system will incorporate also the interfacing of the
system to Building Management System for start/stop of airconditioning of elevator machine room, exhaust fan of electrical
room and air-handling unit of guest room for fresh air supply.
The said Building Management System will play a big role in
energy conservation or recovery of the system. The report will
also describe the advantages of using heat pump due to its
recovery system and environmental compliance.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF WORK
The project involves the Design, Installation, Operation and
Maintenance of Hot Water System Using Heat Pump to Include
Detailed Calculation of Piping, Storage Tank Design, Pump &
Insulation and the Recovery of Cold Air for Machine Room
Ventilation for Maxims Hotel located in Newport Blvd., Newport
City, Pasay City.
Hot water system mainly consist of heat pump with built-in
primary circulating pump, hot water storage tank, secondary
circulating pump, piping distribution and make up water. The
focus of the design will be the supply of hot water in hotel guest
1

rooms were numerous capacity of water required. The hotel used


heat pump with built-in primary circulating pump located at the
roof deck of Maxims Hotel. Each heat pump consists of four (4)
units of compressors. Heat pump is an energy collecting and
transferring system mainly consists of compressor, condenser,
expansion valve and evaporator.
Hot water produced by heat pump will convey in copper pipe to
the guest rooms by means of pressurized hot water tank. They
use rubber for the insulation of copper pipes and rock wool for
the storage tank with aluminum cladding. Copper pipes are use
for header, sub header and riser and polypropylene pipes inside
the guest room.
The system is advantageous and efficient due to its recovery in
terms of operation. It is also environment friendly compare to
boiler system which has flue gas discharge and chemical blow
down.
Since the required hot water temperature of guest room is not
too high, the applicant suggests to use heat pump due to its
simplicity of design & maintenance. Operators are ready since
the system is the same as air-conditioning system, no need to
train technical person for heating equipment like boiler.
To gain the benefits of energy conservation or recovery of
discharge air of heat pump, it can also be used as ventilation of
elevator machine room, ventilation of electrical room and utilized
for the fresh air of hotel guest room.
2

The sequence of the said energy recovery is when the heat


pump is in operation, the discharge air of the heat pump will be
utilized as ventilation of elevator machine room, ventilation of
electrical room and fresh air of hotel guest room by means of
ducting. The interfacing of Building Management System to Hot
Water System will synchronized the start/stop of controller of
air-conditioning and exhaust fan and the heat pump. When the
heat pump turns on, the air-conditioning and exhaust fan turns
off. And when the heat pump meets the desired temperature,
the heat pump will automatically turn off and the air-conditioning
of elevator machine room, exhaust fan of electrical room and air
handling units turns on.
DESIGN PARAMETERS AND CONSIDERATIONS
Design Requirements
The

hot

water

system

was

composed

of

the

following

requirements;
Design Total Heat Capacity
Heat Capacity of hot water at the Guest Room
Detailed Calculation of Pipe Sizing to Guest Room
Required Capacity and Thickness of Hot Water Tank
Calculation of Heat loss of Tank and Pipe
Total flow rate and total dynamic head of secondary circulating
pump
Area of Heating Coil
Duct Sizing of Recovery Cold Air
3

The design reference is set in the code of practice and regulation


for most of the countries and to the standard of the following;
a. Maximum daily demand (100 or more units) 15 gal/unit,
Table 7 Hot Water Demand and Various Types of Buildings
(see page 18 of Service Water Heating of ASHRAE HVAC Application).

b. Maximum hourly demand (100 or more units) 4 gal/unit,


Table 7 Hot Water Demand and Various Types of Buildings
(see page 18 of Service Water Heating of ASHRAE HVAC Application).

c. 68F Design cold water temperature


d. 77F - Design ambient air temperature
e. 118.4F - Hot water supply of Guest Room and tank design
temperature.
f. 140F - Heat Pump Design Temperature
g. 0.5 to 8 ft/s - Hot Water Velocity (see page 5 of Air Heating Coil
of ASHRAE HVAC Systems and Equipment).

h. Copper pipe nominal diameter of 67mm, 52mm 35mm


with

wall

thickness

of

2.4mm,

2.1mm

and

1.6mm

respectively Type L domestic water.


(http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com)

i. 1 to 2 hrs - Capacity of storage tank


(see page 19 of ASHRAE HVAC Application).
j. 20% - Expansion and sludge and reserve of tank
(see page 8 of Medium and High Temperature Water Heating of
ASHRAE HVAC Systems and Equipment).

k. 125 to 150 psig - Design pressure rating for below 350F


(see page 8 of Medium and High Temperature Water Heating of
ASHRAE HVAC Systems and Equipment).

l. 2 Btu / hr-ft2-F - Outside surface

coefficient free

convection (Thermodynamics by Virgil Mourning Faires)


m.

312 Btu-in / hr-ft2-F - Film Coefficient for steel


(Thermodynamics by Virgil Mourning Faires)

n. 0.28 Btu-in / hr-ft2-F - Film Coefficient for rockwool


(Thermodynamics by Virgil Mourning Faires)

o. 1,400 Btu-in / hr-ft2-F - Film Coefficient for Aluminum


(Thermodynamics by Virgil Mourning Faires)

p. 1.65 Btu / hr-ft2-F - surface coefficient inside building wall


(Thermodynamics by Virgil Mourning Faires)

q. 1,000 Btu / hr-ft2-F - inside surface coefficient saturated


Water flowing (Thermodynamics by Virgil Mourning Faires)
r. 2,616 Btu-in / hr-ft2-F Film Coefficient of Copper
(Thermodynamics by Virgil Mourning Faires)

s. 0.27 Btu-in / hr-ft2-F Film Coefficient of rubber


insulation (Insulac Brand)
t. 3 Btu-in / hr-ft2-F Film Coefficient of Polyethylene
(http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com)

u. 0.69 Btu-in / hr-ft2-F Film Coefficient for polypropylene


(http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com)

v. 60-80 Btu / hr-ft2-F Overall heat transmission of copper


(http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com)

w. 1 Gal/min for 1- inches and 1- inches diameter per


riser of circulating pump
(see page 7 Water Heating of ASHRAE HVAC Application).

Hot Water Pressure


At 45 psi, variable speed drive pump is required to maintain the
operating pressure of Hot Water System. The pressure of hot
water system must be the same as cold water line.

Hot Water Temperature


Hot Water Circulating Pump and installation of proper insulation
is required to maintain the temperature of hotel guest room. By
doing this, we can save power for heat lost of the system and
meet client requirements.

Hot Water Pipes


Because of their inherent resistance to corrosion and easy
installation,

copper

pipe

are

often

used

in

water

supply

installation for hotel.

System Control
Due to its recovery, the control will interface different system. It
will help the activation or sequence required during operation by
means of Building Management System.

Duct Layout and Damper


The duct layout should follow required thickness and duct
support to lessen the noise level due to its location at roof deck.
This is to avoid transmission of sounds to guest room. Proper

insulation is needed for ducting used as recovery system for the


supply of fresh air at the guest room.

Electric Motor
High Efficiency electric motor, Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled
(TEFC), IEC standard, IP 55 and class F insulation and NEMA 3R
controller for hot water circulating pump.
DESIGN CALCULATIONS
Design Total Heat Capacity
To determine the total required heat capacity of guest room, add
the heat load of water consumption of guest room, heat lost of
tank and heat lost of pipe by the following equation;

QH

QL + QLT + QLP

Where:
QH

Required Total Heat Capacity (Btu/hr)

QL

Heat Load of Water Consumption of Guest Room (Btu/hr)

QLT

Heat Lost of Tank (Btu/hr)

QLP

Heat Lost of Pipe (Btu/hr)

2.3.1.1

Heat Load of Water Consumption of Guest Room

QL

Mhw x Cpw ( Thw Tcw )

Where:
7

Mhw

Mass of Hot Water Required in the Guest Room (lb/hr)

Cpw

Specific Heat of Water (1 Btu/lbs F)

Thw

Hot Water Temperature Supply in the Guest Room (F)

Tcw

Cold Water Temperature (F)

Volumetric Flow Rate (ft3/hr)

Density of Water (62.4 lb/ft3)

To determine the total heat capacity required for the guest room, get
the maximum load demand required in the guest room using 90%
occupancy of 172 guest room. The design average room occupancy is
2 person per unit (see Appendices for Architectural Layout Annex 1A-1D).

No. of unit x daily maximum demand x Occupancy % x no.


of person

172 units x 15 gals/day-unit x 90% x 2 person

4,644 gals/day or 17,577.54 Liters/day

Say; 18,000 Liters/day (Daily Consumption)

On ASHRAE standard we can determine the percentage of peak load


by getting the maximum hourly demand. The maximum hourly
demand is 4 gals/unit.

No. of unit x hourly maximum demand x Occupancy % x


no. of person

172 units x 4 gals/day-unit x 90% x 2 person

1,238.4 gals/hr or 4,687.34 Liters/hr


8

The computed percentages of peak load demand is approximately 26%


based on maximum hourly demand over the maximum daily demand.
The percentage acquire will be use to simulate the average usage of
Hot Water System of Maxims Hotel per hour.

Table 1.1 Hot Water Profile


Time of
day
1:00
2:00
3:00
4:00
5:00
6:00
7:00
8:00
9:00
10:00
11:00
12:00
13:00
14:00
15:00
16:00
17:00
18:00
19:00
20:00
21:00
22:00
23:00
24:00

Hot Water Usage (Liter)

% Usage

0
0
0
0
0
360
900
4,680
1,440
360
360
180
0
0
180
360
360
720
1,080
4,680
1,080
720
540
0

0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
2%
5%
26%
8%
2%
2%
1%
0%
0%
1%
2%
2%
4%
6%
26%
6%
4%
3%
0%

18,000

100%

Based on Table 1.1 we can get the average hourly demand of Hot
Water System approximately 1,125 Liters/hr or 39.70 ft3/hr;

In mass flow rate;

Mhw

Vx
9

Mhw

39.70 ft3/hr x 62.4 lb/ft3

Mhw

2,477.28 lb/hr

To determine the heat load water consumption of guest room,


substitute the mass flow rate in the equation;
QL

Mhw x Cpw ( Thw Tcw )

QL

2,477.28 lb/hr x 1 Btu / lbs F x (118.4F - 68F)

QL

124,854.91 Btu/hr

Detailed Calculation of Pipe Sizing to Guest Room


In Item 2.3.1.1 the maximum hourly demand is 4,687.34 Liters/hr or
165.40 ft3/hr. We can now compute the size of pipe header of Hot
Water System.

V/v

Where:
V

Volumetric Flow Rate (165.40 ft3/hr or 0.046 ft3/s)

Area of Pipe (in2)

Velocity of Hot Water (1.8 ft/s)

Diameter of Pipe (inches)

Pi, (3.1416)

For hot water header pipe @ peak load capacity of 165.40 ft 3/hr
or 0.046 ft3/s.

In Area;
10

V/v

0.046 ft3/s / 1.8 ft/s

0.026 ft2 or 3.744 in2

In diameter;

(d2) / 4
sqrt (3.744 in2 x 4) /
2.2 inches

Say; 2.5 inches diameter for pipe header

For sub header volumetric flow rate @ 50% capacity of 82.7


ft3/hr;
V

Volumetric Flow rate (82.7 ft3/hr or 0.023 ft3/s)

In Area;

V/v

0.023 ft3/s / 1.8 ft/s

0.013 ft2 or 1.9 in2

In diameter;

(d2) / 4

sqrt (1.9 in2 x 4) /

1.6 in

11

Say; 2 inches diameter for pipe sub-header

For riser volumetric flow rate @ 25% capacity of 41.35 ft 3/hr;


V

Volumetric Flow rate (41.35 ft3/hr or 0.011 ft3/s)

In Area;

V/v

0.011 ft3/s / 1.8 ft/s

0.0061 ft2 or 0.9 in2

In diameter;

(d2) / 4

sqrt (0.9 in2 x 4) /

1.1 inches

Say; 1- inches diameter for riser

The pipe sizes are 2.5 inches, 2 inches and 1- inches for header, sub
header and riser, respectively (See Appendices for schematic diagram of hot
water piping in Annex 2A-2B).

Required Capacity and Thickness of Hot Water Tank


Based on Table 1.1, Hot Water Profile, the storage capacity of tank
that can be used is 900 Liters and 4,680 Liters in time of 7am and

12

8am. This is based on ASHRAE that can be used 1 to 2 hours storage


capacity peak demand of the day.
We can get the capacity of Tank by the equation of;

VT

V 1 + V 2 + V3

Where:
VT

Total Volume Capacity

V1

Peak Capacity of Hot Water

V2

Expansion Capacity

V3

Sludge and Reserve

V2 + V 3 =

20% (V1)

VT

V 1 + V 2 + V3

VT

V1 + 20% (V1)

VT

(900 Liter + 4,680 Liter) + 20% (900 Liter + 4,680 Liter)

V1

5,580 Liters + 1,116 Liters

V1

6,696 Liters

Say; 2 x 3,348 L or 2 x 118.14 ft3, total volume of tank

To find the dimension of the tank determine first the volume of


ellipsoid and the volume of cylinder (see Appendices Annex 3A-3B);

VT

V C + VE

Where:
13

VT

Total Volume Capacity

VC

Volume of Cylinder

VE

Volume of Ellipsoid

hT

Overall Height of Tank

dT

Diameter of Tank

Given the diameter of tank at 4.6 ft with ellipsoid radius vertical


distance of 0.98 ft, where major axis and minor axis are the same.
(see Appendices Annex 3A-3B).

VE

4/3 x x a x b x c

Where:
a

Radius of Major Axis

Radius of Minor Axis

Radius of Vertical Distance

VE

4/3 x x a x b x c

VE

4/3 x x 2.3 x 2.3 x 0.98

VE

21.72 ft3

For cylinder;

VC

VT - V E

VC

118.14 21.72

VC

96.42 ft3

For the height of the cylinder;

14

VC

x r2 x h

96.42 / ( x 2.32)

5.8 ft

Adding the height of cylinder and ellipsoid;

hT

c+h

hT

(2 x 0.98 ft) + 5.8 ft

hT

7.8 ft

Say; 4.6 ft diameter x 7.8 ft height

And the wall thickness of tank using 125 psi operating pressure and
4.6 ft or 55.2 inches diameter;

tm

(P x r x FS) / TS x E

Where:
tm

wall thickness (inches)

maximum internal pressure in 125 psi

radius of tank (inches)

TS

Tensile Strength (55,029 psi)

FS

5 for new construction

Efficiency 90%

tm

(P x r x FS) / TS x E

tm

(125 psi x 27.6 in x 5) / 55,029 psi x 0.90

tm

17,250 / 49,526.10
15

tm

0.348 in

Say; 3/8 inches standard commercial thickness

Calculation of Heat loss of Tank and Pipe


We can compute the heat lost of tank by following equation
QLT

QLT1 + QLT2

QLT1

(Tin x Tout) / (1/ho) + (1/hi) + A/K

QLT2

AT x (Tin x Tout) / (1/ho) + (1/hi) + L/K

Where:
QLT

Total Loss of Tank (Btu/hr)

QLT1

Heat Loss of Cylindrical Tank Surface Area (Btu/hr)

QLT2

Heat Loss of Ellipsoid Cover of Tank Surface Area (Btu/hr)

AT

Area of Tank (in2)

Length of Pipe or height of Tank (ft)

Tin

Design Temperature Inside the Tank (F)

Tout

Design Ambient Temperature (F)

ho

Outside Surface Coefficient (Btu/hr- ft2-F)

hi

Inside Surface Coefficient (Btu/hr- ft2-F)

Film Coefficient (Btu-in / hr- ft2-F)

Resistance (hr-F / Btu)

For cylindrical tank heat lost;

16

QLT1

(Tin x Tout) / (1/ho) + (1/hi) + A/K or

QLT1

(Tin x Tout) / R

To determine the heat lost, get first the summation of resistance;


For R1, given the height of cylindrical tank 5.8 ft and diameter of tank
4.6 ft with thickness of 3/8 inches, we can get the internal diameter of
tank in 4.57 ft;

For inside resistance of tank;

R1

1 / Ai x h i

R1

1 / ( x 4.57 ft x 5.8 ft x 1,000 Btu/hr- ft2-F)

R1

1 / 83,271.25 hr-F / Btu

R1

1.2 x 10-5 hr-F / Btu

For resistance of tank given the inside and outside diameter of tank
and the film coefficient;

R2

ln (Do / Di) / (2 x x L x K)

R2

ln (4.6 ft /4.57 ft) / (2 x x 5.8 ft x


312/12 Btu-in / hr- ft2-F)

R2

0.0065 / 947.51

R2

6.86 x 10-6 hr-F / Btu

For resistance of insulation given the thickness of insulation 0.17 ft


and the film coefficient;

17

R3

ln (Do / Di) / (2 x x L x K)

R3

ln (4.77/4.6) / (2 x x 5.8 ft x
0.28/12 Btu-in/hr-ft2-F)

R3

0.036 / 0.85

R3

4.24 x 10-2 hr-F / Btu

For resistance of cladding given the thickness of cladding 0.0066 ft and


the film coefficient;

R4

ln (Do / Di) / (2 x x L x K)

R4

ln (4.7766/4.77) / (2 x x 5.8 ft x
1,400/12 Btu-in/hr-ft2-F)

R4

R4

0.0014 / 4,251.63
3.29 x 10-7 hr-F / Btu

For outside resistance of tank natural convection;

R5

1 / Ao x h o

R5

1/ ( x 4.7766 ft x 5.8 ft x 2 Btu/hr- ft2-F)

R5

1 / 174.07 hr-F / Btu

R5

5.74 x 10-3 hr-F / Btu

Summation of resistance as follows;

R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 + R5

1.2 x 10-5 + 6.86 x 10-6 + 4.24 x 10-2 + 3.29 x 10-7 +


18

5.74 x 10-3
R

0.048 hr-F / Btu

QLT1

(Tin x Tout) / R

QLS1

(118.4 F 77 F) / 0.048 hr-F / Btu

QLS1 =

862.5 Btu/hr

Compute the surface area of top and bottom of tank with the formula
of ellipsoidal;

SA

4 x ((ap bp + apcp+ bpcp)/3)1/p

Where:
a

Radius of Major Axis (2.3 ft)

Radius of Minor Axis (2.3 ft)

Radius of Vertical Distance (0.98 ft)

1.6075

SA

4 x ((ap bp + apcp+ bpcp)/3)1/p

SA

4 x ((2.31.6075 x 2.31.6075 + 2.31.6075 x 0.981.6075 +


2.31.6075 x 0.981.6075) / 3)1/1.6075

SA

4 x ((3.81 x 3.81) + (3.81 x 0.97) +


(3.81 x 0.97)/3) 0.622

SA

4 x ((14.52) + (3.69) + (3.69)/3) 0.622

SA

4 x x (21.9/3) 0.622

SA

43.27 ft2

19

Substitute the thickness of tank, thickness of insulation and thickness


of cladding;

L/K =

0.0313 ft / (312/12) Btu-in/hr- ft2-F + 0.17 ft / (0.28/12)


Btu-in/hr-ft2-F + 0.0066 ft / (1,400/12) Btu-in/hr-ft2-F)

L/K =

0.0012 Btu / hr- ft2-F + 7.29 Btu / hr- ft2-F +


0.000057 Btu / hr- ft2-F

L/K=

7.29 hr- ft2-F / Btu

Given the surface area of top and bottom of tank and the summation
of L/K, substitute the values in the equation;

QLS2

AT x (Tin x Tout) / (1/ho) + (1/hi) + L/K

QLS2

43.27 ft2 (118.4 F 77F) / (1/1,000 Btu /hr-ft2-F) +


1/2 Btu/hr- ft2-F + 7.29 hr- ft2-F / Btu

QLS2

1,791.38 / (0.001 + 0.5 + 7.29)

QLS2

1,791.38 / 7.791

QLS2 =

229.93 Btu/hr

For total heat lost of tank;

QLT

QLS1 + QLS2

QLT

862.5 Btu/hr + 229.93 Btu/hr Heat lost of Tank

QLT

1,092.43 Btu/hr

20

Since the selected number of hot water tank is two (2) the total
heat lost of tank has a total of 2,184.86 Btu/hr.

Total heat lost of pipe sizes 2.5 inches, 2 inches, 1- inches,


inches supply to guest room and 2 inches return pipe to hot
water tank (see Appendices for figure reference annex 4).

Based on schematic diagram and architectural layout, we can compute


the length of pipe .

QLP

(Tin x Tout) / (1/ho) + (1/hi) + A/K

Where:
Tin

Temperature Inside the Pipe (F)

Tout

Average Ambient Temperature (F)

ho

Outside Surface Coefficient (Btu / hr-ft2-F)

hi

Inside Surface Coefficient (Btu / hr-ft2-F)

Film Coefficient (Btu-in / hr-ft2-F)

Total heat lost of pipe size 2.5 inches;


For inside resistance of pipe size 2.5 inches;
Given the length 44 ft and the nominal diameter of pipe 2.64 inches or
0.22 ft with thickness of 0.094 inches, we can get the internal
diameter of tank in 2.55 inches or 0.2125 ft;

R1

1 / Ai x h i
21

R1

1/ ( x 0.2125 ft x 44 ft x 1,000 Btu/hr- ft2-F)

R1

1 / 29,373.96 hr-F / Btu

R1

3.4 x 10-5 hr-F / Btu

For resistance of copper pipe 2.64 inches given the inside and outside
diameter of pipe and the film coefficient;

R2

ln (Do / Di) / (2 x x L x K)

R2

ln (0.22/0.2125) / (2 x x 44 ft x
2,616/12 Btu-in / hr- ft2-F)

R2

0.035 / 60,268.45

R2

5.81 x 10-7 hr-F / Btu

For resistance of insulation given the thickness of insulation 1 in or


0.125 ft and the film coefficient;
R3

ln (Do / Di) / (2 x x L x K)

R3

ln (0.345/0.22) / (2 x x 44 ft x
0.27/12 Btu- in/hr-ft2-F)

R3

0.4499 / 6.22

R3

7.23 x 10-2 hr-F / Btu

For resistance of polyethylene tape given the thickness of 0.0066 ft


and the film coefficient;

R4

ln (Do / Di) / (2 x x L x K)

R4

ln (0.352/0.345) / (2 x x 44 ft x
3/12 Btu-in/hr-ft2-F)
22

R4

0.02 / 69.12

R4

2.89 x 10-4 hr-F / Btu

For outside resistance of pipe;

R5

1 / Ao x h o

R5

1/ ( x 0.352 ft x 44 ft x 2 Btu/hr- ft2-F)

R5

1 / 97.31 hr-F / Btu

R5

1.03 x 10-2 hr-F / Btu

R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 + R5

3.4 x 10-5 + 5.81 x 10-7 + 7.23 x 10-2 + 2.89 x 10-4 +


1.03 x 10-2

0.08 hr-F / Btu

QLP

(118.4 77) / 0.08

QLP

517.5 Btu/hr Heat Lost @ 2.5 inches

2.3.1.4.2.2 Total heat lost of pipe size 2 inches;


For inside resistance of pipe size 2 inches;
Given the length 334 ft and the nominal diameter of pipe 2.13 in or
0.18 ft with thickness of 0.08 inches, we can get the internal diameter
of tank in 2.05 in or 0.17 ft;

R1

1 / Ai x h i

R1

1/ ( x 0.17 ft x 334 ft x 1,000 Btu/hr- ft2-F)

R1

1 / 178,380.05 hr-F / Btu


23

R1

5.61 x 10-6 hr-F / Btu

For resistance of copper pipe 2.13 inches given the inside and outside
diameter of pipe and the film coefficient;

R2

ln (Do / Di) / (2 x x L x K)

R2

ln (0.18/0.17) / (2 x x 334 ft x
2,616/12 Btu-in / hr- ft2-F)

R2

0.057 / 457,492.36

R2

1.25 x 10-7 hr-F / Btu

For resistance of insulation given the thickness of insulation 1 in or


0.08 ft and the film coefficient;

R3

ln (Do / Di) / (2 x x L x K)

R3

ln (0.26/0.18) / (2 x x 334 ft x
0.27/12 Btu- in/hr-ft2-F)

R3

0.37 / 47.22

R3

7.84 x 10-3 hr-F / Btu

For resistance of polyethylene tape given the thickness of 0.0066 ft


and the film coefficient;

R4

ln (Do / Di) / (2 x x L x K)

R4

ln (0.267/0.26) / (2 x x 334 ft x
3/12 Btu-in/hr-ft2-F)
24

R4

0.027 / 524.65

R4

5.15 x 10-5 hr-F / Btu

For outside resistance of pipe;

R5

1 / Ao x h o

R5

1/ ( x 0.267 ft x 334 ft x 2 Btu/hr- ft2-F)

R5

1 / 560.32 hr-F / Btu

R5

1.78 x 10-3 hr-F / Btu

R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 + R5

5.61 x 10-6 + 1.25 x 10-7 + 7.84 x 10-3 + 5.15 x 10-5 +


1.78 x 10-3

9.7 x 10-3 hr-F / Btu

QLP

(118.4 77) / 9.7 x 10-3

QLP

4,268.04 Btu/hr Heat Lost @ 2.0 inches

Total heat lost of pipe size 1- inches;


For inside resistance of pipe size 1- inches;
Given the length 1,300 ft and the nominal diameter of pipe 1.38 in or
0.155 ft with thickness of 0.0059 inches, we can get the internal
diameter of tank in 1.374 in or 0.115 ft;

R1

1 / Ai x h i

R1

1/ ( x 0.115 ft x 1,300 ft x 1,000 Btu/hr- ft2-F)


25

R1

1 / 469,669.2 hr-F / Btu

R1

2.13 x 10-6 hr-F / Btu

For resistance of copper pipe 1.38 inches given the inside and outside
diameter of pipe and the film coefficient;

R2

ln (Do / Di) / (2 x x L x K)

R2

ln (0.155/0.115) / (2 x x 1,300 ft x
2,616/12 Btu-in / hr- ft2-F)

R2

0.298 / 1,780,658.88

R2

1.67 x 10-7 hr-F / Btu

For resistance of insulation given the thickness of insulation 1 in or


0.08 ft and the film coefficient;

R3

ln (Do / Di) / (2 x x L x K)

R3

ln (0.235/0.155) / (2 x x 1,300 ft x
0.27/12 Btu- in/hr-ft2-F)

R3

0.42 / 183.78

R3

2.29 x 10-3 hr-F / Btu

For resistance of polyethylene tape given the thickness of 0.0066 ft


and the film coefficient;

R4

ln (Do / Di) / (2 x x L x K)

R4

ln (0.242/0.235) / (2 x x 1,300 ft x
3/12 Btu-in/hr-ft2-F)
26

R4

0.029 / 2,042.04

R4

1.42 x 10-5 hr-F / Btu

For outside resistance of pipe;

R5

1 / Ao x h o

R5

1/ ( x 0.242 ft x 1,300 ft x 2 Btu/hr- ft2-F)

R5

1 / 1,976.69 hr-F / Btu

R5

5.06 x 10-4 hr-F / Btu

R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 + R5

2.13 x 10-6 + 1.67 x 10-7 + 2.29 x 10-3 + 1.42 x 10-5


+ 5.06 x 10-4

2.81 x 10-3 hr-F / Btu

QLP

(118.4 77) / 2.81 x 10-3

QLP

14,733.10 Btu/hr Heat Lost @ 1- inches

Total heat lost of pipe size 3/4 inches;


For inside resistance of pipe size 3/4 inches;
Given the length 4,500 ft and the nominal diameter of pipe 0.87 in or
0.072 ft with thickness of 0.078 inches, we can get the internal
diameter of tank in 0.786 in or 0.066 ft;

R1

1 / Ai x h i

R1

1/ ( x 0.066 ft x 4,500 ft x 1,000 Btu/hr- ft2-F)

R1

1 / 933,055.20 hr-F / Btu


27

R1

1.07 x 10-6 hr-F / Btu

For resistance of polypropylene pipe 0.87 inches given the inside and
outside diameter of pipe and the film coefficient;

R2

ln (Do / Di) / (2 x x L x K)

R2

ln (0.072/0.066) / (2 x x 4,500 ft x
0.69/12 Btu-in / hr- ft2-F)

R2

0.09 / 1,625.78

R2

5.54 x 10-5 hr-F / Btu

For resistance of insulation given the thickness of insulation 1 in or


0.08 ft and the film coefficient;

R3

ln (Do / Di) / (2 x x L x K)

R3

ln (0.152/0.072) / (2 x x 4,500 ft x
0.27/12 Btu- in/hr-ft2-F)

R3

0.75 / 636.17

R3

1.18 x 10-3 hr-F / Btu

For outside resistance of pipe;

R4

1 / Ao x h o

R4

1/ ( x 0.152 ft x 4,500 ft x 1.65 Btu/hr- ft2-F)

R4

1 / 3,545.61 hr-F / Btu


28

R4

2.82 x 10-4 hr-F / Btu

R1 + R2 + R3 + R4

1.07 x 10-6 + 5.54 x 10-5 + 1.18 x 10-3 + 2.82 x 10-4

1.52 x 10-3 hr-F / Btu

QLP

(118.4 77) / 1.52 x 10-3

QLP

27,236.84 Btu/hr Heat Lost @ 3/4 inches

2.3.1.4.2.5 Total heat lost of pipe size 2 inches;


For inside resistance of pipe size 2.0 inches (Return Pipe);
Given the length 400 ft and the nominal diameter of pipe 2.13 in or
0.18 ft with thickness of 0.08 inches, we can get the internal diameter
of tank in 2.05 in or 0.17 ft;

R1

1 / Ai x h i

R1

1/ ( x 0.17 ft x 400 ft x 1,000 Btu/hr- ft2-F)

R1

1 / 213,628.8 hr-F / Btu

R1

4.68 x 10-6 hr-F / Btu

For resistance of copper pipe 2.13 inches given the inside and outside
diameter of pipe and the film coefficient;

R2

ln (Do / Di) / (2 x L x K)

R2

ln (0.18/0.17) / (2 x x 400 ft x
2,616/12 Btu-in / hr- ft2-F)

R2

0.057 / 547,895.04

R2

1.04 x 10-7 hr-F / Btu


29

For resistance of insulation given the thickness of insulation 1 in or


0.08 ft and the film coefficient;

R3

ln (Do / Di) / (2 x L x K)

R3

ln (0.26/0.18) / (2 x x 400 ft x
0.27/12 Btu- in/hr-ft2-F)

R3

0.37 / 56.55

R3

6.54 x 10-3 hr-F / Btu

For resistance of polyethylene tape given the thickness of 0.0066 ft


and the film coefficient;

R4

ln (Do / Di) / (2 x L x K)

R4

ln (0.267/0.26) / (2 x x 400 ft x
3/12 Btu-in/hr-ft2-F)

R4

0.027 / 628.32

R4

4.23 x 10-5 hr-F / Btu

For outside resistance of pipe;

R5

1 / Ao x h o

R5

1/ ( x 0.267 ft x 400 ft x 2 Btu/hr- ft2-F)

R5

1 / 671.05 hr-F / Btu

R5

1.49 x 10-3 hr-F / Btu

R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 + R5

4.68 x 10-6 + 1.04 x 10-7 + 6.54 x 10-3 + 4.23 x 10-5 +


30

1.49 x 10-3
R

8.08 x 10-3 hr-F / Btu

QLP

(118.4 77) / 8.08 x 10-3

QLP

5,123.76 Btu/hr Heat Lost @ 2.0 inches

The total heat lost of pipe is;

QLP

QLP@2.5 + QLP@2 + QLP@1-1/4 + QLP@3/4 + QLP@2(RETURN)

QLP

517.5 + 4,268.04 + 14,733.10 + 27,236.84 + 5,123.76

QLP

51,879.24 Btu/hr Total Heat lost of pipe

Total Heat load of the guest room;

QH

QL + QLT + QLP

QH

124,854.91 + 2,184.86 + 51,879.24

QH

178,919 Btu/hr

Say;
Total

180,000 Btu/hr,
Flow

Rate

and

Total

Dynamic

Head

of

Secondary

Circulating Pump
Total Volumetric Flow Rate
To get the total volumetric flow rate of secondary pump, 1 gal/min per
each riser for 1- inches or 1- inches pipe size are given in ASHRAE
1995 HVAC Application page 7. Based on architectural layout and pipe
chase, they have 23 risers;
31

VS

No. of Riser x 1 gal/min

VS

23 x 1 gal/min

VS

23 gal/min or 3.07 ft3/min

Total Dynamic Head


For total dynamic head of secondary pump get the friction lost of pipe
and valves, required pressure of the fixture. The fixture that has
maximum pressure is shower, with 12 psig based on Table 8 Proper
flow and pressure required during flow for differential fixtures ASHRAE
Fundamentals.

Hf

f LV2 / d2g Darcy equation

Where:
Hf

Friction Head Loss (inches)

Diameter of Pipe (inches)

Gravitational Force (32.2 ft/s)

Velocity of Pipe (ft/s)

Friction Coefficient

All data are given except for the value of friction coefficient but we can
now determine the value by the equation;

0.00181 + 0.0011787 (z / dvS)0.355

32

Where:
z

fluid viscosity, (0.60 centipoises 120F Table 14-8


Viscosities centipoises page 606 Power Plant Engineering
by Frederick Morse).

Specific Gravity of Water

1.8 ft/s or 0.55 m/s

Friction Head of 2.5 inches diameter


Value of friction at 0.065 m internal diameter, friction coefficient is;

0.00181 + 0.0011787 (z / dvS)0.355

0.00181 + 0.0011787 (0.60 centipoises /


0.065 m x 0.55 m/s x 1)0.355

0.005

Compute the friction head given the effective total length of supply hot
water pipe to guest room pipe (see Appendices Annex 6).

Hf

f LV2 / d2g

Hf

0.005 x 64.3 ft (1.8 ft/s)2 / 0.21 ft x 2 x 32.2 ft/s2

Hf

1.04 / 13.52

Hf

0.08 ft

Friction Head of 2.0 inches diameter


Value of friction at 0.052 m internal diameter, friction coefficient is;

0.00181 + 0.0011787 (z / dvS)0.355


33

0.00181 + 0.0011787 (0.60 centipoises /


0.052 m x 0.55 m/s x 1)0.355

0.0053

Compute the friction head of supply hot water pipe to guest room,
given the effective total length of pipe (see Appendices Annex 6).

Hf

f LV2 / d2g

Hf

0.0053 x 458.1 ft (1.8 ft/s)2 / 0.17 ft x 2 x 32.2 ft/s

Hf

7.87 / 10.95

Hf

0.72 ft

Friction Head of 1- inches diameter


Value of friction at 0.035 m internal diameter friction coefficient is;

0.00181 + 0.0011787 (z / dvS)0.355

0.00181 + 0.0011787 (0.60 centipoises /


0.035 m x 0.55 m/s x1)0.355

0.0059

Compute the friction head of supply hot water pipe to guest room
given the effective total length of pipe (see Appendices Annex 6).

Hf

f LV2 / d2g

Hf

0.0059 x 2,481.9 ft (1.8 ft/s)2 / 0.115 ft x 2 x 32.2 ft/s

Hf

47.44 / 7.406

Hf

6.41 ft
34

Friction Head of 2.0 inches diameter


Using the value of friction for 0.052 m internal diameter, we can get
the friction head of return hot water pipe to guest room given the
effective total length of pipe (see Appendices Annex 6).

Hf

f LV2 / d2g

Hf

0.0053 x 2,039 ft (1.8 ft/s)2 / 0.17 ft x 2 x 32.2 ft/s

Hf

35.01 / 10.95

Hf

3.20 ft

Summation of friction head;

Hf

0.08 ft + 0.72 ft +6.41 ft + 3.2 ft

Hf

9.67 ft

To get the total dynamic head, given the summation of friction head
add the pressure required of fixture;

TDH =

Hf + fixture pressure required (12 psig or 27.72 ft)

TDH =

9.67 ft + 27.72 ft

TDH =

37.39 ft

Say; 40 ft total dynamic head

The flow rate of secondary circulating pump and total dynamic


head are 3.07 ft3/min and 40 ft respectively.

35

EQUIPMENT SELECTION AND COMPUTATION


Selection of Hot Water Tank
Reference to 2.3.1.3 the total storage required for two hours is 5,580
Liters. Commercial selection has 2,550 Liters storage capacity. The
researcher suggests to use 2 units of 2,550 Liters. Each tank has 6m 2
heating coil. The capacity of the selected tank will be shown in Table
1.2, simulation of equipment capacity.

Heat Pump Capacity


Based on total heat lost of hot water supply from guest room, add the
heat lost of pipe and hot water tank in volumetric flow rate.
The total heat capacity of heat lost is 54,064.10 Btu/hr, 30% of design
capacity of 180,000 Btu/hr. By simulating reference on Table 1.1 Hot
water profile, 70% of volumetric flow rate is 18,000 Liters/hr based on
124,854.91 Btu/hr. The 30% heat lost in volumetric flow rate is 7,714
Liters/hr. To get the average hourly basis divide the 7,714 Liters/hr in
24 hours. The average volumetric flow rate is 321.4 Liters/hr.
The selected Heat pump capacity model 268CW2-134C @ 77F with
the hot water production 2,108 liters/hr, the hot water production will
be added to the hot water tank recovery during operation. To make
sure the required capacity of guest room will meet the requirements
on the selected equipment (see Table 1.2).

Table 1.2 Hot Water Profile with Hot Water Production


Tim
e of

Usage
Liter/h

%
Usage

Losses
Liter/h

Tank
Capacit

36

Hot
Water

Excess
Cap,Lite

5100
5100
5100
5100
5100
5100
5100
5100
5100
5100

Productio
n Liter/hr
0
0
0
0
2,108
2,108
2,108
2,108
2,108
2,108

4,557
4,236
3,914
3,593
2,108
3,535
4,421
1,528
1,874
3,301

321.4

5100

2,108

4,728

1%

321.4

5100

1,054

5,280

0%

321.4

5100

527

5,486

0%

321.4

5100

5,164

180

1%

321.4

5100

527

5,190

360

2%

321.4

5100

527

5,036

360

2%

321.4

5100

527

4,881

720

4%

321.4

5100

1,581

5,421

1,080

6%

321.4

5100

1,054

5,073

4,680

26%

321.4

5100

2,108

2,180

1,080

6%

321.4

5100

2,108

2,887

720

4%

321.4

5100

2,108

3,953

540

3%

321.4

5100

2,108

5,200

0%

321.4

5100

4,878

18,00
0

100%

day

y Liter

1:00
2:00
3:00
4:00
5:00
6:00
7:00
8:00
9:00
10:0
0
11:0
0
12:0
0
13:0
0
14:0
0
15:0
0
16:0
0
17:0
0
18:0
0
19:0
0
20:0
0
21:0
0
22:0
0
23:0
0
24:0
0

0
0
0
0
0
360
900
4,680
1,440
360

0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
2%
5%
26%
8%
2%

321.4
321.4
321.4
321.4
321.4
321.4
321.4
321.4
321.4
321.4

360

2%

180

28,985

In Table 1.2, we can say that the selected capacity is enough to the
requirements of the hotel. At peak load usage of hot water of guest
room, the hot water production of heat pump using 4 compressors
running has almost 10% excess capacity of peak load. Below is graph
of the simulation.
37

FIGURE 1.4

Figure 1.4 shows the line graph of hot water requirements of guest
room in blue line, the green line is the hot water production of selected
capacity of heat pump and red line is the excess capacity in normal
operation of heat pump a day.

Say; 2 units of heat pump 1 operational, 1 stand by


38

Area of Heating Coil


To counter check the selected capacity 2,550 Liters at 6m 2 or 64.5 ft2
model IT 2500, get the area of copper pipe inside the indirect calorifier
with the selected Heat Pump model. The heat output of the Heat Pump
is 300,967 Btu/hr with compressor capacity 4 x 9hp reference on
Quantum Heat Pump. The total capacity of discharge air of heat is
21,172 ft3/min at 1.6 inches total static pressure.

Given the 300,967 Btu/hr, we can compute the area of coil inside the
tank by the equation;

QC

U x A x LMTD

QC

300,967 Btu/hr

Where:
QC

Heat Required by the Cooling Coil

Overall Coefficient of Heat Transfer of Copper Pipe

LMTD =

Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference

Area of Heat Transfer

To determine the Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference, see


appendices for the graph to get the temperature difference of cross
flow heat transfer (see Appendices Annex 7).

LMTD =

(max min) / ln (max / min)

LMTD =

(57.6 21.6) / ln (57.6 / 21.6)

LMTD =

36 / 0.98
39

LMTD =

36.73

QC

U x A x LMTD

300,967 Btu/hr / 70 Btu/hr-ft2-F x 36.73

117.06 ft2 or 10.88 m2

Since we have two tanks we can the divide the computed area into 2.
The area of copper of each tank is 5.44 m2.

Say; 6 m2, the commercial size tank meets the requirement of heat
pump production.

Therefore, the heat output of the equipment 300,967 Btu/hr with


compressor capacity 4 x 9hp references on Quantum Heat Pump and
the area of copper of indirect calorifier meets the requirement of Hot
Water System.
Calculate the Power (hp) Requirements of Secondary
Circulating Pump;
The volumetric flow rate and total dynamic of secondary circulating
pump is 3.07 ft3/min and 40 ft (refer to item 2.3.2). To determine the
horsepower required of hot water secondary circulating pump by the
equation;

HP

VP x x H

Where:
VP

Volumetric Flow Rate (ft3/min)


40

HP

Horsepower Required

Density of Water (62 lb/ft3)

Total Head (ft)

HP

VP x x H

HP

(3.07 ft3/min x 62.4 lb/ft3 x 40 ft) /


(33,000 ft-lb/min-hp x 0.33)

HP

7,662.72 / 10,890

HP

0.70

Say; 2 units of hot water circulating pump 1 operational, 1


stand by (See Appendices Annex 8 Equipment layout).

RECOVERY OF COLD AIR


In every design recovery system is very important especially in 24
hours operation. One of the advantages of the designer is by using
heat pump. The discharge air of heat pump can be utilized as
ventilation of elevator machine room and electrical room. Existing
capacity of window type air-conditioning of elevator system is 2 x
2.5hp, 1 x 0.7hp exhaust fan for electrical room and 7.5hp air handling
unit each.
Since the Maxims Hotel are equip with Building Management System,
the additional controls will be put in the hot water system, air
conditioning of elevator machine room, exhaust fan of electrical room
and air handling unit to be integrated in Building Management System.

41

This will be used for start/stop of the system during the operation to
gain the recovery system.
Additional ducting should be also included. This is to convey the air
discharge of heat pump. The sizes will be determined by the equation;

VAIR

Axv

Where:
VAIR

Volumetric Flow Rate of Air (ft3/s)

Velocity of Duct (ft/s)

Area (ft2)

Given the total capacity of discharge air 36,000 m 3/hr or 21,172.50


ft3/min at selected capacity of heat pump. The dimension of duct
header at 2,500 ft/min velocity of duct;

VAIR

/v

21,172.50 ft3/min / 2,500 ft/min

8.47 ft2

Say for 2 ft height of duct;

Width x Height

8.47 ft2 / 2 ft

4.24 ft

Say; Dimension of duct is 4.24 ft x 2 ft (Duct Header)

42

The required air flow for two units air handling unit for fresh air supply
of guest room is 2 x 8,000 ft3/min. The size of duct is;

VAIR

/v

16,000 ft3/min / 2,500 ft/min

6.4 ft2

Say for 2 ft height of duct;


A

Width x Height

6.4 ft2 / 2 ft

3.2 ft

Say; Dimension of duct is 3.2 ft x 2 ft


With the total air discharged of heat pump, 21,172.50 ft 3/min less the
air requirement of air handling unit of 16,000 ft 3/min is 5,172.5
ft3/min. The excess capacity will run thru the elevator machine room
and discharge to electrical room by means of relief damper.

For elevator machine room;

VAIR

/v

5,172.5 ft3/min / 2,500 ft/min

2 ft2

Say for 1 ft height of duct;

Width x Height

2 ft2 / 1 ft

2 ft
43

Say; Dimension of duct is 2 ft x 1 ft

For size of diffuser for machine room at 800 ft/min;

VAIR

/v

5,172.5 ft3/min / 800 ft/min

6.47 ft2

Say for 2 ft height of duct;

Width x Height

6.47 ft2 / 2 ft

3.23 ft

Say; Dimension of louver is 3.23 ft x 2 ft


MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION
Air Source Heat Pumps The heat pump water heater
shall be source equipment, factory assembled, charged,
and

tested.

The heat pump have the capability of

producing not less than 140 F water, with heating capacity


as indicated on Summary of Technical Data. Heat Pumps
shall be tested in compliance with health and safety
standards for heating Equipments that come into contact
with hot and cold potable water.
Heat

pump

unit

should

consist

of

compressor,

condensers, evaporator coil, fans, water circulating pump,


pipings,

controls

and
44

should

be

factory

assembled,

charged, and tested. The heat pump shall contain the


following components, and features.
a.

Cabinet should be Type 304L stainless steel. Support,

channels and beams should also be constructed type 304L stainless


steel. Compartment should have large access doors for servicing.
Compressor and condenser should be located in separate compartment
from fan and evaporator for in-operation serving. Base section under
evaporator coil should have stainless steel drip pan for condensate.
Cabinet should be designed for outdoor operation.

b.

Fans The fan arrangement should be draw-through

design. Fan should be centrifugal, direct driven at no more than 1075


RPM (60hz). Fan diameter should not be greater than 9 (229mm).
Construction should be epoxy coated steel. The motor should be
mounted to blower scroll with vibration isolating rubber grommets,
with stainless steel fasteners. It should also be marine duty corrosion
protected.

c.

Evaporator Coils should be constructed with aluminum

waffle plate fins mechanically bonded to seamless copper tubing. All


tube joints to be brazed with silver rod. Coil should have corrosion
inhibiting coated fins and type 304 stainless steel coil casings and
drain pan.

d.

Refrigerant should be R-134a. This refrigerant is readily

available.
45

e.

Expansion Valves should be specifically designed for heat

pump use with adjustment superheat feature.

f.

Scroll

type,

suitable

for

high

temperature

operation

suitable for R-134a refrigerant.

g.

Compressor Control: Compressor controls / accessories

must include the following:


1.

Crack case Heater

2.

Crankcase Heater Relay

3.

High pressure safety switch

4.

Low Pressure Safety Switch

h.

Indicator lights for:

1.

power on

2.

Normal Stop

3.

High pressure Fail

4.

Low pressure Fail

j.

Condenser

Coaxial

vented

double

wall

type.

Suitable for high temperature operation for potable water.


1.

Filter-Driers: Sweat connection type

2.

Site glass: Moisture indicating type

k.

Unit should be factory wired to allow a maximum of twelve


compressor short cycling and allow time for suction and

46

discharge pressure to equalize permitting the compressor to


start in an unloaded condition.
l.

Water circulating pumps should be in-line all bronze stainless


steel body centrifugal type able to deliver rated flow against the
external head.

m.

Controls The heat pump unit shall be factory wired for fully
automatic operation. Safeties shall include and fan motor
thermal overload protection, manual reset pressure stats, anticycling compressor relays, plus standard items recommended by
the equipment manufacturer.

Hot Water Storage Tank with Heat Exchanger


a.

Combination

of

Hot

Water

Storage

and

Heat

Exchanger System, constructed with clear separation


between

domestic

water

and

storage

tank

in

accordance with health and safety standard for


heating equipment. Hot water storage tank should be
provided with coil type heat exchanger using hot
water from the air source heat pump as the primary
heating source.

b.

Hot water storage tank should have a minimum


storage capacity of 2,550 Liters vertical mounting,
installed at the roof level of the hotel floor.

47

c.

It should be insulated using Rockwool. External


insulations

should

be

provided

with

gage

24

aluminum cladding suitable for outdoor installation.

d.

Heat exchanger should be designed for primary hot


water temperature of 149 F and maximum domestic
hot supply temperature of 140 F for legionella
Bacteria flushing and average or normal domestic
hot water supply of 113 F for shower and bathtub
usage for guest room. Domestic hot water surface
area of heat exchanger is 64 ft2 or 6 m2.

e.

Tank should be designed for a minimum working


pressure of 125 psig.

HOT WATER PIPING


Copper type L hard drawn in accordance with ASTM B88.1 - 94. Minimum working pressure psig.
1. Fittings: Wrought Copper
2. Joints:

Solder joints for sizes up to 50mm (2.0 inches)


and mechanical grooved coupling suitable for
copper tubes or pipes for the risers both up
feed and down feed pipes.

Polypropylene Pipes should be temperature service of 75


-C and nominal pressure 300 psig.

VALVE PRESSURE RATING


48

Unless otherwise indicated, use valves suitable for 150


psig, working pressure. For circulating pump discharge
valves pressure should be suitable for 300 psig working
pressure.

Basic Operation
The Hot Water System using heat pump is the primary hot
water supply of the hotel guest room. The system is 24
hours in operation depend on the load requirements of the
guest room. The heat pump has four (4) compressors
simultaneously running depend on the temperature setting
to make sure the hot water temperature will meet the
desired temperature requirements.
At peak load, it will run in four (4) compressors to sustain
the hot water storage and storage recovery. It means the
energy recovery will maximize also. The discharge air will
be supply to elevator machine room, electrical room and
serve as the fresh air of the guest room.
When the systems run in three (3) compressors, the
capacity of discharge is not enough to maintain the
required air requirements. One (1) air handling unit will
turn off and switch to normal mode of air conditioning
system (Chilled Water System) by means of Building
Management System. On the other hand, one (1) air
handling unit using recovery system, will give the exact
49

quantity of air requirement and the excess will go to


elevator machine room. Since the elevator machine room
has no return, the owner will put relief damper to electrical
room. The discharge air of the electrical room will goes out
to louver door.
The system operation on two (2) compressors running is
the same as three (3) compressors the discharge air of
heat pump will be utilized in one (1) air handling unit
supply of fresh air of guest room, ventilation of elevator
machine room.
In low demand load of hot water of guest room the
systems run in one (1) compressor, the rooms that can be
utilized are the elevator machine room and the electrical
room. The two (2) air handling units will run in normal
mode system the Chilled Water System.
And when the Heat Pumps System turns off, it means the
required

temperature

setting

meet

the

normal

air-

conditioning are running; chilled water system in air


handling unit, window type air-conditioning in elevator
machine room and typical exhaust fan in electrical room.
The start/stop of the system will run throughout the
Building Management System by different setting and by
means of dry contact. The Building Management System
plays a big role in the energy recovery system. Proper

50

settings and control of the parameter are required in the


system.
For volume damper, the actuators are interlock with the
system. The volume damper of heat pump is normally
open when the heat pump is in operation and normally
closed when the heat pump turns off. Same as in air
handling unit the motorized damper is open when the
ducting of the recovery system were connected and the
fresh air of air handling unit in take is closed. When the
recovery air is not enough, the air handling unit itself will
run thru chilled water system. The motorized damper
where the recovery duct is closed and the fresh air intake
will be open.
In elevator machine room, all excess air of heat pump will
be supply to elevator machine room. Since the elevator
machine room has no return or any opening the relief
damper of the electrical room will be open. This is to
maintain the air pressure of the elevator room.
Since the electrical room has louver door, the air relief by
the

damper

from

elevator

room

will

goes

surrounding by means of the said louver door.

ECONOMIC ASPECTS
51

out

to

As Mechanical Engineers, it is our responsibility to design


the most efficient and economical systems for our client,
which needs Engineering Knowledge, Skills and Research
to check what are the latest developments or technology in
the field of work. Because even we select and spend so
much investment to the updated and efficient equipment
but if we install it in an inefficient system, the result is
just the same. That will spend so much in operating cost
and

maintenance

cost

during

the

life

span

of

the

equipment.
Since the report is limited to the Design, Installation,
Operation and Maintenance of Hot Water System Using
Heat

Pump

including

Detailed

Calculation

of

Piping,

Storage Tank Design, Pump & Insulation and the Recovery


of Cold Air for Machine Room Ventilation of Maxims Hotel in
Newport Blvd, Newport City. The applicant at the beginning
of the report, emphasizing that the Heat Pump is more
advantageous than the other systems unlike electric water
heater and boiler system due to its recovery. And by
installing the ductwork to the machine room it will help a
lot to reduce the operating cost plus the knowledge of the
applicant in the importance of system efficient.
Therefore the economic analysis of this report will focus on
the following two (2) major items:

52

Operating cost analysis diverting discharge air of heat


pump to elevator machine room, electrical room and
supply as fresh air of guest room.
Investment Analysis of Heat Pump System over the
Heat Pump using Recovery System.
The initial investment of Heat Pump System without
recovery is slightly lower than the Heat Pump System with
energy recovery. But with the study, the additional cost for
the energy recovery can be recouped in few years only.
The investment for ducting and other accessories are the
items sometimes missed by the owners that will lead to
additional cost.
Table 1.3 shows the comparative initial investment of the
said two (2) systems.
Table 1.3 Cost Comparison of Equipment
Item
No.

3
4
5

Description
Heat Pump, 1
operational 1 Back up
Including Primary
Pump and Installation
Controller relay of Air
Conditioning System
and Exhaust Fan
Secondary Circulating
Pump including
Controller
Wires and Contacts of
BMS
Ducting Works
including support and
miscellaneous work
Total Cost

Heat Pump
System

Heat Pump
System w/
Recovery

5,700,000

5,700,000

15,000

40,000

25,000

25,000

20,000

200,000

none

1,200,000

P5,760,000.00

P7,165,000.00

53

The amount of Calorifier and piping system to guest room will be


Php12,500,000.00 which include Contractors Profit (Hot Water System
only, fixtures and cold water line are not included).
Ducting works include hangers and support, grilles, filter and insulation
of duct for fresh air system. Additional wires and relay to the controller
will synchronize the start/stop of the Building Management System.

Annual Operating Analysis using Heat Pump Without Air


Recovery System.
Annual operating cost using Heat Pump without recovery is the
operation where the discharge air of the heat pump is disposed on the
atmosphere. The tabulation below is the summary of electrical
consumption without recovery system;

Table 1.4 Heat Pump with No Recovery


Time
of
day
1:00
2:00
3:00
4:00
5:00
6:00
7:00
8:00
9:00
10:0
0
11:0
0
12:0
0

HEAT PUMP WITH NO RECOVERY


Comp
, kW
0
0
0
0
26.8
26.8
26.8
26.8
26.8

Fan
KW
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
1.30
1.30
1.30
1.30
1.30

PCP
KW
0
0
0
0
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7

SCP
KW
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55

WAC
, KW
3.75
3.75
3.75
3.75
3.75
3.75
3.75
3.75
3.75

EF,
KW
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5

AHU,
KW
11.2
11.2
11.2
11.2
11.2
11.2
11.2
11.2
11.2

Total
KW
16.0
16.0
16.0
16.0
44.8
44.8
44.8
44.8
44.8

26.8

1.30

0.7

0.55

3.75

0.5

11.2

44.8

26.8

1.30

0.7

0.55

3.75

0.5

11.2

44.8

13.4

0.66

0.7

0.55

3.75

0.5

11.2

30.8

54

13:0
0
14:0
0
15:0
0
16:0
0
17:0
0
18:0
0
19:0
0
20:0
0
21:0
0
22:0
0
23:0
0
24:0
0

6.7

0.33

0.7

0.55

3.75

0.5

11.2

23.7

0.00

0.0

0.55

3.75

0.5

11.2

16.0

6.7

0.33

0.7

0.55

3.75

0.5

11.2

23.7

6.7

0.33

0.7

0.55

3.75

0.5

11.2

23.7

6.7

0.33

0.7

0.55

3.75

0.5

11.2

23.7

20.1

0.99

0.7

0.55

3.75

0.5

11.2

37.8

13.4

0.66

0.7

0.55

3.75

0.5

11.2

30.8

26.8

1.30

0.7

0.55

3.75

0.5

11.2

44.8

26.8

1.30

0.7

0.55

3.75

0.5

11.2

44.8

26.8

1.30

0.7

0.55

3.75

0.5

11.2

44.8

26.8

1.30

0.7

0.55

3.75

0.5

11.2

44.8

0.00

0.0

0.55

3.75

1.5

11.2

17.0

Total KW/Day:

783.9

With the total capacity of 783.9 KW-Day as reference for the annual
operating cost;

Total KW of Heat Pump operating in 24 hrs:

783.9 KW/Day

Annual KW of Heat Pump @ 365 days:

286,123.50 KW/year

Say, cost of electricity is P 6.24 / KW-hr annual operating cost is;


285,904.5 KW-year x P6.24 / KW-hr = Php1,785,410.64

The value of KW/hr is based on primary metering cost of 13.4KV.

Annual Operating Cost = Php1,785,410.64 (Without Recovery)

55

Table 1.5 Building Management Sequence


Time
of
day
1:00
2:00
3:00
4:00
5:00
6:00
7:00
8:00
9:00
10:00
11:00
12:00
13:00
14:00
15:00
16:00
17:00
18:00
19:00
20:00
21:00
22:00
23:00
24:00

Based

HEAT PUMP
Comp
kW

Fan
KW

Fan
CFM

AHU1 AHU2
8,000 8,000
CFM
CFM

0
0.00
0
stop
0
0.00
0
stop
0
0.00
0
stop
0
0.00
0
stop
26.8 1.30 21,172 start
26.8 1.30 21,172 start
26.8 1.30 21,172 start
26.8 1.30 21,172 start
26.8 1.30 21,172 start
26.8 1.30 21,172 start
26.8 1.30 21,172 start
13.4 0.66 10,586 start
6.7
0.33 5,293
stop
0
0.00
0
stop
6.7
0.33 5,293
stop
6.7
0.33 5,293
stop
6.7
0.33 5,293
stop
20.1 0.99 15,879 start
13.4 0.66 10,879 start
26.8 1.30 21,172 start
26.8 1.30 21,172 start
26.8 1.30 21,172 start
26.7 1.30 21,172 start
0
0.00
0
stop
on tabulation of building

AC
550
CFM

stop
stop
stop
stop
stop
stop
stop
stop
start
start
start
start
start
start
start
start
start
start
start
start
start
start
stop
start
stop
start
stop
stop
stop
start
stop
start
stop
start
stop
start
stop
start
start
start
start
start
start
start
start
start
stop
stop
management

EXCESS
CFM OF
HEAT
PUMP
stop
0
stop
0
stop
0
stop
0
start
4,332
start
4,332
start
4,332
start
4,332
start
4,332
start
4,332
start
4,332
start
1,736
start
4,443
stop
0
start
4,443
start
4,443
start
4,443
start
7,029
start
1,736
start
4,332
start
4,332
start
4,332
start
4,332
stop
0
sequence, the
EF
300
CFM

equipments running is tabulated in power consumption to get the


power savings during operation. You will notice the recovery is based
on the number of compressor running.

Table 1.6 Heat Pump with Recovery System


Time
of
day
1:00
2:00
3:00
4:00
5:00

HEAT PUMP WITH RECOVERY


Com
p kW

Fan
KW

0
0
0
0
26.8

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
1.30

PC
P
KW
0
0
0
0
0.7

SCP
KW

WAC
kW

EF,
kW

0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55

3.75
3.75
3.75
3.75
0.00

0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.0

56

AHU1 AHU2 Total


kW
kW
kW
5.6
5.6
5.6
5.6
0.0

5.6
5.6
5.6
5.6
0.0

16.0
16.0
16.0
16.0
29.4

6:00
7:00
8:00
9:00
10:0
0
11:0
0
12:0
0
13:0
0
14:0
0
15:0
0
16:0
0
17:0
0
18:0
0
19:0
0
20:0
0
21:0
0
22:0
0
23:0
0
24:0
0

26.8
26.8
26.8
26.8
26.8

1.30
1.30
1.30
1.30
1.30

0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7

0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

29.4
29.4
29.4
29.4
29.4

26.8

1.30

0.7

0.55

0.00

0.0

0.0

0.0

29.4

13.4

0.66

0.7

0.55

0.00

0.0

0.0

5.6

20.9

6.7

0.33

0.7

0.55

0.00

0.0

5.6

5.6

19.5

0.00

0.0

0.55

3.75

0.5

5.6

5.6

16.0

6.7

0.33

0.7

0.55

0.00

0.0

5.6

5.6

19.5

6.7

0.33

0.7

0.55

0.00

0.0

5.6

5.6

19.5

6.7

0.33

0.7

0.55

0.00

0.0

5.6

5.6

19.5

20.1

0.99

0.7

0.55

0.00

0.0

0.0

5.6

27.9

13.4

0.66

0.7

0.55

0.00

0.0

0.0

5.6

20.9

26.8

1.30

0.7

0.55

0.00

0.0

0.0

0.0

29.3

26.8

1.30

0.7

0.55

0.00

0.0

0.0

0.0

29.3

26.8

1.30

0.7

0.55

0.00

0.0

0.0

0.0

29.3

26.8

1.30

0.7

0.55

0.00

0.0

0.0

0.0

29.3

0.00

0.0

0.55

3.75

0.5

5.6

5.6

16.0

Total KW/Day:

566.7

With the total capacity of 566.7 KW/Day as reference for the annual
operating cost;

Total KW of Heat Pump operating in 24 hrs:

566.17 KW/Day

Annual KW of Heat Pump @ 365 days:

206,845.5 KW/year

Say, cost of electricity is P 6.24 / KW-hr annual operating cost is;


57

206,845.5 KW-year x P6.24 / KW-hr = Php1,290,715.92

Annual Operating Cost = Php1,289,349.36 (With Recovery)

FIGURE 1.5
Figure 1.5 shows the comparison of power consumption of heat pump
system using recovery system in red hidden line is lower than the blue
line heat pump without recovery.

OBSERVATION, COMMENTS AND RECOMMENDATION


Observations
58

The Hot Water System using heat pump of Maxims Hotel in


Newport Blvd, Newport City Pasay City is one of the
effective, efficient and economical design in the country.
The flexibility of design and recovery assured a healthy
and safe environmental.

The Mechanical Engineer and the contractor is not having a


hard time during the testing and commissioning of the
equipment especially the validation and verification of the
capacity. The simplicity of the design and start up
procedure make advantage to the owner to start ahead of
schedule.

Comments and Recommendations


Installing the heat pump is an excellent and wise decision
of the owner and Mechanical Engineer by the small
investment in the installation and space saver especially in
Newport City, a prime lot city. The owner will enjoy the
great benefits of it in terms of operating cost and the
assurance of safe environment.
Since the discharge air temperature is approximately 25 C
or 77F, diverting and installation of duct to machine room,
electrical room and fresh air of hotel guest room will gain
additional benefits. Installation of relay or sensor to the
controller of air-conditioning of elevator machine room and
exhaust fan using Building Management System, this is to
maintain the required temperature of the room. Once it
59

meet

the

required

temperature

the

heat

pump

will

automatically turn off. The air-conditioning of the machine


room and exhaust fan of electrical room will turn on. Viceversa.

No matter how high is the efficiency of our equipment and


install it in an inefficient system the result is inefficient,
the premium that we pay for the high efficiency equipment
is wasted. Thats why it is highly recommended that the
design

engineer

should

properly

study

the

basic

engineering knowledge in his/her field of work.

CONCLUSION
Heat pump system is one of the neglected areas in the
project, owner does not want to invest additional cost for
recovery system so much in hot water system, but if we
realize the impact of energy recovery in operation, we can
say that it is very efficient.
Not because of the development in the hot water system
which is the heat pump recovery, the project owner can
now realize that even we spend additional cost in the
operation

requirements

an

additional

saving

and

advantages in the operation and space will gain.


It is important to consider the heat pump system to
comply

or

to

minimize

60

the

environmental

concern

especially the waste discharge by the other hot water


system.
It is also equally important that the system should be
properly operated and maintained by a qualified and
competent Mechanical Engineer, in that way we are sure
that the life span expected of the system will achieve. And
its function will be throughout its useful life.

REFERENCES
THE PHILIPPINE MECHANICAL CODE
THE PSME CODE

AND

STANDARDS COMMITTEE

ROOM 401, 4/F D ON LORENZO BLDG. 889 P. PAREDES ST.


SAMPALOC, MANILA

ASHRAE HANDBOOK HVAC APPLICATIONS


AMERICAN SOCIETY

OF

HEATING, REFRIGERATION

AND

AIR-CONDITIONING

ENGINEER , INC.
1791 TULLIE CIRCLE , N.E., ATLANTA, GA 30329

ASHRAE HANDBOOK HVAC SYSTEMS


AMERICAN SOCIETY

OF

HEATING, REFRIGERATION

AND

ENGINEER , INC.
1791 TULLIE CIRCLE , N.E., ATLANTA, GA 30329

61

AIR-CONDITIONING

ASHRAE HANDBOOK FUNDAMENTALS


AMERICAN SOCIETY

OF

HEATING, REFRIGERATION

AND

AIR-CONDITIONING

ENGINEER , INC.
1791 TULLIE CIRCLE , N.E., ATLANTA, GA 30329

ASHRAE EQUIPMENTS
AMERICAN SOCIETY

OF

AND

SYSTEMS

HEATING, REFRIGERATION

AND

ENGINEER , INC.
1791 TULLIE CIRCLE , N.E., ATLANTA, GA 30329

THE THEORY

AND

PRACTICE

OF

STATIONARY

ELECTRIC GENERATING PLANT


FREDERICK MORSE

THERMODYNAMICS
VIRGIL MORNING FAIRES
CLIFFORD MAX SIMMANG

CORPORATE FINANCE
BREADLEY / MYERS / ALLEN

62

AIR-CONDITIONING