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Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

INTRODUCTION
Water,undubiously is abasic human need.Providing safe and
adequate quantities of the same for all rural and urban
communities,is perhaps one of the most important undertaking
,for the public works DeptIndeed,the well planned water supply
scheme ,is a prime and vital element of a countrys social
infrastructure as on this peg hangs the health and wellbeing of
its people.
The population in India is likely to hundred cores by the turn of
this century,with an estimated 40%of urban population.This
goes on to say
that a very large demand of
water
supply;fordomestic,industrial,firefighting,public use ,etc;will
have
to
be
in
accordance
with
the
rising
population.Hence,identification of source of water supply,there
conservation and optimum utilization is of paramount
importance.The water supplied should be Portableand
Wholesome.Absolute pure water is never found in nature,but
invariable contains certain suspended,colloidal,and dissolved
impurities (organic and inorganic in nature,generally called
solids),in varying degree of concentration depending upon the
source.Hence treatment of water to mitigate and/or absolute
removal of these impurities (which could be;solids,pathogenic
micro-organisms,odor and taste generators,toxicsubstances,etc.)
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N.B.S. Institute of polytechnic, Ausa.

Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

become indispensable. Untreated or improperly treated water


becomes unfit for intended use proves to be detrimental for life.
The designed water treatment plant has Reservoir as the basic
source of water the type of treatment to be given depends upon
the given quality of water available and the quality of water to
be served. However such an extensive survey being not possible
in the designed water treatment plant. It is assumed that all kinds
of treatment processors are necessary and an elaborate design.
The design of water plant for The latitude and longitude of the
town corresponding18.2500N,76.5000E respectively. The
population of the given year 2031 will be 64296. There are
many industries like sugar industries and chemical industries in
the town so, treated water supply for domestic and industrial
uses are very essential.

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N.B.S. Institute of polytechnic, Ausa.

Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

Basic Data For The Of Water Supply (System)


The given problem includes the design of water treatment plant
and distribution system and also the preparation of its Technical
Report and Engg. Drawing showing the required details of
collection and treatment units. The following Table gives the
basic necessary data required for the design of water treatment
plant.

No

Description

1.

Name of the place

-Ausa

2.

District

-Latur

3.

Location

- About 20km from Latur city

4.

Latitude (Lat)

5.

Longitude (Lon)

- 18.2500N
-

76.5000E

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Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

Sr.No
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

6.
7.

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Design Consideration
Design Period (years)
Average rate of water supply(Ipcd)
Industrial demand (MLD)
Quality of raw water
1) Ph
2) Turbidity (mg/L)
3) Total Hardness (mg/L)[as CaCo3]
4) Chlorides(mg/L)
5) Iron (mg/L)
6)Manganese (mg/L)
7)Carbonates (mg/L)
8)M.P.N (No.100ml)
Population of past four decades(in Person)
Year 1981
Year 1991
Year 2001
Year 2011
F.S.L. of Reservoir (R.L.in mts.)
Ground level at ; (R.L.in mts.)
a) Jack well site
b)Location of aeration unit
Invert level of raw material gravity intake pipe
(R.L.in mts)
Invert level of raw water rising main(mts)
Dead Storage of Reservoir(Million cu.m)
Gross Storage of Reservoir(Million cu.m)
Live Storage of Reservoir(Million cu.m)
Silt Level of Reservoir in (m)

Values
20
135
0.6
7.5
50
550
200
2.5
3.5
110
3.5
16721
23246
30876
38733
612.75
607.75
608.00
600
7.382
27.727
20.345
607.50
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Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

14.

T.B.L. of Reservoir in (m)

615.25

SALIENT FEATURES OF WATER


TREATMENT PLANT
A) General
1. Population of the town
Year 2011:38733 Nos.
Year2031
2. Average daily draft (M.L.D)
Maximum daily draft (M.L.D)
3. Design period (Years)

: 64296 Nos
:9.48
:14.22
:20

B) Collection works
Intake works
Intake well
1. No of units

:1

2. Dia. Of well (m)

: 6.9

3. Ht of intake well

:8.0

4. R.L. of bottom well (m)

:607.75

5. R.L. of top of well (m)

:612.75

6. Detention time (min)

:15
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Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

Penstock
1. No. of penstock well

: 02

2. Dia. Of penstock (mm)

:350

Bell mouth strainer


1. No. of bell mouth strainer

:2

2. Dia. (m)

:0.95

Gravity main
1. No. of units

:1

2. Dia. (mm)

:550

3.Invert main (m)

:596.89

4. Slope

:1.900

Jack well
1.No. of units

:1

2.Dia. (m)

:6.55

3.Depth of water

:4.4

4.Detension time(min)

: 15
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Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

Rising main and pumping units


Rising:
1.Dia.(m)

:0.45

2. Velocity of flow (m/s)

:1.0

Pumping unit :
1.Capacity of each pump (HP)

:30Hp

2.No.of pumps

:2

c) Treatment works

Aeration unit
1. R.L. of aeration unit (m) (top)

: 608.90

(Bottom) m

: 606.50

2.Dia. of top tray (m)

:1.0

3. Dia. Of bottom (m)

:5.0

4. Dia. Of each tray decreasing by (m)

:1.0

5. Rise of each tray (m)

:0.4
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Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

6. Tread of each tray (m)

:0.5

7. Dia.Of central rising main pipe (m)

:1.0

8. No. of Trays

:5

Chemical storage house


1.Length (m)

: 12

2.Breadth (m)

:16

3.Height (m)

:3.0

Chemical Dissolving Tank


1.No. of tank

:1

2.Length (m)

:0.9

3.Breadth (m)

:0.9

4.Depth (m)

:1.5

Flash Mixer
1. No. of units

:1

2.Dia.(m)

: 2.0

3.Detention time (min)

:1
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Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

4.Height (m)
5.Depth of water (m)

: 2.8
: 2.37

Clariflocculator

Flocculator
1. No. of units

:1

2.Dia. (m)

: 10.5

3.Dia. of inlet pipe (m)

:0.45

4.Depth of water flow (m)

:3.5

5.Velocity of flow (m/s)

:1.0

Clarifire:
1. No. of units

:1

2. Dia. (m)

: 24

3. Depth of water (m)

: 3.5

4. Overall depth of tank (m)

: 4.7

5. Slope of bottom

: 8%

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Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

Rapid sand filter


1. No. of units

:1

2. Surface aera (sq.m)

: 62.48

3. Dimension of unit (m x m)

: 8.8 x 7.1

4. Thickness of sand bed (m)

: 0.6

5. Thickness of gravel bed (m)

: 0.5

6. Die. of manifold (m)

:1

7. Laterals
a) Nos

: 120

b) Dia. (m)

: 90

c) Length (cm)

: 3.05

d) Spacing (cm)

: 20

8. No. of orifice

: 51

9. Dia. of orifice (mm)

: 13

10. Wash water tank

: 1

Disinfection House
1. Chlorine required / day (kg)

: 19.908

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Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

Storage Units
Underground Reservoir
1. No. of units

:1

2. Dimensions

:14.1m x 14.1m

4. Depth (m)

: 4.5m

5. Compartments

:6

Elevated Service Reservoir (Ausa city)


1. No. of units

:1

2. Dia. (m)

: 12.3

3. Height (m)

: 4.3

4. Capacity (Cu. m)

: 475

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Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

POPULATIONFORECASTING
Design Period:
Water supply project may be designed normally to meet the requirement
over a 20 years period after their completion. The time lag between
design and completion should be also taken into account. It should not
ordinarily exceed 2 years & 5 years even in exceptional circumstances.
The 20 years period may however be modified in regard to specific
components of the project particularly the conveying mains and trunk
mains of distribution system depending on their useful life or the facility
for carrying out extension when required, so that expenditure far ahead
of utility is avoided. However in our case the design period has been
considered as 20 per given data.

Population forecast

General consideration

The population to be served during such period will have to be


estimated with due regard to all the factors governing the future growth
and development of the city in the industrial, commercial, educational,
social and administrative spheres. Special factors causing sudden
immigration or influx of population should also be foreseen to extent
possible.

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Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

Calculation of Population with Different Methods


1. Arithmetical Increase Method
Sr. No Year
1

Population

2
1971
1981
1991
2001
2011

1.
2.

3.
4.
5.

3
12761
16721
23246
30876
38733
Total
Average

Increase
In pollution
4
3960
6525
7630
7857
25972
6493

Using the relation


Pn

= P + nd

Where,
Pn

= Future population after n decades

= Present population

= No. of decades
= Average increase per decade

Given,
n= 3,
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Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

p= 38733,
d = 6493
. . Pn = 38733 + (3*6493)
P2031= 58212(Persons)

2.Geometrical Increase Method

Sr.
No
1
1.
2.

3.
4.
5.

Year

Population Increase in
population
2
3
4
1971
12761
1981
16721
3960
1991
23246
6525
2001
30876
7630
2011
38733
7857
Total
25972
Average per Decade
6493

Percentage increase
in population
5
18.05
39.02
32.82
25.45
115.34
28.84

Where,
r

= Average percentage increase=28.84

= No. of decades=2

Pn= Population after n decade: 2031


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Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

Population in the year 2031


Using the relation
P2031= P [ 1+
P2031=38733[1+

r n

100
28.84
100
2

= 64296( In persons)

3.Incremental Increase Method

Sr.
No

Year

1.
2.

1971
1981
1991
2001
2011

3.
4.
5.

Population
12761
16721
23246
30876
38733

Total
Average

Increase in
population
3960
6525
7630
7857
25972
6493

Incremental
increase
2565
1105
227
3897
1299

Using the relation,


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Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

Pn

= P+ nd +

n(n+1)
2

Where,
d = Average increase per decade.
t = Average incremental increase.
n = number of decade.
P2031 = 38733 + ( 2 6493 )+

2( 2+1)
1299
2

= 55616( Persons).

4. Decrease Rate of Growth Method

Sr.
No

1.
2.

3.
4.
5.

Year Population Increase in Percentage


population in
population
(%)
1971
12761
1981
16721
3960
18.05
1991
23246
6525
39.02
2001
30876
7630
32.82
2011
38733
7857
25.45
Total
25972
115.34

Decrease in
the
percentage
increase
-20.97
+6.2
+7.37
-7.4
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Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

Average

6493

28.84

-2.47

d = 6493, t = - 2.47
Expected population at the end of 2021
= 38733 + [

(25.45+2.47)
100

]38733

= 49548 persons
Expected population at the end of 2031
= 49548 + [

(27.92+2.47)
100

]49548

= 64606 persons

Description of the Various Methods

1.Arithmetic Increase Method


This method is upon assumption that the population increase at a
constant rate and rate of growth slowly decreases .In our case
also constant rate with slight decrease in growth rate.
Also this method is more suitable for very big and older cities
whereas in our case it is relatively smaller and new town.
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Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

So result by this method is although good but not as accurate as


desired.
2.Geometrical Increase Method
In this method the per decade growth rate is assumed to be
constant and which is average of earlier growth rate. The
forecasting is done on the basic that the percentage increases per
decade will remain same.
This method would apply to cities with unlimited scope for
expansion.
3. Incremental Increase Method
These methods include the advantage of both arithmetical as
well as geometrical methods. First the average of increase in
population calculated according to arithmetical method. And
then increase or decrease in the population change for each
decade is found out and from these average incremental
increases is worked.
4. Decreasing rate method
This method assumes that has some limiting saturation
population. The method involves calculation of percentage
increase for every decade and then working out the decrease in
the percentage increase. The average of decrease in percentage
increase is the deducted from the latest percentage increase for
each successive future decade.
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Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

5. Logistic curve method


This is suitable in cases where the rate of increase or decrease of
population while the population growth is likely to reach
saturation limit ultimately because of special law factor.
The city shall grow as per the logistic curve, which will plot as a
straight line on the arithmetic paper with the time of intervals
plotted against population in percentage of solution.
6. Simple graphical method
Since the result obtained by this method is dependent upon the
designer, this method of empirical nature and not much reliable.
Also this method gives very approximately result. This method
is useful to verify the data obtained by some other method.
7. Graphical comparison method
This involves the extension of the population time curve into
the future based on a comparison of a similar curve or
comparable cities and modified to the extent dictated by the
factor governing such predictions.

Calculation of Water Demand


Calculation of different Drafts
Expected population after 20 years
Average rate of water supply
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Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

(Including domestic, commercial, public and wastes)


Water required for above purpose for whole town = 64296135
= 8.68 MLD
Industrial demand

= 0.8 MLD

Fire Requirement :
It can be assumed that city is a residential town (low rise
building)
Water for fire demand
By using government of India recommendation formula,
Q

= 100 p

Where,
Q = Fire demand in kiloliters/day,
P = Population in thousands.
Q= 100 64.296
Q = 0.80 MLD

(1) Average daily draft

= 8.68 + 0.8

= 9.48 MLD
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Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

(2) Maximum daily draft

= 1.5 9.48

= 14.22 MLD
(3) Coincident draft =maximum daily draft + fire demand
= 14.22+ 0.8
= 15.02 MLD
(Coincident draft < maximum hourly draft)
Design Capacity for Various Components
(1)Intake structure daily draft

= 14.22MLD

(2)Pipe main = maximum daily draft

= 14.22MLD

(3)Filter and other units at treatment plant


= 2 average daily demand
= 2 9.48
= 18.96 MLD
(4) Lift pump

= 2 average daily demand


= 18.96MLD

Standard units of Treatment Plant


Due to previous analysis following units are required to be
design for water treatment plant.
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Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

(1) Intake Structure :


(a) Intake well
(b) Gravity main
(c) Jack well
(d) Rising main
(e) Pump
(2) Treatment unit :
(a) Aeration unit
(b) Coagulant dose
(c) Lime soda dose
(d) Chemical dissolving tank
(e) Chemical house
(f) Flash mixer
(g)Clariflocculator
(h) Rapid sand filter
(i) Chlorination unit
(3) Storage unit :
(a) Underground storage tank
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Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

(b) Elevated storage


A schematic diagram of each of the unit is shown.

Design Of Units :
(a) Intake well
Intake consist of opening. Strainer or grating through which the
water enters, end the conduct conveying the water, usually by
gravity to a well or sump From the well, the water is pumped in
to the main or treatment plant. Intakes should also be so located
and designed that possibility of interference with the supply is
minimized and where uncertainty of continuous serviceability
exists, intakes should be duplicated. The following must be
considered in designing and locating the intakes.
The supply of, whether impounding reservoir. Lake or river
(including the possibility of wide fluctuation in water level) .
The character of the intake surrounding, depth of water character
or bottom, navigation requirements, the effect of currents, floods
and storms upon the structure and in scouring the bottom .
The location with respect to the source of pollution
The prevalence of floating materials, such as ice, logs and
vegetation

Type of Intakes :
Wet Intakes : water is up to source of supply .
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Dry Intakes : No water inside it other than in the intake pipe.


Submerged Intakes : Entirely under the water.
Movable and Floating Intake : Used where wide variation in
surface elevation with sloping blanks.

a)Location of Intakes :
The location of the best quality of water available.
Currents that might threaten the safety of the intake structure.
Navigation channels should be avoided.
Ice and other difficulties.
Formation of shoals and bars.
Fetch of the wing and other condition affection the weight of
waves.
Ice storm.
Floods.
Power availability and reliability.
Accessibility.
Distance from pumping station.
Possibilities of damage by moving objects and hazards.
The intake structure used intake is our design is wet-type.

b) Design Criteria
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Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Detention time
Diameter
Depth
Velocity of flow
Number of units
Free board

10 to 15 min
5 to 10 m (max 15 m)
4 to 10 m
1.0 to 1.5 m/sec
1 to 3 (max 4 )
5m

(c) Design Assumptions :


Given F.S.L.

= 612.75 m

Minimum R.L.

= 607.75 m

Given invert level of gravity main

= 25 m

Detention time

= 15 min

d) Design Calculation
Flow of water required

= 14.22MLD / 3600 24

= 0.1645cu.m/sec
Volume of well

= 0.1645 15 60

= 148.05cu.m
Cross-sectional area of intake well

= 148.05 / 4

= 37.01sq.m
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Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

Diameter of intake well (d)

= 4 X 37.01/

= 6.86< 10 m (O.K.)
Provide 1 intake well of diameter 6.86 m

6.9m

(e) Summary
1.
2.
3.
4.

Number of intake wells


Diameter of intake wells
Height of well
R.L. of bottom well

1 unit
6.9 m
8.0 m
607.75m

Design of Pen Stock and Bell Mouth Strainer


(a) Pen stock
This are the pipes provided in intake well to allow water from
water body to intake well.These pen stocks are provided
atdifferent levels, so as to take account of seasonal variation in
water level (as H.F.L., W.L., L.W.L. ).
Trash racks of screens are provided to protect the entry sizeable
things which can create trouble in the penstock. At each level
more than one penstock is provided to take account of any
obstruction during itsoperation. This penstock is regulated by
valves provided at the top of intake wells.

(b) Design criteria


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Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

Velocity through penstock

= 0.6 to 1.0 m/s

Diameter of each penstock

= less than 1 m

Number of penstock for each intake well = 2

(c) Design calculation


Number of intake weIl

=1

Number of penstock at each level = 2


Velocity =1.0m/s (assumed)
C/S of each penstock

0.1645
(1.0 2)

= 0.082 m2
Diameter = 0.32m~ 0.35 m

(d) summary
1
2
3

Number of penstock
At each level
Diameter of penstock

2 units
1m
0.35 m

Design of bell mouth strainer


(a) Design criteria
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Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

Velocity of flow
Hole diameter

= 0.2 to 0.3m/s
= 6 to 12 mm

Area of strainer

= 2 x diameter of holes

(b) Assumption
Velocity of flow
Hole diameter

= 0.25 m/s
= 10mm

(c) Calculation

d2 =

(102) =78.54 mm2

Area of each hole

Area of collection

= area of penstock
0.1645
0.25 2

= 7.854

105

N = 4188.95Nos

Area of bell moth strainer

= 2x area of holes

= 2 x 4188.95 x 7.854

105

= 0.66 m2
Diameter of bell mouth strainer = 0.92 m

0.95m

Provide diameter of 0.95 m for bell mouth strainer.


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Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

Design of gravity main


(a) Gravity main
The Gravity main connects the intake well to the jack well and
water flows through it by gravity. To secure the greatest
economy, the diameter of a single pipe through which water
flows by gravity should be such that all the head available to
cause flow is consumed by friction. The available fall from the
intake well to the jack well and the ground profile in between
should generally help to decide if a free flow conduit is feasible.
Once this is decided the material of conduit is to be selected
keeping in view the local cost and nature of terrain to be
traversed. Even when a fall is available, a pumping or force
main independently or in combination with gravity main could
also be considered. The gravity line should be laid below
hydraulic gradient.

(b) Design criteria


Diameter of gravity main = 0.3 to 1m
Velocity of water

No of gravity main

= 0.6 to 0.9m/s

= 1
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Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

No. of intake well

= 1

Assumed velocity

= 0.7m/s

(c) Design calculation


RCC circular pipe is used.
Conduit velocity

= 0.7m/s (assumed)

Area of conduit required

0.1645
0.7

= 0.235m2
Diameter of conduit

= 0.55 m

Using mannings formula


2

V =
S =

R3 X S 2 X

1
N

N2xV2
R

4
3

S = 1:900
Head loss

100
900

= 0. 111
R.L. of gravity main

= 600- 3
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Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

= 597 m
R.L. of gravity main at jack well = 597 -0.111
= 596.89m

(d) Summary
1
2
3
4

Number of gravity
intake
Diameter of gravity
intake
Invert level at intake
well
Invert level at jack well

1 unit
0.55m
597 m
596.89mm

Design of jack well


(a) Jack well
This structure serves as a collection of the sump well
for incoming water from the intake well from where the water is
pumped through the rising main to the various treatment units.
This unit is more useful when numbers of intake wells
are than one, so that water is collected in one unit and then
affected.
The jack well is generally located away from the
shore line, that the installation of pumps, inspection maintenance
is made easy.
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(b) Design criteria


Detention time

= 0.5 x detention time of intake well


(3to15 mm)
=

0.5x15

7.30 min.

Suction head =

<10m

Dia. of well < 20m.

(c) Design calculations


Detention time=

7.30min

Assuming suction head =

8m.

Bottom clearance

1m

Top clearance

0.5m

Maximum depth of water that can be stored in condition when


water is minimum in reservoir

= 612.75-608.35

= 4.4m

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Capacity of well

= 0.1645x 15x 60

= 148.05Cu.m

C/S area of well

148.05
4.4

= 33.65 Sq. m.

Diameter of well

= 6.55m

R.L. of bottom of jack well

= 608.35m

R.L. of top of jack well when full

= 608.35+8

= 616.35 m.

(d) Summery

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N.B.S. Institute of polytechnic, Ausa.

Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

1.

Dia. Of jack well

6.55m

2.

R.L. of bottom of jack well

608.35m

3.

R.L. on top of jack well

616.75m

4.

Suction depth

4.4m

5.

Top clearance

0.5m

6.

Bottom Clearance

1.0m

Design of Pumping System:


a) Pumps
In the water treatment plant, pumps are used boost the
water from the jack well to the aeration units.
The following points are to be stressed upon.
The suction pumping should be as short and straight as
possible. It should not be greater than 10m, for
centrifugal pump. If head is more than 10m, water is
converted into vapor and thus inspire of creating water
head, vapor head is created and pump ceases to function.
The function pipe should be of such size that the velocity
should be about 2m/sec.
The delivery pipe should be of such size that the velocity
should be about 2.5m/sec.
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N.B.S. Institute of polytechnic, Ausa.

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The following for types of pumps are gradually used.

Buoyancy operated pumps


Impulse operated pumps
Positive displacement pumps
Velocity adoption pumps

The following criteria govern pump selection.

Type of duty required.


Present and projected demand and pattern and change in
demand.
The details of head and flow rate required.
Selecting the operating speed of the pump and suitable
drive.
The efficiency of the pumps and consequent influence on
power consumption and the running costs.

b) Diameter of rising main:


Q

= 0.1645cu.m/sec

Economical diameter D

= 0.97 Q to 1.22 Q
35

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= 0.97 0.1645 to 1.22 0.1645


= 0.393 to 0.494 m
Provide D

= 0.45m

c) Design Criteria
Suction head should not be greater than 10m
Velocity of flow length

= 0.7 to 1.5 m/s

Top clearance

= 0.5 m

Bottom clearance

=1m

d) Design Calculation
Friction loss in rising main
Assuming velocity = 0.9 m/sec
f = 0.02
2

hf =

fp v
2 gd

0.02 X 140 X 0.9


2 X 9.81 X 0.45

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N.B.S. Institute of polytechnic, Ausa.

Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

= 0.25

Total head of pumping

=hs+ hd + hf+ minor losses


= 4.12+ 4.88 + 0.25 + 1
= 10.25 m

Assuming two pumps in paralles.


W.H.P =

w .Q . H
75

B.H.P =

w.H . P
n

=
=

1000 X 0.1645 X 10.25


75
22.48
0.75

= 22.48 HP

= 29.97 HP

e) Summery
Provide 30 HP pumping in parallel
Diameter of pipe

0.45 m

Design of Rising Main


a) General
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N.B.S. Institute of polytechnic, Ausa.

Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

These are the pressure pipes used to convey the water from
the jack well to the treatment units. The design of rising main is
dependent upon on resistance to flow available head, allowable
velocities of flow, sediment transport, quality of water and
relative cost. Various types of pipes used are cast iron, steel,
reinforced cement concrete; pre stressed concreted, asbestos
cement, polyethylene rigid PVC, ductile iron fiber glass pipe,
reinforced plastic, fiber reinforced plastic. The determination of
suitability in all respect of the pipe of joints for any work is a
meter of decision by the engineer concentrated on the basic for
the scheme.

b)Design Criteria
Velocity

= 0.9 to 1.5 m/sec

Diameter < 0.9 m

c) Design Calculation
Economical diameter, D

= 0.97 Q to 1.22 Q
= 0.97 0.1645 to 1.22 0.1645
= 0.393 to 0.494 m
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N.B.S. Institute of polytechnic, Ausa.

Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

Provide diameter D

= 0.45 m
V = Q/A = 1.03 m/sec

d)Summary:
1.

Diameter of pipe

0.45

The aim of water treatment is to produce and maintain water


that is hygienically safe, aesthetically attractive and palatable, in
an economically manner. Albeit the treatment of water would
achieve the desired quality, elevation of its quality should not be
confined to the end of the treatment facilities but should be
extended to the point of consumers use the method of treatment
to be employed depends on the characteristics of the raw water
and the desired standards of water quality. The unit operation
and unit process in water treatment constitute aeration
flocculation (rapid and slow mixing) and clarification and may
take many different combinations to suit the above requirement.
In the case of ground water the surface water storage which are
well protected, where the water has turbidity below 10 JTU
(Jackson candle turbidity units) and is free from odors and color,
only only disinfection by chlorination may be necessary.
Where ground water contains excessive dissolved carbon
dioxide and odors gases, aeration followed by flocculation and
39
N.B.S. Institute of polytechnic, Ausa.

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sedimentation rapid gravity or pressure filtration and


chlorination may be necessary.
Conventional treatment including pre chlorination, aeration,
flocculation and sedimentation rapid gravity filtration and post
chlorination are adopted for highly polluted surface waters laden
with algae or microscopic organisms.
Based on the data given in second chapter, the following
treatment units are designed to meet the quality and quantity
requirements of the projects.
Aeration unit
Coagulant dose
Lime soda dose
Chemical dissolved tank
Chemical house
Flash mixer

Clarriflocculator
Rapid sand filter
Chlorination unit
The detail design of the above units are discusses in subsequent
section
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N.B.S. Institute of polytechnic, Ausa.

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Design of Aeration unit


Aeration unit
Aeration is necessary to promote the exchange of gases
between the water and the atmosphere. In water treatment,
aeration is practiced for here purpose.
To add oxygen to water for imparting freshnesss, e.g. water
from under ground sources of CO2, H2S and other volatile
substance causing taste and odour e.g. water from deeper layers
of an impounding reservoir. To precipitated impurities like iron
and manganese, in certain forms, e.g. water from some
underground sources.
This limitation impurities like iron and manganese, in certain
forms, e.g. water from some underground sources. This
limitation of aeration is that the water is rendered more corrosive
after aeration when the dissolved oxygen contents is increased
through in earlier circumstance it may otherwise due to removal
of aggressive CO2. Also for taste and odour removal, aeration is
not largely effective but can be used in combination with
chlorine or activate carbon to reduce their doses.
The concentration of gases in a liquid generally obeys Henrys
law which states that the concentration of each gases in water is
directly proportional to the partial pressure, or each gas in water
41
N.B.S. Institute of polytechnic, Ausa.

Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

is directly proportional to the partial pressure, or concentration


of gases in the atmosphere in contact with water. The saturation
concentration of a gas decreases with temperature and dissolved
salt in water. Aeration tends to accelerate the gas exchange.

The three types of aerators are:


Waterfall or multiple tray aerators.
Cascade aerators.
Diffused air aerators.

Design Criteria for Cascade Aerators


Number of trays

= 4 to 9

Spacing of trays

= 0.3 to 0.75 m c/c

Heights of the structure

=2m

Space requirement

= 0.015 0.045 sqm/cub m/ hr

Design Calculation
Qmax

= 0.1645 m3/sec

Provide area at tray

= 17 m2

Diameter of bottom most tray = 5m


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N.B.S. Institute of polytechnic, Ausa.

Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

Rise of each tray

= 0.4 m

Tray of each tray

= 50 cm

Summery
Sr. No.

Cascade

Diameter of tray
(m)

R.L. (m)

1.

First

608.50

2.

Second

608.10

3.

Third

607.70

4.

Fourth

607.30

5.

Fifth

606.90

R.L. of ground at site = 606.50 m

Design of Chemical House and Calculation of


Chemical Dose
The space for storing the chemicals required for the subsequent
treatment of water consist of determining space required for
43
N.B.S. Institute of polytechnic, Ausa.

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storing the most commonly used coagulant alum, lime, chlorine,


etc. for the minimum period of three months and generally for
six months.
The size of units also depend upon the location, transport
facilities, weather condition, distance of production units and
availability of chemicals, chemical house should be designed to
be free from moisture, sap, etc. these should be sufficient space
for handling and moisture chemicals and other related
operations. It should be located near to the treatment pant and
chemicals should be stored in such size of bags that can be
handled easily.

Alum Dose:
Coagulation
The terms coagulation and flocculation are used their
indiscriminately to describe the process of removal of turbidity
caused by fine suspension colloids and organic colours.
Coagulation describes the effect product by the addition of a
chemical to a colloidal dispersion, resulting in particle
destabilization. Operationally, this is achieved by the addition of
appropriate chemical and rapid intense mixing for obtaining
uniform dispersion of the chemical.
The coagulant dose in the field should be judiciously controlled
in the light of the jar test valves. Alum is used as coagulant.
44
N.B.S. Institute of polytechnic, Ausa.

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Design Criteria for Alum Dose


Alum is required in particular season is given below:

Monsoon

= 50 mg/L

Winter

=20 mg/L

Summer

= 5 mg/L

Alum Required
Let the average dose of alum required be 50 mg/L, 20 mg/L, and
5 mg/L in monsoon, winter, and summer, respectively.
Per day alum required for worst season for intermediate stage
=50 10-6 592.2 103 24
= 710.64 kg/day
For six months (180 days)

= 710.64 180
= 127915.2kg

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Number of bags whence 1 bag is containing 50 kg = 2559


If 15 days in each heap

= 170.6 heaps

If areas of one each be 0.2 cub m, then total area requied


= 170.6 0.2 = 34.12 m2

Lime Soda Process:


Softening
Water is said to be hard, when it does not from leather readily
with soap. The hardness of water is due to the presence of
calcium ad magnesium ions in most of the cases. The method
generally used is lime soda process. Softening with these
chemicals is used particularly for water with high initial
hardness (> 500 mg/L)
And suitable for water containing turbidity, color and iron salts.
Lime soda softening cannot however, reduce the hardness to
values less than 40 mg/L.

Design Criteria for Lime-Soda Process:


It should be possible to remove 30mg/L carbonate hardness and
200 mg/L total hardness by this process.
46
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Lime and Soda Required


Lime required for alkalinity
Molecular weight of

CaCo3

= 40 + 12 + 48
= 100

CaO

= 40 + 16
= 56

100 mg/L of CaCO3 alkalinity requires

= 56 mg/L of CaO

110 mg/L of CaCO3 requires

= (56/100) 110
= 61.6 mg/L of CaO

Lime require for Magnesium


24 mg/L of magnesium requires

= 56 mg/L of CaO

1 mg/L of magnesium requires

= 56/24 mg/L of CaO

3.5 mg/L of magnesium requires

= (56/24) 3.5
= 8.2 mg/L of CaO
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N.B.S. Institute of polytechnic, Ausa.

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Hence, the total pure lime require

= 61.6 + 8.2
= 69.8 mg/L

Also 56 mg of pure lime (CaO) is equivalent to 74 kg of


hydrated lime.
Hence, the total pure lime required

= (69.874)/56
= 92.23 mg/l
= 92.23 10-6 Kg/l

Soda (NaCO3)
Soda is required for non-carbonate hardness, as follows.

100 mg/L of NCH requires

= 106 mg/L of Na2CO3

161.6 mg/L of NCH requires

= (106/100) 161.6
= 65.59 mg/l of Na2CO3

Total quantity of lime = 92.23 10-6 592.2103 180 24


= 235952.38 kg-day

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One bag contain 50 kg


Number of bags required

= 4719 Bags

If 15 bags in each heap, number of heaps = 314.6


If area of one heap is 0.2 cub m

= 314.6 0.2
= 62.92 m2

Total quantity of soda required = 65.59 10-6


592.210324180
= 167799.15 kg-day
Number of bags

= 3356 Bags

If 15 bags in each heaps

= 223.73heaps

Total area of heap

= 0.2 223.73
= 44.75 m2.

Total area for all chemicals

= 34.12+62.92+44.75
= 141.79 m2

Add 30% for chlorine storage, chlorine cylinders etc.


Total area

= 184.33 m2

Provide room dimension

= (1216) m
= 192m2

Provide dimension

12 m x 16 m
49

N.B.S. Institute of polytechnic, Ausa.

Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

Chemical Dissolving Tanks:


Total quantity of alum, lime and soda
=

127915.2+235952.38+167799.16

= 531666.74 /180
= 2953.70 Kg
= 60bags
= 4 heaps
Area required

= 0.8 m2

Dimensions

= 0.9 m x 0.9m

Chemical Solution tanks:


Total quantity of alum, lime and soda required per day
=

2953.70 kg

Assume mix the chemical 1 kg in 20 lit. Water


Hence solution required per day

= 59074 lit
= 59074Lit

Quantity of solution for 8 hours

= 2461.41 x 8
= 19692 Lit
50

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Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

= 19.692 m3
Assuming depth of tank (1.4 m) and 0.3 m free board
Dimension of solution tank

3.5 x 3.32 x 1.7

Summary
1.
2.
3.
4.

Per day alum required


Hydrated lime required
Soda required
Size of chemical
dissolving tanks
5. Size of chemical solution
tank

710.64 kg/day
1310.85 kg/day
932.22 kg/day
0.9 x0.9 m
3.5 x 3.32 x 1.7

Design of Mechanical Rapid Mix Unit


a)Flash Mixer
Rapid mixing is and operation by which the coagulant is rapidly
and uniformly dispersed throughout the volume of water to
create a more or less homogeneous single or multiphase system.
This helps in the formation of micro flocs and results in proper
utilization of chemical coagulant preventing localization of
connection and premature formation of hydroxides which lead to
51
N.B.S. Institute of polytechnic, Ausa.

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less effective utilization of the coagulant. The chemical


coagulant is normally introduced at some point of high
turbulence in the water. The source of power for rapid mixing to
create the desired intense turbulence is gravitational and
pneumatic.
The intensity of mixing is dependent upon the temporal mean
velocity gradient G. This is defined as the rate of change of
velocity per unit distance normal to a section. The turbulence
and resultant intensity of mixing is based on the rte of power
input to the water.
Flash mixture is one of the most popular methods in which the
chemical are dispersed. They are mixed by the impeller rotating
at high speeds.

b)Design Criteria for Mechanical Rapid Mix Unit


Detention time

30 to 60 sec.

Velocity of flow

4 to 9 m/sec.

Depth

1 to3m
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Power require

0.41 KW/1000 cum/day

Impeller speed

100 to 250 rpm

Loss of head

0.4 to 1.0

Mixing device be capable of creating a velocity gradient


=

300 m/sec/m depth

Ratio of impeller diameter to tank diameter =

0.2 to 0.4:1

Ratio of tank height to diameter

1 to 3:1

C) Design Calculation
14212.8 m3/day

Design flow

Detention time

30 Sec.

Ratio of tank height to diameter

1.5:1

Ratio of impeller diameter to tank diameter =

0.3:1

Rotational speed of impeller

150 rpm

Assume temperature

200

1.

Dimension of tank:
=

6.62 m3

1.8 m

Height

2.37 / (0.23 m free board)

Volume

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Total height to tank


2.

2.6m

5.82 KW

Power Requirement:
Power spend

3.

Dimensions of flat bade and impeller:


Diameter of impeller

0.65 m

Velocity of tip impeller =

4.08 m/sec

Area of blade

A8

Power spent

= x CD x r0 x AB x VR3s

Let CD

1.8 (Flat blade); VR =3/4x VT

5.82 x 103

x 1.8 x 1000 x AB x 3/4 x 4.08

AB

2.11 m2

Provide 8 blades of 0.55 x 0.55 m = 2.4m2


Provide 4 numbers of lengths 1.5 m and projecting 0.2 m
from the wall.

4.

Provide inlet and outlet pipes of 250 mm diameter.

D) Summary
1. Detention time

30 sec
54

N.B.S. Institute of polytechnic, Ausa.

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2. Sped impeller

150 rpm

3. Height of Tank (0.23 m free 2.6 m


board)
4. Power required
5.825 KW
5. Number of Blade (0.55 m x 8
0.55 m)
6. Number of baffles (length 4
1.5 m)
7 Diameter of inlet and outlet 250

Design of Clariflocculator
a)Clariflocculator
The coagulation and sedimentation processes are effectively
incorporated in a single unit in the clariflocculator. Sometimes
clarifier and clariflocculator are designed as separate units.
All these units consist of 2 or 4 flocculating paddles placed
equidistantly. These paddles rotate on their vertical axis. The
flocculating paddles maybe of rotor-stator type. Rotating in
opposite direction above the vertical axis. The clarification unit
outside the flocculation compartment fitted with paddles rotating
at low speeds thus forming flocks.

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The flocculated water passes out from the bottom of the


flocculation tank to the clarifying zone through a wide opening.
The area of the opening being large enough to maintain a very
low velocity. Under quiescent conditions, in the annular setting
zone the floc embedding the suspended particles settle to the
bottom and the clear effluent overflows into the peripheral
launder.

b) Design Criteria: (Flocculator)


Depth of Tank

3to4.5m

Detention time

30 to

Velocity of flow

0.2 to 0.8 m/sec

Total area of paddles

10 to25% of c/s of tank

60 mm

Range of peripheral velocities of blades = 0.2 to 0.6 m/s


Velocity gradient (G)

10 to75

Dimension less factor Get

104 to 105

Power consumption

10 to 36 KW/mid

Outlet velocity

0.15 to 0.25 m/sec

c) Design Criteria: (Clarifier)


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N.B.S. Institute of polytechnic, Ausa.

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Surface overflow rate

= 40 m3 /m2/day

Depth of water

= 3 to 4.5 m

Weir loading

= 300m3 /m2/day

Storage of sludge

= 25%

Floor slope

= 1 in 12 or 8% for

Mechanically cleaned tank


Slope for sludge hopper

1.2:1 (v:h)

Scraper velocity

=1 revolution in 45 to80 minutes.

Velocity of water at outlet chamber = not more than 40 m/sec

d) Assumptions
Average outflow from clariflocculator = 592.2 m3/hr
Water lost desludging

=2 %

Design average period

604.04 m3/hr

Detention period

30 min

Average value of velocity gradient =

30 s-1

e) Design of Influent Pipe


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Assuming V

1 m/sec

Dia

0.447 m

Provide influent pipes of 450 diameter.

f) Design of flocculator :
Volume of fiocculator

300 m3

Providing as water depth

3.5 m

Plan area of flocculator

300/3.5

85.71m2

D=diameter flocculator

10.456 m

Dp = diameter of inlet pipes

0.45 m

10.5

g)Dimension of Paddles:
=
=
=

G 2 vol
30 2 0.89 10 30 ( / 4 10 2 3.5)

229.08
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(cd p Ap ( ) 3

Power Input

Cd

1.8

995 kg/m (25c)

V = Velocity of tip of blade

0.4 m/sec.

V = Velocity of water tip of blade =

0.25 x 0.4

229.08

0.1 m/sec.

x 1.8 x 995 x Ap x (0.4-

0.1)3

Ap

9.47m2

Ratio of paddles to c/s of flocculator


9.47
x 100
( 10.50.75 ) 3.5

Provide Ap
Ap =

11.00
x 100
( 10.50.75 ) 3.5

8.83 % < 10 to 25 %

11.00m2
=

10.26 % . ok

Which is acceptable (within 10 to 25 %?)


Provide 5 no of paddles of 3 m height and 0.7 m width
One shaft will support 5 paddles
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The paddles will rotate at an rpm of 4

2 r / 60

0.4

0.96m 1m

distance of paddle from C1. Of vertical shaft

2 r 4 / 60

Let velocity of water below the partition wall between the


flocculatorand clarifier be 0.33/sec.
Area

592.2 /(0.3 x 60 x 60)

Depth below partition wall

=
=

0.55 m2

0.55 /( 10.5)
0.016 m

Provided 25 % of storage of sludge = 0.25 x 35


= 0.875m
Provide 8% slope for bottom
Total depth of tank at partition wall = 0.3+3.50.016+ 0.875

= 4.69m 4.7m
60
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h)Design of Clarifier
Assuming a surface overflow rate of 40 m3/m2/day
Surface of clariflocculator

(592.2 x 24)/40

= 355.32 m2
Dcf = Dia. Of Clariflocculator

/4 [ Dcf2 - (10.5)2]

DCf

355.32

= 23.72

Dcf

24m

Length of weir

= 75.39 m

Weir loading

(592.2 x 24)/75.39

188.52 m3/day/m

According to manual of Govt. of India. If it is a well clarifier, It


can exceed upto 1500 m3/day/m

i) Summary (Clariflocculator)
1.

Detention Period

30 min

2.

Diameter of influent pipe

450 mm

3.

Overall depth of flocculator

3.5 m

4.

Diameter of tank no.

10.5 m
61

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Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

No. of paddles (3m height and 5


0.7m width)
Distance of shaft from C.L. of 1m
flocculator
Paddles rotation (RPM)
4
Distance of paddle from C.L. 1 m
vertical shaft
Slope of bottom (%)
8

10 Total depth of partition wall


.
11. Diameter of clariflocculator

4.7 m
24 m

Design of Rapid Gravity Filter


a. Rapid Sand Filter
The rapid sand filter comprises of a bed of sand serving as a
single medium granular matrix supported on gravel overlying an
under drainage system, the distinctive features of rapid sand
filtration as compared to slow sand filtration include careful pretreatment of raw water to effective flocculate the colloidal
particles, use of higher filtration rates and coarser but more
uniform filer media to utilize greater depths of filter media to
trap influent solids without excessive head loss and back
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N.B.S. Institute of polytechnic, Ausa.

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washing of filer bed by reversing the flow direction to clear the


entire depth of river.
The removal of particles within a deep granular medium filter
such as rapid sand filter occurs primarily within the filter bed
and is referred to as depth filtration. Conceptually the removal
of particles takes place in two distinct slips as attachment step.
In the first step the impurity particles must be brought to the
surface of him medium of the previously deposited solids on the
medium. Once the particles come closer to the surface as
attachment step is required to retain in on the surface instead of
letting it flow down the filter.
The transport step may be accomplished by straining gravity,
setting, impaction hydrodynamic and diffusion and it may be
aided by flocculation in the interstices of the filter.

b.Design Criteria: (Rapid Sand Filter)


Rate of filtration
= 5 to 7.5 m
cub
Max surface area of one bed
= 100 m
squ
Min. over all depth of filter including a free board of
0.5 m=2.6m
Effective size of sand
= 0.45 to
0.7
Uniformity co-efficient for sand
= 1.3 to 1.7
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Lenition loss should not exceed 0.7 % by weight


Silica content should not be less than 90%
Specific gravity
= 0.55 to
2.65
Wearing loss is not greater than 3%
Minimum number of units
=2
Depth of sand
= 0.6 to
0.75
Standing depth of water over the filter
= 1to 2 m
Free board is not less than 0.5 m

c. Problem statement

Net filtered water


= 592.2 m3/hr
Quantity of backwash eater used
= 2%
Time lost during backwash
= 30 min
Design rate of filtration
= 5 m3 /m2/hr
Length-width ratio
= 1.2 to 1.33
Under drainage system
= central manifold with
laterals
Size of perforations
=13 mm

d.Design Calculation
Solution required flow of water
Design flow of filter

= 592.2 m3/hr
= 592.2 x (1+0.02) x 2/23.5
64

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Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

= 616.896 m3/hr
Plan area for filter

= 616.896 / 5
= 123.379 m3

124 m3

Assume depth 2m
Using 1 units,

Plan area

= 62 m2

Length x width

= L x 1.25L

= 7.1 m

Provide 1 filter units, each with dimension 8.8 m x 7.1 m

Estimate of Sand Depth:


It is checked against breakthrough of floc.
Using Hudson Formula:
Q x d x h/l=B x 293223/1
Where, Q, d, h and 1 are in mm, m, m/hr respectively.
Assume, B = 4 x10-4 (poor response) < average degree of
pretreatment
65
N.B.S. Institute of polytechnic, Ausa.

Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

h = 2.5 m (terminal head loss)


Q = 5 x 2 cub m/ hr (assume 100% overload of filter)
d = 0.6 mm (mean dia)
10 x (0.6)3 x 2.5/1 = 4 x 10-4 x 293223
L > 46 m
Provide depth of sand bed = 60 cm

Estimation of Gravel and Size Gradation:


Assume size gradation of 2 mm at 40 mm at bottom using
empirical formula:
P

= 2.54 R (load d)

Where, R

= 12 (10 to 14)

The unit of L and cm and mm, respectively.


Size

10

20

40

Depth(cm) 9.2

21.3

30.5

40

49

Increment 9.2

12.1

9.2

9.5

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N.B.S. Institute of polytechnic, Ausa.

Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

Provide 50 cm depth gravel.

Design of Under Drainage System:


Plan area of each filter

= 8.8 x 7.1
=62.48 m2

Total area of perforation

= 13x10-3x 62.48
=0.81224 m2
= 8122.4 cm2

Total cross section area of laterals perforation =3 x area of


perforation

= 3 x 8122.4
= 24367.2 cm2
Diameter of central manifold

24367.2 x 4

=176.14 cm
Providing a diameter of 150 cm
Assuming spacing for laterals

= 20 cm

Number of laterals

= 8.8 x 150/20
67

N.B.S. Institute of polytechnic, Ausa.

Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

= 66 on 8.8m side
& =7.1 x (150/20)
= 54 On 7.1m Side
Total Number of laterals = 54+66 =120 Nos.
D

= 61.2 x 4 /
=8.83cm =90cm

Number of perforations/ laterals


of manifold

= 1/2 width of filter-1/2 dia


= 7.1 x 1
= 3.05m

Let n be the total no. of perforation of 13 mm dia


There for,
Total area perforation
8122.4 =

nx

x 1.32
4

N = 6119.38 say 6120 nos


No. of perforation/ laterals

= 6120/120
= 51
68

N.B.S. Institute of polytechnic, Ausa.

Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

Spacing of perforation

= 3.05 x 100/51
=59.80 cm c/c say 60 cm c/c

Provide 51 perforations of 13 mm diameter at 60 mm c/c

Computation of wash water troughs:

Wash water rate

= 36 m3/m2/hr

Wash water discharge for one filter

= 36 x 62.48
= 2249.2 m3/ hr
= 0.6248 m3/sec

Assuming a spacing of 1.8 m for wash water through which will


run parallel to the longer dimension of the filter unit.

No. of through

= 7.1/ 1.8
= 3.94 say 4

Discharge per unit through

= 0.6248/4
= 0.1562 cub m/sec

For a width of 0.4 m the water depth at upper end is given by


Q

= 1.376 x bh3/2
69

N.B.S. Institute of polytechnic, Ausa.

Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

0.1562 = 1.376 x 0.4(h) 3/2


H

= 0.43 Say 0.45m

Freeboard = 0.1 m
Provide 4 trough of 0.4 m wide x 0.5 deep n each filte.

Total Depth of Filter Box:

Depth of tilter box =


depth of under drain + gravel + sand +
water depth + free board
=

900 + 500 + 600 + 2200 + 300

4300

Designs of filter air wash:


Assume rate at which air is supplied

= 1.5 m3/m2/min

Duration of air wash

= 3 min

Total quantity of air required per unit bed = 1.5 x 3 x 8.8 x 7.1
= 281.16 m3

70
N.B.S. Institute of polytechnic, Ausa.

Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

d. Summary
1.

Number of units

2.

Size of units

8.8 x 7.1 m

3.

Depth of sand bed

60 cm

4.

Depth of gravel

50cm

5.

Diameter of perforation

13 mm

6.

Diameter of central manifold

150 cm

7.

Spacing for laterals

20 cm

8.

Number of laterals

120

9.

Diameter of laterals

90mm

10.

Number of perforation

51

11.

Number of trough

12.

Size of trough

0.4 x 0.5 m

13.

Total depth of filter box

4300 mm

14.

Duration of air wash

3 min

15.

Total quantity of air required per unit bed 281.16 m3


71

N.B.S. Institute of polytechnic, Ausa.

Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

Disinfection Unit
a. Chlorination
Treatment method such as aeration, plain sedimentation,
coagulation, filtration, would render the water chemically and
aesthetically acceptable with some reduction in the
pathogenic bacterial content. However, the foregoing
treatment methods do not ensure 100% removal of pathogenic
bacteria, and hence it becomes necessary to disinfect the
water to kill the pathogenic bacteria.

Disinfection should not only remove the existing bacteria


from water but also ensure their immediate killing even
afterwards, in the distribution system. The chemical which is
used as disinfectant must therefore be able to give the
residual sterilsing effect for a long period, thus affording
some protection against recontamination. In addition to this, it
should be harmless, unobjectionable to taste, economical and
measurable by simple taste. Chlorine satisfies the above said
more than any other disinfectant and hence is widely used.

b. Design Criteria (Chlorination)


72
N.B.S. Institute of polytechnic, Ausa.

Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

Chlorine dose

=1.4 mg/L (rainy season)


= 1 mg/L (winter season)
= 0.6 mg/L (summer season)

Residual chlorine
(minimum)

= 0.1 to 0.2 mg/L

c. Design calculation
Rate of chlorine required, to disinfect water be 2 p.p.m.

Chlorine required. Per day

= 14.22 x 106 x 1.4 x10-6


= 19.908 kg

For 6 months

= 19.908 x 180
= 3583.44 kg

Number of cylinder (one cylinder contain 16 kg)


= 3583.44 x 2/16
73
N.B.S. Institute of polytechnic, Ausa.

Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

= 447.93

Number of cylinder used per day = 2 of 16 kg

e. Summery

Chlorine required per day

19.908 kg

Number of cylinder required per day

2 of 16 kg

Storage Tank
Distribution reservoir also called service reservoir are the
storage reservoir which store the treated water for supplying
the same during emergencies and also help in absorbing the
hourly fluctuation in water demand. Depending open their
elevation with respect to the ground they are classified as
underground reservoir and elevated reservoir both of these
reservoir designed for this project.

Storage Capacity
74
N.B.S. Institute of polytechnic, Ausa.

Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

Ideally the total storage capacity of a distribution capacity of


distribution reservoir is the summation of (1) Balancing
reserve (2) Breakdown reserve and (3) Fire reserve. The
balancing storage capacity of a reservoir can be worked out
from the data of hourly consumption of water for the
town/city by either the mass curve method or analytical
method. In absence of availability of the date of hourly
demand of water the capacity of reservoir is usually to 1/3
of the daily average supply.

Underground Storage Reservoir (U.S.R)


a. General
The reservoir is used for storing the filtered water which is
now fit for drinking. From this, the water is pumped to
E.S.R. normally the capacity of reservoir depend open the
capacity of the pumps and hour of pumping during a day. If
the pumps work for 24 minutes the capacity of this
reservoir may be between 30 minutes to 1 hour.

b.Design Criteria (U.S.R.)


75
N.B.S. Institute of polytechnic, Ausa.

Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

1. Detention time

1 to 4 hr

2. Freeboard

0.4 to 0.6 m

c. Design Calculation
Assuming that all pumping are working for 4 hours.

Capacity of underground reservoir


= 6 hr capacity of average
demand
= 19 MLD x 106 x 6 x 10-3 /24
= 4750 m3

Assuming 6 compartments
Let Depth

= 4m

76
N.B.S. Institute of polytechnic, Ausa.

Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

Area

= 1187.5 m2

= 198 m2

Area of each compartment

Dimension

= 14.1 m x 14.1 m

Freeboard

= 0.5 m

Provide 6 compartment of 14.1m x 14.1m x 4.5m

d. Summery
1.

Capacity of reservoir

4750 m3

2.

Total depth

4.5 m

3.

Compartments

4.

Size

14.1m x14.1m x
4.5m

5.

Detention time

4 hr

Elevated Service Reservoir (ESR)


77
N.B.S. Institute of polytechnic, Ausa.

Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

a. General
Where the areas to be supplied with treated water are at
higher elevation than the treatment plan site, the pressure
requirements of the distribution system necessitates the
construction of ESR. The treated water from the
underground reservoir is pumped to the ESR and than
supplied to the consumers.

b.Design Calculation
Assuming capacity of ESR

= 1/10 underground

Storage
= 475 m3
Free board

= 0.3 m

Overall depth

= 4m

78
N.B.S. Institute of polytechnic, Ausa.

Planning & designing of Water treatment plant

Diameter

There for

Provide 1 ESR of overall height


12.296m

475 x 4
x4

=12.296 m

= 4.3 m and diameter =

C. Summery
1.

Number of tanks

2.

Depth of tank

4.3 m

3.

Diameter of tank

12.296m

79
N.B.S. Institute of polytechnic, Ausa.