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SmarTS Lab A real-time hardware-in-the-loop lab.

for developing WAMPAC applications

Dr.-Ing. Luigi Vanfretti


Docent and Assistant Professor
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden
E-mail: msalmas@kht.se , luigiv@kth.se
Web: http://www.vanfretti.com

Opal-RT Real-Time 2012 -5th International User Conference

Las Vegas, Nevada, USA July 17-19, 2012

Outline
whoami
Smart Transmission Systems Research Group
SmarTS Lab
-

Overall architecture and hardware implementation


Comm. and Synchronization Architecture and Implementation
Software implementation
Model-to-Data Workflow for Hardware-in-Open-Loop and Hardware-inthe-Loop

Configuration of PMUs and Phasor Data Concentrator


- PDC Configuration, Visualization and Historian Configuration

A LabView Software Development Toolkit (SDK) for PMU


Applications
- Synchrophasor Bable Fish
- LabView SDK

Research Project Example


Lessons Learned and Future Research Activities

Intermitted generation brings renewable


energy capacity
New production of
electricity:
Wind: variable - uncertain
While new energy capacity is coming in,- new
- Solar: variable - uncertain
challenges are also emerging for security
of
supply:
Location:

Wind

PV

- Most new wind is located


at distant locations (LongMeeting the challenges from the push for
distance transmission
decommissioning of nuclear plants (Germany)
required)
Meeting EU 202020 goals (CO2 goals-make
it solar sources
Most new
sited closer to the
difficult to attain dependency on fossil).
customer of
on all voltage
Handling public acceptance for the installation
levels (becoming bigger)

transmission capacity! (Norway/Sweden)

And more to come!


Small Hydro

- In Norway great potential


for micro hydro plants at
remote locations.

To deal with new generation sources requires


a paradigm shift also at the transmission level
Future generation patterns bring
faster power transfer interactions
- System wide visibility and
awareness of the systems
condition at short time scales
becomes necessary!
Real-time monitoring across
traditional operational boundaries:
- Obtain visibility of the systemwide dynamics
Real-time control can help
handling operation under stringent
conditions

Need for Flexibility


System dynamics become increasingly important for system operation

PMU Data
~2 sec

In December 2010, OG&E monitored


oscillations on the transmission system in
northwester Oklahoma.

Occurring during periods of high wind.

The oscillations had their origin in two


adjacent wind farms.

What would happen with massive wind


deployment to cope with changes < 25 min?

The US has a very limited penetration of wind, despite of this limitation problems
are emerging
- How will Europe cope with these kind of dynamic operation challenges?
Flexibility becomes available with advancements in

- Wide-area monitoring, protection, and control systems

Smart Grids Also at the Transmission Level


Monitoring, Operation, Control and Protection in Real-Time through Smart Apps?

A challenge
also in
Picture of Coreso
Scandinavia:
(coordination initiative of
Elia (Belgium), RTE
Picture
of the
Regional
(France),
National
Grid
Control
Center(Italy)
at Alta,
(UK), Terna
and 50
Norway.
Hz (Germany) )
Operators
have
thethe
challenge
Operators
have
of challenge
running a of
power
system
tracing
under
severe
weather
dynamic
events
through
conditions
guaranteeing
large andand
complex
supply
to critical heavy
interconnected
networks.
industries

SmarTS Lab
The Smart Transmission Systems Lab.

How to develop a controlled environment for


developing Smart Transmission Apps?
Smarter Operator
Decision Support

Sync. Timing
Phasor Measurement Data

Transmission System
Control Center

Communication Networks

Smarter Operator Control


Actions
Decision/Control Support System
Data Alignment
and
Concentration

Monitoring
Advanced
Displays

Data Storage
and Mining

Near Real-Time
Security
Assessment

Early Warning
System

Automatic
Determination of
Control Actions

Smart-Automatic Control Actions

Controllable and Protective Device


Measurement and Status Data

Smart Grid require Smart Operation, Smart Control and Smart Protection:
- The ultimate goal should be to attain an automatic-feedback self-healing control system

Measure Communicate Analyze (System Assessment and real limits) Determine


Preventive/Corrective Actions Communicate Control and protect
To achieve this vision, new applications need to be developed in a controlled environment, allowing
testing and considering the ICT chain

The SmarTS Lab Architecture


Opal-RT
Real-Time Simulator
Low-Level
Analog I/Os

V and I
Amplifiers

PMUs

Amplified analog outputs


(current/voltage)

Synchrophasor
Data

PDC(s)
WAMS
Applications

Digital I/Os
GOOSE

GOOSE

Sampled Values

GOOSE

SEL PMUs /Relays

Protective
Relays

Station
Bus

GOOSE

Process
Bus

Sampled Values

Digital
I/Os

Physical Devices
Low-Power
Prototypes

WAPS
Applications

ABB Relays

External Controllers

V and I
Amplifiers

Communication
Network
(WAN /Network
Emulator)

NI- cRIO 9076

WACS
Applications
WAMPAC
Application
Host Platform

SmarTS Lab
Hardware Implementation

SmarTS Lab
Comm. and Synchronization Architecture and Implementation
Process Bus
(IEC 61850-9-2)

Station Bus
(IEC 61850-8-1)

IRIG-B

Synchrophasor Bus
(IEEE C37.118)
GPS - Signal

SmarTS Lab
Software Implementation

Synchrowave Phasor Data Concentrator Gathering PMU


Measurements, Time Alignment and Archival

Input to the PDC from 3


different PMUs
(IP Configuration, Port
No, PMU ID, etc.)

Output Stream:
- Sent to other PDC
from SEL

SmarTS Lab
Software Implementation
Synchrowave Central (Visualization of PMU Data)
SEL AcSELerator Quickset (Relay Settings and HMI)
Display of real-time PMU
data streams from SEL
PDC

SEL AcSELerator
Display for Voltage
and Current Phasors

Model-to-Data
Workflow

RealTime simulations are accessed from


the console generated by OPAL-RT Lab
software
OPAL-RT

eMEGAsim (12 Cores)


OP 5600 I/O Extension Chasis
OP5949 Active Monitoring Panel

Off-line to RT Model
Code Generation
MATLAB/Simulink
SimPowerSystems
Model

Model Splitting into


Sub-systems for
RT-Simulation

Real-Time Model
Simulation

RT-Lab Software
Interface Compiles and
Loads the Model into
RT-Targets

The model is compiled and loaded


into the simulator using Opal-RT
Lab Software

EthernetPort

MATLAB/Simulink
Design models for realtime simulation
1

Receiving Data
from SEL 487E
using SEL
AcSELerator
Quickset

Ethernet
Switch

2
Real-Time Digital simulation is
converted to Analog / Digital Signals
through I/O s
The current and voltage from the
analog outputs of the simulator
Simulator Analog
amplified by using Megger SMRT-1
and Digital I/Os
Amplifier and fed into the CT/VT
inputs of the relay
64 Analog Out
16 Analog In
OP 5251 (128
DIgital I/O))

Current Inputs

Voltage Inputs

Digital Outputs

Digital Inputs
4

The Analog outputs of the


Simulator are fed into the CT
Inputs of the SEL-487E

Model-to-Data Proof of Concept Experiment


(Hardware-in-Open-Loop)
Amplifier
Real-Time
Simulator

Media Converter

Amplifying from lowlevel to standard


rating
(1-60 Amp, 60-300 V)

PMU Transmits
Computed
Phasors through
Serial Port

RS232 to TCP/IP
over Ethernet

Generate 3-Phase RT
Signals (Voltages and
Currents)
Output signals, low
level through
simulator I/Os
(+/- 16 V., +/- 20 mA)

PMU/Relay
SEL Synchrowave PDC
Hardwired

Ethernet

SEL-421 Relay with PMU functionality

GPS Antenna

Three-Phase
Voltage &
Current Signals

GPS Antenna
Input

GPS Signals
Spliter

Monitoring Output
Measurement
(3-Phase signals)

Ethernet Port
Data Stream on
IEEE C37.118

Opal-RT OP5600 Computational Target

Analog Outputs from IO to

Megger SMRT1

Megger SMRT1

Megger SMRT1

(Back Panel)

(Front Panel)

The whole process in real-time:


Interaction with the model in real-time (Hardware-in-open-loop)
Generator mechanical
power perturbation

What is observed at the PMU at 50 fps


reporting rate?
Generator mechanical power perturbation

Damped oscillations captured by the PMU at 50 fps in


the frequency computed by the PMU

Induction Motor
4.9 MVA , 6.3 kV

One-Line Diagram
Bus 1

Thevenin
Equivalent

Transmission Line
L 1-3
Transmission Line
L 1-3 a

Bus 4

Bus 3

Step Down
Transformer
380 kV / 6.3 kV

Bus 2

Synchronous
Generartor
500MVA , 20kV

Step Up Transformer
20kV / 380 kV

Bus 5

Transmission
Line
L 3-5

OLTC Controlled Load

Modeling for Real-Time


Hardware-in-the-Loop
Simulation

Video!

Configuration of PMUs and Phasor Data Concentrator


for HIL Application Development

Configuring Relay and PMU Features

Configuring Synchrophasor Data Concentrator

Visualization and Historian Configuration


Real-time or Historian Display

Frequency

Voltage
Mag.

Current
Mag.

A Software Development Toolkit (SDK)


for Developing Smart Transmission Grid Applications

The Missing Link:


Needed Software Development
Avoid the Software Road-Block:

C. And Provide RealTime Data from


PMUs in LabView

- To date, there are no flexible software tools that


would allow for fast prototyping of monitoring
applications that use PMU data.
- What is needed is to develop a "Babel Fish" that
brings real-time streams from PMU data to the
hands of researchers and small developers to
develop ad hoc applications.

B. I translate the
protocol into
usable data.

- Having the Bable Fish available, we will develop


some monitoring tools consuming real-time data.
New monitoring applications
Possibility of including the bable fish in embedded systems

for real-time control and protection!

A. Starting from real-time data


streams in the IEEE C37.118 protocol
and IEC 61850-90-5:
0001000101010001001001010101

Building Smart Apps with


C. And Provide Real- Labview PMU Application
Time Data from
Software Development Toolkit
the facilities at SmarTS-Lab
PMUs in LabView
(SDK)

Real-Time
Simulator
+
Amplifiers
+
PMUs
+
Comm.
Network

Bable
Fish

000101
B. I translate the
protocol into
usable data.
PMU Data Bus
(IEEE C37.118)

Phasor Data
Concentrator(s)

A. Starting from real-time data


streams in the IEEE C37.118 protocol
and IEC 61850-90-5:
0001000101010001001001010101

PMU App. SDK


A LabView-Based PMU Application SDK

Joint work with Statnett SF (Norways TSO)

Connection mechanims for the IEEE C37.118 protocol


and IEC 61850-9-5
Make PMU-data available in a buffer
Allow data access from the buffer with adjustable
update rate
Allow selection of channels
Allow receiving data on a queue

SDK Platform
Custom Application
PRL

Remote
Access Buffer

SnapShooter

Live Buffer

Selector

DLL

C37.118

PDC

Data
- Time Stamp
- Voltage Phasors
- Current Phasors
- Frequency

PMU Recorder Light (PRL)


SnapShooter

PRL
?

?
?

DLL

Prototype Implementation (PMU App. SDK Beta)

Connection with PDC


Configuration
PC Loading Monitor

Data Channel Selection

Real-Time Data Access

Straightforward Development
of Monitoring Application

Lessons Learned
A fun experience!
When building such laboratory, many details need to be considered:
Cost and Procurement.
Choice of real-time simulator - It should fit your needs - Research needs industry needs.

When operating such lab., a broad range of expertise is needed:


- Clear knowledge on Real-Time modeling and simulation, with associated modeling
phylosophy
- From configuration of relays/PMU to PDC, and beyond (media converters, comm. network)

Big lessons:
- Separate your communication networks depending on the data type they will carry.
In our experiments having large amounts of PMU data had large impacts in the performance of IEC-

61850-8-1 and -9-2 (relay trip time was longer than using hardwires)
Performance can be enhanced by separating IEC-61850-8-1, -9-2, and PMU data - having IEC-61850-

8-1 operate even faster that hardwired tests.


Question: how can this be dealt with when all of the data will be under IEC 61850 with PMU under -

9-5?

- When using amplifiers, synchronization between each amplification source can be source of
error for protection applications.

luigiv@kth.se
http://www.vanfretti.com

Thank you!