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RESULTS

Experiment A
Aqueous Layer

Propionic

Organic Layer

acid added

Titre of M/10

Concentration

Titre of M/10

Concentration

(mL)
5
3
1

NaOH (mL)
21.6
19.2
15.5

(M)
0.43
0.640
1.550

NaOH (mL)
77.0
49.8
16.5

(M)
1.540
1.660
1.650

Water flow rate

: 0.20 L/min

Organic flow rate

: 0.20 L/min

Packing dimension

: Length

K=Y/X
0.281
0.386
0.937

= 1.2 m

Diameter = 50 mm
Experiment B
Flow rate of aqueous
phase (L/min)
Flow rate of organic phase
(L/min)
Sodium hydroxide
concentration (M)
Feed (mL)
Raffinate (mL)
Extract (mL)
Propionic acid extracted
from the organic phase
(mol/min)
Propionic acid extracted
from the aqueous phase
(mol/min)
Mass transfer coefficient
(kg/min)

0.20
0.20
0.025M

0.1 M

55.2
1.9
23.7

18.1
1.0
7.4
0.008

0.007734
0.003732

CALCULATIONS

Formula for finding distribution coefficient (Experiment A):


K = Y/X
Where Y: Concentration of solute in exact phase.
X: Concentration of solute in raffinate phase.
For 0.1M of NaOH
1. 5.0mL of propionic acid
Upper (Y)

Bottom (X)

M1V1 = M2V2
(0.1M)(21.6mL) = (M2)(5mL)

M1V1 = M2V2
(0.1M)(77.0mL) = (M2)(5mL)

M2 = 0.432 M

M2 = 1.540 M
K = Y/X
= 0.43M / 1.544 M
= 0.2785

2. 3.0mL of propionic acid


Upper (Y)

Bottom (X)

M1V1 = M2V2
(0.1M)(19.2mL) = (M2)(3mL)

M1V1 = M2V2
(0.1M)(49.8mL) = (M2)(3mL)

M2 = 0.640 M

M2 = 1.660 M
K = Y/X
= 0.65M / 1.6667M
= 0.3899

3. 1.0mL of propionic acid


Upper (Y)
M1V1 = M2V2
(0.1M)(15.5mL) = (M2)(1.0mL)
M2 = 1.550 M

Bottom (X)
M1V1 = M2V2
(0.1M)(16.5mL) = (M2)(1.0mL)
M2 = 1.650 M

= Y/X
= 1.55M / 1.65M
= 0.939

Formula for finding mass transfer coefficient (Experiment B):

M1V1 = M2V2
Where:

M1 = concentration of NaOH
M2 = concentration of propionic acid
V1 = volume of NaOH
V2 = volume of propionic acid
Rate of acid transfer = Vw (Y1 0)
Vo (X1 X2) = Vw (Y1 0)
K = Y1/X*
Log mean driving force = (X1-X2) / ln (X1/X2)
Where:
X1 : Driving force at the top of the column = (X2 0)
X2 : Driving force at the bottom of the column = (X1 - X1*)
Packing dimension : Length = 1.2m
Diameter = 50mm
Radius =

= 0.025m

Therefore, packing volume, V = r2L


= ( 0.025m)2(1.2m)
= 2.36 10-3 m3
= 2.36 L

For 0.1M of NaOH


Raffinate:
M1V1
(0.1)(1mL)
M2

= M2V2
= M2 (15mL)
= 0.00667M of propionic acid X1

Feed:
M1V1
= M2V2
(0.1)(18.1mL) = M2 (15mL)
M2
= 0.12067M of propoinic acid
Extract:
M1V1
(0.1)(7.4mL)
M2

Rate of acid transfer = Vw (Y1- 0)


= (0.20 L/min)(0.04933 mol/L)
= 0.0099 mol/min
Finding the value of X2:

Vo (X1-X2)
(0.20 L/min)(0.00667 mol/L - X2)
X2

= M2V2
= M2 (15mL)
= 0.04933M of propoinic acid Y1

= Vw (Y1 -0)
= 0.0099 mol/min
= -0.0428 mol/L @ M

Finding the log mean driving force:


X1 = (X2-0)
= -0.0428 M
K = Y1 / X*
X* = Y1 / K
At equilibrium, assume K = 0.9273 (from experiment B)
= 0.04933 / 0.0939
= 0.5253 M
X2 = (X1-X1*)
= -0.0428 M 0.5253M
= -0.5681M
Log mean driving force = (X1-X2) / ln (X1/X2)
= (-0.0428 + 0.5681)M / ln (-0.0428 / -0.5681)
= -0.2032

Finding the mass transfer coefficient:

Mass transfer coefficient =

= (0.0099 mol/min) / 2.36L -0.2032)


= -0.00475 mol/L.min
= -0.00475 M/min
= -0.00475 kg/min

For 0.025M of NaOH


Raffinate:
M1V1
(0.025)(1.9mL)
M2

= M2V2
= M2 (15mL)
= 0.0032 M of propionic acid X1

M1V1
(0.025)(55.2mL)
M2

= M2V2
= M2 (15mL)
= 0.0920 M of propoinic acid

M1V1
(0.025)(23.7mL)
M2

= M2V2
= M2 (15mL)
= 0.0395 M of propoinic acid Y1

Feed:

Extract:

Rate of acid transfer = Vw (Y1- 0)


= (0.20 L/min)(0.0395 mol/L)
= 0.0079 mol/min
Finding the value of X2:

Vo (X1-X2)
(0.20 L/min)(0.0025 mol/L - X2)
X2

= Vw (Y1 -0)
= 0.0079 mol/min
= - 0.037 mol/L @ M

Finding the log mean driving force:


X1 = (X2-0)
= - 0.037 M
K = Y1 / X*
X* = Y1 / K
At equilibrium, assume K = 0.939 (from experiment B)
= 0.0395 / 0.939
= 0.0420 M
X2 = (X1-X1*)
= -0.037 M 0.0420 M
= -0.079 M
Log mean driving force = (X1-X2) / ln (X1/X2)
= (-0.037+ 0.079)M / ln (-0.037 / -0.079)
= -0.05537

Finding the mass transfer coefficient:

Mass transfer coefficient =

=
= (0.0079 mol/min) / (2.36L -0.05537)
= -0.0605 mol/L.min
= -0.0605 M/min
= -0.0605 kg/min

DISCUSSIONS
In this experiment, we want to identify the distribution of coefficient (K) and to identify the
mass transfer coefficient. This experiment is referred to the solubility which is the solvent is also
soluble with a specific solute contained in the solution and also about the separation of a
substance from a mixture by preferentially dissolving the substance in a suitable solvent.
.
For the first experiment, which is to determine the distribution coefficient (K), we used the
titration method from the upper (Y) and bottom (X) layer sample. By titration with 0.1 M, the
values are 0.939 in 1.0 ml of propionic acid, 0.386 in 3.0 ml of propionic acid and 0.281 in 5.0 ml
of propionic acid. From the result in this experiment, if titrated with 0.1 M NaOH, it shows that
the value of distribution coefficient decrease as the volume of propionic acid increase. This
experiment is totally successful because those results followed the actual results which is the
value of distribution coefficient must be decrease when the volume of propionic acid is
increasing.

For the second experiment, which is to determine the mass transfer coefficient, we used the
liquid-liquid extraction column to get the feed, raffinate and extract solution to be the samples.
The samples then are titrated with 0.1 M NaOH and 0.025 M NaOH. The value of mass transfer
coefficient when titrated with 0.1 M NaOH is -0.0605 kg/min while titrated with 0.025 M, the
value of mass transfer coefficient is-0.06026 kg/min. Result for this experiment shows that the
experiment is failed because the values of mass transfer coefficient supposedly in positive.
Besides that, we cannot show that the relation between mass transfer rate with the
concentration of NaOH. For the actual result, this experiment can shows the increment of mass
transfer rate when the concentration of NaOH is decreasing

Several errors occurred during this experiment progress that totally affects the result of first
experiment which is for finding the mass transfer coefficient. The most common error is the
position of the eye during taking the volume value at the burette. As the solution, the eye
position should be straight to the scale and must be perpendicular to the meniscus. Besides
that, the error also occurred while using the apparatus that is not properly clean. We should use
the clean apparatus to avoid the oil emission and impurities at the beaker, conical flask or
burette. If the apparatus not clean, we should use the distilled water to clean up those
apparatus.
Besides that, the experiment should be repeated at least 2 or 3 times to get the accurate
values and the mistake during the experiment progress can be identified. However, the first
experiment only done with one trial those cause the experiment being failed. Furthermore, we
choose light pink color for the color indicator during titration, but to get all the same color might
be hard enough to identify. As the color is not same in each titration, the value of mass transfer
coefficient will be different from the actual and made the experiment failed. This is because the
color indicates that the NaOH is at equilibrium with the sample solution.