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Cisco DCN Solution for

Network Operations

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Agenda
What is a DCN ?
Network Element Evolution
DCN Evolution
Cisco DCN Solution Platforms
Cisco IOS Telco Image
Cisco IOS Telco Features
Summary
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What is the DCN ?


Data Communications Network (DCN)

Network Elements (NEs)

Network Operations
Center (NOC)
Operational
Support Systems
(OSS)

ISR 3303
ADM GNE
SONET
Ring

OSI

ISR 3303
MUX
SLC, IDLC,
FITL, FOTS

IP over
FR, ATM, T1
Mediation
if required

Alarm Units
Switch

Mainframe
or Mini

OSS to NE Connectivity

Voice Switch, Digital


Cross-Connect Switch,
SS7 STP, SCP, Frame
Relay Switch
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Workstation

X25

Multiple Overlay Networks


Rapid SONET/SDH growth
Changing technologies
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2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Network Element Evolution


Network Element

Legacy

New

Sonet/SDH ADMs

X.25

OSI/IP

Large Cross Connects

X.25

OSI/IP

ADSL

IP

Digital Loop Carrier

X.25

OSI/IP

HDSL

X.25

IP

Test Heads

X.25

IP

DSO Cross Connects


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Async

The Network Trend

OSS & NEs are migrating to Ethernet


Interfaces
OSSs & NEs are implementing IP
and OSI stacks

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Network Element Features Driving


the Change

Remote provisioning
Software download
Remote backups
Remote login

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DCN Evolution
Legacy DCN
Phase 1: Backbone Conversion with
Tunneling Techniques
Phase 2: OSS Migrate to Ethernet
Phase 3: Network Elements migrate
to Ethernet
DCN Architecture
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DSC Cross Connect

AS

YN

Legacy DCN Network

X25 Cloud
X25 Pad
NMA

X25 Switch

X25 Switch

X25 SVC

X25 Pad

Fujitsu FLM 150

X25 PVC
AI Switch

Fujitsu FLM 150

5 Fujitsu FLM 150


X2

NMA

X25

Datakit

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5
X2

Datakit

OSS are X25 based


NE management interfaces are x25 or async
DCN core is x25 switches or vendor specific
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C
ASYN

Datakit Backbone

X25

CO SAM

DSC Cross Connect

X25 PVC

AI Switch

Fujitsu FLM 150

Phase 1: Tunneling X25


Billing OSS polling a Class 5 Switch
BX25

BX25

TCP(BX25)/IP
IP Cloud

Serial 3/0

Serial 1/0

OSS

Class 5

RFC 1613

X25 Packet is being tunneled across the network in TCP/IP


Complete X25 packet is encapsulated in TCP/IP and forwarded
Example shows BX25 which is a variant of X25
Network Management tools same as the Internet or customer user
network
Same Hardware and Software as Internet or Customer Network
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Phase 2: Protocol Translation


X25 Protocol
Translation
X25

TCP/IP
IP
OSS

TCP Session

ModemB
ank

Sonet ADM
X25 SVC

OSS migrates to a TCP/IP


No longer tunneling
Access Router in CO is terminating TCP session
and starting up an X25 session
Cisco term is protocol translation
Industry term is mediation
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Phase 3: Ethernet Based Network


Elements
HDSL Shelf
ModemBank

TCP/IP

TCP/IP
IP/
CLNS

OSS:
TCP/IP

OSI
OSI

TCP/IP

OSS:
OSI

Sonet
ADM

Class 5

Class 5 switches will move towards IP


Sonet/SDH equipment will support OSI
Other CO equipment will move towards IP
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2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

DCN Architecture
Cat1924/2600/3640/3662/Cat2924
4500/7500/
GSR

7200/4700

N
M
A

Cat5xxx/1924

OSS

Cat5xxx/1924

N
M
A

OSS

CO Access
Central Office
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Distribution

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Backbone

NOC

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Summary DCN Evolution


Deploying IP and OSI Intranets: ISIS, OSPF,
BGP4+, XOT, ISO-IGRP
X25 is being eliminated from the Network
async will continue to be used for craft ports
Service Providers DCNs are focused on
Ethernet connectivity
Service Providers DCNs are quickly adopting
the Internet Technology and Cost Model
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2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Maximum Platform Capability

DCN Solution Platform Capability


2 Fast Ethernet
6 Ethernet
36 Async
12 Sync
3 OSI Areas

2 Slots
24 10/100

2 Fast Ethernet
24 Ethernet

Catalyst
1924-DC

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8 Fast Ethernet
26 Ethernet
192 Async
48 Sync
12 OSI Areas

Time

2600-DC
Series

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Catalyst
2924-DC

3662-DC-CO

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Cisco 26xx-DC for Small Sites


1 RU chassis
One network
module slot
Ports: up to 32
async, 8 sync
Two WAN Interface
Card (WIC) slots
Ethernet and 10/100
Fast Ethernet models
48v DC power
NEBS Level 3 compliant
CLEI coded
11.5 inches deep
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Catalyst 1900/2900 Series


Catalyst 1924-DC

Catalyst 2924M-DC

New
24-switched 10BaseT ports
Up to 8192 MAC addresses

24 10BaseT/100BaseTX ports

Two, fixed 100BaseT ports


on all models

8192 MAC addresses

- Two 100BaseTX ports

9 Deep, NEBS Level 3


CLEI Coded
-48 volt, dual DC feeds
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Two slots to accommodate


available modules
ISL/802.1Q VLAN trunking
on all ports
NEBS Level 3, -48 volt dual
DC

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Catalyst 2900 XL Modules

ISL/802.1Q VLAN support


4-port 10/100 TX module
2-port 100BaseFX module
4-port 100BaseFX module

ISL/802.1Q VLAN Modules

GigE GBIC module


ATM (OC3) module
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Challenge: Ethernet Scaling and


Management

Benefit: Supports
more network
elements on
one router

ISL

172.20.128.200

Cluster Manager
Software
Benefit: Single IP
address

Catalyst
2924M XL DC

ISL

172.20.128.201
Catalyst 1924-DC
Ethernet Switches

NE
NE
NE
NE
NE
NE
NE
NE
NE
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Solution:
Integrated
Management

Cisco 3662-DC-CO

Solution:
Catalyst
2924M XL DC

ISL

ISL

172.20.128.202

172.20.128.203

.
NE
NE
NE
NE
NE
NE
NE
NE
NE

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Switch Clustering
Technology
Benefit: cluster up
to 16 switches

NE
NE
NE
NE
NE
NE
NE
NE
NE

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Cisco 3662-CO-DC
Designed for telco
transmission environment
5 RU chassis
6 Network Module
slots (NMs)
Ports: Up to 192 async,
up to 48 sync
2 10/100-Mbps Fast
Ethernet ports
Redundant DC
power supplies
NEBS level 3 compliant
CLEI coded
12 inches deep, including
cable drape
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Cisco 3662-DC-CO Components

Hot swappable modules, dual DC power


All major components are field replaceable
and very easy to service
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Cisco 3662-DC-CO

Designed for the telco transmission environment


5 rack-unit-high chassis
6 NMs
Performance: 100 Kpps fast switch, 12K
process switch
2 Fast Ethernet 10/100 Mbps on motherboard
Redundant DC power supplies
12 in./300 mm deep
PCMCIA Flash card slot to store software images
2 x AIM slots for compression and encryption
hardware assist
CLEI coded

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2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Cisco 3600 Family Interfaces


Versatility, Integration, Performance
Over 60 different network modules
Multiple LAN/WAN combinations
Ethernet, Token Ring, Fast Ethernet,
Serial, ISDN, CSU/DSU

Broad range of network services


DialISDN, async, modems
MultiserviceVoice and fax over IP
packet gateways
(BRI/PRI digital interfaces)
Emerging technologies
ATM, xDSL in the future

Simplified solutions
Integrated T1 and 56K CSU/DSU
Integrated compression
WICs shared with Cisco 1600 and 2600 series
NMs shared with Cisco 2600

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Hundreds of
Combinations!

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Cisco IOS Telco Image


IP/OSI routing protocol services
BGP, IS-IS, ISO-IGRP, EIGRP

Multiprotocol WAN router

Cisco
Cisco
IOS
IOS
Software
Software

X.25 services
Switching
X.28 Async PAD
X.25/IP protocol translation
ISDN services
Frame Relay services
ATM connectivity
PPP features
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2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Cisco IOS Telco Image


New X.25 engine
PAD features
Protocol translation

Cisco
Cisco
IOS
IOS
Software
Software

CLNS routingISO 8473


Internal organization of the network
layerISO 8348
ES-IsISO 9542
IS-ISISO 10589
Integrated IS-ISRFC 1195
Interdomain routing via Cisco ISO-IGRP
TARPGR-253

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Cisco IOS Telco Image


Network Scaling (SONET/SDH)
IS-IS Multi-Area
Manual Area Addresses

Cisco
Cisco
IOS
IOS
Software
Software

Performance (SONET/SDH)
TARP Storm Avoidance
TARP Split Horizon Protection
Migration (Async/X.25)
X.25 over TCP/IP
BX.25
X.25 Hunt Group
DNS Routing for X.25
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2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Cisco DCN Solution Roadmap


IP over CLNS Tunneling
12.1(5)T

Cisco 3662-DC-CO
Cisco 26xx-DC
Catalyst 1924-DC
Catalyst 2924M-DC
Cisco IOS Telco Feature Set
IP Routing; BGP, IS-IS, OSI
X.25 Support/X.28 PAD
X.25-IP PT
DNS Routing for X.25
IS-IS Multi-Area Support
TARP Support, Storm Avoidance,
Split Horizon
BX.25 Transport
ISL support for CLNS
Async Call Queuing

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X.25 Product Summary

New X.25 engine

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PAD features

Modular
PQ/CQ
SVC<==>PVC convert
Route call source addressing
AO/DI (11.3.3T)
X.25 MIB
PAD over XOT
X.31 (X.25/ISDN)
CMNS
X.25 over LLC2
Route X.121 or NSAP
Service PAD support
X.25 config over Ethernet
Opt. flow control negotiation
Address insertion
Hunt groups
Annex G
DNS Routing

Full X.28 emulation

Protocol
translation
Facilities/dest
PVC support
Virtual
Templates
Idle timer
PT supports
Layer 2F

Full X.29
Full X.3
Mnemonics
X.29 reselect
Standard call req.
Bidirectional PAD
Async subaddress
Configurable PID
NUI support

Enhancements
11.2(4)12.0(5)T
11.2(4)12.0(5)T
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2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Migration Feature
Async Call Queuing
Async port access contention
CO platform queues telnet calls
Authenticate each connection via Radius or AAA
Enables operations more efficient port access
Simultaneous
Telnet Users

Telnet to vty
Async Conversion
3 Async
Interfaces

WAN
DMS
100
User in queue status
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Call
Queuing on
Cisco 3662-DC-CO
28

DNS Routing for X25


X121 address 317844
equals 10.1.1.1

What is the IP address for


X121 address 317844 ?

DNS

X25 call
IP Cloud

OSS

Answer 10.1.1.1

10.1.1.1

Network
Elment

DNS feature works with XOT

x121 address loaded into the A record on the DNS


Feature supports multiple DNS Servers
Single Static route supports all Network destinations
x25 route * xot dns 10.1.1.5

Move a Host or Network element just change DNS entry


Mnemonics resolved via DNS, not locally
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2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Migration Feature
X.25 Hunt Group
X.25 serial line rotary on single router
ITU-T standard
VC count, round robin, master rotary
31104085272400
Call 31104085272400

X.25

X.25 Host

31104085272478

PAD

WAN

31104085272411
31104085272425
31104085272499

X.25
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BX25 Support
Class 5 Switches use for Billing Data collection,
Monitoring, and Provisioning
Two types of Implementations
Public X25 Networks Implementation with dialup
Frame: LAPB Frame for Password
turnoff I-Frame: XOT will transport
Leased Line: CCITT compliant layers 1-3
XOT (RFC 1613) or STUN will transport
Sample configuration in Reference Slides
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2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Scaling Feature
IS-IS Multi-Area
Currently ISO 10589 only
allows for 1 Area per router

Cisco 3662-DC-CO

Cisco has enhanced IS-IS to


allow multiple OSI Areas per
router
Initially up to 12
level 1 instances
per Cisco 3662-DC-CO
(3 per Cisco 26xx-DC)

NE

Allows ISIS to scale

NE

NE

Single level 2 instance

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

Area A Area B

NE

NE

NE

Area C

Area D

Saves router HW cost


Solves re-addressing
issues
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Large Central Office Using Cisco


2500 Series Routers
OSI/IP
Integrated IS-IS

Central Office Boundary

T1
Cisco 2514s
40 Cisco 2514s

L1/L2
30 Cisco 2522s
NE

Catalyst
1924-DC

NE
NE

NE
NE

Digital Cross
Connect System
(DCS e.g., Titan 5500)

OSI Area 1
NE

10BT
Catalyst
1924-DC

Optical Loop
Carrier Systems
(e.g., Litespan 2000)

NE

NE
NE

OSI Area 2

NE

L1
OSI/IP

Intelligent DS1
Delivery Systems
(e.g., Soneplex)

240 Async/Sync Ports

X.25/IP

NE

..
.

NE

NE
NE

NE
NE

40 OSI areas

OSI Area 12

NE

NE

Uses 30 Cisco 2522s and 40 Cisco 2514s.


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2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Cost and Complexity Reduction Using


Cisco 3662-DC-CO in Large Central Office
OSI/IP
IS-IS and OSPF

T1
Central Office Boundary
NE
NE

3 3662-DC-CO

L1/L2

NE
NE

4 3662-DC-CO
NE

NE

OSI Area 1
NE

NE
NE

Digital
Cross
(SONET
ADM)
Connect
NE System
(DCS e.g., Titan 5500)
Optical Loop
Carrier Systems
(e.g., Litespan 2000)
Intelligent DS1
Delivery Systems
(e.g., Soneplex)

NE
NE

10BT
Catalyst
1924-DC

NE

10BT
Catalyst
1924-DC

NE
NE

NE

..
.

NE

OSI Area 12
NE

X.25/IP
144 Async/Sync

OSI Area 2
NE

NE

40 OSI areas - Ethernet


X.25/IP - 96 Async/Sync

Replaces 30 Cisco 2522s and 40 Cisco 2514s.


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Solution: Cisco 3662-DC-CO and


ISL for CLNS
Benefits: Network Module ports saved for async/sync
Future proof for OSI to IP transition
To Core
IP

Central Office Boundary

T1
Cisco 3662-DC-CO
OSI L1/L2

(SONET ADM)

NE
NE

NE
NE

NE

X.25/IP

Digital Cross
Connect System
(DCS e.g., Titan 5500)

96 A/S

VLAN

ISL IP/CLNS
Fast Ethernet

OSI Area 1
NE

NE

10BaseT
Cat1924
or Cat2924

Optical Loop
Carrier Systems
(e.g., Litespan 2000)

NE

NE
NE

NE

.
..

NE

NE
NE

NE
NE

OSI/IP
SONET/SDH Interface

Intelligent DS1
Delivery Systems
(e.g., Soneplex)
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OSI Area 2

OSI Area 12

NE

NE

35

2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Tunneling IP over CLNS


(TCP/IP) over CLNS
TCP/IP
IP

DCC

NE

GNE

DCC

async

GNE
odemB
M
a nk

OSS

NE

Contact
Closure

A solution to communicate with remote huts and vaults


Eliminates purchasing a separate circuit from the ILEC
Provides easy access to remote locations
Example is doing reverse telnet to an async device
Note: Gateway Network Element and NE are CLNS routers
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Summary
OSSs & NEs are migrating to Ethernet
DCNs are evolving to Intranets and the
pace will quicken with the growth of the
Internet
Cisco building a solution: hardware &
software
Solution tied to the Internet
Technology
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Reference Material

Implementation Examples
Network Module Information
Catalyst 2924 & 1924 Information
Software Features

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Example: Tunneling X25


Billing OSS polling a Class 5 Switch
BX25

TCP(BX25)/IP

BX25

IP Cloud
Serial 3/0

Serial 1/0

OSS

Class 5

x25 routing
!
interface Ethernet2/1
description
ip address 141.159.229.247 255.255.255.0
!
interface Serial3/0
description AMA Billing FE56
no ip address
encapsulation x25 dce
no ip mroute-cache
no logging event subif-link-status
x25 ltc 5
x25 win 7
x25 wout 7
x25 ips 512
x25 ops 512
no x25 linkrestart
x25 pvc 1 tunnel 141.149.109.48 interface
Serial 1/0 pvc 1 windowsize 3 3
clockrate 56000

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x25 routing
!
interface Ethernet0/0
description AMA Billing
ip address 141.149.109.48 255.255.255.192
no ip directed-broadcast
!
interface Serial1/0
description AMA Billing DSC 00
no ip address
no ip directed-broadcast
encapsulation x25
no ip mroute-cache
x25 ltc 5
x25 win 7
x25 wout 7
x25 ips 512
x25 ops 512
no x25 linkrestart
x25 pvc 1 xot 141.159.229.247 interface
Serial 3/0 pvc 1 window size 3 3
clockrate 56000

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2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Example: TCP to X25 Protocol


Translation
X25 Protocol
Translation
X25

TCP/IP
IP
OSS

TCP Session

IP 144.169.139.193
Port 2501

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odemB
M
a nk

Sonoplex
X25 SVC

x29 profile soneplexcraft 1:0 2:1 3:2 4:2


x25 routing
!
interface Loopback1
ip address 144.169.139.193 255.255.255.252
no ip directed-broadcast
!
interface Serial2/2
description -directly connected to soneplex 214a
no ip address
no ip directed-broadcast
encapsulation x25 dce
no ip mroute-cache
x25 address 3277732501
x25 ltc 2
x25 htc 3
x25 idle 2
no ignore-hw local-loopback
clockrate 9600
!
x25 route ^3277732501 interface Serial2/2
!
translate tcp 144.169.139.194 port 2501 x25
3277732501 profile soneplexcraft

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Cisco 3600 Family Integrated


CSU/DSU WIC
T1/FT1 CSU/DSU WIC
Provides integrated
solution for network
managers and service
providers
Shared with Cisco
1600 and 2600 series

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Cisco 3600 Interfaces


LAN Connectivity
Fast Ethernet 10/100 TX or FX
1- or 4-port 10BaseT
Mixed-media network modules
1/2 Ethernet, 2 WAN interface
card slots
1 Ethernet, 1 Token Ring, 2 WAN
interface card slots

Modular WAN interface cards


1 T1/E1 serial
1 ISDN BRI (optional NT-1)
56-kbps serial WIC with
integrated CSU
T1 serial WIC with integrated CSU
Shared with Cisco 1600 and 2600
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Cisco 3600 Interfaces


Serial Connectivity

4- or 8-port asynchronous/
synchronous serial
Cisco 5-in-1
transition cable
16- or 32-port async
Single serial T1 WIC

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Cisco 3600 Interfaces


ISDN BRI

4-or 8-port ISDN BRI


4-or 8-port ISDN BRI
with NT-1
BRI WIC (U or ST)

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Cisco 3600 Interfaces


ISDN PRI

1- or 2-port CT1/ISDN PRI


1- or 2-port CT1/ISDN
PRI with CSU
1- or 2-port CE1/ISDN
PRI balanced
1- or 2-port CE1/ISDN
PRI unbalanced

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2924M Performance
3.2 Gbps switching fabric
3.0 million pps forwarding rate and
1.6 Gbps forwarding bandwidth
4-MB shared memory architecture
Fast EtherChannel and Gigabit
EtherChannel uplink support
CGMP Fast Leave multicast traffic reduction
Broadcast storm control
Support ISL/802.1Q frame tagging with
VTP/VMPS end-to-end VLAN support
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Catalyst 2900 XL Modules


Gigabit Ethernet module (single port)
1000BaseX with GBIC-based media slot
ISL/802.1Q support
Eight queues for priority-based forwarding

ATM modules (single port OC-3)


UTP
Multimode fiber
Single-mode fiber, medium reach (10Km)
Single-mode fiber, long reach (40Km)
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Challenge: Central Office


Ground Plane Isolation
Benefit: Ground plane isolation
with one contiguous DCN LAN

Multi-floor Central Office


Cisco 3662-DC-CO

Catalyst
2924M XL DC
NE

Fiber
Solution:
Fiber Up-links
Cisco 3662-DC-CO

NE
Catalyst
2924M XL DC

Separate
Ground
Plane
on each
Floor

Fiber
NE
Catalyst
2924M XL DC

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Cisco Catalyst 1924-DC


for Switched Ethernet Expansion
24 switched 10BaseT
ports + one switched AUI
1024 MAC addresses
Two, fixed
100BaseTX ports
9 deep
48v DC, dual inputs
CLEI coded
NEBS
level 3 compliant
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2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Scaling Feature
Manual Area Addresses
Router_ABC

ISO 10589
recommends that
no more than 3
MAAs per area
Increased the
number from 3
to 256 per router

L2
L1

Router_A

Allows the network


L1
to be implemented
without re-addressing Area A
NEs or rings
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Area
A+B+C

Router_B

L1
Area B
50

Migration Feature
TARP

SIF standard for resolving layer 7


address to a layer 3 address
Resolves the TL1 identifier to
active network layer address
(i.e., TID to NSAP, TID to IP, etc. )

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2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Performance Feature
TARP Storm Avoidance
No need to flood all TARP packets
Forward TARP packets to necessary routers only
Allows for TARP caches to be located anywhere
within the network
Allows users to decide which routers should
hold the TARP cache
NE

TID Not Cached


L1/L2

NE

NE

L1/L2

OSI Area

TARP
Cache

3
1
2a

NE

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Network
Operations Center

A1

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2b

52

Performance Feature
TARP Split Horizon Protection
TARP packets
follow TARP
adjacencies
Dont forward
requests out
an incoming
interface

Distribution Routers
TARP Request

3
2

CO
Access

1
NE
NE

NE
NE

Removes
unnecessary
packets from
network
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TARP Packets
Not Forwarded

NE
NE

NE
NE

NE
NE

NE
NE
NE
NE

NE
NE

NE
NE

NE
NE

NE
NE
NE
NE

TARP Requests

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2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Migration Feature X.25 over


TCP/IP - RFC 1613 (XOT)
Network
Elements

X.25

X.25 Host

IP

IP

IP

BX.25

FR
X.3
PAD

Frame
Relay

FR
BX.25 Host

Note: Annex G also support provided

Craft device
VT100

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SS7 Applications
Application

Legacy

Future

CE

Load Calling Databases

IP

IP

NS

Monitor SCP and STPs

X.25

Collection of Billing Data


A-Link Monitoring
A-Link Protocol Decoding
New Calling Features

NE, NS

X.25/IP

IP

NE

IP

IP

NS

X.25

IP

NS

IP

IP

NS

NSNew Service
NENetwork Elimination
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2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Class 5 Switch Applications


Application
Billing: Sebx/Billdats
Monitor and Provisioning

Legacy

New

CE

BX.25

IP

NE

Async/X.25

IP

NE

NSNew Service
NENetwork Elimination
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CEV/Hut/Collocate Connectivity
Network Element

Legacy

New

SONET/SDH ADM

X.25

OSI/IP

Digital Loop Carrier

X.25

OSI/IP

HDSL Shelves

X.25

IP
IP

ADSL Equipment
Power Equipment

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Async/Contacts

IP

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2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Questions?

304
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2000,
Systems,
Cisco
Inc.
Systems, Inc.

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58

Ciscos CLEC Networkers


Power Session
DCN Presentation

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60

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