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France fell into revolution in 1789, replaced old regime with new society.
Occurred in the most socially and philosophically advanced country in the
world at the time.
French really was the “lingua franca”
The old regime was aristocratic and in some ways feudal
Everyone belonged to an estate in a society: the first was the clergy, the
second the nobility, and the third everyone else. These estates were
important because they represented legal rights and limited potential social
growth.
These estates were politically and socially obsolescent; it had been almost
200 years since the last convention of the estates and the three estates did
not reflect the needs or wants of the French people
The secular atmosphere of the church had declined, although French clergies
continued to levy taxes on agricultural products.
The money they did get though, was distributed extremely unequally and
mostly into the hands of the upper class
The noble order, which in 1789 consisted of around 400,000 people, enjoyed
great privilege. Distinguished government positions, higher church offices,
positions in the army, and honors were almost completely monopolized by
the nobility.
Even through all of this, the bourgeois, or the upper level third-estate people
were becoming more influential, consisting of wealthy merchants and other
occupations, and saw a large growth after a growth in French trade.
As these people became better educated and more privileged themselves,
they began to resent the French nobility for the privileges they possessed,
including financial ones, which included direct tax that nobles were exempt
from (the taille), as well as the superiority and arrogance of the second estate
and the perceived slight against their egos.
The common people had the same plight of the rest of Europe. They lived a
pretty terrible life. Wages only increased by 22 percent, while the price of
goods increased by 65, which meant that more families were struggling to
make ends meet. Along with even wider income inequality, a storm was
brewing.
Around that time in France, over 4/5 of the population was rural, but without
serfdom. However, the manor enjoyed hunting rights, monopolies over
certain buildings like wine mills, and often collected fees known as banalites.
They also possessed certain powers of jurisdiction, police powers and acted
as a unit of government.
Not only that, but such manor owners (not exclusively limited to any estate)
possessed the right to “eminent property”, which meant that although lesser
landowners could buy, sell and bequeath land to whoever they wanted,
ultimately, the manor owner controlled the property. This was made known
by rents, paid annually and transfer fees if the property changed hands.
Peasants owned 2/5 of land; bourgeois, 1/5; nobility, 1/5; the church, 1/10,
with the rest being crown lands, wastelands, etc.

the bourgeois owned more land than either the nobility or the church. Peasants begun to resent the manor owners who they felt lived a cushy life and lived off collected dues.- - By the time of the revolution. so these sentiments spread quickly . France was a centralized nation. The Revolution was supposed to revolutionized the law of property by freeing the private ownership of land from all the encumbrances that the common people endured. such as the manorial fees.

The king asked the people how he should hold it Many pamphlets were sent out saying that the estates should not sit in separate chambers. and chaos. but these sorts of plans were dismissed by Louis XVI. and offered no solution until it was too late. such as Louis XIV had seen the need for a stronger tax code that targeted the rich as well as the poor. against tradition. Their debt at the time was no greater than what it had been 75 years ago Because of the tax exemptions and evasions of the rich and the church. On July 5. proposed an even more radical plan to tax all landowners without exception and to remove the taille. under pressure from nobles.                The government suffered a financial collapse. stating that the National Assembly had been convened and would not break until a new constitution was drafted. the third estate declared itself the national assembly. On a tennis court. Parlement stated that the only groups that could levy taxes were the Estates General. and the government was brought to a standstill. this plan was rejected because it would upheave all the social standards of the time. and thus started the revolution. but because of poor management of funding. Louis XVI promised to call up the Estates General. The third estate did not want to be governed by the aristocracy and wanted to abolish the useless noble class. Louis XVI. causing a semi-revolt among the nobles. members of the third estate signed the oath of the Tennis Court. Calonne assembled an “assembly of notables” – he knew that the Parlement would not accept it. The king chose the nobles over the common people. The nobility revealed that they wanted to take action against the absolutism of the king. He failed to use the wishes of the common people for a king against the nobles and then realized too late that . his successor. However. On June 17. Brienne and Louis XVI attempted to break Parlement and replace it. closed the meeting hall. which stated that kings drew strength from the common people and were against feudalism Louis XVI lost control over the Estates General. causing a deadlock and the dismissal of Calonne. tried to push the same program through Parlement but was rebuffed. Jaques Necker proposed to tax the privileged classes. which was not due to war debts or the extravagance of the rich. Calonne. 1788. Brienne. but the notables insisted on concessions in return. the burden of the debt fell on the poor Previous rulers and people. his successor. People like Sieyes launched pamphlets stating “What is the Third Estate” The lawyers of the third estate insisted that all sit in the same chamber to give the numerical advantage to the third estate. showed no leadership.

officials and the governor. with the help of 5 trained soldiers with artillery. The king recognized the citizen’s committee as he had no other solutions for this unrest. which. and rioting and labor trouble began to break out Peasants refused to pay manorial dues and the number of vagrants increased exponentially. People began to arm themselves. Misunderstandings occurred.     the third estate would no longer obey his orders. the price of bread had increased to the highest in over 50 years. The governor of the Bastille refused to give them arms. Louis XVI intended to dissolve the Estates General by use of military force. By the end of June. The capture of the Bastille saved the assembly at Versailles. The crowd brutally murdered the garrison. and arms stronghold to get weapons. People also refused to pay taxes. and crowds came to the Bastille. which finally resulted into a mob assaulting the fortress. and the economy was in depression. . persuaded the governor to surrender. By this time. The lower classes were out of hand. Their heads were stuck on pikes and paraded around the city. Scarcity and unemployment occurred and the masses were restless everywhere. the revolt had clear drawn sides: the third estate vs the second estate and the king.

which ensured that only the bourgeoisie could join. destruction of political and legal entities Holding elections for positions Decentralized Government Solved or not? It appeased the peasants and abolished feudalism. August 26. This ensured that qualified people that the people wanted represented them. Appeased the third estate Did this to prevent bureaucracy from controlling the people. It worked in bringing together the French people. but the Revolution’s leadership fell apart soon after. special rights and their manorial payment plans for compensation…that they never received The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. a number of nobles gave up their titles. No longer did nobles hold hereditary rights to positions. This led to mistrust and fractured the unity of the Revolutionary movement The 3rd estate believed that they needed to completely uproot the political and legal systems that had led France to where it was to make concrete changes. This drew criticism where people tried fix systems that worked fine. No national laws. only local laws and localities only . and that all men were free an equal in rights.Initial Reforms of the National Assembly On the night of August the 4th. It applied to men as well as women. The nobles could not be so happy about this. It became the catechism of the revolution in France. and operated much like the US Constitution and Bill of rights. 1789 Formation of revolutionary clubs Iconoclasm. but it was beneficial to the third estate It was a document stating that the law still remained. Clubs formed that required sometimes membership dues.

This was bad. This is a decent plan. With this. but was arrested and told his place as a constitutional monarch. This will be disastrous and result in a situation not smooth like the founders of the revolution wanted. However. he can only postpone legislation. it is not altogether surprising in the maleoriented society of 18th century France. Gave sovereign power to a unicameral elected assemble called the Legislative Assembly. The poor people that this revolution should have been about once again are left out in the cold and don’t have their wishes listened too. However. The king tried to escape with his noblemen in 1791. Even though this is sad. without a second house to check it. The king was only given a suspensive veto power to hold back legislation. this could result in a supermajority that would pass radical legislation. This basically shifts the power from the nobles to the nobles and the bourgeoisie. This left the government without a willing figurehead Potential for Success While not the most creative name. This is not good. since he cannot alter key parts or reject it completely. The king and minsters were weak in this new government system. Louis XVI is given the power to suspend legislation. this was a solid representative system.Created a Constitution (of 1791) The Constitution of 1791 Established a unicameral body of legislators in a place called the Legislative Assembly Suspension Veto/Constitutional Monarchy Lack of Women’s rights No voting rights for the illiterate enforced the laws they wanted. At least they have basic rights though .

The Habsurg Emperor. The king of Sweden. Burke. . in 1790 wrote the Reflections on the Revolution in France. and nobles were disgusted by the state of French nobles (emigres) Europe was split by a division that overran all frontiers.Electors represent 100 men that are active and decently wealthy. Catherine did not want to become involved in Western Europe. the prime minister of Britain refused to listen to the jingoistic cries of Burke. with strikes breaking out and armies with a stranger sense of democracy. including those in Austria. and Pitt. Many of the radicals wanted a seat in the British Parliament. Peasants in other locations outside of French began to rebel too. However. outside governments were slow to move. Germany and Ireland. Jefferson was hailed as French and Jacobin. as well as the Americas. This was the biggest revolutionary event in Europe since the protestant reformation. Gustavus II proposed a monarchial crusade on France. predicting anarchy and dictatorship. Anti-revolutionary forces also gained strength.         European government unwilling to become involved in France due to philosophy of French Revolution and universal doctrines that they advocated Unable to determine who incited the revolution and to whom it benefited. while Hamilton was said to be aristocratic and pro-British.

He. Meanwhile. Some Jacobins contemplated a war in which they would enter other European countries to free the common people War was also favored by another group. However. and gave political power to the Jacobins. 1791. All gold had been taken out of the country by the emigres. As this war tension began to build up. the same harm would be meted out to the residents of Paris. knowing that Pitt was firmly anti-war. The declaration of Pillnitz stated that Leopold would take military action against the French revolutionaries if other governments joined him. Prussia immediately joined Austria. He was succeeded by Francis II. they recognized that the emigres taking power again would be even worse. The Jacobins declared that they would not be finished until they spread such radical thinking to every corner of the world.           Leopold II basically told his sister Marie Antoinette to suck it up and adjust to life in France. He also quieted the voices of the complaining emigres. attracting many foreigners such as Paine and Cloots. in France. just not the revolutionary leaders. In August. The Declaration of Pillnitz served only to enrage the French. War tensions continued to build up as the French began to fear outside influence allowing the nobles to take control again. the Assembly declared war on the King of Hungary and Bohemian – the Austrian monarchy. who was much more willing to consider war. He wanted to curb the revolution by using a war to affirm the power of the constitutional monarchy and restore popularity in the King. known as the Brunswick Manifesto. This caused the people to turn against the king even further as they believed he was allied with the enemy and caused an outpouring of patriotic fervor. so they rallied behind the war effort. Although this was bad. Leopold died. knew that this was unlikely. after the capture of the French King and Queen as they attempted to flee. governments could no longer deny that the revolutionary forces in France had ill intent towards the king and queen. On April 20. led by Lafayette. both countries were ready to invade France. the leaders of the revolution were shocked and disturbed. The war intensified the unrest felt by the peasants and non-landowners who felt that not enough was being done to distribute land and lower prices on basic goods. Leopold met with the King of Prussia at Pillnitz in Saxony. stating that if harm befell the king or queen of France. They issued a proclamation on July 25 to the French people. and resisted the cries of the Emigres. and by summer 1792. This caused more agitation . The assignats was now the main paper currency. 1792. However. the war went unfavorably for the French at first. and uncertainty meant that it lost value quickly. as well as Watts.

110 people that were counterrevolutionaries. they killed much of the resisting Swiss guard and imprisoned the king and royal family. Mobs of insurrectionary volunteers dragged about 1. A revolutionary government. This was the “Second” French Revolution. the working class quarters rose up in revolt and stormed the Paris palace of Tulieres. . known as the September massacres. was set up in Paris that usurped the power of the assembly. like refractory priests from the prisons and killed them drumhead trials brutally. Hysteria. anarchy and terror reigned in Paris.    On August 10. or commune. There. 1792.