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Teacher focuses on

the students needs,


interests, strengthens
and weaknesses

Teacher makes
use resources
that can be
access and it
will save
teachers and
school budget

Teachers personal
touch will motivate
and engage the
students with the
lesson

Individual
needs
Resources
available

Teacher
design
materials for
a specific
group of

students

Personalizat
ion

Organisatio
n

ADVANTAGES

Contextualizati
on

Time

Manageable in designing
and producing the
materials, sharing them with
other teachers
Aware of the restrictions that
copyright laws place on the
copying of authentic materials,
published materials and materials
downloaded from internet

The materials could


be incoherent and
lacking a unifying
theme

Errors, lack durability,


and unclear

DISADVANTAGES

DESIGNING
EFFECTIVE
ELT
MATERIALS

Time

Learners
FACTORS TO CONSIDER
WHEN DESIGNING
MATERIALS

Time constrain in
designing and
organizing the
materials

Students needs,
interests, motivation,
specific individual needs
and their purposes of
learning

Curriculum
and context

Copyright
compliances

Determine teachers willingness


to embark on materials
development: e.g replace or
adapt the materials, add or
leave out activitie s etc

Quality

Personal
confidence
and
competence

Resouces
and
facilities

Suitable to the goals


and objective in a
curriculum

Be realistic in order to
think about the resources
available in the context
of teaching.

The materials should be


flexible in terms of content
and should offer a wide
range of possibilities from
which students can choose

Language should be used for


real and purposeful
communication

CONTEXTUALIZATION
STIMULATE INTERACTION

Help students to
learn how to learn
both inside and
outside
the
classroom,
fostering
their
aotonomy
and
self assessment

DEVELOPING LEARNING SKILLS

FLEXIBLE
INSTRUCTIONS

Instructions
should be clear,
simple, short, to
the point and one
at the time

Curriculum
Students experiences,
realities and first
languages
Topics and themes

GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNING EFFECTIVE ELT MATERIALS


ATTRACTIVE

FORM AND FUNCTION

LINK TO EACH OTHER


AUTHENTIC

All the tasks and activities


designed should be interrelated
and organised following a
specific patternems. in oeder
to develop a progression of
skills, understandings and
language items

INTEGRATING

Should be
attractive as
regards physical
appearance, userfriendliness,
durability and
ability to
reproduced

Authentic in terms of the


texts presented (written,
spoken and visual) and also
the tasks they should carry
out

Offer opportunities
to integrate the four
skills: listening,
speaking, reading
and writing

Form and
function are
intrinsically
interrelated.
Hence one
cannot be
separated from
the other

Rogers (1988) : appropriate and


quality in terms of goals,
objectives, learner needs and
interest and natural in terms of real
life and meaningful
communication

Harmer (1991) : materials


which are designed for native
speakers; they are real text;
designed not for language
students, but for speakers of
the language.

Often contain difficult


language, unneeded
vocabulary items
Contain complex
language structures

Jordan (1997) : texts


that are not written
for language
teaching purposes

DEFINITIONS

DISADVANTAGES

Have positive effect on


learner motivation

ADVANTAGES

Provide authentic
cultural
information

AUTHENTIC
MATERIALS

Burden for the teachers


in lower-level classes

support a more
creative approach
to teaching

Too culturally biassed


and mixed structures
Can cause the lower-levels
have hard time decoding
the texts
Encourage
students to read
for pleasure
Using audiovisual
materials

Guariento & Morley (2001):


authentic materials is
significant since it increases
students motivation for
learning, makes the learner be
exposed to the real language.

Use popular
and
traditional
songs

WHEN TO USE?

OVERCOME
DIFFICULTIES

Chaves
(1998)

Within
students
ability

Introduce
materials
from
students
own
subject
area

They need
pedagogical
support

Starts since
learners
interact with
the real
language
and its use

Provide exposure
to real language

Relate more closely to


learners needs

Postintermediate
level
(Gueriento
&Morley)

Master a wide
range of
vocabulary

Master all of
the structures
in target
language

SELECTING AND
DEVELOPING
TEACHING/LEARNING
MATERIALS