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LTE Self Learned Notes Part 1

PCI : Physical Cell ID


As the terminology implies, Physical Cell ID is an indentification of a cell at physical
layer. It has similar role as Primary Scrambling Code of UMTS cell.
This physical cell ID is determined by Primary Sync Signal (PSS) and Secondary Sync
Signal (SSS) as described below :

RSRP : Reference Signal Received Power


RSRP is the short form of Reference Signal Received Power and it is equivalent to
UMTS CPICH Received Signal Code Power (RSCP)
SINR : Signal Interference Noise Ratio
SINR define as below :

RF Conditions of LTE (Quick view)

MIMO : Multiple Input Multiple Output


Consist based on several TM (Transmission Modes), as can be seen below :

LTE
Transmission
MIMO Scheme
mode
Mode-1
single antenna transmission
Mode-2
transmit diversity
Mode-3
open loop codebook based pre-coding
Mode-4
closed loop codebook based pre-coding
Mode-5
multiuser MIMO version of transmission mode-4
single layer special case of closed loop codebook
Mode-6
based pre-coding
release 8 non codebook based pre-coding
Mode-7
supporting only single layer, based on
beamforming
release 9 non codebook based pre-coding
Mode-8
supporting upto 2 layers.
release 10 non codebook based pre-coding
Mode-9
supporting upto 8 layers
MME : Mobility Management Entity
MME critical function as can be seen below :
-

Network Access Control: MME manages authentication and authorization


for the UE. It also facilitates UE access to the network to gain IP connectivity.
Radio Resource Management: MME works with the HSS and the RAN to
decide the appropriate radio resource management strategy (RRM) that can
be UE-specific.
Mobility Management: One of the most complex functions MME performs.
Providing seamless inter-working has multiple use cases such as Inter-eNB
and Inter-RAT, among others. The use cases become more complex

depending on a change in MME, S-GW, P-GW or inter-working across other


wireless networks.
Roaming Management: MME supports outbound and inbound roaming
subscribers from other LTE/EPC systems and legacy networks.
UE Reach-ability: MME manages communication with the UE and HSS to
provide UE reach-ability and activity-related information.
Tracking Area Management: Allocates and reallocates a tracking area
identity list to the UE.
Lawful Intercept: Since MME manages the control plane of the network,
MME can provide the whereabouts of a UE to a law enforcement monitoring
facility.
Load Balancing Between S-GWs: Directs UEs entering an S-GW pool area
to an appropriate S-GW. This achieves load balancing between S-GWs.

MME location in LTE network architecture as can be seen below :

ANR : Automatic Neighbour Relation

The ANR function resides in the eNB and manages the conceptual Neighbour
Relation Table (NRT). Located within ANR, the Neighbour Detection Function finds
new neighbours and adds them to the NRT. ANR also contains the Neighbour
Removal Function which removes outdated NRs. The Neighbour Detection Function
and the Neighbour Removal Function are implementation specific.
An existing Neighbour cell Relation (NR) from a source cell to a target cell means
that eNB controlling the source cell knows the ECGI/CGI and Physical Cell Identifier
(PCI) of the target cell and has an entry in the NRT for the source cell identifying the
target cell.
For each cell that the eNB has, the eNB keeps a NRT. For each NR, the NRT contains
the Target Cell Identifier (TCI), which identifies the target cell. For E-UTRAN, the TCI
corresponds to the E-UTAN Cell Global Identifier (ECGI) and Physical Cell Identifier
(PCI) of the target cell.
The ANR function relies on cells broadcasting their identity on global level, E-UTRAN
Cell Global Identifier (ECGI) and allows O&M to manage the NRT. O&M can add and
delete NRs. It can also change the attributes of the NRT. The O&M system is
informed about changes in the NRT.
Intra-LTE/frequency ANR:
The eNB serving cell with ANR function, instructs each UE to perform measurements
on neighbor cells, as a part of the normal call procedure. The eNB may use different
policies for instructing the UE to do measurements, and when to report them to the
eNB.

When UE discovers new cells ECGI, the UE reports the detected ECGI to the
serving cell eNB. In addition the UE reports the tracking area code and all PLMN IDs
that have been detected. The eNB adds this neighbour relation to NRT.

Inter-RAT/Inter-frequency ANR:
The eNB serving cell with ANR function can instruct a UE to perform measurements
and detect cells on other RATs/frequencies .during connected mode. The eNB may
use different policies for instructing the UE to do measurements, and when to report
them to the eNB.
The UE reports the PCI of the detected cells in the target RATs/frequencies. When
the eNB receives UE reports containing PCIs of cell(s), eNB may instruct the UE to
read the CGI and the RAC of the detected neighbour cell in case of GERAN detected
cells and CGI, LAC and, RAC in case of UTRAN detected cells. For the Interfrequency
case, the eNB may instruct the UE to read the ECGI, TAC and all available PLMN
ID(s) of the inter-frequency detected cell.
The eNB updates its inter-RAT/inter-frequency Neighbour Relation Table after
receiving relevant info from UE.