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National Achievement Test Reviewer

ENGLISH 6
Sentence states a complete thought or idea and contains a subject and predicate.
Example:
She is singing.
The boy is playing with his friends.
1. Simple Sentence express only one main idea.
SUBJECT
Norman
She
My cousin and my classmate
Ellen

PREDICATE
sings.
will go to Cebu.
are friends.
reads stories and write poems.

2. Compound Sentence contain two or more complete ideas. For, and, nor, but, or, yet, so
INDEPENDENT CLAUSE
COORDINATOR
INDEPENDENT CLAUSE
Daphne watched a movie alone, for
Leonore was busy.
Lynn cooked pasta,
and
Trisha prepared salad.
3.
The teacher arrived early,
but
The pupils came late.
I was hungry
so
I ate a lot.
Complex Sentence contain an independent clause with one main idea and one or more dependent
clause. Because, after, when, wherever, until, whereas,since, although, as, though,
while, before, even though, if, unless, whenever.
INDEPENDENT CLAUSE
Barry frequently calls
Elvin watched TV
Josie arrived
INDEPENDENT CLAUSE
Becausehe wants to stay in touch,
After he finished gardening,
Whenhe left,

DEPENDENT CLAUSE
because he wants to stay in touch.
after he finished gardening.
when he left.
DEPENDENT CLAUSE
Barry frequently calls.
Elvin watched TV.
Josie arrived.

The Four (4) Functions of a Sentence


1. Declarative Sentence states an idea and ends in a period.
Example:
1. Hot-air balloons are flown mainly for recreation.
2. Interrogative Sentence asks a question and ends in a question mark (?).
Example:
1. Have you ever flown in a hot-air balloon?
3. Imperative Sentence gives an order or a direction and ends with either a period or an exclamation mark.
Example:
1. Follow the directions carefully.
2. Wait for me!
4. Exclamatory Sentence conveys strong emotion and ends with an exclamatory mark (!).
Example:
1. I have been waiting for the opportunity all my life!

The Eight (8) parts of Speech

1. NOUN is a word that names a person, place, thing, or idea.


A. Concrete and Abstract Nouns
1. Concrete Nouns nouns that name people, places, or things that can be seen or recognized
through any of the five senses.
2. Abstract Nouns nouns that name other things such as ideas, actions, conditions, and qualities.
B. Collective Nouns
- used to name groups of people or things.
community army team flock
class

family club
committee

C. Compound Nouns
- is a noun that is made up of more than one word.
TYPES OF COMPOUND NOUNS
Seperated
Hyphenated
Combined
fire engine
rock-and-roll
toothbrush
soap opera
jack-of-all-trades
dishwasher
D. Common and Proper Nouns
1. Common Noun names any one of a class of people, places, or things.
2. Proper Noun names a specific person, place, or thing.
COMMON NOUNS
novelist
continent
city
planet

PROPER NOUNS
William Shakespeare
Africa
Paris, Berlin
Venus

2. PRONOUNS are words that act as stand-ins for nouns or for words that take the place of nouns.
Examples:
1. Erika wrote a letter for her sister.
2. Josh helped his grandfather water the plants.
A. Personal Pronouns refer to (1) the person speaking, (2) the person spoken to, or (3) the person, place,
or thing spoken about.

First person
Second person
Third person

PERSONAL PRONOUNS
Singular
I, me, my, mine
you, your, yours
he, him, his, she, her, hers, it, its

Plural
we, us, our, ours
you, your, yours
they, them, their, theirs

FIRST PERSON: My name is not George.


SECOND PERSON: When you left for the camp, you forgot your raincoat.
THIRD PERSON: Dont judge a book by its cover.
B. Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns
1. Reflexiveends in self or selves and adds information to a sentence by pointing back to a
noun earlier in the sentence.
Examples:
1. Michael taught himself to play the guitar.

2. Gloria bought herself a new pair of jeans.


2. Intensive ends in self or selves and simply adds emphasis to a noun or pronoun in the same
sentence.
Example:
1. The President himself attended the gala opening.
2. We sliced the cable ourselves.
REFLEXIVE AND INTENSIVE PRONOUNS
Singular
Plural
First person
myself
ourselves
Second person
yourself
yourselves
Third person
himself, herself, itself
themselves

C. Demonstrative, Relative, and Interrogative Pronouns


1. Demonstrative Pronouns direct attention to specific people, places, or things.
DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS
Singular
Plural
this, that
these, those
Examples:
1. That is the ranch I would like to own.
2. I hope to visit France and Rome. Those are my first choices.
2. Relative Pronounbegins a subordinate clause and connects it to the rest of the sentence.
RELATIVE PRONOUNS
thatwhich who whom whose
Example:
1. He found the cattle that he had lost.
2.Carl, whom we all admire, rides well.
3. Interrogative Pronoun is used to begin a question.
INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS
what which who whom whose
Example:
1. What did you say?
2. Which of the answers is best?
3. With whom did you wish to speak?
D. Indefinite Pronoun
- refer to the people, places, or things, often without specifying which ones.

Singular

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS
Plural

Singular or Plural

another
anybody
anyone
anything
each
either
everybody
everyone
everything
little

much
neither
nobody
no one
nothing
one
other
somebody
someone
something

both
few
many
others
several

all
any
more
most
none
some

Examples:
SPECIFIC ANTECEDENT:

Several of the guests were late.

NO SPECIFIC ANTECEDENTS: Everyone ate everything offered.


PRONOUN:

Few are as famous as the Cleveland Orchestra.

ADJECTIVE:

Few orchestras are as famous as this one.

3. VERB- is a word that expresses time while showing an action, a condition, or the fact that something eists.
1. Action verb is a verb that tells what action someone or something is performing, has performed,
Or will perform.
Examples:
1. Hank painted the toolshed.
2. The horse waited patiently.
2. Transitive verb takes an object.
Example:
1. Robert polished his saddle.
Polished what? (saddle)
3. Intransitive verb does not direct its action to an object.
Example:
1. Linda waited for the wagon.
Waited what? (no answer)
4. Linking verb does not express action but links the subject of the sentence to a word in the
predicate.
LINKING VERBS
am are is was were appear feel look seem sound
become grow remain smell stay turn taste

Examples:
1. Sam Houston was a president of texas from 1841 to 1844.
2. The feverish calf is miserable and scared.

Present
Past
Future
Present Perfect
Past Perfect
Future Perfect
Present Progressive
Past Progressive

THE TENSES OF THE VERBS


Existing or happening now
She writes about U.S. currency for a living.
Existing or happening in the past She wrote an article about coin collecting last year.
Existing or happening in the
She will write a book about old coins next year.
future
Existing or happening sometime
She has written for the best magazines.
before now
Existing or happening before a
She had written her forst article by the time she was
specific time in the past
eighteen.
Existing or happening in the
She will have written two books by July.
future
She is writing a newsletter about rare coins now.
She was writing her weekly column.

Future Progressive

She will be writing a new book soon.