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MMSR DISTRITO CAPITAL SEPTEMBER 19, 2015. LECTURE NOTES AND SUMMARY

SYNTAX CLAUSE STRUCTURE TYPES

1. Remember that a SENTENCE must have at least ONE CLAUSE, which is considered as an

INDEPENDENT CLAUSE. In this case, we refer to a SIMPLE SENTENCE.

When a SENTENCE has TWO OR MORE CLAUSES, one of the CLAUSES must be INDEPENDENT, but the second or the others can be either INDEPENDENT or SUBORDINATED. In the first case, we are referring to COMPOUND SENTENCES; in the second case, we refer to COMPLEX SENTENCES.

TO SUM UP:

Simple Sentence = ONE INDEPENDENT CLAUSE

Compound Sentence = ONE INDEPENDENT CLAUSE + ONE OR MORE INDEPENDENT CLAUSES

Complex Sentence = ONE INDEPENDENT CLAUSE + ONE OR MORE SUBORDINATED CLAUSES

2. In my description of the CLAUSE STRUCTURE TYPES, according to the bibliography consulted, I

have NOT considered the function of MODIFIERS (MOD) in the clauses, because these are adverbial elements that are OPTIONAL; in other words, they are not essential to understand the

meaning of the clause.

So, in my description I am considering the following functions:

SUBJECT (S)

VERB (V)

OBJECT (O) either Direct (DO), or Indirect (IO)

COMPLEMENT (C) either subject complement (C s ) or object complement (C o )

ADVERBIAL (A) a mandatory, essential or obligatory element in the sentence

I am now going to present the seven clause structure types we analyzed in class:

Type SV: Subject + Verb

Intransitive verb

, followed by NO obligatory element.

Someone

was laughing.

 
 

Prices

rose.
rose.

Type SVO: Subject + Verb + Object Monotransitive verb that requires and takes ONE object, the

Direct Object, DO

.

My mother enjoys

parties.
parties.

Elizabeth enjoys

classical music

.

MMSR DISTRITO CAPITAL SEPTEMBER 19, 2015. LECTURE NOTES AND SUMMARY

Type SVOO: Subject + Verb + Object +Object Ditransitive verb that requires and takes TWO

Mary gave

We wish

objects, the

Indirect Object, IO

, and the

Object, DO.

 
the visitor a glass of milk. you a Merry Christmas .
the visitor
a glass of milk.
you
a Merry Christmas
.
Direct
Direct

Type SVOC: Subject + Verb + Object + Complement Complex transitive verb that requires an

Object,

DO
DO

, and a

subject complement (C s )

Most people consider

these books rather expensive .
these books
rather expensive
.

The president declared

the meeting open .
the meeting
open
.

Type SVOA: Subject + Verb + Object + Adverbial Complex transitive verb that requires an

You must put

object, DO , and all your toys upstairs.
object,
DO
, and
all your toys
upstairs.

an obligatory Adverbial (A)

The doorman showed

the guests
the guests

into the drawing room

.

Type SVC: Subject + Verb + Complement copular or linking verb, followed by a subject Complement (C s )

Your face seems familiar. The country became totally independent.

Type SVA: Subject + Verb + Adverbial copular or linking verb, followed by

Adverbial (A) I have been in the garden. My sister lives next door.
Adverbial (A)
I have been
in the garden.
My sister lives
next door.

an obligatory

MMSR DISTRITO CAPITAL SEPTEMBER 19, 2015. LECTURE NOTES AND SUMMARY

3. Indirect Objects (IO) and Prepositional Phrases (PP) in clauses type SVOO (ditransitive verbs)

SVOO clauses can be converted into SVOA clauses by the substitution of a PP following the DO for the IO preceding it:

SVOO

She sent Jim a card (Jim is the IO)

She left Anthony a gift. (Anthony is the IO)

SVOA

She sent a card to Jim. (to Jim is the PP) The Prepositional Phrase becomes and Adverbial (A)

She left a gift for Anthony (for Anthony is the PP) The Prepositional Phrase becomes and Adverbial (A)

An alternative analysis, by other experts in Syntax, declares that these prepositional phrases, as in to Jim and for Anthony, are prepositional objects, or simply, Indirect Objects (IO). Another alternative analysis states that such prepositional phrases should be considered as OBLIQUE COMPLEMENTS.

phrases should be considered as OBLIQUE COMPLEMENTS. SENTENCES FOR ANALYSIS: 1. The woman that I met

SENTENCES FOR ANALYSIS:

1. The woman that I met yesterday has written and interesting book.

Analysis by categories: [The woman] NP [that I met yesterday] NC [ [has written] V [an interesting book] NP ] VP The element that I met yesterday is NOT a phrase but a clause that describes or gives specific information about the preceding noun phrase. Analysis by functions: [The woman that I met yesterday] SUBJECT [has written] VERB [an interesting

book.] DIRECT OBJECT

This sentence is Type SVO, and the verb is Monotransitive.

2. A very frightened young girl nearly escaped from the hungry wolf.

3. Johnny was playing tennis when he slipped and broke his arm.

4. The next plane to arrive is from Lima.

5. That abandoned factory near the river belongs to my uncle Fred.

6. Ill see you at home when I get there.

7. She suddenly ran away.