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Chapter 10 Air Standard Power Cycles: Gas Turbines

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Sheet 10: Problems 10.2, 10.3, 10.4 and 10.5.

PROBLEMS
10.1 The pressure ratio across the compressor of an air-standard
Brayton cycle is 4 to 1. The pressure of the air entering the
o
compressor is 100 kPa and the temperature is 15 C. The
o
maximum temperature in the cycle is 850 C. The rate of air flow
is 10 kg/s. Assuming constant specific heat, determine the
compressor power, turbine power, and thermal efficiency of the
cycle.
10.2 A stationary gas-turbine power plant operates on the Brayton
cycle and delivers 20000 kW to an electric generator. The
maximum temperature in the cycle is 1200 K and the minimum
temperature is 290 K. The minimum and maximum pressures are
95 kPa and 380 kPa, respectively.
(a) What is the power output of the turbine?
(b) What fraction of the power output of the turbine is used to
drive the compressor?
(c) What is the mass flow rate of air through the compressor?
10.3 Air enters a gas turbine unit with reheat at 1 bar and 27 oC. The
cycle consists of compressor, combustion chamber and two
turbines. The air leaves the compressor at 12 bar and is then
heated to a maximum temperature of 1000 oC in the combustion
chamber before entering the first turbine. After leaving the first
turbine the air is reheated to a temperature of 700 oC. The first
turbine is used to drive the compressor. If the compressor and
turbine efficiencies are 87 % and 85 %, respectively, determine
the intermediate pressure and calculate the cycle thermal
efficiency. Calculate the mass flow rate if the power production
is 30 MW. (Assume air throughout the cycle with constant
specific heat)

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10.4 A gas turbine unit applies intercooling, reheating and


regenerative modifications. The power production is 40 MW.
The air enters the first compressor at 1 bar and 27 oC and the
maximum temperature in the cycle is 1100 oC. The pressure ratio
is 10 and the intermediate pressure is selected for perfect
intercooling and maximum power output. The reheat temperature
is 800 oC and the compressors and turbines are assumed
isentropic. If the heat exchanger effectiveness is 0.88, calculate
the cycle thermal efficiency and mass flow rate. Calculate the
exhaust gas temperature. (Assume air throughout the cycle with
constant specific heat)
10.5 A gas turbine unit follows a modified air standard Brayton cycle
with reheat, intercooling and regeneration. The cycle pressure
ratio is 10. The air enters the first compressor at 27oC and 1 bar
and enters the second compressor at 3 bar and 37oC. The air
enters the first turbine with temperature of 900 oC while it enters
the second turbine at 800 oC. The air expands in the first turbine
to a pressure of 3 bar and a temperature of 585 oC and expands in
the second turbine with an isentropic efficiency of 92 %. The air
leaving the second turbine passes through a heat exchanger
located after the second compressor. If the heat exchanger
effectiveness is 0.9, calculate:
1. The heat added in both heaters
2. The first turbine isentropic efficiency
3. Net work
4. Cycle thermal efficiency
5. The air temperature leaving the heat exchanger
6. Air flow rate for a net power output of 50 MW.
Sketch the cycle on T-s diagram.
10.6 In a gas turbine cycle intercooling and regeneration are involved
to produce a cycle thermal efficiency of 57.7 %. The air enters the
first compressor at 27 oC and 1 bar and compressed with an
isentropic efficiency of 85 %. The intercooling between
compressors is perfect with minimum work input. The air is
compressed in the second compressor with an isentropic

Chapter 10 Air Standard Power Cycles: Gas Turbines

355

efficiency of 80 % to a pressure of 8 bar. The air enters a


regenerator followed by a heater before entering the turbine. If the
hot air leaves the regenerator to atmosphere at temperature 200 oC
and the regenerator effectiveness is 88 %, calculate:
1. Temperature of air entering the turbine
2. Heat added in the heater
3. Turbine efficiency
4. Net work
5. Compressors work
Sketch the cycle on T-s diagram.
10.7 In a gas turbine unit with reheat and regenerative the air enters
the compressor at 1 bar and 300 K and leaves at 10 bar. The
compressor is assumed isentropic. The air enters the first turbine
at 900 oC and expands to an intermediate pressure of 3.464 bar.
The first turbine is used to drive the compressor. The air is then
reheated to a temperature of 900 oC before expansion in a second
turbine with an efficiency of 92 % to an atmospheric pressure (1
bar). The air leaving the second turbine is used in a heat
exchanger (regenerative) after the compressor to heat the air. The
heat exchanger effectiveness is 0.9. Sketch the cycle on T-s
diagram and then calculate:
1. Cycle efficiency
2. The first turbine efficiency
3. The exit air temperature from the heat exchanger to the
surrounding
4. The exit air temperature from the heat exchanger to the
combustion chamber
10.8 In a gas turbine unit with reheat and intercooling the air enters
the first compressor at 1 bar and 300 K. Intercooling is considered
perfect with minimum work. The maximum pressure is 9 bar.
Both compressors isentropic efficiency is 85 %. The air enters the
first turbine at 800 oC. The first turbine is used to drive both
compressors. The air is then reheated to a temperature of 800 oC

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LECTURE NOTES ON THERMODYNAMICS

before expansion in a second turbine with an isentropic efficiency


of 92 % to an atmospheric pressure (1 bar). Sketch the cycle on Ts diagram and then calculate:
1. Cycle efficiency
2. The first turbine efficiency
3. The air flow rate if the net cycle power is 100 MW
10.9 In a 100 MW gas turbine unit with reheat and regenerative cycle
the air enters the compressor at 1 bar and 300 K and then
compressed to 10 bar with an isentropic efficiency of 88 %. After
compression the air enters a heat exchanger followed by a heater.
Then the air enters a turbine at 1000 oC and leaves at a pressure of
3.5 bar. This turbine is used to drive the compressor. The air is
then reheated to a temperature of 900 oC before expansion in a
second turbine to a temperature of 575 oC and 1 bar. The air then
entered the heat exchanger to heat the compressed air after the
compressor and the final air temperature at the heat exchanger
exit is 387 oC. Sketch the cycle on T-s diagram and then
calculate:
1. Air flow rate
2. Cycle efficiency
3. The first and second turbines efficiencies
4. The heat exchanger effectiveness
10.10 In a 100 MW gas turbine unit with reheat and regenerative cycle
the air enters the compressor at 1 bar and 300 K and then
compressed to 10 bar with an isentropic efficiency of 88 %. After
compression the air enters a heat exchanger followed by a heater.
Then the air enters a turbine at 1000 oC and leaves at a pressure of
3.5 bar. This turbine is used to drive the compressor. The air is
then reheated to a temperature of 900 oC before expansion in a
second turbine to a temperature of 575 oC and 1 bar. The air then
entered the heat exchanger to heat the compressed air after the
compressor and the final air temperature at the heat exchanger
exit is 387 oC. Sketch the cycle on T-s diagram and then
calculate:

Chapter 10 Air Standard Power Cycles: Gas Turbines

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1. Air flow rate


2. Cycle efficiency
3. The first and second turbines efficiencies
4. The heat exchanger effectiveness
10.11 A gas turbine unit follows a modified air standard Brayton cycle
with reheat and intercooling. The cycle pressure ratio is 12
(between maximum and minimum cycle pressures). The air enters
the first compressor at 27 C and 1 bar and enters the second
compressor at 4 bar and 37 oC. Consider both compressors
isentropic. The air enters the first turbine with temperature of 927
oC while it enters the second turbine at 827 oC. The air expands in
the first turbine isentropically and expands in the second turbine
with an isentropic efficiency of 92 %. If the first turbine is used to
drive both compressors, calculate:
1. The intermediate pressure between the two turbines.
2. The heat added in both heaters
3. Net work
4. Cycle thermal efficiency
5. Air flow rate for a net power output of 70 MW.
Sketch the cycle on T-s diagram.