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# Part 3

CPM provided the project manager with the option of adding resources to selected
activities to reduce project completion time as earliest as possible. However, added
resources (such as more workers, overtime, and so on) generally increase project
costs, so the decision to reduce activity times must take into consideration the
additional cost involved. In effect, this construction manager must take a decision
that involves trading reduced activity time for additional project cost.

Because, current completion time within 270 days and only less 75% sure about to
completing. We can shorten selected activity times. This shortening of activity
times, which usually can be achieved by adding resources, is referred to as
crashing. So, we will want to identify the activities that cost the least to crash. Then
crash those activities only the amount necessary to meet desired project
completion time.
We could use linear programming to solve the network crashing problem. With CPM,
we know that when an activity start at its earliest start time. In this case, we may
have

## Finish time > Earliest start time + Activity time

Because we do not know ahead of time whether an activity will start at its earliest
start time, we use the following

## Finish time Earliest start time + Activity time

Consider activity A, which has expected time of 30 days. Let FA finish time for
activity, A, and CA amount of time activity A is crashed. If we assume that the
project begins at time 0, the earliest start time for activity A is 0. Because the time
for activity A is reduced by the amount of time that activity A is crashed, the finish
time for activity A must satisfy the relationship

FA 0 + (30 CA)

FA +CA 30

## Ci = amount of crash time used for activity i

Fi = earliest finish time for activity i
If we follow the same approach that we used for activity A, the constraint
corresponding to the finish time for activity C is

FC + CC - FA 65

As you notice, 2 final activity lead directly to the Finish node of a project network,
We suggest creating an additional variable, FIN, which indicates the finish or
completion time for the entire project. The fact that the project cannot be finished
until both activities L and F are completed can be modeled by the two constraints

FIN FF
FIN FL
Moving to the left,
FIN - FF 0
FIN - FL 0
The constraint that the project must be finished by time T can be added as FIN T.
In this case, the manager has proposed T equal to 240 and 250.
As with all linear programming, we add the usual non-negativity requirements for
the decision variables.

The total project cost for normal completion time is fixed. We can minimize the total
project cost by minimizing the total crashing costs. Thus, the linear programming
objective function becomes

## Min 1500 CA + 3500 CB + 4000 CC + 1900 CD + 9500 CE + 0 CF + 2500 CG +

2000 CH + 2000 CI + 6000 CJ + 0 CK + 4500 CL
Thus, to determine the optimal crashing for each of the activities, we must solve
along with the constraints below.
Constraints
FA+CA

RHS
30

FB+CB-FA
FC+CC-FA
FD+CD-FC
FE+CE-FB
FF+CF-FE
FG+CG-FE
FG+CG-FD
FH+CH-FG
FI+CI-FH
FJ+CJ-FH
FK+CK-FJ
FL+CL-FI
FL+CL-FK
FIN-FF
FIN-FL
FIN
CA
CB
CC
CD
CE
CF
CG
CH
CI
CJ
CK
CL

60
65
55
30
1
30
30
20
30
10
1
30
30
0
0
240
10
40
15
25
5
0
5
10
10
2
0
10

The linear programming solution from Excel Solver provides the optimal solution for
finishing time within 240 days of crashing activity by crashing activity A by 10 days
and activity D by 10 days. In this case study, Hill construction would have to shorten
Bonding, insurance, tax structuring by 10 days. Besides that, getting more
resources to shorten activity D, which upgrading walkways, stairwells and elevators
by 10 days. The minimum crashing cost of completion within 240 days is \$34000.

Activit
y
A
B
C
D

Crash
Amount
Days
Crash cost
(\$)
20.00
10
1500
15000
60.00
0
3500
0
65.00
0
4000
0
45.00
10
1900
19000

E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L

30.00
1.00
30.00
20.00
30.00
10.00
1.00
30.00

0
9500
0
0
0
2500
0
2000
0
2000
0
6000
0
0
0
4500
Total crash
cost

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
34000

The linear programming solution from Excel Solver provides the optimal solution for
finishing time within 240 days of crashing activity by crashing activity A by 10 days.
With crashing cost of \$15000.

Activit
y
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L

Crash
Amou
Days
Crash cost
nt
20.00
10
1500 15000
60.00
0
3500
0
65.00
0
4000
0
55.00
0
1900
0
30.00
0
9500
0
1.00
0
0
0
30.00
0
2500
0
20.00
0
2000
0
30.00
0
2000
0
10.00
0
6000
0
1.00
0
0
0
30.00
0
4500
0
Total crash cost
15000