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Possible Causes

Introduction
-

Question about the attribution of cause and personal responsibility are


pervasive and critical issues in the field of EBD.
In common parlance, school authorities are to determine whether to conclude
that the student could have chosen to behave differently and that the
disability is no excuse.
In an era concern for individual responsibility and self-actualization, special
educators must weight carefully the evidence that individual students are
able to exercise self-control, as well as the evidence that they are victims of
circumstances and have little or no personal, moral responsibility for their
behavior.

BIOLOGY

A biological cause doesnt always lead to prescription for treatment.


Furthermore, because biological and environmental are interactive.
Sometimes, the best treatment is an alteration of the environment
arrangement of the social environment to ameliorate the effect the
biologically based disorder.
Example: Tourettes disorder.

Genetics

Temperament

Factors that
contribute to
the
developement
of disordered
emotions or
behavior

Brain Injury or
disfunction

1. Genetic
Genes linked to some specific diseases or vulnerabilities
The genetic transmission recognized is schizophrenia.
Malnurati :
o The symptoms of schizophrenia

on and
allergies

- delusions
- hallucinations
- disorganized speech
- thought disorder
The fact that a disorder has a genetic cause doesnt mean that
disorder is untreatable.
2. Brain Damage or Dysfunction
The brain can be traumatized in several different ways before, during,
or after birth.
It may contribute substantially to antisocial behavior.
Tissue damage from traumatic injury may cause dysfunction.

Hyperactivi
ty

EBD
impulsivity

Inattention

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) related to special education.


The terms of TBI :
o There is injury to the brain caused by an external force
o The injury isnt caused by a degenerative or congenital condition
o Theres a diminished or altered state of consciousness
cognition dysfunction results from the
speech
o Neurological or neurobehavioral
injury

language

memory

information processing

attention

reasoning
.

problem solving

TBI focuse on
impairments in one or
more areas that are
important for learning
such as :

The effects of TBI :


o Inappropriate manners or manner isms
o Failure to understand humor or read social situations
o Becoming easily tired, frustrated, or angered
o Unreasonable fear or anxiety
o Irritability
o Sudden, exaggerated mood swings
o Depression
o Perseveration
3. Malnutrition , Allergies and Other Health Issues
EBD is often caused by diet or allergies hasnt been supported by a
consistent body of research.
Teachers should be aware of possible dietary problems and allergies of
student.

4. Temperament :
A consistent behavioral style or predisposition to respond in certain ways
to ones environment
Skillful management by parents and teachers.
Nine categories of temperamental characteristics , Thomas, Chess, and
Birch (1968):

1. Activity level
2. Rhythmicity
3. Approach or
withdraw
4. Adaptability

how much the child moves about during activities


such as feeding, bathing, sleeping and playing.
the regularity or predictability with which the child
eats, sleeps, eliminates and so on.
how the child responds initially to new events such
as people, places, toys and foods.
how quickly the child becomes accustomed to or

5. Intensity
6. Threshold of
responsiveness
7. Quality of mood

8. Distractibility

9. Attention span
and persistence

modifies and initial reaction to new situations or


stimuli
The amount of energy expended in reacting
(positively or negatively) to situations or stimuli.
the amount or intensity of stimulation required to
elicit a response from the child.
the amount of pleasant, joyful, and friendly behavior
compared with unpleasant, crying, and unfriendly
behavior exhibited by the child.
the frequency with which extraneous or irrelevant
stimuli interfere with the ongoing behavior of the
child in a given situation.
the length of time a child will spend on a given
activity and the tendency to maintain an activity in
the face obstacles to performance.

FAMILY
Appeal of Family Factors as causal Explanations
-

Family characteristics appear to predict emotional and behavioral


development only in complex interaction with other factors, such as:
i.
economic status
ii.
support from somebody outside the family,
iii.
the childs age
iv.
sex
v.
temperament

The factors of increase childrens risk for developing EBD :


i.
features of family relationship
ii.
parental deviance and discord
iii.
harsh and unpredictable parental discipline
iv.
lack of emotional support

The structure and interaction patterns in families clearly influence childrens


success failure at school and, ultimately in life.