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KOC.EV.

003 EIA Procedure, Appendix-B: Guide to EIA Reporting

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GUIDE TO EIA REPORTING

Appendix B

Identification
and
Assessment
of
significant impacts, Identification of
mitigation and control needs, Input to
decision analysis.

Feasibility

(2)
Site selection,
Environmental screening,
EIA Scoping

Design & Engineering

(3)
Project Concept

(1)

Detailed
design of
mitigation
measures

Implementation

(4)
Monitoring &
Evaluation
Monitoring and
post-auditing,
lessons for future
projects

(5)

Health and Environment Team


HSE Group
December 2010

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Implementation of
mitigation &
monitoring measures
and environmental
strategy

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Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Guidelines


INTRODUCTION ABOUT EIA
EIA is an important part of project planning process used to help ensure that
environmental matters are taken into account early in the project planning process,
along with the more traditional technical and economic considerations. The EIA
process identifies, predicts, interprets and communicates information about impacts
of a proposed project on the biophysical environment (air, water, land, plants and
animals) as well as on the social and economic environment of the people to be
affected. It seeks ways to maximize the societal benefits of a project, and avoid or
reduce detrimental impacts. The study therefore requires a multi-disciplinary
approach. It should be done very early at the feasibility stage of a project. In other
words a project should be assessed for its environmental feasibility.
The EIA considers and compares various alternatives by which the project could be
realized and seeks to identify the one which represents the best combination of
economic and environmental costs and benefits. Alternatives include location as well
as design considerations, process technology and construction methods.
The EIA is based on past records, scientific methods and predictions. It attempts to
predict the changes in environmental quality which would result from the proposed
project/action. The EIA attempts to weigh environmental effects either beneficial or
adverse on a common basis with economic costs and benefits and finally it is a
decision-making tool. Any EIA study should examine the environmental
consequences, both beneficial and adverse, of a proposed development project and
to ensure that these effects are taken into account in project design. EIA should be
viewed as an integral part of the project planning process. The main advantages and
benefits of EIA are:
Reduced environmental damage (mitigation measures planned and implemented in

time to minimize adverse impacts on the environment)


Lower project costs in the long-term (fewer costly changes or add-ons at advanced

stages of the project; lower probability of environmental disasters, legal concerns


and/or environmental liabilities)
Increased project acceptance by the key stakeholders
Improved project design and siting
More informed and environmentally sensitive decision-making
Increased accountability and transparency during the development process
Improved integration of projects into their environmental and social setting

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This Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) guideline is provided to establish


minimum documentation requirements for all EIAs in compliance with HSE MS
Procedure on Environment Impact Assessment & Screening Checklist (KOC.EV.003).
This guideline includes a template for EIA Reports and describes EIA process. In
presenting a clear and comprehensive statement of the components which need to
be included in an EIA report, the guidelines will not only assist controlling teams and
EIA consultants prepare better quality EIA reports but will also ensure that sufficient
information is available for a proper assessment and for good decision making.
However these guidelines are by no means exhaustive or limited and are subject to
continuous updating in light of improvement in knowledge and understanding of
such development. The objectives of these guidelines are namely:-

To assist in the preparation of reports that are comprehensive in their content


To assist in review of the reports
To avoid time delays
To ensure environmental issues receive due consideration they deserve

EIA PROCESS
Once the decision is taken that an EIA is required, the study to be conducted usually
involves the following steps:
1. Preliminary activities including defining the scope of EIA or setting terms of
reference for the EIA, selecting consultant to conduct the EIA: Controlling Team
of the project or Controlling Team of EIA Consultancy Contract. If needed
Asset/Directorate/Corporate HSE assistance would be sought by Controlling
Team to set the Scope of EIA with the Consultant.
2. Conduct of EIA : Consultant
3. Consultant to submit the Draft Initial EIA Report to Controlling Team.
4. Controlling team to circulate the Draft Initial EIA Report to Concerned Asset/Dir
HSE Team and Corporate H&E Team (as needed) for review
5. Controlling team to compile the comments and forward to EIA Consultant
6. Consultant to incorporate the forwarded comments and submit a Revised Initial
EIA Report by the Consultant
7. Submit revised version of the Initial EIA report to KEPA by Controlling Team
8. The process shall be repeated for Final EIA Report
9. The steps (2-7) shall be repeated for Final EIA Report

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10. To obtain an Environmental Clearance from KEPA for the proposed project by
Controlling Team

It is the responsibility of the Consultant to resolve the comments of KOC teams to


their satisfaction. Only after the endorsement of the EIA report from the HSE teams
of KOC, the report shall be submitted to KEPA for Environment Clearance.
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (EIA) REPORT FORMAT
The EIA report should contain a brief introduction explaining the need for and
context of the project. This document should have the following content, unless
specified otherwise in the Terms of Reference:

Executive or Non Technical Summary


Description of the Proposed Project in detail
Policy, Legal and Administrative Framework
Environmental Baseline Survey
Identification and Analysis of Alternatives
Project environmental Impacts including Socio-economic (phase-wise &
cumulative)
Significant environmental impacts
Mitigation Action/Mitigation Management Plan
Mitigation measures proposed to avoid, reduce or compensate for project
impacts
Environmental Monitoring, Training and Management Program

An Environmental Impact Assessment report shall, at a minimum, include complete


information on the following topics:
Title Page: This should contain details of

The full Title under which the EIA has been prepared

Location of project

The project proponent name (KOC Controlling team)

Consultancy Firm Name & Address

Duration of the Study (EIA study award month to Report submission month)

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Index Page
S.No

1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.4.1
2.4.2
2.4.3
2.4.4
2.4.5
3
3.1
3.1.1
3.1.2

3.2
3.2.1
3.2.2
3.2.3
4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
5
5.1

Title
EXECUTIVE or NON TECHNICAL SUMMARY
Abbreviation List
Definitions
PROJECT DESCRIPTION
Background of Companys operations & facilities
Introduction & purpose of the project
Location of the proposed project (including maps and GIS
attributes)
Proposed Construction activities
Green Features of the Project
Project Implementation Schedule
OVERVIEW OF EIA
Terms of Reference of Project & EIA study (Salient Features)
Study Area
Objective of EIA
Approach and Methodology
Data collection
Modeling
Sampling and Analysis
Impacts Assessment Criteria
Estimations of Quantities (Waste, Emissions, effluent etc..)
REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
Relevant & Applicable Regulations in State of Kuwait (KEPA,
Ministry of Oil etc..)
EIA applicability, Preparation & Submission requirements
Applicable Environmental Standards for Noise, Heat Stress,
Occupational exposure to Chemical substances, Vibrations,
Solid and Hazardous Waste, Air emissions (ambient & point),
Effluent, Soil and Biodiversity.
KOC HSE MS Frame Work
HSE MS Policy, Vision & Mission
Salient features of EIA Procedure
Applicable HSE MS Procedures
ALTERNATIVE ANALYSIS & JUSTIFICATION FOR THE PROPOSED
SCHEME
Alternatives Considered
No Action Alternative
Alternatives Comparison (Comparative Matrix)
Preferred alternative (Justification)
PROJECT RESOURCE ESTIMATION
Manpower at various stages
Infrastructure in terms of Site office, Storage, Transportation,

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KOC.EV.003 EIA Procedure, Appendix-B: Guide to EIA Reporting

5.2
5.3
5.4
6
6.1
6.1.1
6.1.1.1
6.1.1.2
6.1.1.3
6.1.1.4
6.1.2
6.1.2.1
6.1.2.2
6.1.2.3
6.1.3
6.1.3.1
6.1.3.2
6.1.3.3
6.1.4
6.1.4.1
6.1.4.2
6.1.4.3
6.2
6.2.1
6.2.1.1
6.2.1.2
6.2.1.3
6.2.1.4
6.2.1.5
6.2.2
6.2.2.1
6.2.2.2
6.2.2.3
6.2.2.4
6.2.2.5
6.2.2.6
6.2.2.7
6.2.2.8
7
7.1
7.2
7.2.1
7.2.2

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Fire & Safety measures


Equipment (Mobile & Stationery)
Water & Energy requirements
Waste & Effluent Disposal facilities
ENVIRONMENTAL BASELINE SURVEY (Existing Environmental
Setting or Baseline Information including Historical Data)
Natural Environment
Terrestrial
Geomorphology
Soil
Geology
Seismology
Aquatic
Water Quality (Surface & Ground)
Sea Water
Hydrology
Atmospheric
Meteorology
Air
Noise
Biological
Animal/Plant
Habitat/Rare species
Aquatic life
Socio-Economic Environment
Human
History & Economic base
Demography and Population
Unique Features
Occupational health
Employment/Workforce
Infrastructure
Land use
Water
Transport
Electricity
Drainage/Flood Control
Agricultural activities
Industry/Tourism
Services
PROJECT IMPACTS (Preferred Alternative)
Positive Aspects of the Project
Activity Impacts on Natural Environment
Design & Engineering Phase
Construction phase

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7.2.3
7.2.4
7.2.5
7.3
7.3.1
7.3.2
7.4
7.5

7.6
8
8.1
8.1.1
8.1.2
8.1.3
8.1.4
8.1.5
9
10
10.1
10.2
10.3
11
12

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Commissioning phase
Operational phase
De-commissioning phase
Social/Cultural Impacts
Human Impacts (Employment, Economy, Unique features &
Occupational health)
Infrastructural Impacts (Land use, Water, Transport, Electricity,
Drainage, Agriculture etc..)
Cumulative Impacts (similar or dissimilar projects with
observed or predicted impacts)
Estimate the significance or magnitude of environmental
impacts with relevant criteria utilized to determine
significance
Quantification/Modeling/Prediction/Forecast of Significant
Impacts
ENVIRONMENT MONITORING PLAN
Activity monitoring in compliance with Environmental
Statutes and Regulations
Design & Engineering Phase
Construction phase
Commissioning phase
Operational phase
De-commissioning phase
CONCLUSIONS
APPENDICES
Lab Test Results
Photographs/Pictures/Flow Diagrams
Procedures/Forms/Survey/Drawings/Reports/Literature
REFERENCES
CONSULTING TEAM DETAILS (Brief Resumes Not Exceeding a
1 page per individual)

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EXECUTIVE or NON TECHNICAL SUMMARY


A non-technical summary not exceeding 10 pages must summarize all the data and
point out important environment impacts that may occur by the project, suggestion
for preventive and remedial measures and environmental monitoring system. The
related data presented must be precise and should be understood quickly. Language
used in EIA Executive Summary report must be precise and easily understandable.
The summary to consist of:

Type and size of the project, including associated activities


Project site with appropriated maps of the project site and surrounding area,
showing place and object which may be affected by the project
Showing main impact/pollution from the project, affecting bio-physical
environment and natural resource during its construction and operation
Socio-economic-cultural impacts
Mitigation measures to prevent or to reduce major impact to the environment
Monitoring program.
Conclusion

PROJECT DESCRIPTION
Describe project in a way that the project can be understood and visualized, thus
helping to understand the impact to the environment by the project. The report
must address following points.

Background of Companys Operations & Facilities


Introduction and Purpose of the project should include Type, size & capacity of
project and justification for the proposed project and reason.
Location of the Project: Description and reason for site selection followed by
Project site identification on a map and photographs of project site, adjacent
land uses and surrounding areas including any important environmental features
etc..
Detail information of process or activities of the project, raw material, energy &
infrastructure requirement, number of workers, and other detail associated with
the project construction and operating plan so that the operation of the project
should be clearly understood
Details of the green features incorporated in the project to highlight the
contribution to sustainable development.
Project implementation schedule depicting the key milestones completion time
frames

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OVERVIEW OF EIA
To outline the Scope of Project as wells of Scope of EIA study to understand the
Project activities & EIA preparation as per the Terms of Reference.
The study area should include all lands subject to direct disturbance from the Project
and associated infrastructure, including access and utility corridors and assess
impacts on bio-physical environment as well as socio-economic-cultural impacts. For
the Project Area, provide:
a map that identifies the locations of all proposed development activities; and
a map showing the area proposed to be disturbed in relation to existing
topographic features.
Study Areas for the EIA report include the Project Area and other areas based on
individual environmental components where an effect from the proposed
development can reasonably be expected.
The basic guiding principles & objectives of the EIA are to be listed
The approach to the EIA should consist of compilation of existing data, field survey
for collection of new data, sample collection & analysis, interpretation of data,
prediction of impacts through modeling, impacts assessment through acceptance
criteria and Theory, Equations and Formulas being used for quantity estimations.
The methodology should describe the justification for primary data collection,
monitoring protocols especially for sampling & analysis, modeling approval status,
brief QA/QC, Assessment Criteria features, Theory & Formulas acceptance.
EIA evaluation should follow the methodology given in KOCs HSE MS Procedure on
Environmental Aspects Identification and Assessment Procedure (KOC.EV.001). This
Evaluation will be carried out on a risk basis, taking into consideration both the
potential impact of the incident and its likelihood. Based on which, each aspect will
be assigned a significance ranking of High, Medium, or Low based on relative risk
with, but not limited to, following questions in mind. The following need to be
considered for the evaluation:
Will there be a large change in environmental conditions?
Will new features be out-of-scale with the existing environment?
Will the effect be unusual in the area or particularly complex?
Will the effect extend over a large area?
Will many people be affected?

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Will many receptors of other types (fauna and flora, businesses, facilities) be
affected?
Will valuable or scarce features or resources be affected?
Is there a risk that environmental standards will be breached?
Is there a risk that protected sites, areas, and features will be affected?
Is there a high probability of the effect occurring?
Will the effect continue for a long time?
Will the effect be permanent rather than temporary?
Will the impact be continuous rather than intermittent?
If it is intermittent will it be frequent rather than rare?
Will the impact be irreversible?
Will it be difficult to avoid, or reduce or repair or compensate for the effect?

Controlling Team acceptance should be sought if any other methodology other than
the described methodology in KOC.EV.001 is intended to be used.
REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
This section of the EIA Report should describe regulations and standards formulated
in the State of Kuwait that are relevant to the proposed project.
Discuss the EIA regulation from Kuwait Environment Public Authority followed by
applicable environmental standards for Noise, Heat Stress, Occupational exposure to
Chemical substances, Vibrations, Solid and Hazardous Waste, Air emissions (ambient
& point), Effluent, Soil and Biodiversity. Also to discuss other Kuwait Ministry
decrees pertain to EIA, influence on EIA outcome (e.g. land zoning, sensitive areas),
and Environment Management applicable to Oil & Gas Sector. Where applicable,
reference should be made to relevant international treaties, conventions, and/or
other agreements to which The State of Kuwait is a Signatory.
Companys procedures that play a role in the project should be explained in addition
to its policy, vision & mission. HSE MS procedures which are developed and
implemented throughout the organization address environmental, health, safety,
technical integrity and operational risks in accordance with appropriate
requirements and play a key role in mitigation of impacts.
In the absence of any regulatory framework In Kuwait or relevant Companys
procedure for any particular impact, Consultants may propose suitable regulatory
framework from developed countries or from best practices followed by
internationally reputed Oil Majors.
The report must mention the stipulations of HSE MS Procedure on EIA Procedure &
Screening Checklist (KOC.EV.003).
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ENVIRONMENTAL BASELINE SURVEY (EBS)


EBS is a description of the environmental setting i.e. record of conditions prior to
implementation of the proposed project. The description of the environmental
setting sets forth in detail the characteristics of the area in which the proposed
action would occur. The description should be of the study area, which is a defined
area within which all effects, impacts, features and potential compensation efforts
would occur from a proposed action. The report must show results of the
environmental study in its present state, its value to human life quality and natural
environment. This description should also provide baseline data with which
environmental impacts can be predicted, and against which the predicted impacts of
the proposed action can be compared. EBS is carried out to:

Identify environmental conditions which might influence project design decisions


(e.g., site layout, structural or operational characteristics);
Identify sensitive issues or areas requiring mitigation or compensation;
Provide input data to analytical models used for predicting effects;
Provide baseline data against which the results of future monitoring programs
can be compared.

The approach commonly adopted in treating this aspect of EIA is the subdivision of
the environmental setting into a logical and hierarchical set of categories.
Baseline environmental information is assembled through the collection and analysis
of existing data and/or by carrying out specific field studies. Where existing
information cannot adequately characterize the existing environment, a program of
field studies will generally be required to fill in the data gaps and/or provide more
timely or focused information. Site specific data requirements through primary
monitoring for air, noise and soil are given in Annexure I.
The field study planning process should set the spatial and temporal boundaries for
subsequent studies. The spatial boundary should define the study area within which
an effect is likely to be detectable. For new Gathering Center developments, natural
environment concerns, like produced water quality and underground injection, will
generally be limited to within the fenced areas of KOC, while socio-economic
concerns, like migration of workers and infrastructure impacts, may spill over
beyond the KOC boundaries into adjacent areas/ecosystems. It is important that the
full range of potential on-site and off-site effects be identified and assessed. The
temporal boundary may define whether an effect will occur daily, seasonally, or after
several years.

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EBS should report following environmental conditions given in Table below.

Elements

Description

1. Natural Environment
1.1 Terrestrial
Geomorphology Topography, Elevation, Unique physical feature e.g. island,
cliff, etc.
Soil
Profile of soil type and extent of each, sedimentation,
erosion physical and chemical characteristics
Geology
General description of geology of the site
Seismology
Seismicity, Type and quantity of resources, in the project
site and surrounding area
1.2 Aquatic
Water Quality
Water source, quantity, quality and flow rate. Local
(Surface &
monitoring data
Ground)
Sea water
Oceanographic characteristic, Water quality and current,
Water stratification
Hydrology
Quantity, Direction, Timings of Water flows, recharge
rates, sustainable safe yields
1.3 Atmospheric
Meteorology
Climatic characteristic (rainfall, intensity, temp.), Incidence
of inversions, fog and storms, Wind direction and Speed.
Air
Regional Air Quality and trends, data from local
monitoring, reported exceedance of standards
Noise
Existing sound levels by local monitoring and sources
1.4 Biological
Animal/plant
Species including wild life, number, distribution, Ecology,
Habitat and migration and records of endangered animal
species.

Habitat/Rare
species
Aquatic life

Spatial arrangement of vegetative community types,


vegetative species-abundance lists, records of endangered
plant species,
Species, number and its importance

Nature of aquatic habitats, Species abundance listing,


fisheries & importance
2. Socio-Economic Environment
2.1 Human
History &
Region history, Community structure, family structures,
Economic base
social well being, Economy dependence & growth.
Demography and
Information on population (composition, income,
Population
language, religion)

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Unique Features

Occupational
health
Employment/Work
force
2.2 Infrastructure
Land use
Water
Transport
Electricity
Drainage / Flood
control
Agriculture
activities
Industry/Tourism
Services

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Structures or sites that are of historical, cultural heritage,


archaeological, paleontological, or architectural
significance.
Occupational disease, work related accident health risk
Employment rate, Type of employment (Govt/Private),
Distribution of work force (Executive & Labor)
Existing land use & plans, Zoning
Sources, quantity, quality and adequacy
Roads, Harbors, Airport & Navigation
Sources, kind, type, adequacy
System and efficiency
Agriculture development/promotion, Agriculture,
Irrigation system
Type of industry, Tourism and their Development
Nature of status of services such as parks, gardens, police
and fire protection, hospitals and schools.

ALTERNATIVE ANALYSIS & JUSTIFICATION FOR THE PROPOSED SCHEME


Alternatives are different means of meeting the general purpose and need of a
proposed action, project or program. All the alternatives taken into account in
developing the project should be documented. The no-action alternative is the
option of not engaging in the proposed action or other action alternatives and
provides the baseline against which the impacts of action alternatives are compared.
The identification, description, evaluation and comparison of alternative ways to
meet the basis purpose and need of a proposed action are crucial to the objectivity
of EIA process. The thorough description of alternatives in an EIA process facilitates
their side-by-side comparison in terms of their technical, environmental and
economic risks and benefits. Even the legal & institutional constrains could be
compared. The alternatives analysis should discuss alternatives to a specific action,
such as, but not limited to, not proceeding with the action,, carrying out the action in
different location or facility, or implementing a non-structural solution. In a proposal
to identify a site for Gathering Center, for example, the alternative analysis might
identify several locations or sites on which the Gathering Center could be
constructed and operated. Certain types of projects might require discussing only
alternatives within an action such as using different materials or design or changing
the layout (orientation) slightly within the project boundaries. For example, projects
like coating application for pipeline shall require alternatives analysis to discuss on

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different materials within the project (action).


The alternatives considered should include the no-action alternative, the option of
not carrying out any of the action alternatives. The no-action alternative represents
an objective baseline against which other alternatives can be measured and may, in
the final analysis, be the alternative that is preferred.
If the option proposed is not the best one from an environmental perspective, then
due justification must be presented vis--vis the best option.

PROJECT IMPACTS
An environmental impact is defined as a reaction to a change in the environment as
a result of a project action. The "technical heart" of the EIA process involves the
prediction of changes over time in various environmental aspects as a result of a
proposed project. The prediction of the nature, extent, and magnitude of
environmental changes likely to result from a proposed project is aided by various
tools and techniques. However, the choice of the appropriate method for aspect
evaluation should be as outlined in the KOCs HSE MS procedure on Environmental
Aspects Identification and Assessment (KOC.EV.001). The key information in terms
of the project aspects identification, evaluation of identified aspects using Hazard
Severity Scoring criteria, Likelihood of Occurrence & to arrive at Significant
Environmental Aspects are given in KOC.EV.001 procedure.
Distinction is often made between permanent, temporary, direct and indirect
impacts and normally all types of effects are addressed in an EIA study. Aspect &
Impact identification is a critical step in an EIA. The process usually consists of
following stages.

Define Activities and/or Areas


Aspects Identification
List out impact for each identified Aspects: Impacts could be Human health, Land
Contamination, Ground Water Pollution, Visual Nuisance, Marine Pollution,
Fouling of birds & animals, Odor, Climate Change, Ozone Depletion etc..
Aspects evaluation: Evaluation will be carried out on a risk basis, taking into
consideration both the severity of the aspect and its likelihood occurrence. From
this, each aspect will be assigned a significance ranking of High, Medium, or Low
based on relative risk, as outlined in Environmental Aspect Relative Risk and
Significance Matrix given in the Procedure (KOC.EV.001).
Determination of Environmental Aspects Significance

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Environmental aspects with a relative risk of High or Medium will be designated


Significant Environmental Aspects. The significance ranking should be used as guide
to identify the mitigation measures required to address the risk presented by an
aspect. An aspect/impact with a significance rating of High will normally require a
mitigation program of action in order to reduce its significance. An aspect with
significance rating of Medium requires mitigation measure in the form of operation
control in order to maintain or lower this level of significance. Mitigation
actions/controls are not normally specified for aspects with a significance rating of
low. It is important to note that an aspect does not lose significance because the risk
has been reduced due to formulation of mitigation measures. It is the function of the
Process Owner to ensure that the controls remain effective to maintain an
acceptable level of risk.
Both positive and negative aspects/impacts resulting from the project should be
identified and assessed. Examples of negative impacts are potential pollutants
discharged that have an adverse effect on land or visual/odor nuisance etc,.. Positive
impacts include creation of jobs, decrease public health risks, upgrading of physical
infrastructure, training of workers and so on. Identification of key impacts can be
achieved by using one or all of the following methods:

Compile a list of important impacts from analysis of previous projects of a similar


nature in a similar environmental setting;
Use checklists, networks, matrices or map overlays to match sources of project
impact with potential receptors;
Use hypotheses of effects to map out linkages and potential impacts on the
environment

Broad impacts associated with oil & gas industry allied projects include deterioration
of:

Air quality
Water quality and use
Land use
Resource use (fuels and other resources)
Terrestrial ecosystems
Aquatic ecosystems
Social systems/Employment
Human health
Recreational

The level of severity for each of the above parameters will change with the type of
project utilized and location of the project. For most of the projects in Oil and Gas
industry, typical sources of environmental impacts include:
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Atmospheric emissions
Facility Construction
Water discharges
Land displacement
Waste production and management
Access roads, transportation and equipment
Energy consumption and supply

The cumulative effects of placing a facility in a given environment should also be


considered as part of effects prediction. It should look at any cumulative effects that
are likely to result from the project in combination with other projects or activities
that have been or will be carried out in the foreseeable future. Examples of
cumulative environmental effects include global warming caused by the build-up of
greenhouse gases in the upper atmosphere, and loss of biodiversity.
Environmental effects are often seen as isolated or separate from one another. In
reality, however, they interact over time and space. Therefore, to address
cumulative environmental effects requires analysis cumulatively, taking into
account of:
Time and geographic boundaries;
Interactions between the projects environmental effects;
Interactions between the projects environmental effects and those of other
Projects and activities
It is critical to consider environmental effects during project construction,
commissioning and operation for each project alternative. Focus should not be
limited to any one phase of the project and must consider each phase.
It is important that the temporal and spatial extent of effects be carefully considered
in predicting impacts. A project construction and operation can have local, regional
and global effects. For example, a new pipeline project meant to supply gas to a
nearby power generating station will have relatively short-term, localized impacts
during construction, while the operation of the power station can contribute to
global climate change.
Quantification/Estimation of Impacts: Having identified the key parameters requiring
assessment, a variety of analytical techniques can be used to predict potential
environmental impacts. Predict often follows an impact within a single
environmental parameters (e.g. toxic effluent) into its subsequent effects on many
other parameters (e.g. reduced water quality, adverse impacts on fisheries,
economic effects on fishing and resulting socio-cultural changes). A number of

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methods which are commonly used in estimating/quantifying environmental effects


include:

Mathematical calculations using approved equations & methods.


Pre-project estimations (e.g. Hydrotest water quantity);
Hypotheses testing (Trial and Error);
Mathematical modeling (e.g. air dispersion, hydrology and hydrodynamics, water
quality, groundwater quality, Erosion and sedimentation, biotic habitat, oil spills
and risk analysis)
Physical modeling (e.g. hydraulic models);
Computer simulation (useful in assessing visual impacts of a project);
Constraint mapping (useful for predicting impacts related to land or resource use
displacement, particularly siting and routing).

Sophistication of the prediction method should be properly matched with the scope
of the EIA. For example, a mathematical model of atmospheric dispersion should not
be used if only small amounts of relatively harmless pollutants are expected to be
emitted in projects like installation of new pipelines. All prediction techniques
involve some degree of uncertainty. It is important to recognize this uncertainty, and
state probabilities and margins of error involved in predicting the likely impact of a
proposed project.
At minimum, the report must provide the quantified figures data of waste
generation (Hazardous/Non-Hazardous), Wastewater and Air emissions.

MITIGATION
Once the impacts have been analyzed and their significance is determined, i.e.,
whether they are acceptable, require mitigation, or are unacceptable. Subsequently,
measures will be devised to mitigate anticipated environmental changes and
consequential impacts during project implementation and operation, or further
reduce the residual environmental changes inherent in the selected project design.
They normally include technical, social, and organizational measures to be
implemented as integral elements of the project.
Mitigation is the purposeful implementation of decisions or activities that are
designed to reduce the undesirable impacts of proposed action on the affected
environment. Mitigation is a general concept that could include: 1) avoiding impacts
altogether by not taking a particular action, 2) minimizing impacts by limiting the
magnitude of the action, 3) restoring or repairing particular features of the affected
environment, 4) reducing impacts over time e.g. by performing maintenance

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activities during the life of the action and 5) compensating for impacts by providing
additions to or substitutes for the environment affected by the action.
Note that these categories of the mitigation approaches are arranged in hierarchical
order of their desirability. In other words, it is more desirable to avoid impacts than
to have to restore the environment, or provide compensation for impacts.
Undesirable environmental impacts that are identified early in the EIA process can
be avoided or minimized by meaningful modifications in the design of the proposed
action.
For each potential adverse impact the plan for its mitigation at each stage of the
project should be documented. It is essential that these programs of mitigation be
adequately assessed and be fully documented. This is very important in the selection
of the preferred alternative. In the case of beneficial impacts it should be
demonstrated how these can be maximised.
The mitigation measures shall provide, inter alia, information on the following:

Technical and Operational Measures


o Waste reduction.
o Pollution control and treatment.
o Pollution containment.
o Mine spoil management.
o Runoff and erosion control.
o Noise and vibration reduction.
o Restriction of operations site.
Landscaping and Site Rehabilitation Measures
o Site Restoration
o Re-vegetation and tree planting
Identification of Applicable and Effective Measures to Prevent and/or Manage
Accidents Involving Hazardous Chemicals.
Preservation of Monuments and Sites of Cultural and Historic Significance.
Information and Training on Occupational Health and Worker Safety.

In a well-planned process, all reasonable means to avoid and minimize impacts are
incorporated into the alternatives during the analysis of alternatives and project
design. Compensation for the remaining impacts is the final stage of mitigation. A
significant reduction in impacts can be achieved by thoughtful use of the alternatives
analysis and mitigation options; it is through these means that the EIA process works
to prevent significant environmental impacts from occurring.

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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PLAN


This section should document how the environment will be monitored during the
implementation of the project during various phases. The monitoring programme
should clearly stipulate:

Institutional arrangements for carrying out the work


Parameters to be monitored
Locations of the monitoring
Methods to be employed
Standards or guidelines to be used
Evaluation of the results
Schedule and duration of monitoring
Format and frequency of reporting

Environmental monitoring program should include action or emergency plans so that


appropriate action can be taken in the event of adverse monitoring results or trends.
Also on the other hand, the location for monitoring should be selected based on
where the impacts would occur and the areas to be affected.
CONCLUSIONS
The EIA report should present the conclusions of the study including: (i) gains which
justify project implementation; (ii) explanation of how adverse effects could be
minimized or offset, and compensated to make these impacts acceptable; (iii)
explanation of use of any irreplaceable resources; and (iv) provisions for follow-up
surveillance and monitoring.

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Annexure I
Baseline Monitoring advice to generate Site Specific data
Description
Air Environment
Meteorological
Wind speed
Wind direction
Dry bulb temperature
Wet bulb temperature
Relative Humidity
Rainfall
Solar Radiation
Pollutants
Particulate Matter (PM10)
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)
Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)
Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S)
Ozone
Non Methane
Hydrocarbons (NMHC)
Methane (CH4)
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
Ammonia (NH3)
Chlorine
Lead
Noise Environment
SPL in dBA

Sampling
Location
Duration

Remarks

Minimum 2
sites
in the project
impact area

Minimum 5
days per
each
location

Site specific primary data is


essential

Minimum 2
sites
in the project
impact area

Minimum 5
days per
each
location

Site specific primary data is


essential

Minimum 2
sites
in the project
impact area

2 day (48
hours) per
each
location

Site specific primary data is


essential

Report Minimum, Average &


Maximum values

Report values hourly, 8 hourly


and daily as listed in Appendix
No. 17-2 : Standard of Air
Quality in Industry Areas of
KEPA Regulation (Decision No.
210/2001)

Report hourly average values.


Report as per the Noise
Standards of KEPA Regulation
(Decision No. 210/2001)

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Description

Sampling
Location
Depth

Page 21 of 21

Remarks

Soil
TPH

TPH-GRO (C6-C10)
TPH-DRO (C10-C25)
TPH-RRO (C25-C36)

Benzene

Acenaphthene
Anthracene
Benz[a]anthracene
Benzo[b]fluoranthene e
Benzo[k]fluoranthene
Benzo[a]pyrene
Chrysene
Dibenz[ah]anthracene
Fluoranthene
Fluorene
Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene
Naphthalene
Pyrene

BTEX
Tolune
Ethyl Benzene
Xylene
PAHs

Metals

Antimony
Arsenic

Barium
Baryllium
Boron
Cadmium
Total Chromium
Chromium (III)
Chromium (VI)
Cobalt
Copper
Lead
Mercury
Nickel
Selenium
Silver
Zinc

Rev. 21 Dec. 2010

Minimum 1
site
in the project
impact area

From
available
sources.

Site specific primary data is


essential

Compare the values with


Industrial, Residential and
Groundwater standards as
given in the KOC Standard
(KOC.EV.006)