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SOCIETY & CULTURE

Final Examination

1. What is your opinion on Marriage with Expiration in the


Philippines?
First of all, I do not agree in this statement. I think Marriage with
expiration in the Philippines is not suitable to implement here in the
Philippines for the reason that when talking of marriage of Filipinos it’s been
the practice that it has no limitation at all. So, before the couple will set for
a marriage, it takes time to decide surely if you want to be married.
Consequently, it is normally with full respect with the church and partly to
God Almighty. Lastly, may I say that there is no need to past a bill for that?
Also, it does not help our country to be more productive and progressive.
Article: The proposal of a women’s party list group to prescribe expiration
dates on marriage contracts has drawn mixed reactions from lawmakers,
with at least one senator saying the proposal is a good starting point for
discussing current social issues.“It’s a reflection of what is happening in our
society,” Sen. Alan Peter Cayetano said in the vernacular, apparently
referring to the growing clamor from women
for more rights and social freedoms.

Senate Minority Leader Aquilino “Nene” Pimentel, Jr. for his part said he
finds the idea floated by
the 1-Ako Babaeng Astig Aasenso (1-ABAA) as funny.

The group’s main advocacy is “to help women become economically


empowered by helping them
become entrepreneurs, giving them better employment, providing sources
of livelihood, access to
capital, and other ways to make women financially independent.”
“It’s the funniest thing I’ve heard in my life. Ibig sabihin trial lang ang
marriage? (Does it mean
marriage is just a trial?),” Pimentel said of the group’s novel proposal.

The issue of a marriage contract with expiration will certainly go against the
majority belief that
marriage is a sacred union, Pimentel added.

Aside from the Philippines being a predominantly Christian country,


Pimentel pointed out that the
Philippine Constitution also recognizes the family as the basic unit of
society.

“It will go against the Constitutional provision that family is the basic
foundation of society. Certainly
the proposal will also go against majority beliefs,” Pimentel said.

Even in a country which exercises democracy, women still experience


inequality, Cayetano said,
although he agreed with Pimentel’s view that the family is the basic unit of
society.

Cayetano, in an interview, said he sees the proposal as a good starting


point for discussing social
issues, but the senator said he doubts whether efforts to introduce such
measure in
Congresswould succeed since many lawmakers are still conservative.

“Kung divorce nga hindi mapag-usapan, iyon pa kaya,” Cayetano said.


The proponents said a 10-year expiration on marriages would give couples
the opportunity to review their relationship, and decide whether to continue
or not with the union.
Source: HANNAH L. TORREGOZA, mb.com.ph
Date Retrieved: March 15, 2010
Website: yahoo.com

2. Who is more responsible in educating the youth on sex


education, the school or the family? Why?
On my opinion, its better that the school is more responsible in
educating the youth on sex education. The reason behind is that
school is the educator of the youth in order to understand well what
sex education really is. There is a possible that there is a quick
learning and ideas that the youth will be in calculated with. There is
a greater impact of lessons that the youth would be gain. What
important is that the family and school are the most important in
order to help the youth to be more aware on sex education.

Article: Sexual Education in Schools

The contribution of inadequate information about sexuality and inhibited


attitudes to the development of sexual dysfunctions have been well described
in scientific literature.

Appropriate sex education might therefore have a major role in preventing


some sexual problems in adulthood.

Sex education can help to

• prevent the spread of sexual diseases,


• prevent unwanted pregnancies,
• by preventing unwanted pregnancies, prevent unnecessary abortions.
• learning to form responsible views on own sexual behaviour,
• encourage resistance to group pressure to engage in unwanted sexual
activities,
• understanding the difference between male and female views on
romantic relations,
• understanding that sex is part of the normal life of most adult people (at
least in some stage of their life), and not something which need to be
associated with feelings of shame and guilt.

While sexual education would ideally be provided by parents, many lack the
necessary knowledge themselves and are not at ease with sexuality.
Therefore this needs to be provided in schools. Such education would
probably be most effective if it was incorporated in a broad educational
programme concerning human relationships, including attention to personal
responsibility, and moral and religious aspects of sexuality.

This, we think, could help young people to have an better awareness about
sexuality and could help promote healthy and informed attitudes. Without sex
education, young people will learn about sex from porn movies, which give a
distorted view of sex and human relationships.

It is best to start sex education as early as possible, in simple ways, and then
learn more each year. In that way, the children will feel that this is just natural
common knowledge, things they have "always" known.

Website: Amazon.com

Date Retrieved: March 15, 2010

3. Would a single parent and their children be considered a


family? How?
For me, a single parent and their children will be considered a family for
the reason that there is existence of love and affection prevail. The single
parent may also support financially the children if the parent has a stable job.
Article: Single Parent Stories
March 2010 Issue

Laughter, squeals, the sound of little feet running around, and an occasional
cry all describe were we found our family for the March 2010 cover issue.
What better place than a local park to capture the pure innocence of a
“family” spending quality time together. Asia Jackson, Christopher Boyd, Jr.,
and Dorian Boyd, didn’t seem to mind that they were the object of attention
as the interview and photo session was being conducted because to them,
their object of attention was family time at the park.

Originally from Brundidge Alabama, Asia moved her family, inclusive of her
mother, to the Atlanta area nearly 3 years ago. According to Asia, “I and my
children’s father had different views and goals. I wanted more and he was
content with the way things were.” Research shows that young fathers often
feel inadequate as parents; therefore, they seek a desire to escape parental
responsibilities. Although there are fewer teen fathers than mothers, it is the
mere thought of having to provide financial, emotional, and social support
that overwhelms teenage or young adult fathers; ultimately forcing them to
flee.

Having been a single parent since 2005, Asia quickly identified Dorian, her
precocious 4 yr old as the family protector. Ironically, Christopher the 7 year
old, seems to be okay with allowing his younger brother to be the boss. When
asked about feeling alone, Asia stated “I do. It might sound crazy but I’ve
been single for 4 years now. I’m not saying that I’m looking for anyone
particular, but I am a working mother of two.” She also stated that although
she has sole custody of both boys, she does pray that one day she will get
married and have one more child. “Kids are a blessing and I love every minute
of being a mother.”

Website: yahoo.com
Date Retrieved: March 15, 2010

4. CONSEQUENCES OF PREMARITAL SEX

Adolescent sexuality and Child Bearing: Facts and figures

In January 2004, an expanded Partnership for Safe Motherhood and


Newborn Health was established with the aim of promoting the health of
women and newborns, especially the most vulnerable. Expanding the
scope of the global Safe Motherhood Initiative and building on the work of
the Safe Motherhood Inter-Agency Group, the Partnership aims to
strengthen maternal and newborn health efforts at the global, regional,
and national levels, in the context of equity, poverty reduction, and
human rights.

The Partnership is a result of a consultative process, initiated in 2002,


among a diverse group of international development agencies and
organizations to promote greater attention to, and resources for, safe
motherhood and newborn health.
Focusing on the areas of advocacy/information-sharing, technical
advancement, and country-level support and partnership, the Partnership
undertakes the following activities:

Implementing an advocacy/media strategy to refocus global attention to


improving the health of women and newborns in developing countries;

Stimulating national-level commitment to make safe


motherhood/newborn health a priority within national development plans
and aid requests;

Promoting effective interventions, including educating mothers about cord


blood banking, to improve the application of technical knowledge and
research findings.

Safe Motherhood

Every minute of every day, somewhere in the world and most often in a
developing country, a woman dies from complications related to
pregnancy or childbirth. That is 515,000 women, at a minimum, dying
every year. Nearly all maternal deaths (99 percent) occur in the
developing world--making maternal mortality the health statistic with the
largest disparity between developed and developing countries.

For every woman who dies, 30 to 50 women suffer injury, infection, or


disease. Pregnancy-related complications are among the leading causes
of death and disability for women age 15-49 in developing countries.

When a mother dies, children lose their primary caregiver, communities


are denied her paid and unpaid labor, and countries forego her
contributions to economic and social development. A woman's death is
more than a personal tragedy--it represents an enormous cost to her
nation, her community, and her family. Any social and economic
investment that has been made in her life is lost. Her family loses her
love, her nurturing, and her productivity inside and outside the home.

More than a decade of research has shown that small and affordable
measures can significantly reduce the health risks that women face when
they become pregnant. Most maternal deaths could be prevented if
women had access to appropriate health care during pregnancy,
childbirth, and immediately afterwards.

Safe motherhood means ensuring that all women receive the care they
need to be safe and healthy throughout pregnancy and childbirth.

Newborn Health and Survival

Each year, approximately 4 million newborn infants die during the first
month of life, and an additional 4 million are stillborn- most of these
deaths are due to infection, asphyxia and birth injuries, and complications
of premature birth. Low birth weight contributes to newborn death in
about 40-80% of cases. Nearly all of these newborn deaths occur in
developing countries, and most of these deaths can be prevented if good-
quality is available.

Newborn health and survival are closely linked to the health of the mother
before and during pregnancy, as well as during labour, childbirth, and the
postpartum period. Key interventions for improving newborn health
include: ensuring a skilled attendant at every birth; tetanus toxoid
immunization; and immediate and exclusive breastfeeding.

Pregnancy and Birth

"In a woman man is conceived, from a woman he is born, with a woman


he is betrothed and married, With a woman he contracts friendship. Why
denounce her, the one from who even kings are born? From a woman a
woman is born, none may exist without a woman." Guru Granth Sahib

'It is through woman that order is maintained. Then why call her inferior
from whom all great ones are born.

Planning ahead

• Pregnancy Planner & Ovulation Calendar

Pregnancy Calendar & Timeline

If you're pregnant then use the pregnancy calendar to plan the next 40
weeks of your pregnancy. See fetal growth, your prenatal appointments
with your doctor. All these on an easy to print calendar format.

• Life begins at conception and our destiny is pre-ordained


• Naming your Child, Search through Sikh Names and their Meanings

Fun Stuff

Amazing is the transition from birth, development into adulthood and the
ability to sustain and give birth to a new life. Incredible, isn't it? Read
about another mother's experience.

• Humor: What if men got pregnant!


• Pregnancy related books and Videos

Educational

• Maternal Mortality (click on the image on the right)


• Only one sixth of all pregnancies actually make it past the first eight
weeks
• Africa and Asia have the highest maternal-death rates

The Life Cycle

Union and Separation: Our destiny is pre-ordained with an element of


choice, implicated also by past and present karm. Shortly after
conception, the embryo forms. Life begins with the five elements and the
intricate body parts and organs are formed. Then infused with the soul,
the vulnerable life is nourished and protected from the harmful elements
all the while the unborn meditates. In the heat of the womb, life thrives
and upside down indeed (the final position of the fetus in the last few
weeks of labor and delivery). In the womb the creation survives by
meditating upon the creators name, with every breath. Finally one is born
and eventually forgets ones origin and becomes engrossed with the
material world. After leaving the womb, one interacts and attaches with
the conscious world and forgets God. Growing up is certainly not easy,
especially when reincarnation and transmigration hovers just around the
corner unless one partakes in naam simran (meditate upon the name of
the primal lord). Forgiveness and salvation are hence an option for all via
naam simran.

Changing times present new challenges; nevertheless the basic principles


of Sikhism help us through the tough times.
Unintended pregnancies

Reference:
http://www.sikhwomen.com/Sexuality/PremaritalSex/index.htm
Date Retrieved: March 15, 2010

5. CASES OF ABORTION IN THE PHILIPPINES THAT RESULTED TO


DEATH

Thirteen young women, including a pregnant 16-year-old, rescued from


an alleged abortion clinic in San Andres Bukid (The Manila Times, July
2002). Two suspected abortionists, an 82-year-old woman, and her 18-
year-old granddaughter, arrested by NBI agents in Caloocan City (The
Philippine Daily Inquirer, August 28, 2008). A 70-year-old alleged
abortionist entrapped by NBI operatives in her house in Bacolod City (The
Manila Times, February 4, 2007). Another alleged abortionist in
Pagsanjan, Laguna, arrested after a police operative posed as a client in
need of her.

Some stories land in the pages of newspapers; some even make


headlines. Some crop up in debates, forums, and opinion essays as case
studies offered in support of or against abortion. And some are simply
stories you know. The college student impregnated then abandoned by
her boyfriend. The single woman in hot pursuit of a career and far from
interested in settling down. The exhausted mother of ten living under a
bridge, facing the prospect of bringing another life into a world of poverty
and hunger.

All of these women will make a choice. And according to The Incidence of
Induced Abortion in the Philippines: Current Level and Recent Trends
(2005), a study conducted by Fatima Juarez, Josefina Cabigon, Susheela
Singh, and Rubina Hussain for the Guttmacher Institute, while some
stories end well, others—approximately 473,000 out of 3.1 million
pregnancies, or 27 out of every 1,000 pregnancies occurring each year in
the country by 20001—end in blood, pain, physical and psychological
trauma, a prison sentence, and in some cases, death.

Abortion vs. miscarriage

The word upon which all of these stories hinge is choice. Unfortunately,
choice has become just another of the catchwords being tossed about in
the debate over House Bill 5043, or the Reproductive Health and
Population Development Act of 2008, right up there with /pro-life, safe
motherhood, family-friendly, and culture of death,/ the last term being the
apocalyptic outcome envisioned by some conservative religious groups
should the bill be passed. HB 5043 will pave the way toward legalizing
abortion, these groups say, adding that all the artificial contraceptives
mentioned in the bill are abortifacients.

At this point, some clarification is necessary, beginning with the definition


of abortion. “The word abortion has been misused, misinterpreted, and
maligned,” says Dr. Lourdes B. Capito, chair of the UP-PGH Department of
Obstetrics and Gynecology. The medical definition of abortion, such as
that used by MedicineNet.Com, is simply the termination of a pregnancy
through “the premature exit of the products of conception

There are two major types of abortions. Spontaneous abortion, otherwise


known as a miscarriage, occurs due to abnormalities in the development
of the fetus, and is clearly beyond the woman’s control. Induced abortion,
which is the type of abortion that has the religious groups up in arms,
takes place “when a procedure is done to end a pregnancy.”

There’s a move now, especially in Europe, to promote the use of the word
‘miscarriage’ as the politically correct term to refer to spontaneous
abortions, although ‘miscarriage’ does not sound very medical,” Capito
adds. “‘Abortion,’ which people automatically take to mean induced
abortion, has become such a bad word.”

Contraceptives vs. abortifacients

To clarify further, medical science has ruled that contraceptives are not
abortifacients. Capito stresses that “artificial contraceptives make the
environment in the uterus and fallopian tubes unfavorable for the sperm
and the egg cell to meet, so no fertilization takes place. Either that, or the
woman is kept from ovulating.”
“That life begins at fertilization is also stated in the ethics manual of the
Philippine Obstetrics-Gynecology Society (POGS),” continues Capito.
There are various ways to prevent fertilization and pregnancy from
happening. These include abstinence from sex; the fertility awareness or
natural family planning method; the withdrawal method; barrier methods
that use physical or chemical barriers to stop sperm from entering the
uterus (e.g., condom, spermicide, diaphragm); hormonal methods using
manufactured forms of estrogen and/or progesterone to prevent
ovulation, thicken the cervical mucus to prevent the entrance of sperm,
and thin the lining of the uterus to reduce likelihood of implantation

“Artificial contraception does not mean abortion. Studies have shown that
these [contraceptives] are not abortifacients,” emphasizes Dr. Josefina V.
Cabigon of the UP Population Institute. Some time ago, Cabigon adds, in
response to a claim to the contrary made by certain religious groups, the
World Health Organization (WHO) released a statement to confirm that
the pill is not an abortifacient. The WHO has also released guidelines on
contraceptive use, and has included artificial contraceptives among its list
of essential medicines for reproductive health.

The law vs. numbers

The law is uncompromising toward abortion. Article 2, Section 12 of the


Constitution upholds the right of the unborn to the protection of the State,
and Article 256 of the Revised Penal Code criminalizes abortion, giving
the Philippines the distinction of having one of the most stringent anti-
abortion laws in the world.2 Moreover, nearly 90 percent of Filipinos are
Catholics; thus, the prevailing attitude is distinctly pro-life. With these
legal and moral walls rigidly in place and the women themselves
understandably reluctant to talk about their experiences, carrying out
research on abortion can be difficult. Nevertheless, stories leak out and
somehow a picture emerges. According to a 2005 study.The Incidence of
Induced Abortion in the Philippines,91 percent of women who have
abortions are or have been married or with a partner, 57 percent have
three or more children, 87 percent are Catholic, 71 percent are high-
school educated, and 68 percent are poor. Abortion is also equally
rampant in the rural areas.

The root cause of abortion? Unintended pregnancy. The Guttmacher


Institute publication titled Unintended Pregnancy and Induced Abortion in
the Philippines: Causes and Consequences (2006) by Singh, Juarez,
Cabigon, Hussain, Haley Ball and Jennifer Nadeau, states that six in 10
Filipino women ages 15-49 have experienced an unintended pregnancy.
In 2003, the average Filipino woman wanted 2.5 children but had 3.5. The
study also notes that roughly two-thirds of Filipino women are poor,
which, when paired with the difficulty in managing the number and
spacing the births of children, can only result in a bad situation. “Despite
the common perception that abortion occurs primarily among women who
wish to conceal the ‘dishonor’ of a nonmarital pregnancy, women’s…
reasons for having attempted to end an unintended pregnancy show that
this is not the case,” the paper goes on. “The most common reason is an
inability to afford the economic cost of raising a child, a reason cited by
72 percent of Filipino women who have attempted to have an abortion.”

Pro-choice vs. no-choice

The reality is this: a Filipino woman dealing with a pregnancy she doesn’t
want considers, and at times, actually turns to induced abortion, despite
all the blood, gore, guilt, fear, risk, and subterfuge associated with it.
“Well-off women can go to doctors in Hong Kong,” says Cabigon. Methods
used in a hospital or health center include medication with mifepristone or
RU-486, dilation and curettage (D&C), or manual vacuum
aspiration (MVA). But for the many who cannot afford doctor’s fees and
trips abroad, obtaining an abortion from a doctor, nurse, or trained
midwife is not an option. They have no choice but procedures that are
crude and dangerous.

Life vs. death

The effects are always grave, no matter how the abortion is done.
According to the Guttmacher Institute paper, “more than eight in 10
women who succeed in ending their pregnancy report a health
complication due to their final abortion attempt…46 percent of women
who succeed in having an abortion experience severe complications
(defined as severe bleeding, severe pain, moderate or severe fever, or
any injury); 35 percent experience a lesser complication, including mild to
moderate bleeding or pain or mild fever. Morbidity due to unsafe abortion
is not limited to those who succeed in having an abortion; some four in 10
women whose abortion attempt fails
also experience complications.”

“No induced abortion is safe, especially induced abortion through


instrumentation,” Capito points out. “First, you have the risk of infection.
These abortions are not done by legitimate doctors, nor are they done
using sterile procedures. Second, there is the risk of perforating the
uterus. When the pregnancy is advanced, the blood vessels are larger and
the uterine walls are thinner, so there is greater risk of tearing the uterus.
We get a number of such post-abortion patients here [at the PGH], and
some of them arrive already in septic shock. A number of them die.”

Morality vs. reality


The stories that leak out are pieces of a bigger story whose central
conflict involves a prevailing unmet need and a powerful moral force.
“The proliferation of these clandestine abortion clinics tells you that there
really is a demand for contraception,” says Sobritchea. “Women will not
go to these lengths if they had access to their choice of contraception.
The problem is religious groups are opposing contraception on the
grounds that it promotes promiscuity.”

Surveys show that most Filipinos want to practice family planning and
believe in the need for a law legalizing the distribution of contraceptives3.
It is hard not to draw correlations between overpopulation—88.57 million
by 2007, according to the National Statistics Office—and widespread
poverty.

Sobritchea recalls the experience of NGOs and the women of Barangay


Baseco, a depressed, densely populated compound attached to the
seawall of Manila port, during the time of Manila City Mayor Jose Atienza
Jr. and his EO No. 003, which pushed for natural family planning as the
city’s only family planning method.

“Atienza had every clinic distributing contraceptives removed, and the


number of unwanted pregnancies shot up. These women live in shanties
on stilts, which are almost perpetually flooded—you find yourself unable
to sleep at night after seeing how these people live. The PGH had a
difficult time handling the number of pregnancies, and the women had to
go to clinics in Quezon City.”

Urban poor women are not the only ones paying the price for
government’s caving in to the Catholic Church’s pressure regarding
contraceptives, Sobritchea continues. Sex workers—both male and female
—are also at risk, not only from unwanted pregnancies that end up in
abortions, but also from the threats of HIV and other sexually transmitted
infections (STIs). Similarly, female overseas workers are put in a kind of
double jeopardy. “These women who go abroad suddenly find themselves
outside the gaze of our traditional, conservative society. There are no
restrictions, so they feel free to explore their sexuality.” Stories abound of
Filipino women hooking up with Filipino seafarers, of two or three women
sharing one boyfriend, same-sex relationships, and part-time prostitution.
“Many of these women don’t know how to protect themselves. So they
end up going home to have clandestine abortions, or contracting STIs or
HIV.”

In the rural areas, where people have even less access to family planning
information and maternal health care, the stories are the same, says
Cabigon. The husbands are fishermen who spend two weeks to one month
on their fishing boats at sea. When they come back to their wives…well,
human nature asserts itself. The women end up pregnant, and since they
would rather buy food for their families than spend what little they have
on contraceptives, they end up having abortions.”

Another reality is that whenever these men indulge in drinking sessions—a


favorite pastime—they come back home to their wives drunk and feeling
frisky. “What can the woman do when she isn’t empowered to act on her
own? She ends up pregnant again.”

Natural vs. compatible

Natural family planning, the only fertility management method allowed by the
Church, can be an effective method if certain conditions are met. “As long as
a woman’s menses are regular, which allows her to compute when her fertile
period is, the natural family planning method is effective,” says Capito. These
methods require a careful recording of a woman’s menstrual cycles, and for
the Billings method, checking the cervical mucus. “However, this also requires
the husband’s cooperation,” Capito adds. “If your husband presses you to
have sex and you happen to be fertile, what can you do?”

There is also the risk of infection if the woman checks her cervical mucus with
unsanitary hands. “The natural family planning method is not compatible with
the lives of the poor,” says Sobritchea, who adds that the pill, with its 99
percent effectivity rate, or better yet the IUD, with its five to ten-year period
of effectivity, might be more appropriate options for the urban and rural poor.

Ignorance vs. information

For many Filipino women, the choices are limited: they either deny their
sexuality or risk getting pregnant. When they do get pregnant, they either see
the unexpected pregnancy through, committing the rest of their lives to the
consequences of the unforeseen, or get an abortion, risking death. Does it
any surprise that, according to the Guttmacher Institute paper, although
nearly all Filipino women want children, they spend most of their reproductive
years between (betweenthe ages of 20) and 45 want to postpone or avoid
pregnancy?

But choice arises from knowledge, and for the most part, Filipinos are either
uninformed or misinformed
about sex and sexuality. “Disseminate information by passing the
Reproductive Health Act,” Capito says bluntly. “It’s not forcing the women to
embrace contraception; it is informing them of the variety of options available
to them. This is patient education. We want women to be able to make a fully-
informed choice.”
Sobritchea, who is pushing for a bill on the right to information, says the
foolproof way to prevent clandestine abortions is to educate Filipino women
about sexuality and contraception. “Respect the individual’s right to know.
Inform them about all the options suitable to their health needs, context, and
economic status. There cannot be one formula for everyone. We have the
right to information, and all the information the people need to protect
themselves and promote their own well-being should be laid out in the open.”

Reference:
http://www.up.edu.ph/upforum.php?i=210&
Date Retrieved: March 15,
6. Reflect the poem:

A man’s Poem
I saw her, I liked
her,
I loved her,
I wanted her.
I asked her;
She said no.
I married her;
After sixty years,
I still have her.

The poem emphasize that every man to love is endless and intimate.

True love does not change. To love is to sacrifice. You will do everything to

make your someone happy. There is no such thing that anyone will do for one

love.
Republic of the Philippines

MARINDUQUE STATE COLLEGE

Tanza, Boac, Marinduque

SCHOOL OF INFORMATION AND COMPUTING SCIENCES

SOCIETY & CULTURE

Final Examination

Submitted by:

REDEN P. MANIQUEZ

BS INFO.TECH 3B

Submitted to:

MS. ALMA TERESA DEL MUNDO

March 17, 2010