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Human Anatomy
and
Physiology I
Laboratory
Gross Anatomy of the
Muscular System
(Two weeks)

This lab involves study of the laboratory exercise Gross Anatomy of the Muscular
System. Complete the Review Sheet for the exercise and fill in the
muscle tabels and illustrations in the Lab Manual. Take the relevant
quiz. This lab is designed to be done over two weeks. In the first week the
student should study the upper body muscles of the head and neck, arms and
shoulders. In the second week the study is of the muscles of the abdomen, back,
and legs. The quizzes for these sections are separate as well.
There is a good web site for studying the location and action of each muscle:
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/dissector/mml/index.htm
Click on the sound icon for the audio file (mp3 format) for each slide. There is also a
link to a dowloadable mp4 video which can be played on an iPod.

Muscle Actions
Antagonists muscles which perform opposite
movements
Synergists muscles which work together to
perform a movement. Often this movement is
different from that which either would perform
when acting alone.
Fixators Muscles which act to hold a part of the
body steady.

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for this slide

Zygomaticus
Orbicularis oris

Antagonists
Antagonistsin
in
action
on
mouth:
action on mouth:
O.
O.oris
orispulls
pulls
corners
cornersinward
inward
(puckering);
(puckering);
Zygomaticus
Zygomaticusraises
raises
corners
in
smiling.
corners in smiling.

These muscles of facial expression insert on connective tissues at the


corners of the mouth.

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audio file
for this slide

Temporalis

Orbicularis oris

Synergists
Synergistsin
in
closing
the
jaw
closing the jaw

Masseter
Buccinator
Synergists
Synergistsin
incompressing
compressingcheek
cheekand
and
puckering
puckering
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Muscles
identified
in bluemuscle
are shown
on the
muscle site:
Click on
hyperlinked
names
for LUMEN
linked diagrams.
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/dissector/mml/index.htm

The Trapezius

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for this slide

Upper
Upperportion
portion
helps
helpsto
toextend
extend
head.
head.

Lowers
Lowersjaw
jaw
Tenses
Tensesskin
skinof
ofneck
neck
Platysma

Trapezius

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Muscles identified in blue are shown on the LUMEN muscle
site:http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/dissector/mml/index.htm

Many large muscles can contract certain portions alone. The trapezius can
contract the upper portion alone to extend the head and neck.
Muscles identified in blue are shown on the LUMEN muscle site
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/dissector/mml/index.htm

SCM
SCMunilaterally
unilaterallyrotates
rotates
the
head,
bilaterally
the head, bilaterallythey
they
flex
the
neck.
flex the neck.

Mastoid process

Scalenes

Sternocleidomastoid

Raise
Raiseribcage
ribcagein
in
forced
inspiration.
forced inspiration.
Head
Headmust
mustbe
befixed.
fixed.

Muscles identified in blue are shown on the LUMEN muscle site:


Click on hyperlinked muscle names for linked diagrams.
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/dissector/mml/index.htm

Mastoid process

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audio file
for this slide

Splenius capitus
Forceful
Forcefulextensor
extensor
of
head
when
of head when
acting
actingbilaterally.
bilaterally.

Muscles
identified
in bluemuscle
are shown
on the
muscle site:
Click on
hyperlinked
names
forLUMEN
linked diagrams.
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/dissector/mml/index.htm

Extensors of the Vertebral Column


Longissimus capitus

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Semispinalis capitus

With
Withwhat
whatmuscles
musclesare
arethese
thesetwo
twosynergists,
synergists,
in
extending
the
head?
in extending the head?

Erector spinae

Quadratus
lumborum
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The longissimus capitus and semispinalis capitus are extensors of the


head, synergistic with the splenius capitus and upper trapezius. The erector
spinae consists of three groups of muscles which extend the vertebral
column. They are important postural muscles, along with the quadratus
lumborum which bilaterally helps to extend the lumbar vertebrae, and
unilaterally abducts them. It is the quadratus which is often strained with
improper heavy lifting.
Muscles identified in blue are shown on the LUMEN muscle site:
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/dissector/mml/index.htm

Elevates
Elevatesribs
ribsand
andexpands
expandsthorax
thoraxin
in
forced
forcedinspiration
inspiration(scapula
(scapulafixed).
fixed).

There is no
audio file
for this slide

Pectoralis minor

Muscles identified in blue are shown on the LUMEN muscle site:


Click on hyperlinked muscle names for linked diagrams.
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/dissector/mml/index.htm

External intercostals
Expand
Expandthe
the
ribcage
in
ribcage in
forced
forced
inspiration.
inspiration.

Internal intercostals

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for this slide

Compress
Compress
the
theribcage
ribcagein
in
forced
forced
expiration.
expiration.

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Muscles identified in blue are shown on the LUMEN muscle site:


Click on hyperlinked muscle names for linked diagrams.
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/dissector/mml/index.htm

10

The Diaphragm
Radially arranged fibers
Enlarges thorax in restful inspiration.

11

Muscles
identified
in blue
are shown
on the
LUMENdiagrams.
muscle site:
Click on
hyperlinked
muscle
names
for linked
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/dissector/mml/index.htm

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Synergists
Synergists
in
inforced
forced
expiration.
expiration.

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for this slide

Flexes
Flexesvertebral
vertebralcolumn
column
Rectus abdominus
Transverse abdominus

Internal oblique
External oblique
Compress
Compress
abdomen,
abdomen,rotate
rotate
trunk.
trunk.
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Muscles identified in blue are shown on the LUMEN muscle site:


Click on hyperlinked muscle names for linked diagrams.
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/dissector/mml/index.htm

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There is no
audio file
for this slide

Synergists
Synergistsin
inadduction
adductionof
ofbrachium:
brachium:

Abducts
Abductsthe
thebrachium
brachium
(upper
arm)
(upper arm)

Deltoid

Subscapularis
Adducts
Adductsand
and
medially
medially
rotates
rotates

Coracobrachialis
Pectoralis major
Adducts
Adducts
and
and
medially
medially
rotates
rotates
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Muscles
identified
in blue aremuscle
shown names
on the LUMEN
muscle
site:
Click
on hyperlinked
for linked
diagrams.
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/dissector/mml/index.htm

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There is no
audio file
for this slide

Subscapularis

Coracobrachialis

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MusclesClick
identified
in blue are shown
onnames
the LUMEN
muscle
site:
on hyperlinked
muscle
for linked
diagrams.
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/dissector/mml/index.htm

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There is no
audio file
for this slide

Adduct
Adduct and
and
medially
medially
rotate
rotate the
the
brachium.
brachium.

Latissimus dorsi

Anterior
insertion
Teres major

15

Muscles identified in blue are shown on the LUMEN muscle site:


Click on hyperlinked muscle names for linked diagrams.
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/dissector/mml/index.htm

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The Rotator Cuff

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audio file
for this slide

Abductor
Abductor
Supraspinatus
Infraspinatus
Teres
minor

Subscapularis

Adductors
Adductors

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Muscles identified in blue are shown on the LUMEN muscle site:


Click on hyperlinked muscle names for linked diagrams.
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/dissector/mml/index.htm

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Muscles Acting on the Scapula

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for this slide

Levator scapulae
Elevates
Elevatesand
and
fixates
the
fixates the
scapula
scapula

Rhomboids:
minor
major
Adducts
Adducts
(retracts)
(retracts)and
and
fixates
the
fixates the
scapula
scapula

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Muscles identified in blue are shown on the LUMEN muscle site:


Click on hyperlinked muscle names for linked diagrams.
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/dissector/mml/index.htm

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There is no
audio file
for this slide

Biceps brachii
Flexes
Flexes elbow;
elbow;
slight
slight adductor
adductor
of
brachium.
of brachium.

18

Click on
hyperlinked
names
forLUMEN
linked diagrams.
Muscles
identified
in bluemuscle
are shown
on the
muscle site:
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/dissector/mml/index.htm

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There is no
audio file
for this slide

Biceps brachii

O:
O:coracoid
coracoidand
andglenoid
glenoid
of
scapula.
of scapula.
I:I:radial
radialtuberosity.
tuberosity.
19

Muscles identified in blue are shown on the LUMEN muscle site:


Click on hyperlinked muscle names for linked diagrams.
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/dissector/mml/index.htm

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There is no
audio file
for this slide

Brachialis
Flexes
Flexeselbow;
elbow;
synergist
synergistwith
with
biceps
bicepsb.
b.

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Muscles identified in blue are shown on the LUMEN muscle site:


Click on hyperlinked muscle names for linked diagrams.
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/dissector/mml/index.htm

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There is no
audio file
for this slide

Triceps brachii:
lateral head
long head
Extends
Extends
the
theelbow
elbow

21

Muscles
in blue are
shown
on thefor
LUMEN
site:
Clickidentified
on hyperlinked
muscle
names
linkedmuscle
diagrams.
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/dissector/mml/index.htm

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There is no
audio file
for this slide

Medial epicondyle
origin of most lower
arm flexors

Brachioradialis
Flexes
Flexesand
andabducts
abducts
wrist,
fixates
wrist, fixateswrist
wristin
in
abducted
abductedposition.
position.

Flexor carpi radialis


Palmaris longus
Flexor carpi ulnaris

Flexor retinaculum

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The flexor
retinaculum is tendinous band which holds the flexor tendons in position.
The small groove through which these tendons pass is called the carpal
tunnel, and tendonitis in this region is called carpal tunnel syndrome.
Muscles identified in blue are shown on the LUMEN muscle site:
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/dissector/mml/index.htm

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Lateral epicondyle

Extensor
carpi
radialis
longus

Flexor
digitorum
superficialis

Flexor
digitorum
profundus

23

Muscles
identified
in blue aremuscle
shown names
on the LUMEN
muscle
site:
Click
on hyperlinked
for linked
diagrams.
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/dissector/mml/index.htm

23

Lateral epicondyle
origin of extensors

There is no
audio file
for this
slide

Extensor carpi radialis


longus
brevis
Extensor digitorum
Extensor carpi
ulnaris

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Muscles identified in blue are shown on the LUMEN muscle site:


Click on hyperlinked muscle names for linked diagrams.
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/dissector/mml/index.htm

24

There is no
audio file
for this
slide

Lab Protocol for the


Upper Body Muscles

1) Study the muscles indicated in the lab manual for


this lab.
a) Use the links from the Muscle Actions Page
b) Use the ADAM software as indicated in the
lab manual
2) Take the quiz for the upper body muscles.

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There is no
audio file
for this
slide

Quadratus lumborum

Iliopsoas

{Iliacus
Psoas major

Unilaterally
Unilaterally
abducts
abductsvertebral
vertebral
column;
bilaterally
column; bilaterally
extends
extendsand
and
fixates
vertebrae.
fixates vertebrae.

Flexes
Flexesthigh
thigh

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Muscles identified in blue are shown on the LUMEN muscle site:


Click on hyperlinked muscle names for linked diagrams.
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/dissector/mml/index.htm

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There is no
audio file
for this
slide

Gluteus maximus
Extends
Extendsthe
thethigh,
thigh,
and
fixates
thigh
and fixates thighin
in
extended
position.
extended position.

Important
Importantin
in
climbing
climbingand
and
running,
running,but
butnot
notin
in
walking.
walking.
Iliotibial tract

27

Click on
hyperlinked
names
forLUMEN
linked diagrams.
Muscles
identified
in bluemuscle
are shown
on the
muscle site:
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/dissector/mml/index.htm

27

There is no
audio file
for this
slide

The Hamstrings:
Knee Flexors
Iliotibial tract
Biceps femoris:
Semimembraneosus

Long head

Semitendinosus

Short head

28

Muscles
identified
in blue aremuscle
shown on
the LUMEN
muscle
site:
Click
on hyperlinked
names
for linked
diagrams.
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/dissector/mml/index.htm

28

There is no
audio file
for this
slide

Gluteus medius
Gluteus minimus
Piriformis

Abduct
Abductthigh
thigh
and
stabilize
and stabilize
the
thethigh
thigh
when
whentaking
taking
steps,
steps,as
asin
in
walking.
walking.

Gluteus maximus

29

Muscles identified in blue are shown on the LUMEN muscle site:


Click on hyperlinked muscle names for linked diagrams.
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/dissector/mml/index.htm

29

There is no
audio file
for this
slide

Tensor fascia latae


Abducts
Abductsknee
knee
and
thigh
and thigh
Iliotibial tract
Sartorius

Adductors:
brevis
longus
magnus
Gracilis

Adducts
Adductsknee;
knee;flexes
flexes
and
laterally
rotates
and laterally rotates
thigh.
thigh.
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Muscles identified in blue are shown on the LUMEN muscle site:


Click on hyperlinked muscle names for linked diagrams.
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/dissector/mml/index.htm

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There is no
audio file
for this
slide

Quadriceps femoris

Extends
Extendsthe
theknee.
knee.
Rectus femoris
Vastus lateralis
Vastus medialis
Vastus intermedius

31

Muscles identified in blue are shown on the LUMEN muscle site:


Click on hyperlinked muscle names for linked diagrams.
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/dissector/mml/index.htm

31

There is no
audio file
for this
slide

Peroneus (fibularis)
longus

Tibialis anterior

32

MusclesClick
identified
in blue are shown
the LUMEN
muscle
site:
on hyperlinked
muscleonnames
for linked
diagrams.
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/dissector/mml/index.htm

32

Tibialis Anterior
There is no
audio file
for this
slide

Dorsiflexion
Dorsiflexionand
and
inversion
inversion

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Muscles identified in blue are shown on the LUMEN muscle site:


Click on hyperlinked muscle names for linked diagrams.
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/dissector/mml/index.htm

33

Synergists in Plantar Flexion


There is no
audio file
for this
slide

Gastrocnemius
Primary
Primaryaction
actionis
is
plantar
flexion.
plantar flexion.

Peroneus (fibularis) longus


Plantar
Plantarflexion
flexionand
and
eversion
eversion

Soleus
Fixates
Fixatesfoot
footin
inaa
plantar
plantarflexed
flexed
position
position
34

Muscles identified in blue are shown on the LUMEN muscle site:


Click on hyperlinked muscle names for linked diagrams.
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/dissector/mml/index.htm

34

There is no
audio file
for this
slide

Peroneus (Fibularis) Longus

35

Muscles
identified
in bluemuscle
are shown
on the
muscle site:
Click on
hyperlinked
names
for LUMEN
linked diagrams.
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/dissector/mml/index.htm

35

Peroneus (Fibularis) Brevis


There is no
audio file
for this
slide

36

Muscles
in blue are
shown
on thefor
LUMEN
site:
Clickidentified
on hyperlinked
muscle
names
linkedmuscle
diagrams.
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/dissector/mml/index.htm

36

There is no
audio file
for this
slide

Gastrocnemius
(medial and lateral
heads)

Tendon of the calcaneus

37

Muscles identified in blue are shown on the LUMEN muscle site:


Click on hyperlinked muscle names for linked diagrams.
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/dissector/mml/index.htm

37

There is no
audio file
for this
slide

Plantaris
Soleus

Gastrocnemius (cut)

38

Muscles
identified
in blue are muscle
shown on
the LUMEN
muscle
site:
Click
on hyperlinked
names
for linked
diagrams.
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/dissector/mml/index.htm

38

There is no
audio file
for this
slide

Lab Protocol for the


Lower Body Muscles

1) Study the muscles indicated in the lab manual for


this lab.
a) Use the links from the Muscle Actions Page
b) Use the ADAM software as indicated in the
lab manual
2) Take the quiz for the lower body muscles.

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