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Question Bank Topic 8

Plastics and Detergents


Name: ___________________________ Class: ____________ Class No: __________
Mark: ___________

Date:______________

Multiple choice questions


Unit30
30.1: Plastic items in modern homes
30.2: Uses of plastics
(CDC guide: Plastics as important materials in the modern world.)

Which of the following substances is NOT a polymer?


A Sucrose
B Protein
C Rubber
D Cellulose

Which of the following is a synthetic polymer?


A Starch
B Silk
C Perspex
D Cotton

Which of the following are advantages of plastics over metals?


(1) Plastics are lighter.
(2) Plastics are usually cheaper.

(3)
A
B
C
D

Plastics are inert to both acids and alkalis.


(1) and (2) only
(1) and (3) only
(2) and (3) only
(1), (2) and (3)

Which of the following are advantages of using plastics?


(1) They are hard-wearing.
(2) They can be moulded into different shapes.
(3) They do not change shape when heavily loaded.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

Plastic is used in making the casing of an electric rice cooker because


(1) it does not conduct electricity.
(2) it is transparent.
(3) it is an insulator of heat.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

Which of the following are advantages of using plastic over iron in making water pipes?
(1) Plastic is more corrosion resistant than iron.
(2) Plastic can be shaped more easily than iron.
(3) Plastic has a higher tensile strength than iron.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

Which of the following are advantages of using plastic over paper in making shopping bags?

(1)
(2)
(3)
A
B
C
D

Plastic has a higher tensile strength.


Plastic is biodegradable.
Plastic is waterproof.
(1) and (2) only
(1) and (3) only
(2) and (3) only
(1), (2) and (3)

30.3: Thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics


30.6: Relating the structures of plastics to their thermal properties
30.7: Production of plastic products
(CDC guide: Thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics: (a) uses and moulding
methods in relation to their thermal properties, (b) differences in thermal
properties explained in terms of their structures.)

Which of the following statements about thermoplastics is INCORRECT?


A Polystyrene is a thermoplastic.
B They may be addition or condensation polymers.
C They can be softened on heating.
D They can only be moulded once.

Which of the following comparisons between thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics is


correct?
A Thermoplastics have higher densities than thermosetting plastics.
B Thermoplastics are usually less flexible than thermosetting plastics.
C Thermoplastics are more flammable than thermosetting plastics.
D Thermoplastics are less stable than thermosetting plastics.

Which of the following plastics is best for making shower curtains?


A A thermosetting plastic with poor transparency and flexibility
B A thermoplastic with good flexibility and medium transparency
C A thermoplastic with poor flexibility and good transparency
D A thermoplastic with poor transparency and flexibility

Which of the following statements concerning thermoplastics is correct?


A They are cross-linked polymers.
B They cannot be remoulded.
C They soften on heating.
D They all are addition polymers.

Polyvinyl chloride is classified as a thermoplastic because


A it can be remoulded many times.
B it is a non-conductor of electricity and heat.
C it is an addition polymer.
D disposal of polyvinyl chloride leads to air pollution problems.

Perspex is classified as a thermoplastic because


A all the bonds in it are single bonds.
B it can be melted and remoulded many times.
C it is made up of only one type of monomer.
D it is not a condensation polymer.

Which of the following plastics is the most difficult to burn?


A Nylon
B Polystyrene
C Polyvinyl chloride
D Urea-methanal

Which of the following statements about plastics is correct?


A There is no cross-link between polymer chains in thermosetting plastics.
B Thermoplastics are biodegradable.
C Polyester is a thermoplastic that is usually used to make shirts.
D Compression moulding is usually used to mould thermoplastics.

Thermoplastics differ from thermosetting plastics in the way that thermoplastics are

A
B
C
D

biodegradable.
decomposed under sunlight.
resoftened on heating.
formed by addition polymerization.

10

Electric plugs can be made of


A polythene.
B polystyrene.
C polyvinyl chloride.
D urea-methanal.

11

Which of the following is / are thermosetting plastic(s)?


(1) PVC
(2) Urea-methanal
(3) Nylon
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

12

Which of the following articles are made from thermoplastics?


(1) Bottle crate
(2) Detergent squeeze bottle
(3) Ceiling tile
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

13

Which of the following are thermoplastics?


(1) Polyester
(2) Nylon
(3) Perspex
A (1) and (2) only

B
C
D

(1) and (3) only


(2) and (3) only
(1), (2) and (3)

14

Which of the following polymers is / are suitable for making a container to hold hot water?
(1) Polypropene
(2) Polystyrene
(3) Polythene
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

15

Thermoplastics can be moulded more efficiently and economically than thermosetting plastics
because
(1) the raw materials of thermosetting plastics are more expensive.
(2) thermoplastics can be moulded repeatedly.
(3) thermosetting plastics cannot be moulded repeatedly.
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

16

Which of the following comparisons between thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics are
correct?
Thermoplastics
Thermosetting plastics
(1) Flammable
Non-flammable
(2) More flexible
Less flexible
(3) Mainly shaped by compression moulding
Mainly shaped by injection moulding
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

17

Which of the following plastics can be moulded by injection moulding?


(1) Polypropene
(2) Polyvinyl chloride
(3) Urea-methanal
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

18

Cross-links in plastics
(1) are strong covalent bonds between polymer chains.
(2) explain why thermosetting plastics are non-biodegradable.
(3) explain why thermosetting plastics cannot be softened or melted once set hard.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

19

Which of the following statements about thermosetting plastics are correct?


(1) They contain cross-links.
(2) They are non-biodegradable.
(3) They cannot be burnt.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

20

Which of the following items is / are made of thermoplastics?


(1) Handles of electric irons
(2) Wallpapers
(3) Advertising displays
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

21

Which of the following articles are made from thermosetting plastics?


(1) Ashtray
(2) Kitchen worktop
(3) Safety helmet
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

30.4: Polymerization of ethene


30.5: Types of polymerization reactions
(CDC guide: Monomers, polymers and repeating units; Addition polymerization)

Which of the following is the most important raw material for the production of plastics?
A Coal
B Petroleum
C Natural gas
D Cellulose

Which of the following statements about plastics is INCORRECT?


A They are usually light.
B They are derived from petroleum.
C They are man-made polymers.
D They are good conductors of electricity in molten state.

Which of the following statements is correct?


A All polymers are plastics.
B All thermoplastics are addition polymers.
C A polymer and its monomer(s) have similar chemical properties.
D PVC is a chlorine-containing compound.

Which of the following statements about addition polymers is correct?


A They are soluble in water.
B They have the same general formula.
C They are formed from monomers with carbon-carbon double bonds.
D They are strong and rigid.

Which of the following statements about addition polymers is INCORRECT?


A Addition polymers are chemically unreactive.
B Addition polymerization usually takes place at room temperature and pressure.
C The monomers of addition polymers are usually unsaturated.
D Addition polymers are covalent compounds.

The process of repeatedly joining together many small molecules to form large molecules is
known as
A substitution.
B addition.
C hydrolysis.
D polymerization.

Propene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of its


unsaturated nature?
A It undergoes addition reaction with bromine dissolved in 1,1,1-trichloroethane.
B It decolourizes acidified potassium permanganate solution.
C It undergoes incomplete combustion to give carbon particles.
D It undergoes polymerization to give polypropene.

Foam lunch boxes are usually made of


A polythene.
B polystyrene.
C polyvinyl chloride.
D urea-methanal.

Safety goggles are usually made of


A polythene.
B perspex.
C polyvinyl chloride.
D urea-methanal.

10

Which of the following hydrocarbons can undergo addition polymerization?


A C2H6
B C3H6
C C3H8
D C6H6

11

Polyvinyl chloride is
A an addition polymer and a thermoplastic.
B an addition polymer and a thermosetting plastic.
C a condensation polymer and a thermoplastic.
D a condensation polymer and a thermosetting plastic.

12

Which of the following statements about polyvinyl chloride is INCORRECT?


A PVC is stiff.
B PVC softens upon heating.
C PVC can be used in making water pipes.
D The monomer of PVC is ClCH=CHCl.

13

Which of the following statements about perspex is INCORRECT?


A It is an addition polymer.
B It can be used to make protective shields.
C It is transparent but less easily broken than glass.
D It can decolourize bromine dissolved in an organic solvent.

14

Which of the following statements concerning polystyrene is INCORRECT?


A It is a hydrocarbon.
B It is toxic.

C
D

It is an addition polymer.
It is transparent and hard.

15

Which of the following is NOT an advantage of using polythene to replace paper in making
bags?
A Polythene is water-resistant.
B Polythene can be recycled easily.
C Polythene is durable.
D Polythene can resist acids or alkalis.

16

Which of the following statements concerning the uses of plastics is correct?


A Polythene is used to make grocery bags.
B Polyvinyl chloride is used to make disposable lunch boxes.
C Polystyrene is used to make floor tiles.
D Perspex is used to make wrapping films.

17

Which of the following combinations is INCORRECT?


Plastic
Use
A Polyvinyl chloride
Ashtrays
B Polyester
Clothes
C Polystyrene
Milk feeding bottles
D Polythene
Wrapping films

18

Which of the following combinations is INCORRECT?


Polymer
Use
A Polyvinyl chloride
Raincoats
B Perspex
Aircraft windows
C Urea-methanal
Electrical switches
D Polythene
Advertising displays

19

The following is part of a polymer:

What is the repeating unit of the polymer?

20

The following is part of a polymer:

What is the monomer of the polymer?

21

The following structure represents part of a polymer.

Its monomer is
A 1,1-dichloroethane.
B 1,1-dichloroethene.
C 1,2-dichloroethene.
D 2,2-dichloroethene.

22

A polymer has the following structure:

Its monomer is
A propene.
B but-1-ene.
C but-2-ene.
D butane.

23

The structure of polypropene can be represented as

24

Which of the following represents the structure of polystyrene?

25

Which of the following combinations represents perspex and its monomer?

26

Which of the following combinations of a polymer is correct?

27

Consider the structure of a polymer below:

where X represents an atom or a group of atoms.


Which of the following combinations is INCORRECT?
X
Name of polymer
A CH3
Polypropene
B Cl
Polyvinyl chloride
C COOH
Perspex
D C6H5
Polystyrene

28

Consider the structure of a polymer below:

where X represents an atom or a group of atoms.


Which of the following plastics has the structure as shown above?
A Polyester
B Perspex
C Urea-methanal
D Polyvinyl chloride

29

The following is part of a polymer.

where Y represents an atom or a group of atoms.


Which of the following combinations is correct?
Y
The polymer is
A H
a thermosetting plastic.
B Cl
biodegradable.

C
D

30

C6H5
CH3

an addition polymer.
hard and tough.

The structure of a polymer is shown below:

Which of the following statements about the polymer is INCORRECT?


A Its monomer is CH2=CHCH2CH3.
B Its monomer can turn acidified potassium dichromate solution from orange to green.
C It is an addition polymer.
D It softens upon heating.

31

Plastic X has the following structure:

Which of the following statements concerning X is correct?


A X is used for making ketchup bottles.
B X cannot be remoulded.
C X is a cross-linked polymer.
D The monomer of X is as follows:

32

Plastic X has the following structure:

Which of the following statements concerning X is correct?

A
B
C
D

33

The monomer of X is ClCH2CH2Cl.


X can be used to make electric sockets.
X is a condensation polymer.
X softens upon gentle heating.

The structure of polystyrene is shown below:

Calculate the molecular mass of a polymer chain of polystyrene if it is made up of 7 000


repeating units.
(Relative atomic masses: H=1.0, C=12.0)
A 520 000
B 455 000
C 546 000
D 728 000

34

The equation below shows the depolymerization of PVC.

How many moles of monomers can be obtained if a sample of 453 kg PVC undergoes
complete depolymerization?
(Relative atomic masses: H = 1.0, C = 12.0, Cl = 35.5)
A 7 023 moles
B 7 248 moles
C 7 487 moles
D 7 531 moles

35

Polymer X becomes soft when it is put into a beaker of hot water. When it is heated, an acidic
smell is detected. What might X be?
A Polyvinyl chloride
B Perspex

C
D

Nylon
Urea-methanal

36

Which of the following combinations is INCORRECT?


Propene
Polypropene
A Reactive
Unreactive
B Insoluble in water
Insoluble in water
C Burns completely to give CO2 and H2O Burns completely to give CO2 and H2O
D Decolourizes acidified potassium
Decolourizes acidified potassium
permanganate solution
permanganate solution

37

The following flow diagram shows how polypropene can be made from petroleum.

Which of the following combinations is correct?


Process 1
Process 2
A Fractional distillation Cracking
B Fractional distillation Cracking
C Cracking
Dehydration
D Cracking
Dehydration

Process 3
Condensation polymerization
Addition polymerization
Condensation polymerization
Addition polymerization

Directions: Questions 38 40 refer to the flow diagram below, which shows how crude oil is
turned into a plastic bag. Substance A can decolourize bromine dissolved in an organic
solvent.

38

Which of the following combinations is correct?


Process I
Process II
A Fractional distillation
Condensation
B Fractional distillation
Cracking
C Cracking
Addition polymerization
D Distillation
Crystallization

39

Substance B is
A ethene.
B polythene.
C PVC.
D polystyrene.

40

Process IV is
A moulding.
B addition polymerization.
C condensation polymerization.
D depolymerization.

41

Which of the following compounds is most likely to undergo addition


polymerization?

Directions: Questions 42 and 43 refer to the following experiment.


Polystyrene can be prepared from styrene using the set-up shown below:

42

Which of the following statements concerning polystyrene is correct?


A It is a condensation polymer.
B It is a thermosetting plastic.
C It can be remoulded.

The repeating unit of polystyrene is as follows:

43

What is / are the function(s) of kerosene in the preparation?


(1) As a catalyst
(2) As an oxidizing agent
(3) As a solvent for styrene
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

44

Polythene is mainly used to make


(1) wrapping films for food.
(2) illuminated advertising sign boxes.
(3) plastic bags.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

45

Polyvinyl chloride is commonly used to make


(1) drainage pipes.
(2) coverings of seats for taxis.
(3) packaging materials of delicate articles.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

46

Which of the following statements about polystyrene are correct?


(1) It can be remoulded many times.
(2) It is derived from crude oil.
(3) It can be used to make packaging materials for electrical appliances.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

47

Which of the following statements concerning the uses of plastics are correct?
(1) Perspex is used to make motorcycle windshields.
(2) Polystyrene is used to make disposable cups.
(3) Polyvinyl chloride is used to make shower curtains.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

48

Which of the following compounds is / are likely to undergo addition


polymerization?
(1) HO(CH2)2OH
(2) CH2=CHCH3
(3)
A
B
C
D

49

(1) only
(2) only
(1) and (3) only
(2) and (3) only

Polypropene is
(1) an addition polymer.
(2) a thermoplastic.
(3) prepared from propene.
A (1) and (2) only

B
C
D

(1) and (3) only


(2) and (3) only
(1), (2) and (3)

50

Which of the following are advantages of using perspex instead of glass in making lenses?
(1) Perspex is lighter.
(2) Perspex is not easily broken.
(3) Perspex has better transparency.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

51

But-1-ene can undergo


(1) oxidation.
(2) polymerization.
(3) hydration.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

30.5: Types of polymerization reactions


(CDC guide: Monomers, polymers and repeating units; Condensation
polymerization as exemplified by the formation of nylon and polyester)

Which of the following is both a thermoplastic and a condensation polymer?


A Polystyrene
B Polyester
C Urea-methanal
D Polyvinyl chloride

Which of the following statements about polyesters is INCORRECT?


A They contain COO linkages in the polymers.
B They are used to make clothing.
C They are not softened on heating.
D They are condensation polymers.

Which of the following statements concerning nylon is correct?


A Its polymer chains are cross-linked.
B It is a thermosetting plastic.
C It is a condensation polymer.
D Its monomers contain carbon-carbon double bonds.

Which of the following statements concerning urea-methanal is correct?


A It is an addition polymer.
B It has a high tensile strength.
C It is used to make electric plugs.
D Its waste can be recycled by melting and remoulding.

Which of the following statements about terylene is INCORRECT?


A Its monomers are bifunctional.
B During polymerization, small molecules are eliminated.
C It can replace steel to make gears in machines.
D It is a thermoplastic.

Which of the following statements about polymers is INCORRECT?


A All monomers are unsaturated.
B During condensation polymerization, small molecules are eliminated.
C Many natural polymers are condensation polymers.
D Addition polymers are thermoplastics.

Urea-methanal is NOT suitable for making


A electrical switches.
B milk bottles.

C
D

handles of kettles.
ashtrays.

Both polyester and urea-methanal


A consist of cross-linked polymer chains.
B are tough and smooth.
C are condensation polymers.
D are biodegradable.

In an experiment, a few drops of concentrated sulphuric acid were added to an aqueous


solution of methanal saturated with urea. Which of the following statements concerning the
experiment is correct?
A A black solid is formed.
B A thermoplastic is formed.
C Condensation polymerization occurs in the experiment.
D Concentrated sulphuric acid acts as an oxidizing agent in the reaction.

10

Which of the following statements concerning nylon is / are correct?


(1) It melts in hot water.
(2) It has a high tensile strength.
(3) It has cross-links between polymer chains.
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

11

Both nylon and polyvinyl chloride


(1) are thermoplastics.
(2) are formed by combination of two types of monomers.
(3) do not have cross-links.
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

12

Which of the following statements concerning nylon and urea-methanal are correct?
(1) They are thermosetting plastics.
(2) They are condensation polymers.
(3) They are nitrogen-containing compounds.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

13

Nylon is commonly used to make


(1) bearings.
(2) curtain rail fittings.
(3) fishing lines.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

14

Condensation polymerization differs from addition polymerization in that


(1) it involves elimination of small molecules.
(2) the monomers are unsaturated.
(3) cross-links are formed.
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

15

Which of the following pairs of substances can combine to give condensation polymer(s)?
(1) CH2=CH2 and HOOC
(2) ClOC

COOH

COCl and HOCH2CH2OH

(3) H2N(CH2)4NH2 and CH3CH2COOH

A
B
C
D

16

(1) only
(2) only
(1) and (3) only
(2) and (3) only

Which of the following compounds would react with each other to form a condensation
polymer?

where
A
B
C
D

17

represent different hydrocarbon chains.

(1) and (3) only


(1) and (4) only
(2) and (3) only
(2) and (4) only

Polymer X is formed by H2N(CH2)6NH2 and

Which of the following statements concerning polymer X are correct?


(1) X has cross-linkages.
(2) X has a high tensile strength.
(3) The repeating unit of X is as follows:

A
B
C
D

18

The polymer formed between HO(CH2)2OH and

(1)
(2)
(3)
A
B
C
D

19

cannot be decomposed by bacteria readily.


cannot be softened by heating.
is a condensation polymer.
(1) and (2) only
(1) and (3) only
(2) and (3) only
(1), (2) and (3)

Which of the following polymers is / are made by condensation polymerization?

A
B
C
D

20

(1) and (2) only


(1) and (3) only
(2) and (3) only
(1), (2) and (3)

(1) only
(2) only
(1) and (3) only
(2) and (3) only

Which of the following polymers are made by condensation polymerization?

where
A
B
C
D

21

represent different hydrocarbon chains.

(1) and (2) only


(1) and (3) only
(2) and (3) only
(1), (2) and (3)

Which of the following processes involve condensation?


(1) Preparation of ethyl ethanoate from ethanol and ethanoic acid
(2) Preparation of nylon from its monomers
(3) Preparation of ethanol from ethene
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

30.8: Environmental issues related to the use of plastics


30.9: Recycling of plastics
30.10: Plastics: good or bad?
(CDC guide: Environmental issues related to the use of plastics)

Plastic waste cause pollution problems because they


A are inert towards bacteria.

B
C
D

give off carbon dioxide when burnt.


are derived from petroleum.
are difficult to be separated from other waste.

Which of the following is NOT a problem associated with the use of plastics?
A Burning plastics gives off toxic gases.
B Plastic waste in the sea may cause the death of marine life.
C The production process of plastics is uneconomical.
D It leads to the exhaustion of non-renewable energy resources.

Which of the following statements about recycling of plastics is INCORRECT?


A The recycling process is costly.
B It can save petroleum.
C It can reduce the amount of solid waste.
D It is applicable to both thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics.

Which of the following is a disadvantage associated with the landfilling of plastic waste?
A There is a slow release of toxins from the landfill sites.
B A lot of energy is required.
C The greenhouse effect becomes more intense.
D It is difficult to remove additives in plastics before landfilling.

Which of the following is an advantage of using incineration to treat plastic waste?


A The process does not cause air pollution.
B Energy can be recycled.
C It is easy to separate plastic from other waste.
D The cost of operating a controlled incineration plant is low.

Which of the following methods CANNOT reduce the pollution problems associated with the
disposal of plastic waste?
A Using other substitutes instead of plastics
B Recycling of plastics
C Incineration of plastics in plants with taller chimneys

Using biodegradable plastics

Which of the following pollutants would be evolved in the burning of PVC?


(1) Carbon soot
(2) Hydrogen chloride
(3) Carbon monoxide
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

It is important to recycle plastics because


(1) petroleum can be conserved.
(2) it can reduce pollution problems.
(3) it can arouse the publics awareness of conservation.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

Which of the following is / are major problem(s) associated with the use and disposal of
plastics?
(1) Air pollution
(2) Depletion of the ozone layer
(3) Depletion of petroleum resources
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

10

Which of the following are problems associated with recycling of plastics?


(1) It may be expensive.
(2) Thermosetting plastics cannot be recycled.
(3) It is difficult to separate plastic waste from other waste.

A
B
C
D

(1) and (2) only


(1) and (3) only
(2) and (3) only
(1), (2) and (3)

11

The disposal problems of plastic waste can be reduced by


(1) recycling.
(2) pyrolysis.
(3) using substitutes to replace plastics.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

12

Which of the following statements concerning pyrolysis of plastic waste are correct?
(1) It is necessary to separate different plastics before pyrolysis.
(2) The plastics are heated in the absence of air.
(3) Plastics are converted into simple hydrocarbons.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

13

Which of the following statements concerning the landfilling of plastic waste is /are correct?
(1) Plastic waste is decomposed by bacteria.
(2) The process may cause pollution of the underground water.
(3) A lot of plastic waste can be treated in a short period of time.
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

14

Which of the following statements concerning polyvinyl chloride (PVC) are correct?
(1) PVC is used in electrical wire insulation.

(2)
(3)
A
B
C
D

PVC is a thermoplastic.
The flue gas produced by incineration of PVC can cause acid rain.
(1) and (2) only
(1) and (3) only
(2) and (3) only
(1), (2) and (3)

Unit 31
31.1: Keeping clean
31.2: Historical development of detergents
31.3: How do detergents help water to clean?
(CDC guide: Detergent as a substance which helps to remove dirt by (a) its
ability to act as a wetting agent & (b) its emulsifying action.)

Which of the following statements concerning detergents is correct?


A Soapy detergents are derived from petroleum.
B Only soapless detergents can act as a wetting agent.
C Only soapy detergents can act as an emulsifying agent.
D Detergents can reduce the surface tension of water.

Which of the following statements about detergents is INCORRECT?


A Water can be considered as a natural detergent.
B Soapless detergents are derived from petroleum.
C The wetting ability accounts for the cleaning power of detergents.
D Detergents can emulsify a mixture of ethanol and water.

When a detergent is added to an oil-water mixture and the mixture is shaken, an emulsion
would form. The emulsion consists of
A oil and detergent.
B oil droplets and water.
C water, oil and oil droplets.
D water, oil, detergent and oil droplets.

Consider the following experiment.

After 10 drops of detergent solution and tap water had been added separately, the test tubes
were shaken for 1 minute and then allowed to stand.
Which of the following statements about the experiment is INCORRECT?
A Foam is observed in test tube I immediately after shaking.
B An emulsion is formed in test tube II immediately after shaking.
C Two immiscible layers are observed in test tube I after standing for 5 minutes.
D The experiment is used to show the emulsifying property of detergent.

When a drop of detergent solution is added onto a clean towel, it spreads instead of existing as
a droplet. Which of the following statements can explain this phenomenon?
A Detergent acts as an emulsifying agent.
B Detergent reduces the viscosity of water.
C Detergent reduces the surface tension of water.
D Detergent reduces the density of water.

Detergent can clean clothes with greasy marks because detergents


(1) are emulsifying agents.
(2) can reduce the surface tension of water.
(3) can hydrolyse the grease.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

Which of the following statements about a detergent is correct?


(1) A detergent helps water spread over a surface.
(2) A detergent helps water react with oil.
(3) A detergent is soluble in both water and oil.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

Consider the following experiment.

Which of the following statements about the above experiment is / are correct?
(1) The area wetted by detergent solution is larger than that wetted by water.
(2) The area wetted by detergent solution is smaller than that wetted by water.
(3) The difference in the observations can be explained by the emulsifying ability of
detergent.
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

Which of the following are properties of an ideal detergent?

(1)
(2)
(3)
A
B
C
D

High emulsifying ability


High wetting ability
Biodegradable
(1) and (2) only
(1) and (3) only
(2) and (3) only
(1), (2) and (3)

31.4: General structure of detergent particles


31.5: The emulsifying properties of detergents in relation to their structures
31.6: The cleaning action of detergents
(CDC guide: Structures of soaps and soapless detergents & emulsifying
properties of detergents in relation to their structures.)

Consider the following detergent particle.


CH3(CH2)8CH2

SO3-K+

Which part of this structure is hydrophilic?


A

CH3(CH2)8CH2

CH3(CH2)8CH2

C
D

SO3CH3(CH2)8CH2

SO3-

Soap is soluble in grease because it


A does not carry charge.
B has a hydrophobic head.
C has a hydrophobic tail.
D has an ionic head and a hydrocarbon tail.

Consider the structure of a detergent particle below.

Which of the following statements about the particle is INCORRECT?


A The ionic head is hydrophilic.
B It is biodegradable.
C It may be derived from petroleum.
D Its cleaning ability is due to its emulsifying property only.

The following is the structure of a soapless detergent particle.


CH3(CH2)18OSO3-Na+
Which of the following combinations is correct?
Hydrophilic head
Hydrophobic tail
+
A Na
CH3(CH2)18OSO3B CH3(CH2)18
OSO3C OSO3CH3(CH2)18
D CH3(CH2)18OSO3
Na+

The formula mass of a detergent particle CnH2n+1OSO3-Na+ is between 341 and 350. What is
the value of n?
(Relative atomic masses: H = 1.0, C = 12.0, O = 16.0, Na = 23.0, S = 32.1)
A 14
B 15
C 16
D 17

Which of the following statements about soaps are correct?


(1) Soaps can lower the surface tension of water.
(2) The hydrocarbon tail of a soap particle is soluble in grease.
(3) The ionic head of a soap particle is hydrophobic.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

Which of the following statements can account for the emulsifying action of a soapless
detergent?
(1) It helps water wet the surface of a cloth.
(2) The hydrocarbon part of a soapless detergent particle dissolves in grease while the ionic
part dissolves in water.
(3) Oil droplets are surrounded by detergent particles and repel against each other.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

31.7: Production of soaps in the laboratory


31.8: The chemistry of soap production
(CDC guide: Production of soaps by reacting a fat or an oil with an alkali)

Which of the following does NOT react with sodium hydroxide solution?
A Fat
B Vinegar
C Carbon dioxide
D Ethanol

Fats and oils can be classified as


A soaps.
B fatty acids.
C esters.
D polyesters.

The alkaline hydrolysis of fats is known as


A condensation.
B esterification.
C saponification.
D emulsification.

Directions: Questions 4 6 refer to the following reaction.


In an experiment, an animal fat X is heated with sodium hydroxide solution.

What is the type of reaction that occurs in the experiment?


A Esterification
B Hydration
C Oxidation
D Saponification

Which of the following structures represents X?

What is / are the function(s) of the sodium hydroxide in this reaction?


(1) To act as a catalyst.
(2) To act as a solvent for the vegetable oil X.
(3) To neutralize the acid formed during the reaction.
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

In the production of soap, the soap formed can be salted out by adding
A concentrated sulphuric acid.
B concentrated potassium hydroxide solution.
C concentrated sodium chloride solution.
D concentrated magnesium sulphate solution.

When a fat is heated with sodium hydroxide solution and then poured into a beaker of
concentrated sodium chloride solution, a creamy yellow solid is obtained. Which of the
following statements concerning the experiment is INCORRECT?
A Sodium hydroxide has taken part in the reaction.
B The reaction is reversible.
C The reaction between the fat and sodium hydroxide solution is called
saponification.
D The creamy yellow solid is a sodium salt of alkanoic acid.

Which of following statements about detergents is INCORRECT?


A Soapy detergents can be manufactured from fats.
B Soapless detergents do not form foam in water.
C The hydrophilic headof a detergent particle can be anionic or cationic.
D Detergents act as wetting agents by lowering the surface tension of water.

10

Which of the following substances CANNOT remove grease on a window?


A Dilute ammonia solution
B Dilute sodium hydroxide solution

C
D

Dilute soapless detergent solution


Dilute sulphuric acid

11

Compound X, which can decolourize acidified potassium permanganate solution, is insoluble


in water. After refluxing X with sodium hydroxide solution, the products formed are soluble in
water. Compound X may be
A CH3(CH2)14CH=CHCH3.
B CH3(CH2)14CH=CHCOOC2H5.
C CH3(CH2)14CH=CHCOO-Na+.
D CH3(CH2)14COOH.

12

Dilute ammonia solution is used in domestic glass cleaners because


A it is non-corrosive.
B it can saponify grease.
C it contains ammonium ions which can emulsify grease.
D it contains hydroxide ions which can reduce the surface tension of water.

Directions: Questions 13 15 refer to the following diagrams that show the steps involved in
the preparation of soap.

13

What may substance X be?


(1) Peanut oil
(2) Paraffin oil

(3)
A
B
C
D

Fuel oil
(1) only
(2) only
(1) and (3) only
(2) and (3) only

14

What is the purpose of adding brine to the resultant mixture?


A To speed up the reaction.
B To lower the solubility of the soap in water.
C To remove unreacted substance X and sodium hydroxide.
D To increase the purity of the soap obtained.

15

What method should be used to obtain soap from the reaction mixture?
A Crystallization
B Distillation
C Filtration
D Condensation

Directions: Questions 16 and 17 refer to the following detergents:

16

Which of the above detergents is / are soapy detergent(s)?


A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

17

The raw materials needed to make detergent (1) are


A caster oil and sodium hydroxide.
B caster oil, concentrated sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide.
C petroleum fractions and sodium hydroxide.
D petroleum fractions, concentrated sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide.

18

Which of the following substances can be used to remove fat blocking drainage pipes?
(1) Concentrated sodium chloride solution
(2) Concentrated sodium hydroxide solution
(3) Chlorine bleach
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

19

Which of the following substances would react with sodium hydroxide solution to give soap?
(1) Animal fats
(2) CH3COOC2H5
(3) Corn oil
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

20

Which of the following descriptions for soapy detergents are correct?


(1) They act as emulsifiers in cleaning process.
(2) They all have a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail.
(3) They are made from natural fats or oils.

A
B
C
D

(1) and (2) only


(1) and (3) only
(2) and (3) only
(1), (2) and (3)

21

Sodium hydroxide can be used in the preparation of


(1) soapless detergents.
(2) soapy detergents.
(3) chlorine bleaches.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

22

By heating with methanol in the presence of sodium hydroxide solution, vegetable oil X can
be converted to compounds Y and Z.

Which of following statements concerning the experiment are correct?


(1) Y is an ester.
(2) Y is more viscous than X.
(3) The structure of Z is as follows:

A
B
C
D

23

(1) and (2) only


(1) and (3) only
(2) and (3) only
(1), (2) and (3)

Which of the following substances can be derived from petroleum?


(1) Ethanol
(2) Polythene
(3) Soapy detergents
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

31.9: The cleaning abilities of soaps and soapless detergents in hard water
(CDC guide: Cleaning abilities of soaps and soapless detergents in hard water)

Hard water differs from soft water in that hard water


A has a high concentration of sodium or calcium ions.
B forms scum with soapy detergents while soft water does not.
C forms lather with soapless detergents while soft water does not.
D never forms lather with soapy detergents.

Both soapy detergents and soapless detergents


A are non-biodegradable.
B function well in acidic solutions.

C
D

are emulsifying agents.


are derived from petroleum.

Both soapy detergents and soapless detergents


A are toxic.
B are produced from saponification of fats or oils.
C give lather with tap water.
D have the same hydrophilic head.

Which of the following statements concerning soaps is correct?


A Soaps have good cleaning power in hard water.
B Soaps can be used to treat crude oil spills in the sea.
C Soaps are derived from chemicals obtained from refining of petroleum.
D The structure of a soap particle consists of a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail.

Which of the following statements about soapless detergents is correct?


A They function well in hard water.
B They lose their cleaning ability in acidic solutions.
C They lose their cleaning ability in sea water.
D They are made from natural fats or oils.

A detergent has the following structure:

Which of the following statements concerning this detergent is correct?


A It is biodegradable.
B It does not function well in soft water.
C It can be manufactured from fats.

The part,

, is hydrophobic.

A detergent has the following structure:

Which of the following statements concerning this detergent is correct?


A It is manufactured from chemicals derived from petroleum.
B Its hydrocarbon chain is hydrophilic.
C It acts as an emulsifier in the cleaning process.
D It functions well in strongly acidic solutions.

Which of the following statements about soapy detergent is INCORRECT?


A It has a lower solubility in sodium chloride solution than in water.
B It works well in sea water.
C It is produced from saponification of fats or oils.
D It can be decomposed by bacteria.

Which of the following statements about soapy detergents is INCORRECT?


A They lose their cleaning ability in hard water.
B They are non-toxic.
C They cannot be used in washing machines.
D They can be decomposed by bacteria readily.

10

Soapy detergents and soapless detergents behave differently in hard water because they
A have different hydrophilic heads.
B have different hydrophobic hydrocarbon chains.
C have different pH values.
D are made by different chemical methods.

11

Which of the following comparisons between soapy detergents and soapless detergents is
correct?
Soapy detergents
Soapless detergents
A Biodegradable
Non-biodegradable

B
C
D

Lather in hard water


Function well in acidic solutions
All are alkaline

Never lather in hard water


No cleaning ability in acidic solutions
Some are acidic

12

Some detergents contain sodium carbonate because sodium carbonate can


A reduce the hardness of water.
B help emulsify grease in water.
C make detergents biodegradable.
D lower the surface tension of water.

13

In which of the following cases will a precipitate form?

14

2 cm3 of soap solution are added to equal volume of three different liquids. After shaking, the
tubes are allowed to stand. The results are shown below:

Which of the following combinations is correct?


X
Y
Z
A Dilute sodium
Rainwater
Concentrated
nitrate solution
calcium nitrate
solution
B Rainwater
Dilute sodium
Distilled
nitrate solution
water
C Dilute calcium
Dilute sodium
Concentrated
nitrate solution
nitrate solution
sodium nitrate
solution
D Dilute calcium
Distilled water
Concentrated
nitrate solution
calcium nitrate
solution

15

Solution X gives a grey solid when it is added to a soapy detergent. When X is added to a
soapless detergent, only lather is observed.
X might be
A tap water.
B dilute sodium chloride solution.
C dilute sodium hydrogencarbonate solution.
D limewater.

16

Hard water differs from soft water in that hard water has a higher concentration of
(1) magnesium ions.
(2) phosphate ions.
(3) carbonate ions.
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

17

Which of the following ions are responsible for the hardness of water?
(1) Ammonium ions
(2) Calcium ions
(3) Magnesium ions
(4) Sodium ions
A (1) and (4) only
B (2) and (3) only
C (1), (3) and (4) only
D (2), (3) and (4) only

18

Which of the following statements concerning hard water are correct?


(1) It wastes soap.
(2) It can cause hot water pipes to block.
(3) It contains calcium ions that are required by the body for the growth of bones and teeth.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

19

Which of the following substances can react with calcium chloride solution?
(1) Soap solution
(2) Dilute sulphuric acid
(3) Potassium carbonate solution
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

20

Which of the following compounds would increase the hardness of tap water?
(1) Potassium phosphate
(2) Magnesium sulphate
(3) Calcium carbonate
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only

(2) and (3) only

21

What will happen if dilute hydrochloric acid is shaken with a large amount of soap solution?
(1) A white precipitate is formed.
(2) Lather is formed.
(3) Scum is formed.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

22

Which of the following solutions, when added, will reduce the cleaning ability of a soap
solution?
(1) Hydrochloric acid
(2) Magnesium nitrate solution
(3) Sodium carbonate solution
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

23

In which of the above cases would a lather form?


A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only

(1), (2) and (3)

24

Which of the following are advantages of using soapless detergents over soapy detergents?
(1) They can function well in hard water.
(2) They can function well in acidic solutions.
(3) They can be tailor-made to tackle a particular cleaning problem.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

25

Soapless detergents can improve the cleaning ability of water because


(1) they can soften hard water.
(2) they are wetting agents.
(3) they are emulsifying agents.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

26

Which of the following statements about soaps is / are correct?


(1) It is non-biodegradable.
(2) A soap particle has an ionic head and a hydrocarbon tail.
(3) It loses cleaning ability in both acidic solutions and hard water.
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

31.10: Environmental problems associated with the use of detergents


(CDC guide: Environmental problems associated with the use of detergents)

Which of the following statements concerning problems associated with the use of detergents
is INCORRECT?
A Some detergents form foam in rivers or seas which kills aquatic life.
B Phosphate additives in detergents lead to the rapid growth of algae.
C All detergents are toxic to marine life.
D Some detergents may cause skin allergies.

Which of the following actions can make detergents more environmentally friendly?
A Add sodium carbonate to detergents.
B Add some bacteria to detergents.
C Convert straight-chain hydrocarbons of detergents into branched-chain hydrocarbons.
D Convert branched-chain hydrocarbons of detergents into straight-chain hydrocarbons.

3
A
B
C
D

Which of the following is NOT a problem caused by the use of soapless detergents?
They may be irritating to skin.
They may increase the hardness of water.
They may cause algal blooms.
They may cause suffocation of aquatic life.

A detergent has the following structure:

Which of the following statements concerning this detergent is correct?


A It can be made by reacting a vegetable oil with an alkali.
B It forms lather when shaken with distilled water.
C It is readily degraded by micro-organisms.
D It does not function well in acidic solutions.

Directions: Questions 5 and 6 refer to the following detergents:

Which of the above detergents is / are non-biodegradable?


A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

Which of the following statements about the three detergents is correct?


A They function well in distilled water.
B They increase the surface tension of water.
C They are made from petroleum.
D Their hydrocarbon chains are hydrophilic.

Which of the following are problems associated with the discharge of waste water containing
detergents into rivers?
(1) They may lead to algal blooms.
(2) Soapy detergents are non-biodegradable.
(3) Foam may kill aquatic life.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

Which of the following can explain the death of aquatic life when soapy detergents are
discharged into rivers?
(1) They make the water too acidic for aquatic life.
(2) Bacteria use up the oxygen in water during the decomposition of soapy detergents.
(3) They make the water too hard for aquatic life.
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

Which of the following is / are advantage(s) of using soapless detergents over soapy
detergents?
(1) Soapless detergents work well in acidic solutions.
(2) Soapless detergents are biodegradable.
(3) Soapless detergents cause fewer pollution problems.
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

10

A detergent has the following structure:

Which of the following statements concerning this detergent are correct?


(1) It is biodegradable.
(2) It functions well in sea water.
(3) The part, CH3(CH2)10CH2 is hydrophobic.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

11

Which of the following problems are associated with the excessive use of soapless detergents?
(1) They may cause blooms of algae when discharged into rivers.
(2) They form foam when discharged into rivers.
(3) They form scum when discharged into the sea.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

12

A detergent has the following structure:

Which of the following statements concerning this detergent are correct?


(1) It functions well in sea water.
(2) It cannot be decomposed by micro-organisms readily.
(3) It acts as an emulsifier in the cleaning process.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)