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Prokaryotes can survive in harsh environments

*CELL WALL made of peptidoglycan

- protects cell & maintains shape
- prevents cell from bursting

*Gram stain technique in categorizing bacteria based on differences in cell wall
(Hans Christian Gram)
1. stain with crystal violet dye & iodine
2. rinse in alcohol
3. stain with red dye (i.e. safranin)
gram positive violet; simple, made of thick peptidoglycan
gram negative red; complex, thin peptidoglycan and thick
lipopolysaccharide layer on outer membrane, more resistant to
*Capsule or slime layer protection againsdt host's immune system or for
attachment to host or members of the colony
*Endospores copy of the cell that can halt metabolism when environmental
conditions are unfavorable, and rehydrate itself when the conditions are again

*Fimbriae hair-like appendages used for attachment to substrate or to one
*Taxis- movement toward or away from stimulus
ex. Chemotaxis
flagella (motor, hook, filament)
*nucleoid contains less DNA than nucleus of eukaryotes; circular chromosomes
*reproduces by binary fission
*have short generation times
*F- plasmids, Hfr, R-plasmids
*Nutrition autotrophs (photo or chemo) or heterotrophs
obligate aerobes- need O2
obligate anaerobes poisoned by O2
facultative anaerobes use O2 if present
*Nitrogen metabolism
nitrogen fixation N2 NH3 (ammonia incorporated in amino acids)
*Metabolic cooperation
ex. Anabaena forms filamentous chains for photosynthesis & nitrogen
fixation (a single cell
cannot perform both because O2
produces in photosynthesis inactivates enzymes
for nitrogen
* heterocysts carry out nitrogen fixation; thick cell walls restrict entry of O2

Major groups of Bacteria

I. Gram negative bacteria
A) Proteobacterium
1) Alpha (Rhizobium, nitrogen fixation)
2) Beta
3) Gamma (Legionella, Salmonella, Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli)
4) Delta
5) Epsilon
B) Chlamydias parasites of animals; rely on host for ATP
- no peptidoglycan in cell wall
ex. Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia)
C) Spirochetes rotate using internal flagella-like filaments; most are free
ex. Trepomonema pallidum (syphilis)
Bomelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease)
D) Cyanobacteria photoautotrophs

II. Gram positive bacteria

Bacillus anthracis
Clostridium botulinum
Mycoplasma only bacteria with no cell wall
Mutualistic bacteria
ex. Bacteroides thetaiotamicron gut mutualists that are involved in
carbohydrates, vitamins, and other
nutrients needed by humans
Pathogenic bacteria
ex. Myobacterium tuberculosis
Borrelia burgdorferi
Exotoxin - proteins secreted by bacteria & other organisms
Vibrio cholerae exotoxin stimulates intestinal cells to release
chloride ions, water follows by osmosis
Clostridium botulinum ferments food (improperly canned meat,
Clostridium difficile causes severe diarrhea
Endotoxin lipopolysaccharide components of gram negative bacteria;
released only
the bacteria die and the cell walls break
ex. Salmonella typhi

I. Euryarchaeota
1. Extreme Halophiles (i.e. Halobacterium)
2. Methanogens use CO2 to oxidize H2, forms energy and methane
- poisoned by O2
-live in moderate environments
II. Crenarchaeota
Exterme thermophiles
ex. Sulfolobus live in sulfur-rich volcanic springs @ 90C
ex. strain 121- live near hydrothermal vents @ 121C
III. Korarchaeota new species
IV. Nanoarchaeota small symbionts of larger prokarya