Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

311 vues

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- door 24 app guide
- summer project guidelines
- Mathematical Thinking
- Research course plan
- Math Strategies and Games for Number Sense
- your rubric math - problem solving scavenger hunt
- Untitled
- Chitter Chatter Time Issue 1: What Are Problems?
- Section2 Problem Solving Strategies
- new math concept-1st semester slides 31-50
- LangenessJennifer
- Madhu Final Project
- Author Guidelines JIML 2018
- reactionpapereduc206
- Sorenson Research Filming of Naturally Occuring Phenomena Basic Strategies 1995
- digital unit plan template 1
- Reflect
- CE20100300008_45591409.pdf
- Future and Emerging Technologies
- UoS Outline BUSS2500 INT FEB 2015 Approved

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 32

Introduction:

Human is the most superior of all the animals created by God. With the ability to

think, human has all the natural curiosity and a strong desire to explore new things. Thus,

he undergoes the process of learning automatically, that he himself could not notice.

problems which he himself cannot solve. This results to the exposure of human to

technology and as the evolution of the human thinking continues, artificial intelligence

props up.

However, with all the gadgets produced by technology, human tends to rely much on

these that makes him either genius or very dependent to it, that without it, he becomes

invalid.

The first calculating aids, thousands of years ago, were counting devices such as the

abacus.

Pascal is the first true mechanical calculator that could add and subtract. In 1671, the

German mathematician and physicist Gottfried von Leibiz used similar concepts in a

calculator that can add and multiply. In 1894, the American inventor William Burroughs

received a patent for the first practical adding machine for business use.

1

Mechanical calculators were outmoded in 1960’s and 1970’s by electronic units.

These new products were much faster and quieter and could perform calculations that are

circuits, electronic calculators decreased in size and at the same time increased in

capabilities.

academic, the researchers’ individual interest to it arouse that lead to the study of the

Mathematical skills of BSECE freshmen of FEU-East Asia College for A.Y. 2007-2008.

studies. Since their curriculum requires so many mathematical subjects to take, they treat

their calculators as their “buddy” whenever they enter math subject classes.

2

With the researchers’ keen observation, they have spotted problems on how

mathematics, which should be mastered little by little, as they pass from one term to

another, but unfortunately, they are not and the other is the students’ search for instant

The researchers want to show their co-students the status and the truth about

calculator dependence in the school. Moreover, calculator has been a part of a students’

every life, but the hazards it gives to him have never been discussed clearly until now. In

this research, the researchers want to be an eye-opener to the people concerned with this

problem.

In this research paper, the researchers will start with the basics about calculator

and its functions. Then, the causes and effects of Calculator Dependence will also be

discussed.

They will be conducting surveys with the aid of a close ended questionnaire

which will be responded by sixty (60) BSECE freshmen of FEU- East Asia College for

the 3rd term of the Academic Year 2007-2008; divided equally to its four (4) sections

This research will be done from the start of the third term, HMODCO1 class up to

3

Definition of Terms:

Algorithm • a precise rule (or set of rules) specifying how to solve some problem

Arithmetic • the art of adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing by the use of figures

intellectually

Dependence • the state of relying on or needing someone or something for aid, support,

or the like.

truncated essay

4

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

recognized studies. Thus, they consulted written and non-written sources for the readers

Foreign Literature:

According to Cowdery (2004), the majority of parents and teachers are saying that

calculator should not be introduced until children have learned their basic skills.

This argument also has shown some facts about the effects of early exposure of

children to calculator.

Firstly, one concern among those who pushes caution in the calculator

introduction is that the calculator availability will make the children believe that manual

Secondly, how will learning be improved by using calculator which will perform

correct order of mathematical operations when the child himself does not know the right

Lastly, because early calculator exposure leads to the lack of basic arithmetic

knowledge, learning advanced concepts will also be interfered for arithmetic is the

Therefore, the students should be taught not only how to use calculator but also

when is it appropriate to do so. Moreover, it would make more sense to simply not allow

5

the use of calculators until the student has exhibited the ability to perform the proper

our human life?” calculator has created backlashes. First, it had made students dependent

on it making them improve their arithmetic skills inactively. Especially with graphic

calculator, the analytic discussion of any subject is truncated which makes the students

reduce their analytic skills because they just allow their calculators to get the extremas or

A student should learn to use this gadget to his greater advancement not to his

According to a professional math tutor who has been exposed to a wide variety of

students over a period of about fifteen years, as the calculator has become more and more

He claimed that he is also into technology but it does bother him whenever he

sees middle and high school students who do not have their multiplication table

memorized and unable to do single digit addition in their heads. These matters are often

6

There were also instances where he has met parents complaining about their

child’s grades. According to them, their children do great in doing their home works but

they fail in tests. It’s because, according to him, the students use calculators to finish their

home works, however, when tests come where they are not allowed to use calculators;

they commit a lot of careless mistakes and/or are not able to accomplish the test in the

allotted time.

There are also students who do not have a strong sense for numbers. They merely

believe whatever the calculator displays whether an answer is reasonable or not. They

feel that calculators are more intelligent and quicker that’s why they trust whatever it

Therefore, he stated that dependence usually starts in the upper elementary school

level. He wanted to warn the parents to look after their children for the earlier this

drown to chalkboard lectures, they proposed the use of cool stuffs like calculators and

geoboards, hands-on, open-ended problems and exercises that encourage kids to discover

their own way to the right answer (new math). In general, the standards focus on how

7

According to their studies, students will be better problem-solvers and will think

more. However, listening to the opponents’ voice, including concerned parents, it’s really

threatening when students dumped the most basic algorithms or first-graders turning to a

The advocates requested the people concerned to have more patience. Thomas

Romberg, one of the writers of the revolutionized 1989 mathematics standards claimed

that they still need to have a fair amount of research and teacher training which would

probably take 20 to 25 years to complete. However, parents whose 12-year-olds still can’t

count on their fingers don’t have patience to wait that long. (Romesh, 1997)

Local Literature

Evidences were shown that the infusion of technology with education will help

the students prepare for the entrance into an increasing technological work competence.

through technology and for the students to identify with mathematics. The

disidentification (a process that occurs when people stop caring about their performance

in an area or domain that formerly mattered a great deal) hypothesis outlines ways at

which students might actively choose to not participate in math after they are exposed to

The research of Fernandez (1997) implies that graphing calculators have the

potential to help the students bear with math. Dunham’s research on graphing calculator

8

use among female proved that they improved in areas of confidence and spatial ability.

Synthesis:

According to the earlier studies conducted about calculator and its effect to the

education here in the Philippines and abroad, calculator have really brought about some

The students’ approach to mathematics has also been affected. Children who have

had early exposure to calculator tend to rely on it a lot and think that calculator are more

intelligent that them. They doubt with their answers whenever they do mathematical

calculations without mechanical aid. Moreover, their arithmetic skills develop inactively

abroad making even the parents of the students get involved because of the obvious effect

On the contrary, there was a study showing that the infusion of technology with

As of this moment, the researchers continue to study the issue and discuss the

factors concerning it. One of the factors they are focusing at is when should be the right

9

CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This research aims to present facts about the present situation of calculator

In this chapter, the method, instrument, sampling design and statistical treatment

will be discussed so that the readers may know and put themselves into the process the

Research Method:

The researchers used the descriptive method to determine the effects of calculator

dependence to the mathematical skills of FEU – East Asia College BSECE freshmen for

This method aims to identify the trend of calculator dependence among students

in the academe.

The researchers chose this method because as part of the descriptive method, they

only used simple types of statistics for the readers’ better comprehension.

Research Instrument:

The researchers used a questionnaire to have the needed data materialized. They

used carefully constructed questions to get in return, honest and satisfying answers.

10

Sampling Design:

The researchers used the simple random sampling. The FEU – East Asia College

population is too large to examine that’s why they only focused on the BSECE freshmen

for the 3rd term of the Academic Year 2007-2008. Moreover, this method allows them to

In accordance to the sampling rule, they gave each BSECE freshmen the equal

chance of inclusion to the research. They chose 15 students from each of the four sections

Statistical Treatment:

followed a formula where the quotient of the frequency over the total number of

respondents was multiplied by 100% that equates to the percentage of respondents who

P= f x 100%

n

where p = percentage

f = frequency

11

CHAPTER IV

ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

Table #1

f p

User 60 100%

Non user 0 0%

Total 60 100%

Graph #1

As the table and graph show, 100% or all of the respondents use calculator.

Table #2

12

Time of Calculator Introduction to the Respondents

f p

Preschool 5 8.33%

Elementary 24 40%

High School 30 50%

College 1 1.67%

Total 60 100%

Graph #2

50% of the respondents start using calculator during high school. It is followed by

elementary with 40%, preschool with 8.33%, and college with 1.67%

Table #3

13

Frequency of Calculator Use among the Respondents

f p

Never 0 0%

Seldom 8 13.33%

Often 33 55%

Always 19 31.67%

Total 60 100%

Graph #3

Based on the result, only three frequencies of calculator usage were seen: always, often

and seldom. 55% of the respondents often use calculator; 31.67% always use calculator;

Table #4

14

f p

4 5 8.33%

3 4 6.67%

2 18 30%

1 (highest) 33 55%

Total 60 100%

Graph #4

According to the data, 55% of the respondents answered 1 or the highest degree of

Table #5

15

f p

Able 40 66.67%

Unable 20 33.33%

Total 60 100%

Graph #5

As you can see, respondents who are able to solve problems without calculator is 66.67%

Table #6

f p

16

Confident 21 35%

Not confident 39 65%

Total 60 100%

Graph #6

The table shows that out of 60 BSECE freshmen, 65% are not confident to solve without

calculator and 35% of them claimed that they are confident enough to solve problems

without calculator.

Table #7

f p

Yes 7 11.67%

17

No 53 88.33%

Total 60 100%

Graph #7

88.33% of the respondents cannot survive college without calculator while 11.67% can

Table #8

f p

Believers 33 55%

Non believers 27 45%

18

Total 60 100%

Graph #8

Based on the result, 55% of the respondents believe that calculator improves their

Table #9

Respondents who believe that Calculator helps them Better Grades in Mathematical

Subjects

f p

19

Believers 53 88.33%

Non believers 7 4.67%

Total 60 100%

Graph #9

Respondents who believe that calculator helps them get better grades in math subjects is

respondents.

Table #10

f p

Hate 11 18.33%

Do not hate 49 81.67%

Total 60 100%

20

Graph #10

Respondents who don’t hate math subjects are 81.67% and those who do are 18.33%.

CHAPTER V

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

Summary of Findings:

21

The researchers conducted the research to determine the effects of calculator

dependence to the mathematical skills of FEU – East Asia College BSECE Freshmen for

the 3rd term of the academic year 2007-2008. In conducting the research, they used the

descriptive method, simple random sampling and questionnaire to gather the needed data

for the completion of the study. They consolidated the responses of 60 BSECE freshmen,

equally divided into 15 respondents from each of the four sections. The research was

After the result of the survey has been evaluated, the researchers found out that all

of the 60 respondents are using calculator. It has also been found out that the common

time of calculator introduction to the respondents was in high school which is according

to the 50% of the respondents. Also, according to the data, 55% of the respondents value

their calculator very much ranking it first in the level of importance. Given an example of

that they can solve it without calculator. However, when they were asked about their

confidence when it comes to solving problems without mechanical aid, 655 of them said

that they are not confident. 88.33% or 53 out of 60 respondents claimed that they cannot

survive college without calculator. 55% of them believe that calculator improves their

mathematical skills and 88.33% which is 53 out of 60 answered that calculator helps

And after the long process of studying and gathering of relevant information

about the topic, the researchers can now answer the raised questions in the beginning of

the study.

22

As answered by the 55% or 33 out of 60 respondents, they value their calculators very

much giving it the rate of 1 which is the highest in the degree of importance

given.

Calculator dependence is the state of relying on calculator for the aid or support if

Early introduction of calculator use and lack of basic arithmetic knowledge cause

calculator dependence.

Calculator dependence makes the students believe that manual and mental calculations

perform basic mathematics decline; and makes the students loose their strong

Conclusion:

The researchers therefore conclude that the BSECE freshmen of FEU – East Asia

College for the 3rd term of the academic year 2007-2008 are calculator dependent.

23

The main cause of this dependence is the early introduction of calculator use to

the students.

Makes students believe that manual and mental calculations are no longer

important

Makes the students loose their strong sense for numbers and confidence in

solving problems

Recommendations

Calculator must be introduced to the students in the right time. It is only when the

student has already exhibited the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations

without mechanical aids. The parents can do a great role in doing this. They must guide

their children in doing their homework. Their children might use the calculator to

complete their math home works and this will be the start of calculator dependence.

Moreover, the students must rely much on the calculator because in the end, they

will be the “looser”. They must use the calculator as an aid for them to solve some

problems but they must never let the calculator do all their tasks as a math student.

Depending much on the calculator will stop their own skill’s development inactively and

24

The Government’s Department of Education must also pay attention to this

problem because its impact is directly affecting the students who will be the next leader

of the country.

Furthermore, the leaders of the academe can do the first move. They are the head

of the institution and they have the power to regulate the time of calculator introduction

to the students.

The problem propped up when the calculator which has the ability to perform

basic and complicated calculations was invented; what more when the continuously

discovering mind of human finds a more advance mechanical aid? Calculator must keep

students from benefiting one of the most important reasons learning math – to train and

APPENDIX I

Letter to the Respondents

25

March 25, 2008

To the respondent:

We are here to inform you that our group is conducting a study on how calculator

dependence affects the mathematical skills of BSECE freshmen of FEU – East Asia

College for the A.Y. 2007-2008. In line with this, we have constructed a questionnaire for

you to answer that will solidify our study.

Your participation will be a great help to our group to come up with a successful

research paper. We are expecting you to answer the formulated questions sincerely and

honestly.

We assure you that all the answers that you will be giving will be confidentially

kept by our group.

At the end of our study, we are willing to inform you of whatever success and

achievement that we will be attaining if you wish so.

Respectfully yours,

Peña, Ruth

Reyes, Nadhine

Cruz, Reymart

Hilario, Alexis

APPENDIX II

THE FINAL QUESTIONNAIRE

Calculator Dependence: Its effect to the mathematical skills of FEU – East Asia College

26

ECE Freshmen for the 3rd term of the Academic Year 2007-2008.

Personal Data (Optional)

Name: ____________________________________________________________

Section: _______________ Gender: __________________

Survey Questionnaire

Direction: Check the box that corresponds to your answer.

1. Are you using calculator?

Yes No

2. When did you start using calculator?

Preschool Elementary High School College

(Please specify grade or year level) _______________________________.

3. How often do you use calculator?

Never Seldom Often Always

4. Rate how useful calculator is to you. (1 is the highest).

4 3 2 1

5. Can you perform operations involving dissimilar fractions without calculator? Decide

by answering this: 5/16 – 3/19.

Yes No

6. Are you confident to solve problems without calculator?

Yes No

7. Do you think you can survive college without calculator?

Yes No

8. Do you think calculator improves your mathematical skills?

Yes No

9. Do you think calculator helps you get better grades in math subjects?

Yes No

10. Do you hate mathematical subjects?

Yes No

APPENDIX III

PRETESTING QUESTIONNAIRE

27

Calculator Dependence: Its effects to the mathematical skills of FEU – East Asia College

BSECE Freshmen for the 3rd term of the Academic Year 2007-2008.

Name: ____________________________________________________________

Section: _______________ Gender: __________________

Survey Questionnaire

Direction: Check the box that corresponds to your answer.

1. Are you using calculator?

Yes No

2. When did you start using calculator?

Elementary High School College

(Please specify grade or year level) _______________________________.

3. How often do you use calculator?

Always Sometimes Never

4. Rate how useful calculator is to you. (1 is the highest).

5 4 3 2 1

5. Can you perform operations involving dissimilar fractions without calculator?

Yes No

6. How do you find solving problems without calculator?

Easy Moderate Difficult

7. Do you think you can survive college without calculator?

Yes No

8. Do you think calculator improves your mathematical skills?

Yes No

9. Do you think calculator helps you get better grades in math subjects?

Yes No

10. Do you think you are a calculator dependent?

Yes No

APPENDIX IV

PRETESTING RESULT

28

Table #1

Yes No Total

Question #1 lllll-lllll-lllll-lllll 0 20

Table #2

Question #2 lll lllll-lllll-lllll-l l 20

Table #3

Question #3 lll lllll-lllll-lllll-ll 0 20

Table #4

Importance of Calculator

5 4 3 2 1 Total

Question #4 0 lll lllll lllll-l lllll-l 20

Table #5

Question #5 llll-lllll-lllll-lll ll 20

Table #6

29

Degree of Difficulty in Solving Math Problems without Calculator

Question #6 lllll-lllll-lllll-lllll 20

Table #7

Yes No Total

Question #7 lllll-lllll-lllll-lllll 20

Table #8

Number of Respondents who believe that Calculator improves their Mathematical Skills

Yes No Total

Question #8 lllll-llll lllll-lllll-l 20

Table #9

Question #9 lllll-lllll-lllll-llll l 20

Table #10

Question #10 lllll-ll lllll-lllll-ll l 20

30

REFERENCES

Books

Smith, R.T. (2002) Calculus: Multivariable (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw – Hill

Companies, Inc.

from http://www.mylot.com/w/discussions/1387588.aspx

31

Anonymous. (n.d.). Review of the literature: Disidentification and the mathematics

http://www.mste.uiuc.edu/dildine/thesis/jpd2.html

http://www.district87.org/staff/cowderyt/CalculatorDebate/Literature

%20Review.html

http://www.epinions.com/content_1350410372

Online Periodical

Ratnesar, R. (1997). This is math?. Time magazine. Retrieved February 26,2008 from

http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1561144-2,00.html

32

- door 24 app guideTransféré parapi-293207361
- summer project guidelinesTransféré parAkshay Bhujbal
- Mathematical ThinkingTransféré parviioletta
- Research course planTransféré parginugeorge49530
- Math Strategies and Games for Number SenseTransféré parSarah Miller
- your rubric math - problem solving scavenger huntTransféré parapi-351785061
- UntitledTransféré parLesson Study Project
- Chitter Chatter Time Issue 1: What Are Problems?Transféré parC. Jane Mitchell-Person
- Section2 Problem Solving StrategiesTransféré parmarchelo_chelo
- new math concept-1st semester slides 31-50Transféré parapi-185266495
- LangenessJenniferTransféré parsurenstyle
- Madhu Final ProjectTransféré parKarunakar Panda
- Author Guidelines JIML 2018Transféré parintanlisna
- reactionpapereduc206Transféré parapi-341209699
- Sorenson Research Filming of Naturally Occuring Phenomena Basic Strategies 1995Transféré parPedro Portella Macedo
- digital unit plan template 1Transféré parapi-250621634
- ReflectTransféré parcjeeyy
- CE20100300008_45591409.pdfTransféré parJohn Wilpher Arambulo Añain
- Future and Emerging TechnologiesTransféré parshivsankar_s
- UoS Outline BUSS2500 INT FEB 2015 ApprovedTransféré parBelindaRong
- tech integration matrix-4Transféré parapi-316487780
- teachingchildrentocare10-17Transféré parapi-303788768
- The Importance of Oral Presentations for University Students (Zivkovic, S. 2014)Transféré parmal6640
- UnitOverview.docxTransféré parQuiana Stewart
- Skitka-Sargis - Promise and PerilTransféré parZoltchy
- ANALISA LAPORAN KEUANGANTransféré pardindaadina
- Research Beginners Guide for Applied Research ProcessTransféré parChristine Nichole Calilung
- 1-s2.0-S187704281504344X-main.pdfTransféré parLove Joy Banez
- Case study on Business Development Through Bid Management TechniqueTransféré parrahul razdan
- delaney iste stds self assessmentTransféré parapi-380863551

- Professional Adjustment: A ReviewTransféré parjava_biscocho1229
- Intro to SemanticsTransféré parmalinks
- Wallis- AdvayavajraTransféré parfortyrr
- anne frank compare-contrast lesson planTransféré parapi-278247654
- Cat Paper 5-Managing-People-and-SystemsTransféré parRose Hyuniza
- FrogPlay ManualTeacher EN2016 (1)Transféré paranyoness_88
- Sapienza Summer School 2016Transféré parNaza Zafira
- Dynamic Measurement Group ComplaintTransféré parKenan Farrell
- Managing Automatic Negative ThoughtsTransféré parparajms8778
- สไลด์ประกอบการศึกษาวิชา น.๗๘๖ ครั้งที่ ๓ (๓๐ มิถุนายน ๒๕๕๔)Transféré parชาคริต สิทธิเวช
- ART CG IIITransféré parAnsel Guillien Samson
- Como Ser Un Buen Project ManagerTransféré parDiana Andino
- 1model TAPPSTransféré parFebri Ramdani
- Course JournalTransféré parNirali Dutiya
- 5208611 How to Prepare for Ielts ReadingTransféré parmaniscript
- full-year cTransféré parapi-439220457
- GIAC Program Overview v2015Transféré parroruang
- Psychology Myers-briggsTransféré parDavid Booker
- Project Synopsis RakeshTransféré parRakesh Chopra
- Participatory+Rural+AppraisalTransféré parJagan Mohan
- Rpt year 2 2018Transféré parWan Nurathirah Wan Omar
- Neoliberal Ideals and PovertyTransféré parMason Giem
- DealsTransféré parmabdulqayum7792
- Adult ADHD - Effective Treatment StrategiesTransféré parDefault User
- catering for diverse cultural and academic needsTransféré parapi-254355883
- Diogenes of BabylonTransféré parXristina Bartzou
- Born, Not Made the Entrepreneurial Personality James L. Fisher and James v. KochTransféré pargeronimo007
- JobsTransféré parFaisal Abbas Bastami
- resume mullendoredilsaver 041414Transféré parapi-242532497
- Negativity vs. PositivityTransféré parmcdozer

## Bien plus que des documents.

Découvrez tout ce que Scribd a à offrir, dont les livres et les livres audio des principaux éditeurs.

Annulez à tout moment.