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WEEK3

(07thOctober2015)
ConferencePaper:CorrosionControlOffshorePlatforms

1. Background
Corrosion is controlled with cathodic protection in the submerged portions. Principal
developments in recent years have been improved coatings, builtin longlife galvanic systems
and permanently mounted impressed current systems. Platform designs which minimize the
number of members decreasing the area to be maintained and streamlining the surfaces to
betteraccommodatecoatingsandcathodicprotectionhaveaidedincontrollingcorrosion.

2. ProblemStatement
Presenttechnologyshouldbeadequatefordeeperwatersorforfloatingorunderwaterfacilities
projected for the future; however, improvements In methods and materials are needed for
added reliability. Further application of improved coatings and expanded use of impressed
currentsystemsshouldlowercostsinthefuture.

3. Objective
Tointroducefurtherapplicationofimprovedcoatingsandexpandedusedofimpressedcurrent
systemforcorrosioncontrolofoffshoreplatforms.

4. ScopeofStudy

ImmersedZone

Cathodic protection to prevent corrosion on the immersed surfaces is provided by


sacrificial galvanic anodes or by impressed current system which utilize generator
rectifierunitsandspecialanodeswhichresistdeterioration.
Underwatercorrosionresultswhenanelectricalcurrentflowsawayfrommetalsurface.
Cathodicprotectionisachievedbyflowingdirectcurrenttothemetalsurfacetoreverse
orsmotherallexistingcorrosioncells.
Protection is influenced by the location of the current source, the total area to be
protected,watersalinity,watertemperature,watervelocityandtheshapeofsurface.
Propercurrentdensityrequiredtoobtainprotectionmustbeestablished.

Colderwaterpermitsamuchgreaterdissolvedoxygencontent.
ForGalvanicsystems,magnesiumwasthefirstanodematerialtobeused.Then,other
materials such as aluminium or zinc were not reliable in produced form. Often they
becomepassiveduetoimpuritiesandmetallurgicalproblems.
Maintenancewashighbecausetheanodesrequiredfrequentreplacement,butstormor
hurricanelossexposurewaslimitedbecauseofsmallnumberofanodesused.
In deeper waters, the current necessary to protect the larger platforms was much
greater,requiringmanymoreanodes.Cablesforhanginganodeswerelongerandeasily
fouled.
Considerationturnedtopermanentorintegralanodeinstallationnotsubjecttostorm
damage and with extended replacement frequencies. High driving potential of
magnesiumwasmaterialsprincipaldisadvantagetolonglifedesigns.I
Installingextramagnesiumonplatformwouldwastefullyoverprotectthestructurebut
wouldnotextendthelifeofsystem.
Thenunreliabilityofzinchadbeensolvedin1954btPeabodywhichshowedthatiron
wasacriticalimpurityandshouldbelimitedto14ppm.ThenfurtherworkbyLennoxand
Carson in 1960 indicated a small amount of aluminium and cadmium were beneficial
and increased the tolerance of zinc to iron. Result was a reliable anode material with
lowdrivingpotential(1.1volts)andhigheefficiency.Thenzincwasfirstusedinlonglife
systemintheGulf.Theanodesareweldedintothestructureacrosscorners.
Then aluminium replace zinc because zincs price increased in 1965. Aluminiums
galvanicpropertiesalmostsimilartozinc/swhichmakesitsuitableasalongtermanode
material. But, its reliability have been a problem because pure aluminium is a poor
anodematerialbecauseitoxidizesrapidlyandtheoxidecoatingisaneffectivebarrier
prohibitingchemicalactivity.
Thenworkhasbeendonetoformulatespecialalloystocounteracttheoxidecoatings
and for efficiencies. 2 types of alloys being used which is tertiary alloy and mercury
aluminium alloy. Mercury alluminium alloys have been tested and showed efficiencies
of95percent.
For impressed current system, continuous power generation is essential so most
systemsnowinuseareonstructuresinolderdevelopedfieldswherereliablepoweris
in service for living quarters, automation or communications equipment. ISS require
anode materials which can discharge a current and not be consumed. Anodes
commonlyusedaregraphiteandcastirononlandarerapidlyconsumedatthecurrent
ratesrequiredforoffshore.
Leadsilverantimonymaterialisprimaryanodematerialforoffshoreimpressedcurrent
systemandnearlynonconsummable.Anodesaresuspendedfromthe+10footlevelof
the platform by their current cables and at varying depth to provide good current
distributionthroughouttheplatform.

SplashZone

Mostcriticalareaofprotectionduetoalternatesubmergencyandaeration.
Noncorrosivecoveringseithercoatingsorwrappingsareusedwithsacrificialsteel.
Coveringswroughtiron,fiberglass,stainlesssteel,monel
Monel provides permanent protection but easily damaged by abrasion from floating
marineequipment.
Improved platform design which eliminates as much as possible of bracings in splash
areadecreasedtheproblem.

AtmosphericZone

Area of least corrosion rate where the most expensive to maintain on a total
expenditurebasis.
Onlycoatingscanbeutilizedforthisportionofstructure.
Quality coatings are costly to apply and subjected mechanical operation damage and
fromcausticdrillingfluids.
Improvement in coatings and applications have increased protection levels and have
reducedthefrequencyofmaintenance.
Platformsaresandblastedtowhitemetalandcoatedduringconstruction.
Additionalrepaintingisthenrequiredatabout58yearintervalsthereafter.
Corrosionresistant steel alloys such as Corten which are used for noncoated
construction in less hostile atmosphere have potential as a cost reduction measure.
Although coatings would be required on such steel offshore, saving would result from
less frequent painting, less corrosion damage in abraded areas where the coating is
damagedandgreaterstrengthinherentinthesematerials.

5. Conclusion
Significant development occurred in coatings, platform designs minimizing the number of
structuralmembers,andbuiltingalvanicsystems.
Most materials and systems used today for offshore corrosion control have been developed
since1960.
Thesecostswillincreaseasindustrymovesintodeeperwaterwithplatforms.
Further application of improved coatings and extended use of impressed current systems
shouldhelplowerfutureunitcost.
Thereisroomforimprovementintechniquesandmaterialstoensuregreaterreliability.

WEEK3
(08thOctober2015)
ConferencePaper:OffshorePlatformsinIndonesia

1. Background
The number of offshore platforms in Indonesia has been increasing since 1969 when the first
offshore platform was built. At the moment there are a total of approximately 330 offshore
platforms with various types. Planning, design and construction of the first platforms were
carriedoutbyAmericancontractors

2. ProblemStatement
ThereareseveralproblemsinoffshoreplatformpracticeinIndonesia,oneofthemisveryrapid
tropicalmarinegrowth.Careshouldbetakenforoffshoreplatformlegwhichhashardmarine
growth with thickness of 2 inches. Underwater marine growth surveys and measurements
shouldbeconductedduringoffshoreplatforminspections.

3. Objective
To show that API based designed and constructed platforms is overdesigned, due to platform
designloadsthatwereselectedonthebasesofwind,tide,current,waveandearthquakenon
encounteredinIndonesiaseas.EnvironmentalconditionsinIndonesiacanbeconsideredtobe
relatively mild and there are some serious problems to be taken care such as rapid marine
growth,visibilityandscouring.
4. ScopeofStudy

EnvironmentalConditions

EnvironmentalconditionsonJavaSeaandNatunaSeaarerelativelymild.

NatunaSeaisoutoftyphoontrack.Maxwaveheightfor100yearstormis38
feetandsignificantwaveheightis19feet.Designdataforoneofplatformsin
NatunaSeawas:

DesignAppraisal

Composedof2phases:

Detailed review of structural design documents, report, drawings and calculations submitted to the
thirdpartybyOilcompanies,consultantanddesigners
Independentanalysisbythirdpartyofthestructuraldesignofjackets,piles,decklegsandcolumnsto
verify that the procedures, methodologies, algorithms and assumptions employed by structural
designersareadequatewithregardtomeetingcompliedwithcodeandauthority.

SurveyDuringFabricationandInstallation

Surveyors to perform surveys during fabrication of structures in compliance with design


drawings,codesandspecs.
Particular attention is to be paid for fabrication of structural members critical to structural
integrityofplatformsbutallstructuralcomponentsandappurtenancesaretobesurveyed.
Presentthroughouttheperiodofinstallationofjacket,piles,decksandbridges.

OffshorePlatformInspection

ThetechnicalinspectionofplatformsinIndonesiaisinaccordancetoauthority
Categories of inspection are; initial inspection, periodical inspection and special
inspection
If the platform satisfies the requirements of security and safety to work mentioned in
theregulationthenacertificateofstructuralfitnessforplatformwillbeissued.

MarineGrowth

OneoftheproblemsinplatformpracticeinIndonesiaisrapidtropicalmarinegrowthon
platformstructure
CurrentaveragehardmarinegrowthinIndonesiaisapproximately0.18inchperyear
Thestructureshavetosupportadditionalloadsduetomarinegrowthmassanddueto
waveimpingingonmarinegrowthandhenceonplatformstructures
The marine growth cleanup periods varies depending on the structures location and
someofthemapplythestandardpracticesofminimumbiannualcleanup.
A study is being conducted on which alternatives is less expensive and to have longer
periodofcleanupwithstrongerstructuretosupportadditionalloads
Atpresent,thedesignenvironmentalconditionsformarinegrowtharethefollowing.
Fromelevationof+2.5feettomudline,thicknessis2inch.Density:1400kg/m3in
air

Otherproblems

Seafloorscouringthatcauseshundredsoffeetofpipelefthanging
Present, consolidated sand to replace the eroded sea bed seems to be the only
solution
Scouring also causes risers to need protection in the form of burial of their bases
beneaththescourzone
Parts of offshore platform legs that face corrosion problems are mostly located in
thesplashzoneisapproximately1mmperyear.

5. Conclusion
Offshore platforms in Indonesia designed and constructed according to API recommended
practice. API standards may be a bit overdesigned due to platform design loads that were
selected on the bases of wind, tide, current, wave and earthquake nonencountered in
IndonesianseawhiletheenvironmentalconditionsinIndonesiaisrelativelymild.

WEEK3
(09thOctober2015)
ConferencePaper:ComparisonofObservedandPredictedPerformanceforJacketPileFoundationsin
Hurricanes

1. Background
Pile foundations commonly govern the ultimate strength or pushover capacity for jacket
platformsinassessments(API2000,Section17).However,whilehundredsofjacketplatforms
weredestroyedanddamagedinhurricanesfromAndrewin1992toIkein2008,thereported
damageinalmosteverycasewaslocatedabovethemudline.Therewereonlyahandfulofcases
wherethefoundationswassuspectedtocontributetothefailureofthejacketplatform.

2. ProblemStatement
There is a common perception that the foundation design method and its implementation in
practice are conservative. Excessive conservation in assessment can lead to unnecessary
limitations on the manning and production levels of existing platforms. In addition, engineers
assessing the platform can be misled to overlook more realistic failure modes of the jacket
structureabovethemudlineifthefoundationisunrealisticallygoverningthecalculatedcapacity
ofthestructuralsystem.
3. Objective
Tocomparepredictedandobservedperformanceforplatformfoundationsexposedtoextreme
hurricane loads by conducting detailed analyses of the loads and capacities. The results from
these analyses are synthesized into recommended guidelines for performing platform
assessments.

4. ScopeofStudy
CaseStudyPlatforms

13casestudyplatformswasselectedforanalysiswhereallcasesthepilesareopenendedsteel
pipesthatweredriventhroughthelegsofthejacket
Mostofplatformfoundationalsoincludewellconductorswhichprovideadditionallateral
resistance
Informationabouthowafoundationperformedinhurricanewasnotavailableforplatforms
thatweredestroyedbecausedetailedposthurricaneassessmentwerenotconductedforthese
structures
Alimitationofthisstudyisthatthefocusisonplatformfoundationsthatwereloadedheavily
andsurvivedthehurricane.
ExistingStateofPracticeforPileFoundationsinPushoverAnalyses

SACSwasusedtoconductpushoveranalyses
Inputvariablestothemodelarethestructuralpropertiesofallmembersandconnections
includingthepilesandconductorsandenvironmentalloading
Outputinformationfromthismodelincludesthetotalloadonthestructure,typicallyexpressed
asbaseshear,thedisplacementofthedeckandtheloads,momentsanddeformationin
individualmembers
Inpushoveranalysis,thedistributionofhorizontalorshearloadversusdepthforagiven
environmentalconditionsisscaledupordownuntiltheplatformisonthevergeoffailureas
indicatedbyexcessivedeckdisplacementornumericalinstability.
SimplifiedModelToPredictFoundationSystemCapacity

Simplified plasticity model adopted to better understand the contribution of piles and well
conductorstothecapacityofthefoundationsystem.
Thismodelusesanupperboundplasticitysolutiontodefinethecombinationofbaseshearand
andoverturningmomentthatcausethecompletecollapseofthefoundationsystem.
Upperboundmethodassumptionswhereaplasticcollapsemechanism,whereallelementsof
resistancearecharacterizedasrigidandperfectlyplastic.

5. Conclusion
The predicted and observed performance was analyzed and compared for 13 case study
platforms where the foundation systems were loaded to near or beyond their capacities. The
performance of platform foundations in hurricanes is consistent with expectations based on
theirdesign.