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LARA, KIT B.

BSN II-A

11:30-12:30 MTW S406


10 05 2015
Nursing Ethics

The Beginning of Life

The beginning of life of a new human being from the scientific biological perspective
and its bioethical implications
FINDINGS:
"As a simple cell", but a cell that is a true organism that from its initial moment upon the fusing of the
membranes of the spermatozoid and the ovum begins a coordinated activity clearly oriented to a determined
development. Both the RNA inherited from the mother and the genes received from the father are activated
through complex epigenetic mechanisms. From its first stages, the cells show a determined direction in a rich
balance between regulation and plasticity. From the earliest stages, the generated child begins a rich
exchange of signals with the mother that through an admirable coordination allows for the zygote's
implantation in the mother's womb
CONCLUSIONS:
The beginning of life and the process of generation of a new individual have taken us to clarifying life
begins without any doubt in the moment of fertilization. The direct observation of this process by embryologists
at the cellular level has been corroborated with fascinating discoveries at the molecular, genetic and epigenetic
levels.
Reference:
Patricio Ventura-Junc and Manuel J. Santos (2011).The beginning of life of a
new human being from the scientific biological perspective and its bioethical
implications Retrieved from http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?
script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602011000200013

Abortion
RESEARCH TITLE:
Induced abortions in villages of Ballabgarh HDDS: rates, tends, causes and determinants
FINDINGS:
Of the 11, 102 pregnancies, 1, 226 (11%) culminated as abortions of which 425 (3.8%) were
induced abortions. Spontaneous abortion (7.2%) was twice that of induced abortion rate (3.8%). The
self-reported reason why they choose induced abortion was bleeding per vaginum (23%), unwanted
pregnancy (16%) and unviable fetus diagnosed by ultrasonography (11%) . Eight percent of the
induced abortions were due to the female sex of the fetus. About 11% of the abortions were performed
beyond 20 weeks of gestation of which was the upper legal permissible gestational age for performing
abortions in India. About 10% of the abortions were performed by unqualified practitioners. Caste,
wealth index, birth order and size of the village were the factors that were significantly associated with
induced abortions.
CONCLUSIONS:
The proportionate contribution of the induced abortion was more than what could be expected.
Unsafe and sex selective, though illegal, was used by a big number of people. Upper caste and higher socioeconomic status families were more likely to choose induced abortion.

Reference:
Kant, Srivastava,Rai, Misra, Charlette & Pandav (2015). Induced abortions in
villages of Ballabgarh HDDS: rates, tends, causes and determinants. Retrieved
from http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=88560351-745d-4044952b-d8fca3b8260c%40sessionmgr4005&vid=8&hid=4111

Contraceptive
RESEARCH TITLE:
Changes in State Prescription Contraceptive Mandates For Insurers: The Effect on Womens
Contraceptive Use
FINDINGS:
A person or organization covered by insurance that lived in a state with a contraceptive
coverage law were 5% more likely that their counterparts in states with such law to use an effective method
(i.e condoms or sterilization). Among women who used such methods, those contraceptive coverage were 5%
more likely than women in others states to use any prescription method, and 4% more likely to use the pill. No
associations were found between contraceptive mandates and method use by uninsured women. Among both
users and nonusers, contraceptive coverage was associated with a 5% increase in pill use.
CONCLUSIONS:
Contraceptives among insured women, and hence may help to reduce the numbers of unintended
pregnancies. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health.
Reference:
Danielle N. Atkins and W. David Bradford Changes in State Prescription
Contraceptive Mandates For Insurers: The Effect on Womens Contraceptive Use .
(2014) Retrieved from http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?
sid=88560351-745d-4044-952b-d8fca3b8260c%40sessionmgr4005&vid=17&hid=4111

Suicide
RESEARCH TITLE:
Suicide Trends Among Persons Aged 1024 Years United States, 19942012
FINDINGS:
Suicide was the second leading cause of death among persons aged 10-24 years in United States and
accounted for 5, 178 deaths in this group in 2012 (1) Firearm, suffocation (including hanging), and poisoning
(including drug overdose) are the three most common mechanisms of suicide in the United States. During
19942012, suicide rates by suffocation increased, on average, by 6.7% and 2.2% annually for females and
males, respectively. Increases in suffocation suicide rates occurred across demographic and geographic
subgroups during this period.
CONCLUSIONS:
The National Strategy for Suicide Prevention calls for integration of suicide prevention into a range of
programs and services because strategies that promote overall health and build positive relationships are
critically important for reducing suicidal thoughts, attempts, and deaths.
Reference:
Sullivan, E. M., Annest, J. L., Simon, T. R., Luo, F., & Dahlberg, L. L. (2015).
Suicide trends among aged 10-24 years- United States, 1994-2012. MMVR: Morbidity
& Mortality Weekly Report, 64(8), 201-205. Retrieved from
http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2012925984&site=edslive

Nursing Ethics