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Sungyun Choi, Student Member, IEEE, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos, Fellow, IEEE, and Ratnesh K.

Sharma, Member, IEEE

raw measurement data, providing reliable and accurate real time

model, i.e. the operating conditions of the system, mathematical

model and network topology. Recently, as the power system

operation and control focuses on the distribution system (e.g.,

Smart Grid) with high penetration of distributed renewable

generators and various inverter-based smart devices, the modern

power system requires a new approach of state estimation that

can adapt to dynamic conditions of grids. We propose a new state

estimation approach for this system that operates autonomously.

The autonomous state estimation consists of two concepts: 1) a

robotic preprocessor that autonomously creates the network

connectivity, states and measurement model and 2) state

estimation. This paper applies the autonomous state estimation to

extract the real-time model of Smart Grid and then to use the

real-time model to perform diagnostic of the system. First the

real-time model is validated with standard state estimation

procedures, i.e. chi-square test for expected errors in the state

estimates and confidence level of the validity of the real-time

model. The validated real-time model is eventually used to assess

whether the system operates within operating limits and to issue

diagnostic in case system components operate near limits or

exceed limits. This paper also presents the laboratory

demonstration of the proposed diagnostic system using the Smart

Grid Energy Systems, which include a PV system, a

programmable load that can emulate the daily load profile, and

an energy storage system that has three operational modes: 1) the

standby mode, 2) the inverter mode, and 3) the charger mode.

The proposed approach is tested and verified with the Smart

Grid Energy Systems, and proper test results are presented.

Index Terms--Laboratories, power distribution, power system

analysis computing, power system modeling, smart grids, state

estimation.

I. INTRODUCTION

operating conditions (i.e., system states) based on the

measurement data and thus has been the basic function of the

energy management system (EMS) [1]. In fact, various power

system applications such as optimal power flow, economic

dispatch, and security assessment rely on the state variables of

power systems under management that are filtered initially by

state estimation.

The work was supported by NEC Laboratories America, Inc.

Sungyun Choi and A. P. S. Meliopoulos are with the School of Electrical

and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA

30332-0250,

USA

(e-mails:

schoi35@mail.gatech.edu

and

sakis.m@gatech.edu).

R. K. Sharma is with NEC Laboratories America, Inc. (e-mail:

ratnesh@nec-labs.com).

systems focused mainly on the transmission system because of

centralized generation and passive distribution systems. The

EMS as well as the state estimation is performed in the

centralized control center. In contrast, nowadays, with the

recent increase of the penetration rate of distributed renewable

generations, and with the advent of various inverter-based

smart devices including plug-in electric vehicles and energy

storage systems, the need to operate, control, and protect the

distribution system such as Smart Grid has been increasing [2].

Indeed, the operation and control of Smart Grid should be

implemented in a distributed and autonomous way by the local

distribution management system (DMS) because the

complicated configuration and dynamic nature of Smart Grid

overburdens the centralized management system [3].

As a result, in order for the DMS to perform the distributed

and autonomous operation and control over Smart Grid, the

state estimation, which has been used in the centralized EMS,

needs to be modified properly. Because of the imbalance

operation and unsymmetrical structure of the distribution

system, the device model for the state estimation should be

designed in three phases. Moreover, newly emerging smart

devices need to be modeled. Indeed, some devices change

their operational modes according to the situation, thereby

requiring a new state estimation that can adapt to the dynamic

operation of Smart Grid.

Therefore, this paper proposes a diagnostic system that is

based on the real-time model, which is validated by

autonomous state estimation. [4]. The autonomous state

estimation combines two concepts: 1) a robotic preprocessor

that autonomously integrates device models and creates the

states and measurement model for the state estimation and 2)

state estimation that extracts accurate operating conditions in

real time. Then, the results are statistically evaluated by the

chi-square test, presenting the confidence level, which

indicates the consistency between measurements and device

models. Finally, the confidence level can be used to detect bad

data and to check the integrity of the system operation.

This paper also presents the laboratory demonstration of the

proposed diagnostic system using the Smart Grid Energy

Systems in NEC Lab America, Inc. The test system consists of

a PV system, a programmable load that can emulate the daily

load profile, and an energy storage system that can change its

operational mode, and the test system is connected to the main

grid, allowing the bi-directional power flow. The proposed

method was tested with this laboratory setup, and several test

results are presented.

The proposed diagnostic system is based primarily on the

autonomous state estimation, which provides the real-time

operating conditions of Smart Grid with distributed generation

and smart devices that can be plugged and unplugged to the

grid any time. As depicted in Fig. 1, whenever new devices

are plugged into the grid, or whenever operational conditions

of devices are changed, status of each model is updated

through communication networks so that the state estimation

can keep tracking of the frequent reconfiguration of Smart

Grid. Device models are integrated through the model

integrator and then used to create measurement model, h(x),

with measurement data from the actual field. Based on the

measurement model, state estimation finally extracts the realtime model of the grid.

its operating limits and warn the system operator about the

status of the component. For example, the operating limits of a

distribution transformer can be determined by monitoring

currents that flow through windings; note that the currents can

be obtained from the real-time model, which is validated by

the autonomous state estimation. Then, based on the electrothermal model of the transformer [5], [6], the diagnostic

system can compute the loss of life of the transformer, thus

providing the time to the operating limit as described in Fig. 2.

Finally, the diagnostic system alarm if the overloading

conditions maintain for the time limit.

The results of the state estimation are evaluated by wellknown chi-square test, which quantifies the goodness of fit of

the measurements to the model, providing the probability that

the measurement errors are distributed by the chi-square

distribution; this probability can be interpreted as confidence

level between measurements and the model. Then, the

confidence level can be used to validate the real-time model in

terms of 1) the existence of bad measurement data and 2) the

integrity of system operating conditions. In other words, the

high confidence level can be interpreted with two aspects: 1)

the measurement data is trustable to be used for the operation

and control over Smart Grid, and 2) the system operates

without malfunction. On the contrary, the low confidence

level indicates the existence of bad measurement data or the

faulty operation of the system.

Based on the validated real-time model of each component

in Smart Grid, the diagnostic system can draw conclusions

about the health of the grid or individual components. The

real-time model of Smart Grid. Indeed, the network topology

of Smart Grid is dynamic and changes with time, and the

operational modes of each device are variable. Therefore, the

autonomous state estimation can adaptively provide the

validated real-time model of Smart Grid and diagnostics that

are reliable.

III. AUTONOMOUS STATE ESTIMATION

Autonomous state estimation consists of two concepts: 1) a

robotic preprocessor that autonomously defines system states

and creates the measurement model and 2) state estimation

that extracts accurate operating conditions in real time.

A. Robotic Preprocessor

In the robotic preprocessor, the model integrator play an

important role in autonomously detecting system changes of

Smart Grid and reconfiguring states and the measurement

model for state estimation. For integrating models, the

proposed approach uses the symbolic integration method [7],

which represents device models in a generalized symbolic

form; based on the generalized form, any kinds of power

devices in Smart Grid can be modeled and automatically

integrated into one system model. The generalized form of

device models can be expressed in the following algebraic

iac

vac

I = K + Y V + f (t )

dc

dc

0

y

(1)

vac T vac

f (t ) = Vdc Qi Vdc

y

y

(2)

dc-current values, vac is the vector of ac-voltage phasors

(external state variables), Vdc is the vector of dc-voltage values

(external state variables), y is the vector of internal state

variables, K is the constant vector, Y is the device model

matrix, f(t) is the vector of nonlinear terms, and Qi are the

quadratization matrices. Note that each phasor value in the vac

or iac vector can be divided into real and imaginary part of the

phasor.

Then, the integrated device model is used to create

measurement model, h(x), along with measurement data. The

measurement model for state estimation is expressed as

follows:

z = h(x ) +

(3)

function of states, x is the vector of state variables, and is the

vector of measurement errors. It is necessary to point out that

state variables of the overall system comprise external states

(i.e., ac- and dc-voltages) and internal states of each device

model [refer to the generalized device model expressed as (1)

and (2)]. In the proposed method, the function of states can be

represented with a set of linear and nonlinear (quadratic at

most) combination of state variables, and thus, each

measurement model [i.e., one row in h(x)] can be expressed as

the following standard format:

z m = c + ai xi + b jk x j xk + m

i

Once the solution of the state estimation determines the

best estimate of system states, the results can be evaluated by

chi-square test, which provides the probability of how well the

measurement are consistent with the system model (i.e., the

goodness of fit). This probability can be interpreted as the

confidence level. Typically, the high confidence level

indicates the measurement data are consistent with the system

model. On the contrary, the low confidence level indicates the

inconsistency between the measurements and the model, and

therefore, it implies the existence of bad data or the incorrect

operation of the system.

IV. LABORATORY TEST

The proposed approach was implemented with the Smart

Grid Energy Systems in NEC Lab America, Inc.

A. System Description

The Smart Grid Energy Systems is designed to test the

intelligent power management system (IPMS), which operates

and controls the energy system that consists of renewable

energy resources and the energy storage system in accordance

with various operational objectives (e.g., economic dispatch or

environmental dispatch). The overall system diagram is

described in Fig. 3. The PV system has a total of 21 PV panels,

generating maximum 6kW, and a programmable load can

simulate the daily load profile. An energy storage system with

a maximum output of 10kW provides insufficient power to the

system according to an optimization algorithm of IPMS. The

test system is connected to the main grid (i.e., the utility),

exporting or importing energy. The power flow can be

measured by a grid meter at the point of connection to the

main grid. Furthermore, an Arbiter relay, a PV inverter, an

energy storage system, a load, and Tigo Maximizers

(maximum power point tracking devices) are streaming

measurement data to a database system of IPMS in real time.

(4)

the linear coefficient terms, bjk are the nonlinear coefficient

terms (i.e., quadratic terms), xi, xj, and xk are the state variables

(i, j, and k are the indices of states), and m is the measurement

error.

B. State Estimation and Statistical Evaluation

The proposed autonomous state estimation is based on the

weighted least squares (WLS) algorithm [8], and the objective

function, which minimizes the weighted, squared residuals of

measurements, can be formulated as follows:

(5)

inverse of the variance of measurement errors. The iterative

has three modes: 1) the standby mode, 2) the inverter mode,

and 3) the charger mode. In the standby mode, the dc-to-ac

inverter and the ac-to-dc charger are disconnected from both

the batteries and the grid; the switches at both sides of the

inverter and the charger are open (see Fig. 4). Only small

amount of power is consumed by the user display, which is

represented by the conductance, GB. In the inverter mode, the

switches at both sides of the inverter are open, and in the

charger mode, the switches at both sides of the charger are

open. Note that the robotic preprocessor automatically

changes the device model of the storage system according to

its operation mode. In this model, the conductances, G1 and G2, Fig. 5. Daily load profile.

are added to take into account the average power loss of the

inverter and the charger, respectively.

Fig. 6. On and off status of the operation modes of the energy storage system.

B. Test Scenarios

The proposed approach was tested with the Smart Grid

Energy Systems during one and a half days. With the

programmable load, a usual daily profile is given during the

test time as depicted in Fig. 5. Furthermore, Fig. 6 shows the

on and off status of the inverter and charger modes; when the

mode is on, the value is one, and when the mode is off, the

value is zero. As described in Fig. 6, the inverter mode is on

around 11am and 10pm on the first day, and then, the mode

turns off after a certain time. Right after the inverter mode

becomes off, the charger mode is on around 11:40am and

23:50pm on the first day. After several hours, the charger

mode becomes off. It is necessary to point out that if both the

charger and inverter mode are off in Fig. 6, the operation

mode is standby. The optimization algorithm to operate the

energy storage system is out of scope of this paper.

For the autonomous state estimation, the PV inverter, the

load, and the energy storage system are modeled. The state

estimation can be performed with each single device and the

corresponding measurements or with the integrated model of

all three devices and the corresponding measurements. Finally,

the estimated results can be evaluated by two points of view: 1)

validation of measurements and 2) validation of system

operating conditions.

1) Validation of Measurements

If there are bad measurement data, the statistical evaluation

of the autonomous state estimation indicates the existence of

bad data by producing the low confidence level. For this test

scenario, the individual component is tested with the

corresponding measurement data. Then, the integrated model

of three devices is tested.

2) Validation of System Operating Conditions

The statistical evaluation of the autonomous state

estimation is capable of checking if the system under

monitoring operates correctly or not. In the test-bed, the

energy storage system has three operational modes, and

therefore, the device model of the system should be able to be

changed to the corresponding mode. Otherwise, the

confidence level would be low, and then it can be concluded

that the actual operation of the system do not match the device

model. Six test scenarios are listed in TABLE I.

TABLE I

TEST CASES

Test Case

1

2

3

4

5

6

Actual Operation

Inverter mode

Inverter mode

Charger mode

Charger mode

Standby mode

Standby mode

Device Model

Standby mode

Charger mode

Standby mode

Inverter mode

Inverter mode

Charger mode

V. TEST RESULTS

A. Validation of Measurements

Each device of the PV inverter, the programmable load,

and the energy storage system was individually tested, and

then, the integrated model of three devices is tested.

1) PV Inverter

When testing with the PV inverter model, the results

indicate that the confidence level is 100% over the testing

period.

2) Programmable Load

When testing with the programmable load model, the

results indicate that the confidence level is 100% over the

testing period.

3) Energy Storage System

Fig. 7 represents the confidence level over the testing

period when testing with the energy storage system. The

figure indicates that the transient decrease of the confidence

level occurs when the inverter switches or the charger

switches operate. The first reason for this transient decrease is

that device models in use are based on the static model in the

frequency domain, and the second one is that the sampling rate

is not high enough to capture the transient moments. However,

the transient period is very short, and thus, the low confidence

level in the transients can be negligible unless the fast

response operations and controls are required.

two equations:

2

I 1P

I

1N + P1

G1

G1

0 = V2 P I 2 P + V2 N I 2 N

I 2P

I

2 N + P2

G2

G2

(6)

(7)

Fig. 8. Confidence level and the measurement of the power input to batteries

of the energy storage system through the charger. CC represents the constant

current mode, and CV does the constant voltage mode.

4) Integrated Model

The device models of the PV inverter, the programmable

load, and the energy storage system are integrated into one

system model, which is then tested. As a result, Fig. 9

indicates that the confidence level is nearly 100% during the

testing time but decrease temporarily at the transient moment

of switch operations. However, unlike the test case with only

the energy storage system, the confidence level is 100% even

at the constant voltage charging mode. This is due to the fact

that the degree of freedom increases with the integrated model.

Fig. 7. Confidence level with the on and off status of the inverter and charger

mode when testing with the energy storage system.

mode is on, the confidence level slightly decreases after a

certain period of time. This behavior is marked with red

circles in Fig. 8. Note that the confidence level is low when

the storage system are in the constant voltage charging mode,

where current that flows to batteries decreases significantly

while the voltage keeps a constant level. In fact, powerelectronics-based devices such as inverters or chargers

generate current harmonics, which eventually affect the

accuracy of current or power measurements especially when

the current magnitude or the active power is relatively low.

After all, in the constant voltage mode, where a small amount

of power (i.e., active power) flows to batteries through the

charger, the confidence level can decrease slightly because the

device model of the energy storage system, described in Fig. 4,

has several power-related equations including the following

Fig. 9. Confidence level when testing with the integrated model. The on and

off status of the inverter and the charger are represented together.

A total of six test cases are tested with the integrated device

model of three devices. All results of six test cases are shown

in Fig. 10, indicating that in all test cases, the confidence level

is zero when the actual operation mode is not consistent with

the device model.

VIII. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors would like to thank NEC Laboratories America,

Inc. and Yanzhu Ye. for supporting this work.

IX. REFERENCES

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

Fig. 10. Test results for system operation health index.

The determination of data validity is based on the chisquare test that provides a confidence level of data validity.

Using the valid data the proposed system compares the realtime model of each component and compares the operation to

the recommended range of operating parameters for the device.

Diagnostics can be issued if the operating conditions of each

device are close to the operating limits or they are exceeded.

Future work can include improvements of the autonomous

state estimation as well as improvements in the diagnostic

system. For example, more redundant measurement data can

help the autonomous state estimation to filter out the bad data.

Improvements in the diagnostic system can be performed by

adding analytics that will predict when operating limits may

be violated by a device. An example will be a transformer

operating at overload; additional analytics can determine how

long it will take for the transformer temperature to reach the

permissible value.

VII. CONCLUSION

The proposed diagnostic system is based on the

autonomous state estimation, which can update the state

estimation problem in real time to adapt to dynamic operations

of Smart Grid. Then, the statistical evaluation of the state

estimation results yields the confidence level that quantifies

the goodness of fit of the model to measurement data. Then,

the measurement data and the system operating conditions can

be validated. The proposed approach was tested with the

Smart Grid Energy Systems in NEC Lab America, Inc.

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X. BIOGRAPHIES

Sungyun Choi (S 09) received B.E. degree in Electrical Engineering from

Korea University, Seoul, Korea in 2002. And then, he worked as a network

and system engineer in Korea. Since 2007, he started graduate studies at

Georgia Institute of Technology, where he received the M.S. degree in 2009.

He is currently pursuing his Ph.D. degree, working in Power System Control

and Automation Laboratory at Georgia Institute Technology. His research

interest lies in distributed power system automation and control, power system

protection, communication networks and systems in substation automation.

He is a student member of IEEE.

A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos (M 76, SM 83, F 93) was born in Katerini,

Greece, in 1949. He received the M.E. and E.E. diploma from the National

Technical University of Athens, Greece, in 1972; the M.S.E.E. and Ph.D.

degrees from the Georgia Institute of Technology in 1974 and 1976,

respectively. In 1971, he worked for Western Electric in Atlanta, Georgia. In

1976, he joined the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Georgia Institute of

Technology, where he is presently a Georgia Power Distinguished Professor.

He is active in teaching and research in the general areas of modeling,

analysis, and control of power systems. He has made significant contributions

to power system grounding, harmonics, and reliability assessment of power

systems. He is the author of the books, Power Systems Grounding and

Transients, Marcel Dekker, June 1988, Lightning and Overvoltage Protection,

Section 27, Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers, McGraw Hill, 1993.

He holds three patents and he has published over 220 technical papers. In

2005 he received the IEEE Richard Kaufman Award. Dr. Meliopoulos is the

Chairman of the Georgia Tech Protective Relaying Conference, a Fellow of

the IEEE and a member of Sigma Xi.

Ratnesh K. Sharma (M '11) leads the Energy Management Department at

NEC Laboratories America. He has a PhD degree from University of

Colorado at Boulder and BTech. (Hons.) degree from Indian Institute of

Technology, Kharagpur. His research interests span sustainable energy

management in electricity, buildings and transportation sectors including

energy conversion, power systems, communications and analytics. He has

authored more than 150 papers/technical reports and holds over 60 US patents.

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