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# No.

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Title
Abstract
Introduction
Aims
Theory
Apparatus
Procedure
Results
Calculations
Discussions
Conclusions
Recommendations
Reference
Appendix

Page
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1.0 ABSTRACT

The experiment was conducted to evaluate and study the overall heat transfer
coefficient, LMTD, heat transfer and heat loss for energy balance and to evaluate and
study the performance of shell and tube heat exchanger at various operating
condition. Heat exchanger is a device that are design to transfer or exchange heat
from one matter to another in efficiently. There are several types of heat exchanger
and one of it that are mostly use in industrial applications is a shell and tube heat
exchanger. Fluids that flow in this device are in counter-current flow where two fluids
flow against each other, maintaining a maximum temperature difference between the
hot and cold streams which allows for maximum heat transfer. We assumed that
internal, potential and kinetic energy was negligible in this process, so Q H must be
equal to QC. In experiment 1, FT1 was constant at 10LPM. The highest efficiency of
heat transfer was 94.07% at FT1=10 and FT2=10. It means that heat transfer occur
efficiently at equal volumetric flowrates of hot and cold water. In experiment 2, FT2
was constant at 10LPM. The highest efficiency of heat transfer was 2062.91% at
FT1=2LPM and FT2=10LPM. In both experiment, the results was different than the
basic theory where the amount of heat release by hot water was not equal to the
amount of heat absorb by cold water, Q H QC due to some errors and the
recommendation and precautions were made to improve this experiment.

2.0 INTRODUCTION

Heat exchanger is a device that are design to transfer or exchange heat from
one matter to another in efficiently. It means that matter that release heat will
decrease in temperature while the other matter that gain heat will increase in
temperature. In the process of transfering heat, the fluid can be liquid such as water
and oil, or can be a moving air. However, this device are not only use for heating
applications, but it is also can be use for cooling application.
Heat exchangers can be in cross-flow, parallel-flow or countercurrent. Cross
flow is the flow where the the cold and the hot fluid flow axis is at an angle to each
other. Hence, the fluids will cross each other in this arrangement. Mostly, this type of
flow has the angle between axes as 90 degree. Parallel flow or co-current flow is
the flow where the hot and the cold fluid is flow in the same direction. The most
effective flow in the heat exchanger is a countercurrent flow where the fluid paths
flow in opposite directions, with exiting and the other enters. This results in faster
heat exchange.
Heat exchangers are classified according to transfer process, number of fluids,
degree of surface contact, design features, flow arrangments and heat transfer
mechanism. There are several types of heat exchanger and one of it that are mostly
use in industrial applications is a shell and tube heat exchanger. It consists of large
number of tubes that are packed in a shell with their axes parallel to that of the
shell. Heat transfer occur as one fluid flows through the tubes while the other flows
outside the tubes through the shell.

## Figure 1 Shell and tube heat exchanger

3

Each of device must have advantages and disadvantages, so do this shell and
tube heat exchanger. Some of its advantages are it can be use in a system with
higher temperatures and pressures and have less pressure drop acoss a tube cooler.
There is substantial flexibility regarding materials of construction to accommodate
corrosion and other concerns. The shell and the tubes can be made of different
materials. Disadvantages for this type of device are heat transfer efficiency is less
compared to plate type cooler, cleaning and maintainance is difficult since a tube
cooler requires enough clearance at one end to remove the tube nest and capacity of
tube cooler is limited.

3.0 OBJECTIVES

1) To evaluate and study the overall heat transfer coefficient, LMTD, heat transfer
and heat loss for energy balance.
2) To evaluate and study the performance of shell and tube heat exchanger at
various operating condition.
3) To study the working principle of counter flow heat exchanger.
4) To study the function and the working of shell and tube heat exchanger.
5) To study the effect of fluid flow rated on heat exchanger performance.

4.0 THEORY
4

## A heat exchanger is a piece of process equipment in which heat exchange takes

place between two fluids that enter and exit at different temperatures. The primary
design objective of the equipment may be either to remove heat from a hot fluid or to
add heat to a cold fluid. Depending upon the relative direction of fluid motion, shelland-tube heat exchangers are classified as parallel flow, counter flow, cross flow.
In parallel flow, the hot and cold fluids flow in the same direction and therefore
enter the exchanger on the same end and exit the exchanger on the same end. In
counter flow, the two fluids flow in opposite directions and thus enter the exchanger
and exit the exchanger from opposite ends.

Figure 5 : Parallel and counter flow in Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger
The way that a heat exchanger works is hot water and cold water enter the
exchanger, where the process of cold water gaining some heat and the hot water
losing some takes place, before they both exit the exchanger. What is actually
happening is, the hot water is heating either the inside or the outside of the tubes in
the exchanger, depending on where it is flowing, by what is known as convection.
Then the heat is conducted through the tubes to the other side, either the
outside or the inside, where it is then convection back into the cold water raising its
temperature. Convection is a mode of heat transfer that involves motion of some fluid
that either absorbs heat from a source or gives heat to some surrounding.

For a heat exchanger that flows parallel or countercurrent then the coefficient
of heat transfer is called the overall coefficient of heat transfer. It is calculated using
the log mean temperature difference, which is found two different ways, depending
on whether the flow is parallel or counter. A heat exchanger is a device by which
thermal energy is transferred from one fluid to another. The types of heat exchangers
to be tested in this experiment is counter-flow cheat exchanger.
Heat exchangers transfer heat from one working fluid to another. For instance,
steam generators, feed water heaters, re heaters and condensers are all examples of
heat exchangers found in nuclear power systems. The important quantity in heat
exchanger analysis is the total rate of heat transfer between the hot and cold fluid.
Several different expressions for this heat transfer rate can be developed, relating the
heat transfer rate to quantities such as the inlet and outlet fluid temperatures and the
overall heat transfer coefficient. When these expressions are developed, care must
be taken to ensure that the appropriate mean temperature expressions are used.
Several assumptions can be made to simplify these expressions.
We assume negligible heat transfer between the system and its surroundings,
negligible potential or kinetic energy changes, constant specific heats, and that the
fluids are not undergoing any phase change. The basic theory in this experiment is
QH = QC, which the amount of heat transfer is equal to the amount of heat absorb. In
this case, the heat transfer rate across a heat exchanger is usually expressed in the
form Q = mCp T.

## Heat load and heat balance

Hot water flow rate (Hw )
QH = mH x CpH x (t1-t2)

## Hot water flow rate (Cw )

QC = mC x CpC x (T2-T1)

Where:
QH = Heat load for hot water flow rate
QC= Heat load for cold water flow rate
mH=Hot water mass flow rate
mC=Cold water mass flow rate
t1=Hot water inlet temperature
t2=Hot water outlet temperature
T1=Cold water inlet temperature
T2=Cold water outlet temperature

LMTD
Calculations of log mean temperature difference (LMTD).
LMTD

(t1 T 2) (t 2 T1 )
(t T2 )
ln 1
(t 2 T1 )

QH - QC

Dirt factor, Q =

0.5 (QH + QC )

UD

## can be calculated by using

equation below. In this case, the value of total heat transfer area

Q
A LMTD

Where:

Q

5.0 APPARATUS

## Tube and shell heat exchanger

6.0 PROCEDURE
6.1 General Start-up Procedures
A quick inspection was performed to make sure that the equipment is in a
proper working condition. Initially, all valves were surely closed, except V1 and V12.
Hot water tank was filled up via a water supply hose connected to valve V27. The
valve was closed once the tank was full. The cold water tank was filled up by opening
valve V28 and the valve had been leaved in opened condition for continuous water
supply. A drain hose was connected to the cold water drain point. The main power
and the heater for the hot water tank were switch on and the temperature controller
was set to 500C.
6.2 Experiment Counter-Current Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
The general start-up procedure was performed. The valves were switched to
counter-current shell and tube heat exchanger arrangement. Pumps P1 and P2 were
switched on. Valves V3 and V14 were open and adjusted to obtain the desired
flowrates for hot water and cold water streams. The system was allowed to reach
steady state for 10 minutes. FT1, FT2, TT1, TT2, TT3 and TT4 were recorded.
Pressure drop measurements for shell-side and tube-side were recorded

for

## pressure drop studies. Steps 4 to 7 were repeated for different combinations of

flowrate FT1 and FT2 as in the result sheet. Pumps P1 and P2 were switch off after
the completion of experiment.
6.3 General Shut-down Procedures
Heater was switched off and the pump P1 and P2 were switched off after the
hot water temperature drops below 40 0C. the main power also was switched off. All
water was drained in the process lines. Lastly, all valves were closed.

10

7.0 RESULTS

Experiment 1
Table 1: Counter-current Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger at constant FT1
FT 1

FT 2

TT 1

TT 2

TT 3

TT 4

DPT 1

DPT 2

(LPM)

(LPM)

(0C)

(0C)

(0C)

(0C)

(mmH2O)

(mmH2O)

10

43.6

29.2

47.8

49.6

100

11

10

38.9

29.1

46.5

49.5

100

10

35.4

28.5

45.5

48.9

100

57

10

34.3

28.6

44.7

48.4

101

119

10

10

33.4

29.0

44.6

48.7

100

227

Experiment 2
Table 2: Counter-current and Tube Heat Exchanger at constant FT2
FT 1

FT 2

TT 1

TT 2

TT 3

TT 4

DPT 1

DPT 1

(LPM)

(LPM)

(0C)

(0C)

(0C)

(0C)

(mmH2O)

(mmH2O)

10

31.2

28.9

39.1

48.5

197

10

31.8

28.8

43.3

49.0

197

10

32.6

29.1

44.0

49.4

27

197

10

33.2

29.3

43.8

48.2

49

198

10

10

38.7

29.3

44.8

49.0

82

197

11

8.0 CALCULATIONS
Experiment 1 : at constant FT 1
(i)
At FT1=10 LPM, FT2=2 LPM
Heat transfer for hot water, QH = mHCpT
3
L
1 min
1m
QH
= 10.0 min x 1000 L x 60 s

kg
x 988.18 m3

x 4175

J
kg .C

x 4183

J
kg .C

(43.6 29.2) 0C
= 9901.56 W

Qc

QC

L
min x

= 2.0

1 m3
1000 L

= mc Cp T

1 min
60 s

kg
x 995.67 m3

(49.6 47.8) 0C
= 249.89 W

## Heat loss Rate = QH - QC

QH - QC

= 9901.56 W 249.89 W
= 9651.67 W
T1 - t2)

LMTD, TLM

(T2 - t1)

=
ln
(T1 - t2) - (T2 - t1)

47.8 - 29.2)

(49.6 - 43.6)

=
ln
(47.8 - 29.2) - (49.6 - 43.6)

= 11.14

Dirt Factor, Q

= 0.5 (QH+QC)
12

## Overall heat transfer coefficient, U

Q
A LMTD

5075.73
0.0375 11.14

= 12150.16 kg/s2

Efficiency

QC
x 100
QH

= (249.89/9901.56) x 100%
= 2.52%

(ii)
At FT1=10 LPM, FT2=4 LPM
Heat transfer for hot water, QH = mHCpT
L
1 min
1 m3
QH
= 10.0 min x 1000 L x 60 s

kg
x 988.18 m3

x 4175

J
kg .C

x 4183

J
kg .C

(38.9 29.1) 0C
= 6738.56 W

Qc

QC

= 4.0

L
min x

1m
1000 L

= mc Cp T

1 min
60 s

kg
x 995.67 m3

(49.5 46.5) 0C
= 832.98 W

## Heat loss Rate = QH - QC

QH - QC

= 6738.56 W 832.98 W
= 5905.58 W
T1 - t2)

LMTD, TLM

(T2 - t1)

=
ln
(T1 - t2) - (T2 - t1)

13

46.529.1 )

(49.5 - 38.9)

=
ln
(46.5 - 29.1) - (49.5 - 38.9)

= 13.72

Dirt Factor, Q

= 0.5 (QH+QC)
= 0.5 (6738.56 + 832.98 )
= 3785.77 W

## Overall heat transfer coefficient, U

Q
A LMTD

3785.77
0.0375 13.72

= 7358.15 kg/s2

Efficiency

QC
x 100
QH

= (832.98/6738.56) x 100%
= 12.36%

(iii)
At FT1=10 LPM, FT2=6 LPM
Heat transfer for hot water, QH = mHCpT
L
1 min
1 m3
QH
= 10.0 min x 1000 L x 60 s

kg
x 988.18 m3

x 4175

J
kg .C

x 4183

J
kg .C

(35.4 28.5) 0C
= 4744.50 W

Qc

QC

= 6.0

L
min x

1 m3
1000 L

= mc Cp T

1 min
60 s

kg
x 995.67 m3

(48.9 45.5) 0C

14

= 1416.06 W

## Heat loss Rate = QH - QC

QH - QC

= 4744.50 W 1416.06 W
= 3328.44 W
T1 - t2)

LMTD, TLM

(T2 - t1)

=
ln
(T1 - t2) - (T2 - t1)

45.5 - 28.5)

(48.9 - 35.4)

=
ln
(45.5 - 28.5) - (48.9 - 35.4)

= 15.18

Dirt Factor, Q

= 0.5 (QH+QC)
= 0.5 (4744.50 + 1416.06 )
= 3080.28 W

## Overall heat transfer coefficient, U

Q
A LMTD

3080.28
0.0375 15.18

= 5411.12 kg/s2

Efficiency

QC
x 100
QH

= (1416.06/4744.50) x 100%
= 29.85%

(iv)

15

## Heat transfer for hot water, QH = mHCpT

L
1 min
1 m3
QH
= 10.0 min x 1000 L x 60 s

kg
x 988.18 m3

x 4175

J
kg .C

x 4183

J
kg .C

(34.3 28.6) 0C
= 3919.37 W

Qc

QC

L
min x

= 8.0

1 m3
1000 L

= mc Cp T

1 min
60 s

kg
x 995.67 m3

(48.4 44.7) 0C
= 2054.68 W

## Heat loss Rate = QH - QC

QH - QC

= 3919.37 W 2054.68 W
= 1864.69 W
T1 - t2)

LMTD, TLM

(T2 - t1)

=
ln
(T1 - t2) - (T2 - t1)

44.7 - 28.6)

(48.4 - 34.3)

=
ln
(44.7 - 28.6) - (48.4 - 34.3)

= 15.08

Dirt Factor, Q

= 0.5 (QH+QC)
= 0.5 (3919.37 + 2054.68 )
= 2987.03 W

16

## Overall heat transfer coefficient, U

Q
A LMTD

2987.03
0.0375 15.08

= 5282.10 kg/s2

Efficiency

QC
x 100
QH

= (2054.68/3919.37) x 100%
= 52.42%

(v)
At FT1=10 LPM, FT2=10 LPM
Heat transfer for hot water, QH = mHCpT
L
1 min
1 m3
QH
= 10.0 min x 1000 L x 60 s

kg
x 988.18 m3

x 4175

J
kg .C

x 4183

J
kg .C

(33.4 29.0) 0C
= 3025.48 W

Qc

QC

= 10.0

L
min x

1 m3
1000 L

= mc Cp T
1 min
60 s

kg
x 995.67 m3

(48.7 44.6) 0C
= 2846.01 W

## Heat loss Rate = QH - QC

QH - QC

= 3025.48 W 2846.01 W
= 179.47 W
T1 - t2)

LMTD, TLM

(T2 - t1)

=
ln
(T1 - t2) - (T2 - t1)

17

44.6 - 29.0)

(48.7 - 33.4)

=
ln
(44.6 - 29.0) - (48.7 - 33.4)

= 15.45

Dirt Factor, Q

= 0.5 (QH+QC)
= 0.5 (3025.48 + 2846.01 )
= 2935.75 W

## Overall heat transfer coefficient, U

Q
A LMTD

2935.75
0.0375 15.45

= 5067.10 kg/s2

Efficiency

QC
x 100
QH

= (2846.01/3025.48) x 100%
= 94.07%

18

Experiment 2: at constant FT 2
(i)
At FT1=2 LPM, FT2=10 LPM
Heat transfer for hot water, QH = mHCpT
3
L
1 min
1m
QH
= 2.0 min x 1000 L x 60 s

kg
x 988.18 m3

x 4175

J
kg .C

x 4183

J
kg .C

(31.2 28.9) 0C
= 316.30 W

Qc

QC

L
min x

= 10.0

1 m3
1000 L

= mc Cp T
1 min
60 s

kg
x 995.67 m3

(48.5 39.1) 0C
= 6524.99 W

## Heat loss Rate = QH - QC

QH - QC

= 316.30 W 6524.99 W
= -6208.69 W
T1 - t2)

LMTD, TLM

(T2 - t1)

=
ln
(T1 - t2) - (T2 - t1)

39.1 - 28.9)

(48.5 - 31.2 )

=
ln
(39.1 - 28.9) - (48.5 - 31.2)

= 13.44

Dirt Factor, Q

= 0.5 (QH+QC)
= 0.5 (316.30 + 6524.99 )
19

= 3420.65 W

## Overall heat transfer coefficient, U

Q
A LMTD

3420.65
0.0375 13.44

= 6787.00 kg/s2

Efficiency

QC
x 100
QH

= (6524.99/316.30) x 100%
= 2062.91%

(ii)
At FT1=4 LPM, FT2=10 LPM
Heat transfer for hot water, QH = mHCpT
L
1 min
1 m3
QH
= 4.0 min x 1000 L x 60 s

kg
x 988.18 m3

x 4175

J
kg .C

x 4183

J
kg .C

(31.8 28.8) 0C
= 825.13 W

Qc

QC

= 10.0

L
min x

1 m3
1000 L

= mc Cp T
1 min
60 s

kg
x 995.67 m3

(49.0 43.3) 0C
= 3956.64 W

## Heat loss Rate = QH - QC

QH - QC

= 825.13 W 3956.64 W
= -3131.51 W
T1 - t2)

LMTD, TLM

(T2 - t1)

=
ln
(T1 - t2) - (T2 - t1)

20

43.3 - 28.8)

(49.0 - 31.8 )

=
ln
(43.3 - 28.8) - (49.0 - 31.8)

= 15.81

Dirt Factor, Q

= 0.5 (QH+QC)
= 0.5 (825.13 + 3956.64 )
= 2390.89 W

## Overall heat transfer coefficient, U

Q
A LMTD

2390.89
0.0375 15.81

= 4032.71 kg/s2

Efficiency

QC
x 100
QH

= (3956.64/825.13) x 100%
= 479.52%

(iii)
At FT1=6 LPM, FT2=10 LPM
Heat transfer for hot water, QH = mHCpT
L
1 min
1 m3
QH
= 6.0 min x 1000 L x 60 s

kg
x 988.18 m3

x 4175

J
kg .C

x 4183

J
kg .C

(32.6 29.1) 0C
= 1443.98 W

QC

= 10.0

L
min x

1 m3
1000 L

Qc

= mc Cp T
1 min
60 s

kg
x 995.67 m3

(49.4 44.0) 0C

21

= 3748.40 W

## Heat loss Rate = QH - QC

QH - QC

= 1443.98 W 3748.40 W
= -2304.42 W
T1 - t2)

LMTD, TLM

(T2 - t1)

=
ln
(T1 - t2) - (T2 - t1)

44.0 - 29.1 )

(49.4 - 32.6 )

=
ln
(44.0 - 29.1) - (49.4 - 32.6 )

= 15.83

Dirt Factor, Q

= 0.5 (QH+QC)
= 0.5 (1443.98 + 3748.40 )
= 2596.19 W

## Overall heat transfer coefficient, U

Q
A LMTD

2596.19
0.0375 15.83

= 4373.45 kg/s2

Efficiency

QC
x 100
QH

= (3748.40/1443.98) x 100%
= 259.59%

22

(iv)
At FT1=8 LPM, FT2=10 LPM
Heat transfer for hot water, QH = mHCpT
L
1 min
1 m3
QH
= 8.0 min x 1000 L x 60 s

kg
x 988.18 m3

x 4175

J
kg .C

x 4183

J
kg .C

(33.2 29.3 ) 0C
= 2145.34 W

Qc

QC

L
min x

= 10.0

1m
1000 L

= mc Cp T
1 min
60 s

kg
x 995.67 m3

(48.2 43.8) 0C
= 3054.25 W

## Heat loss Rate = QH - QC

QH - QC

= 2145.34 W 3054.25 W
= -908.91 W
T1 - t2)

LMTD, TLM

(T2 - t1)

=
ln
(T1 - t2) - (T2 - t1)

43.8 - 29.3 )

(48.2 - 33.2 )

=
ln
(43.8 - 29.3) - (48.2 - 33.2)

= 14.75

Dirt Factor, Q

= 0.5 (QH+QC)
= 0.5 (2145.34 + 3054.25 )
= 2599.80 W
23

## Overall heat transfer coefficient, U

Q
A LMTD

2599.80
0.0375 14.75

= 4700.20 kg/s2

Efficiency

QC
x 100
QH

= (3054.25/2145.34) x 100%
= 142.37%

24

(v)
At FT1=10 LPM, FT2=10 LPM
Heat transfer for hot water, QH = mHCpT
L
1 min
1 m3
QH
= 10.0 min x 1000 L x 60 s

kg
x 988.18 m3

x 4175

J
kg .C

x 4183

J
kg .C

(38.7 29.3) 0C
= 6463.52 W

Qc

QC

L
min x

= 10.0

1m
1000 L

= mc Cp T
1 min
60 s

kg
x 995.67 m3

(49.0 44.8) 0C
= 2915.42 W

## Heat loss Rate = QH - QC

QH - QC

= 6463.52 W 2915.42 W
= 3548.10 W
T1 - t2)

LMTD, TLM

(T2 - t1)

=
ln
(T1 - t2) - (T2 - t1)

44.8 - 29.3 )

(49.0 - 38.7 )

=
ln
(44.8 - 29.3) - (49.0 - 38.7 )

= 12.72

Dirt Factor, Q

= 0.5 (QH+QC)
= 0.5 (6463.52 + 2915.42 )
= 4689.47 W
25

## Overall heat transfer coefficient, U

Q
A LMTD

4689.47
0.0375 12.72

= 9831.17 kg/s2

Efficiency

QC
x 100
QH

= (2915.42/6463.52) x 100%
= 45.11%

26

9.0 DISCUSSIONS

## This experiment is conducted by using SOLTEQ Heat Exchanger Training

apparatus which is used as cooling devices. Some of the purposes of this experiment
are to cool the hot streams until both cold and hot streams have same temperature,
to study the working principle of counter flow heat exchanger and to evaluate and
study the overall heat transfer coefficient, LMTD and heat transfer and heat loss for
energy balance. In this shell and heat pump exchanger, cold water flows through the
outer pipe (the shell) while hot water will flows through the inner pipe (in the tube).
Heat will be transfer from high temperature (hot water stream) to low temperature
(cold water stream). This causes hot water to decrease in temperature while cold
water to increase in temperature until both hot and cold water have same
temperature.
In this experiment, type of flow in this heat exchanger is the counter-current
flow where hot and cold water flows against each other and form maximum
temperature difference between hot and cold streams which results in maximum heat
transfer process. We assume that heat transfer between the system and its
surrounding is negligible as well as potential and kinetic energy changes, specific
heat is constant and the fluids are not undergo any phase change.
In experiment 1, volumetric flowrates of hot water is constant which is 10 LPM
while volumetric flowrates of cold water is change every 10 minutes from 2 LPM to 10
LPM. Heat transfer of hot water,Q H is higher than heat transfer of cold water,Q C.
However, QH keep decreasing while QC keep increasing as volumetric flowrate of cold
water increases. The highest efficiency in experiment 1 is 94.07% at FT1=10LPM
and FT2=10LPM where its Q H=3025.48 W, QC=2846.01 W, heat loss rate is 179.47
W, LMTD=115.45, dirt factor,Q=2935.75 W and heat transfer coefficient,U=5067.1
kg/s2. It means that heat transfer occur efficiently at equal volumetric flowrates of hot
and cold water.
In experiment 2, volumetric flowrates of cold water is constant at 10 LPM while
volumetric flowrates of hot water is difference every 10 minutes from 2 LPM to 10
LPM. Heat transfer of hot water,Q H is lower than heat transfer of cold water,Q C.
27

## However, QH keep increasing while QC keep decreasing as volumetric flowrates of

hot water increases. The highest efficiency in experiment 2 is 2062.91% at
FT1=2LPM and FT2=10LPM where its Q H=316.30 W, QC=6524.99 W, heat loss rate
is -6208.69 W, LMTD=13.44, dirt factor,Q=3420.65 W and heat transfer
coefficient,U=6787.00 kg/s2.
Theoretically, heat release by hot water must be equal to heat absorb by cold
water, QH=QC as we assume the negligibility of internal,kinetic and potential energy.
However, in this experiment, QH QC due to some errors that occur during conducted
this experiment. For example, suspended matters or dissolves solid that may contain
in the fluid streams. Deposition of the tube surfaces and shell surfaces occurs when
such a fluid flows through a heat exchanger over a long period of time. The surfaces
may also be corroded by fluid slowly and the resulting corrosion products also get
deposited on the surfaces. This formation of the deposit on a heat transfer surface is
called fouling and the heat transfer resistance offered by the deposit is called the
fouling factor or dirt. Presence of air bubbles in the tube also is one of the factor that
cause an inaccurate results.

28

10.0 CONCLUSION

The main objectives of this experiment is to evaluate and study the overall
heat transfer coefficient, LMTD, heat transfer and heat loss for energy balance as
well as to evaluate and study the performance of shell and tube heat exchanger at
various operating condition. In this shell and tube heat exchanger, the fluids flow in
counter-current flow which results in faster heat exchange. The basic theory in this
air experiment is QH=QC, which the amount of heat release by hot water is equal to
the amount of heat absorb by cold water. However, the results is different than the
basic theory where the amount of heat release by hot water is not equal to the
amount of heat absorb by cold water, Q H QC. This is due to some errors during
conducting this experiment which are the presence of bubbles in tube where the hot
water flows. The presence of this bubbles can cause corrosion and disturb the
process of heat transfer. Although the results are not follow the basic theory, this
experiment can be said as successful as the objectives of this experiment is already
achieve.

29

11.0 RECOMMENDATIONS

## There are a few recommendations and precautions that need to be taken

during conducting this experiment in order to get an accurate value and success
results. Firstly, to ensure the data obtained is accurate, make sure there is no air
bubbles in the tube during experiment. The readings of FT1, FT2, DPT1, and DPT2
must be taken when the system is stabilize and reach its steady state to get a good
results in calculations. The eye must be perpendicular to the reading scale of
volumetric flowrates of hot and cold water to avoid parallax error during changing this
flowrates. Besides that, the heat exchanger must be well insulated in order to reduce
the heat loss to the surroundings. Presently, the heat exchanger has no insulation
and the ambient room temperature has a large effect on the results obtained in this
experiment. Lastly, to improve the system of shell and tube heat exchanger, it is
recommended that the shell and tube heat exchanger have alert sign or alarm that
can give a sign to the engineer who handles the equipment to take the readings at
the correct time in order to get accurate readings. So that, this would help in reducing
the inaccuracy of the measurements in the future.

30

12.0 REFFERENCE



http://www.lytron.com/Tools-and-Technical-Reference/Application-

Notes/What-is-a-Heat-Exchanger



(retrieved on 5/10/2015)

http://www.thomasnet.com/articles/process-equipment/heat-exchanger-types
(retrieved on 5/10/2015)



Kessler, D.P., Greenkorn, R.A. (1999). Momentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer

## Fundamentals, New York : Marcel Dekker Inc., pp (768-828).



http://www.ejbowman.co.uk/products/ShellandTubeHeatExchangers.html

(retrieved on 5/10/2015)