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2010 Korea Concrete Institute, ISBN 978-89-5708-182-2

with scale effect

D.J. Kim

Sejong University, Seoul, South Korea

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA

ABSTRACT: This paper describes the results of an experimental test program designed to correlate the tensile

and bending response of fiber reinforced cement composites tested under the same conditions. Several objectives were sought: 1) to correlate tensile and bending behavior of specimens having about the same cross section; 2) to ascertain that a strain hardening composite in tension leads surely to a deflection hardening composite in bending; 3) to observe scale effects on bending behavior; and 4) to verify if some theoretical correlation

between post-cracking tensile strength and bending resistance (modulus of rupture) are validated by experiments. The final objective of this study is to provide hard data needed to determine if the tensile stress-strain

response of fiber reinforced cement composites can be predicted from their load-deflection response, as currently surmised in some test standards and in some finite element studies claiming that tensile response can be

uniquely back-calculated from bending behavior. The test program included several parameters, among

which 2 types of high strength steel fibers (hooked and twisted) with identical volume fractions of fibers (1%),

and three different sizes of cross section for the beams, namely, 5025 mm, 100100 mm, and 150150 mm.

Key observations are described and conclusions drawn.

1 INSTRUCTIONS

Much research has been conducted to increase the

ductility of cement based composites by adding short

fibers, because cement based matrices have innate

weakness in terms of brittle failure under tensile and

flexural loading. To remedy such weakness, Fiber

Reinforced Concrete (FRC) and High Performance

Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites (HPFRCC) have been developed. FRC and HPFRCC are

usually first differentiated by their uniaxial tensile response. FRC shows strain softening behavior under

uniaxial tensile load while HPFRCC shows strain

hardening behavior. (Naaman & Reinhardt 1996)

Although all fiber reinforced cement composites can

be simply characterized according to their tensile response, so far there is no standard tensile test method

for fiber reinforced cement composites. Many researchers are still using different tensile test set-ups

e.g., different boundary conditions, sizes and geometries of specimens, gage length, and measurement

techniques. For example, some researchers have

been using bell shaped tensile specimens with hinge

to hinge boundary conditions while others have been

using coupon type specimens with fixed boundary

conditions. Since there is no standard tensile test

method for FRC and HPFRCC, and since such test-

have investigated whether the third point flexural test

can be used, as an alternative test method, to obtain

the tensile response of the composite. Note that the

flexural response can be predicted analytically from

the tensile and compressive behavior of the material.

(Naaman (2003), Soranakom (2007) & Mobasher,

2008)) However, it is questioned whether the tensile response of the composite can be uniquely backcalculated from its flexural response. An experimental test program was designed and carried out in order to: 1) correlate the tensile and bending behavior

of FRC specimens with same cross section and to

provide some data to the above question, and 2) to

investigate the scale effect on bending behavior, and

3) to provide data for use by researchers attempting

to predict tensile response from bending response.

2 DEFLECTION HARDENING AND STRAIN

HARDENING

The response of a beam specimen under flexural

loading contains structural effects due to the specimen geometry and loading conditions. For instance,

although the tensile behavior of an FRC specimen

may generate a strain softening response, it may also

J = D ( h,either

T )h a deflection-softening or a deflectiongenerate

(1)

hardening response due to the structural effect under

flexural

Naaman (2003)

suggested

practical

The load.

proportionality

coefficient

D(h,T)a is

called

condition

for

deflection

hardening

response,

when

moisture permeability and it is a nonlinear function

) in tensionTis(Baant

higher

the

post

cracking

strength

( pctemperature

of the

relative

humidity

h and

than

the

first

cracking

strength

(

)

multiplied

with

cc balance requires

& Najjar 1972). The moisture mass

.

athat

factor,

k,

smaller

than

1,

i.e.,

the variation in time of the waterpc massccper The

unit

factor

ranges

between

and 1,wwith

0.4 being

volumek of

concrete

(water1/3content

) be equal

to thea

recommended

firstmoisture

approximation.

Soranakom &

divergence of the

flux J

Mobasher (2007) proposed a closed form solution

forwthe moment-curvature response of FRC, and the

(2)

= Jresults, using their model, indicated that

simulation

t

the direct use of uniaxial tensile stress strain response

under-predicts

response.

The water

content

wthe

canflexural

be the

expressed

as theinThey

sum

explained

this

discrepancy

by

difference

the

of

the

evaporable

water

we (capillary water, water

strain

gradient

profile

and

the

volume

of

the

stressed

vapor, and

adsorbed

water) andand

the non-evaporable

region

between

the tensile

tests.

(Mills

1966,

(chemically

bound)

water

wn flexural

Soranakom

& Mobasher

(2008) also

Pantazopoulo

& size

Millseffect

1995).

It is mentioned

reasonablethat

to

the

brittleness

and

are

more

pronounced

in

assume

that

the

evaporable

water

is

a

function

of

the

flexural

responseh,ofdegree

brittle of

materials,

while

more

relative

humidity,

hydration,

materic, and

accurate

predictions

are

obtained

with

ductile

we=we(h,c,s)

degreeTherefore,

of silica fume

reaction,

s, i.e. FRC

als.

in inverse

estimating

tensile

re=

age-dependent

sorption/desorption

isotherm

sponse

from

their

flexural

response,

the

size

of

flex(Norling

Mjonellshould

1997).beUnder

this assumption

and

ural

specimens

carefully

selected.

It

is

by substituting

Equation

1strong

into size

Equation

2in one

well

known

that

there

is

a

effect

the

obtains

behavior of cementitious composites due to their

brittle behavior (Bazant & Planas (1998), Bazant et

w

w h

al.

(1994)).

Ward &wLie &

(1990)

the

e investigated

&s + w&nbeams(3)

+ ( D h ) =

e

c +

flexural

of

reinforced

mortar

h tbehaviorhof fiber

c

s

different sizes and proposed the ratio between flexural strength and tensile strength as a parameter to

where wthe

e/h is the slope of the sorption/desorption

describe

brittleness of material. The ratio deisotherm

called moisture

capacity).

The

creases as (also

the brittleness

of the material

increases.

governing

equation

(Equation

3)

must

be

completed

Bazant et al. (1994), using extensive laboratory reby appropriate

boundary

sults,

also concluded

thatand

all initial

types conditions.

of brittle failures

relation

betweenexhibit

the amount

of size

evaporable

of The

concrete

structures

a strong

effect.

water

and

relative

humidity

is

called

adsorption

Lepech & Li (2004) investigated size effect in ECC

isotherm (plain

if measured

with increasing

relativity

structural

and reinforced

with steel

bars)

humidity

and

desorption

isotherm

in

the

opposite

beams and reported that there is negligible size

effect

case.

Neglecting

difference

(Xi etHowever,

al. 1994),the

in

in

ECC

comparedtheir

to brittle

concrete.

the

following,

sorption

isotherm

will

be

used

with

results were based only on comparing the equivalent

reference

to bothstrength

sorptionbutand

conditions.

elastic

bending

diddesorption

not consider

the deBy

the

way,

if

the

hysteresis

of

the

moisture

flection capacity.

isotherm

would be

account,of two

different

In evaluating

thetaken

tensileinto

behavior

ductile

fiber

relation,

evaporable

water

vs

relative

humidity,

reinforced cement composites, the strain capacitymust

be used according

to the Therefore,

sign of the variation

of isthea

paramount

parameter.

in this experirelativity

humidity.

Theeffect

shape

of themembers

sorption

mental

program,

the size

in flexural

is

isotherm for not

HPConly

is influenced

by many

parameters,

investigated

with respect

to bending

resisespecially

those

that influence

extentat and

of the

tance

but also

to deflection

capacity

peakrate

stress.

structure and pore size distribution (water-to-cement

cement chemical

composition, SF content,

3ratio,

EXPERIMENTAL

PROGRAM

curing time and method, temperature, mix additives,

etc.). types

In theof literature

various

canand

be

Two

high strength

steelformulations

fibers (Hooked

found

to

describe

the

sorption

isotherm

of

normal

Twisted), showing slip hardening response under

concretefiber

(Xipull-out

et al. 1994).

However,

in the

single

testing,

were used

in present

a high

paper

the

semi-empirical

expression

proposed

by

strength cementitious matrix (84MPa) with 1% fiber

Norling

Mjornell

(1997)

is

adopted

because

by volume. Tensile and bending specimens wereit

Proceedings of FraMCoS-7, May 23-28, 2010

explicitly accounts

for the

of tests

hydration

prepared.

Direct tensile

testsevolution

and flexural

were

reactionoutand

SFa content.

This sorption

carried

using

servo-controlled

hydraulicisotherm

testing

reads (MTS810). All the tensile test series led

machine

to a strain-hardening behavior. For the flexural tests,

three different geometries of specimens, S (small),

M

1

(medium), and L (large) were prepared

to investigate

w (h, , s ) =on

G1 (the

c , s )1

+

thee sizeceffect

flexural behavior

of

HPFRCC.

10(g

)h

(4)

10(preparation

g )h

c

1 c

K1 (composition

1

The matrix mix

and proportions

c , s )e

properties of fibers

are

are

shown in Table 2. A VMA (Viscosity Modifying

where the

(gelmatrix

isotherm)

represents

the

Agent)

was first

addedterm

to the

to increase

viscosity

physically

water and

the matrix.

second

and

ensure bound

uniform(adsorbed)

fiber distribution

in the

term compressive

(capillary isotherm)

capillary

The

strength ofrepresents

the matrixthewas

measwater.from

This100200

expression

valid only

content

ured

mm is

cylinders

and for

thislow

matrix

was

amount of

SF. The coefficient

G1 represents

aofself-consolidating

mixture

developed the

earlier.

Table

1. Matrix

composition

weight

ratio and compressive

relative

humidity,

and itbycan

be expressed

(Norling

strength.

Mjornell 1997) as

Cement (Type III)

0.80

c

s s

GFly(ash

c s ) = k vg c c + k vg s0.20

(5)

Sand (Flint)

1.00

where

Silica k and k are material

0.07 parameters. From the

maximum amount of water per unit volume that can

Super-Plasticizer

fill

all pores (both capillary0.04pores and gel pores), one

can

calculate K1 as one obtains

VMA

0.012

c

vg

fume

s

vg

Water

0.26

10 g

'

1 c

G 1 e

w0 0.188 c s + 0.2284

s

c (MPa)

s 1

K ( c s ) =

,

Table 2. Properties of

Fiber type

g c c hstudy.

10used

fibers

inthis

1

Hooked

(6)

Twisted

The material

Diameter

(mm) parameters k and k and

0.30* g1 can

be calibrated by fitting experimental data relevant to

Length(evaporable)

(mm)

30

30

free

water content

in concrete

at

various

ages

(Di

Luzio

&

Cusatis

2009b).

Density (g/cc)

7.9

7.9

c

vg

0.38

s

vg

2300

2760**

2.2

Temperature evolution

Elastic modulus (GPa)

Note

that, at early age, since200

the chemical200reactions

*associated

Equivalentwith

diameter

cement hydration and SF reaction

**

Tensile strengththe

of the

fiber after twisting

are exothermic,

temperature

field is not uniform

for non-adiabatic systems even if the environmental

The geometry

of the tensile

specimens and

temperature

is constant.

Heattestconduction

can the

be

test

set-up

are

shown

in

Figure

1.

Two

layers

of

described in concrete, at least for temperaturesteel

not

wire

mesh were

to reinforce

the bell

shaped

exceeding

100Cused

(Baant

& Kaplan

1996),

by

ends

of

the

tensile

specimens

to

minimize

failure

at

Fouriers law, which reads

the grips and out of the gage length. The gage length

was

to be 175mm (=7 inch), between two

q = selected

T

(7)

infrared markers; displacement between the markers

was measured using a non-contacting motion measwhere instrument

q is the (OPTOTRAK

heat flux, TSystem)

is the placed

absolute

uring

at

temperature,

and

is

the

heat

conductivity;

in this

about one meter from the specimen; the measurement

accuracy was 0.001 mm. Beams of three different

2): S (50mm25mm300mm); M (100mm100mm300mm);

&, L (150mm150mm450mm). In addition to M and

L type specimens, which are recommended in ASTM

C1609, the S type beam specimens were intentionally

added in this experimental program in order to have

same cross sectional area as the tensile specimens.

3.2 Test setups and procedure

= D ( h , T ) h

moisture permeability and it is a nonlinea

of the relative humidity h and temperature

& Najjar 1972). The moisture mass balanc

that the variation in time of the water mas

volume of concrete (water content w) be eq

divergence of the moisture flux J

= J

w

t

162.5

OPTOTRAK MARKERS

Apply

Displacement

Support

Apply

Displacement

50.0

Support

GAGE LENGTH

75.0

175.0

200.0

162.5

UNIT : MM

T = 25

125.0

25.0

specimens are shown in Figure 3. Detailed information about the flexural test set-up can be found in

Kim et al. (2008). The loading speed for both tensile and flexural tests, i.e. 1.06 mm min , was originally determined from the tensile test by assuming

that the static strain rate is 0.0001 sec which is actually ten times faster than the flexural loading speed

of the evaporable water we (capillary wa

vapor, and adsorbed water) and the non-e

(chemically bound) water wn (Mil

Pantazopoulo & Mills 1995). It is reas

assume that the evaporable water is a fu

relative humidity, h, degree of hydration

degree of silica fume reaction, s, i.e. we=w

= age-dependent sorption/desorption

(Norling Mjonell 1997). Under this assum

by substituting Equation 1 into Equati

obtains

w

w h

e mm+100 (mm

(b) M Type

( 100

Dh300

h) =mm) e

h t

w

&c + e &s + w

c

s

isotherm (also called moisture capac

governing equation (Equation 3) must be

by appropriate boundary and initial conditi

The relation between the amount of e

water and relative humidity is called

isotherm if measured with increasing

humidity and desorption isotherm in th

case. Neglecting their difference (Xi et al.

the following, sorption isotherm will be

reference to both sorption and desorption c

By the way, if the hysteresis of the

(c) L type ( 150mm 150 mm 450mm)

isotherm would be taken into account, two

Figure 3. Test set-ups for flexural tests with different specimen

relation, evaporable water vs relative humi

sizes.

be used according to the sign of the varia

relativity

humidity.for The

shape of the

Photos illustrating

test set-ups

the flexural

isotherm

for HPC

is influenced

by many p

specimens are shown

in Figure

3. Detailed

informaespecially

those

that

influence

extent

tion about the flexural test set-up can be found in and

reactions

in turn,

Kim et al. (2008).chemical

The loading

speedand,

for both

ten- determ

structure

and

pore

size

distribution

sile and flexural tests, i.e. 1.06 mm min , was origi- (watercement

chemical

SF

nally determined ratio,

from the

tensile

test by composition,

assuming

curing

time

and

method,

temperature,

mix

that the static strain rate is 0.0001 sec which is acetc.).than

In the

variousspeed

formulatio

tually ten times faster

the literature

flexural loading

found

to

describe

the

sorption

recommended in ASTM C1609. The intention isotherm

of

concretespeed

(Xi etforal.both

1994).

However,

applying same loading

tensile

and in th

the semi-empirical

pro

flexural tests waspaper

to minimize

its effect on expression

the obNorling

Mjornell

(1997)

is

adopted

b

served results.

Proceedings of FraMCoS-7, May 23-28, 2010

(2)

Strain upto peak load (%)

of the evaporable

water we (capillary water, water

(a) Twisted fibers 1%

vapor, and adsorbed water) and the non-evaporable

(chemically bound)

water wn (Mills 1966,

Deformation (mm)

0

0.5 Mills 1 1995).1.5 It is reasonable to

Pantazopoulo

&

1

assume that

the evaporable water is a function of

6

relative0.8humidity, h, degree of hydration,

c, and

degree of silica fume reaction, s, i.e.5 we=we(h,c,s)

0.6

= age-dependent

sorption/desorption

isotherm

4

(Norling Mjonell 1997). Under this 3assumption and

0.4

by substituting

Equation 1 into Equation 2 one

2

obtains 0.2

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Hooked fibers 1%

w h0

e +0 (0.2D h0.4) = w0.6e 0.8 we1 0

(3)

s

n

Strain

h upto peak

loadc(%)

h t

c

s

(b) Hooked fibers 1%

Figure 4. Tensile behavior of both Twisted and Hooked fibers

reinforced

(Kimslope

et al. of

2008).

the sorption/desorption

where wspecimen

e/h is the

&+

& + w&

Table

3. Average

experimental

results

the tengoverning

equation

(Equation

3) obtained

must befrom

completed

sile

tests

(Kim

et

al.

2008).

by appropriate boundary and Hooked

initial conditions.

Fiber

type

&

volume

content

1%

The relation between the1%amount ofTwisted

evaporable

water

and relative

First cracking

strengthhumidity is called adsorption

4.264

isotherm

if measured with4.299increasing

relativity

(MPa)

humidity

and

desorption

isotherm

in

the

Post cracking strength (MPa) 5.207

5.499opposite

case.

1994), in

StrainNeglecting

capacity (%)their difference

0.301 (Xi et al.

0.616

theNumber

following,

sorption

isotherm

will

be

used

with

referenceoftocracks

both(EA)

sorption and15desorption23conditions.

11.85 of the

7.74moisture

ByCrack

thespacing

way,(mm)

if the hysteresis

Average crack

49 different

isotherm

wouldwidth

be (m)

taken into37account, two

relation, evaporable water vs relative humidity, must

be Tensile

used according

to thecurves

sign of(strain

the variation

stress-strain

is valid of

up the

to

relativity

humidity.

The

shape

of

the

sorption

peak stress only) of the test series with Twisted and

isothermfiber

for HPC

is influenced

Hooked

are shown

in Figs.by4amany

and parameters,

4b, respecespecially

those

that values

influence

extent parameters

and rate of are

the

tively.

The

average

of tensile

chemical

reactions

and,

in

turn,

determine

pore

estimated from at least three specimens and summastructure

pore3. size

distribution

(water-to-cement

rized

in and

Table

These

parameters

include first

ratio, cement

chemical

composition,

SFstrain

content,

cracking

strength,

post cracking

strength,

cacuring attime

and method,strength,

temperature,

mix of

additives,

pacity

post-cracking

number

cracks

etc.). Inthethegauge

literature

various

formulations

be

within

length,

and average

crack can

width.

found

to

describe

the

sorption

isotherm

of

normal

Crack spacing and average crack width were esticoncretefrom

(Xithe

et al.

1994).

in thethepresent

mated

total

crackHowever,

length within

gage

paper [Kim

the semi-empirical

expression

proposed

by

length

et al. 2008]. Since

the modulus

of rupNorling

Mjornell

(1997)

is

adopted

because

ture (MOR) under bending is highly correlated withit

Proceedings of FraMCoS-7, May 23-28, 2010

10

10

12

1.6

1.2

physically

bound (adsorbed) water and the8 second

term (capillary

isotherm) represents the capillary

0.8

water. This expression is valid only for low4 content

of SF. 0.4

The coefficient G1 represents the amount of

water per0 unit volumeL/150

held in theL/75gel pores0at 100%

0

0.04

0.08

0.16expressed

0.2

0.24(Norling

relative humidity, and it 0.12

can be

Mjornell 1997) as Deflection (inch)

(a) S type ( 50 mm 25mm 300mm )

c c+ ks s

G ( c s ) = k vg

c Deflection

vg s (mm)

(5)

0

2.8

c

vg

2.4

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

where k and ksvg are material100X100X300

16that can

maximum amount of water per Twisted

unit volume

fibers

Hooked fibers

fill all pores

(both capillary pores and gel pores), one

2

can calculate

K1 as one obtains

12

1.6

1.2

0.8

s + 0.22 s G

0.188

)=

K ( c s0.4

1

1

g c 8c h

g c c h

10

1

L/150

10

L/75

1

0

0.04

0.08

0.12

0.16

c

s

Deflection (inch)

vg

vg

(6)

( 100mmexperimental

100mm 300mm

be calibrated(b)byM fitting

data) relevant to

free (evaporable) water content in concrete at

Deflection

(mm) 2009b).

various ages (Di Luzio

& Cusatis

2.8

150X150X450

fibers

2.2 Temperature

evolution Twisted

Hooked fibers

2.4

16

Note that,2 at early age, since the chemical reactions

associated with cement hydration and SF12reaction

1.6

are exothermic,

the temperature field is not uniform

for non-adiabatic

systems even if the environmental

1.2

temperature

is constant. Heat conduction8 can be

described

0.8 in concrete, at least for temperature not

4

exceeding

100C (Baant & Kaplan 1996),

by

0.4

Fouriers law, which reads

L/150

L/75

Equiv. bending stress (MPa)

we (h c s ) = G ( c Deflection

s ) (mm)

+

(g

)h

0

1

2

3

e 4 c 5 c 6 (4)

2.8

50X25X300

)h

(g

2.4

c

c 16

( fibers

KTwisted

)e

c

s

Hooked

fibers

2

Equiv. bending stress (ksi)

0.4

The proportionality

coefficient D(h,T) is called

Deformation (mm)

moisture0 permeability

and

it 1.5is a nonlinear function

0.5

1

1

of the relative

humidity h and temperature T (Baant

& Najjar

1972). The moisture mass6 balance requires

0.8

that the variation in time of the water

mass per unit

5

volume0.6 of concrete (water content w4 ) be equal to the

divergence of the moisture flux J

explicitly

accounts

for strength

the evolution

hydration

the

post cracking

tensile

of FRC,ofpost

crackreaction

andvalues

SF content.

This sorption

isotherm

ing

strength

for both Twisted

and Hooked

fireadsshould be noted, i.e., the post cracking strength

bers

with Twisted fibers is about 5.5MPa while that with

Hooked was about 5.2MPa.

(1)

J = Test

D (h,results

T ) h

3.3

= T 0

0.04

0.08

0.12

0.16

0.2

Deflection (inch)

0

0.24

(7)

temperature,

and

is the

heat conductivity;

in reinthis

Figure

5. Flexural

responses

of Twisted

and Hooked fiber

forced specimens.

load; b is the width of the specimen; and h is the

depth of the specimen.

In referring to Figure 5, it is first observed that all

specimens generated deflection hardening behavior

accompanied by multiple cracks which appeared on

the bottom and side surfaces of the specimens. The

deflection hardening behavior was anticipated since

the tensile behavior of these composites using

Twisted and Hooked fibers produced strain hardening response under uniaxial tensile load (Fig. 4).

Generally, the specimens reinforced with Twisted fibers produced higher equivalent bending strength

than the specimens reinforced with Hooked fibers, as

expected from their tensile response (Fig. 4).

Equivalent bending strengths of specimens reinforced

with Twisted fibers are 15.79MPa for S, 16.63MPa

for M, and 12.70MPa for L series, while those with

of Hooked fibers are 14.02MPa for S, 11.45MPa for

M, and 11.56MPa for L series, respectively.

4 EVALUATION OF THE EXPERIMENTAL

RESULTS

Although the flexural response of all test series

shows deflection hardening behavior regardless of

their different geometry, noticeable difference is

observed in maximum equivalent bending strength,

deflection capacity, and energy absorption capacity according to the different geometry.

Deflection capacity is defined as the deflection

value at maximum equivalent bending stress and

has a strong influence on the energy absorption

capacity in flexure. Since the span length of each

series of specimens is different according to their

geometry (S, M, or L), the deflection values are

normalized by the length of span for comparison as

shown in Figure 6.

In addition, the equivalent bending strength is

normalized by the post cracking tensile strength

since there is difference in tensile strength between

the test series with Twisted or Hooked fibers.

Normalized equivalent bending strength versus

normalized deflection curves are graphically shown in

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

The proportionality

150X150X450 coefficient D(h,T)

100X100X300

moisture permeability

50X25X300 and it is a nonlinea

16

of the relative humidity h and

temperature

& Najjar 1972). The moisture mass balanc

that the variation in time of12 the water mas

volume of concrete (water content w) be eq

divergence of the moisture flux J

Twisted fiber

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

(1)

3.5

= J

w

t

0.5

The

water content

w can be expressed a

L/150

L/75

of

the

evaporable

water

w0e (capillary wa

0

0

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

vapor, and adsorbed water) and the non-e

Deflection / Span

(chemically

bound) water wn (Mil

(a) Twisted fibers

Pantazopoulo

& Mills 1995). It is reas

assume that the evaporable water is a fu

Deflection

/ Span h, degree of hydration

relative

humidity,

0

0.005

0.01

0.02

degree of silica 0.015

fume reaction,

s, i.e. we=w

3.5

=

age-dependent

sorption/desorption

Hooked fiber

150X150X450

16

(Norling Mjonell

1997). Under

this assum

100X100X300

3

50X25X300

by substituting Equation 1 into Equati

obtains

2.5

12

1.5

w h

e + ( D h) = we

h

8 c

h t

PL

bh 2

f =

J Deflection

= D (h, T )/ Span

h

and Hooked fibers are shown in Figures 5a, 5b, and

5c according to the size of specimens, respectively.

All of the results shown in Figure 5 are averages

from three to six specimens.

Equivalent elastic bending strength is calculated

from the following equation suggested in ASTM

C1609.

& + e & + w

s

the sorption/

where we/h is the slope of

4

isotherm

(also

called

moisture

capac

0.5

governing equation (Equation 3) must be

L/75

L/150

by appropriate

boundary

and

0

0 initial conditi

0

0.005The 0.01

0.015

0.02

relation between the amount of e

Deflection

Span

water

and /relative

humidity is called

(b) Hooked if

fibers

isotherm

measured with increasing

Figure 6. Equivalenthumidity

bending stress

normalized

deflec- in th

and versus

desorption

isotherm

tion curves.

case. Neglecting their difference (Xi et al.

the

following, sorption

isotherm

will be

Figure 6 and the reference

cracking behavior

of typical

specito

both

sorption

and

desorption

c

mens is illustratedBy

in Figure

7. if the hysteresis of the

the

way,

It can be observed

from would

Figure be

6 that

both

isotherm

taken

intoequivaaccount,

two

lent bending strength

and

deflection

capacity

de- humi

relation,

evaporable

water

vs

relative

crease as the sizebeofused

specimen

increases.

Theofdeaccording

to isthehigher

sign

the varia

flection capacity relativity

of S type specimens

than of the

humidity.

The

shape

L/75, while the deflection

capacity

M and L type

isotherm

for

HPCMoreover,

isof influenced

by

many p

specimens is lower

than

L/150.

theextent

de- and

especially

those

that

influence

flection capacity chemical

of M typereactions

specimens

and,is generally

intheturn,

determ

higher than that ofstructure

L type specimens

although

dif- (waterand

pore

size

distribution

ference is small. ratio,

The maximum

equivalentcomposition,

bending

cement

chemical

SF

strength also shows

strong

size

dependency.

Normalcuring

time

and

method,

temperature,

mix

ized equivalent bending

of Twisted

fibersformulatio

reetc.).

Instrength

theforliterature

various

inforced specimens

are

2.87

S,

3.02

for

M,

and

found

to describe

the sorption

isotherm

2.31 for L sizes,concrete

while that

of

Hooked

fibers

rein(Xi et al. 1994). However, in th

forced specimens are 2.69 for S, 2.20 for M, and

paper

the

semi-empirical expression pro

2.22 for L sizes, respectively. The range of normalNorling

Mjornell

(1997) is adopted b

ized equivalent bending strength is 2.20 to 3.02, and

1

J =

D (h, Tis)reasonable

h

this

range

according to theoretical pre(1)

dictions (Naaman, 2003)

moisture permeability and it is a nonlinear function

of the relative humidity h and temperature T (Baant

& Najjar 1972). The

mass balance requires

(a) Smoisture

type (Twisted)

that the variation in time of the water mass per unit

volume of concrete (water content w) be equal to the

divergence of the moisture

flux J

(b) S type (Hooked)

= J

(2)

w

t

M typew(Twisted)

of the evaporable(c)water

e (capillary water, water

vapor, and adsorbed water) and the non-evaporable

(chemically bound) water wn (Mills 1966,

Pantazopoulo & Mills 1995). It is reasonable to

assume that the evaporable water is a function of

type (Hooked)

relative humidity,(d)hM

, degree

of hydration, c, and

degree of silica fume reaction, s, i.e. we=we(h,c,s)

= age-dependent sorption/desorption isotherm

(Norling Mjonell 1997). Under this assumption and

by substituting Equation 1 into Equation 2 one

obtains

(e) L type (Twisted)

w h

e + ( D h) = we

h

h t

w

&c + e &s + w&n

c

s

(3)

L type of

(Hooked)

the sorption/desorption

where we/h is the(f) slope

Figure

7.

Cracking

behavior

of

flexural

isotherm (also called moisturespecimens.

capacity). The

the above

results,

is not

clear that the

by Given

appropriate

boundary

and itinitial

conditions.

flexural

responsebetween

can be used

order of

to predict

the

The relation

the in

amount

evaporable

tensile

behavior

of

material,

uniquely.

This

is

bewater and relative humidity is called adsorption

cause

the bending

tests produced

a strong relativity

size deisotherm

if measured

with increasing

pendency

not

only

for

their

bending

strength

but also

humidity and desorption isotherm in the opposite

their

deflection

capacity

and

their

span

length

or span

case. Neglecting their difference (Xi et al. 1994),

in

to

ratio. sorption isotherm will be used with

thedepth

following,

reference to both sorption and desorption conditions.

By the way, if the hysteresis of the moisture

CONCLUSIONS

5isotherm

would be taken into account, two different

relation, evaporable water vs relative humidity, must

This

study

investigated

correlation

betweenoftenbe used

according

to thethesign

of the variation

the

sile

and

bending

behavior

of

FRC

Composites

with

relativity humidity. The shape of the sorption

scale

effect

usingis three

different

isotherm

forbyHPC

influenced

by geometries.

many parameters,

especially those that influence extent and rate of the

ychemical

Althoughreactions

test series and,

with both

Hooked

and Twisted

in turn,

determine

pore

(Torex)

fibers

show

deflection

hardening

behavior

structure and pore size distribution (water-to-cement

undercement

flexural chemical

load, Twisted

(Torex) fiber

genratio,

composition,

SF led

content,

erally time

to higher

equivalent

bending strength

and decuring

and method,

temperature,

mix additives,

flection

capacity.

etc.). In the literature various formulations can be

yfound

Maximum

equivalent

bending isotherm

strength of

type

to describe

the sorption

of Snormal

specimen,

sameHowever,

cross-sectional

as

concrete

(Xiwhich

et al.has

1994).

in the area

present

the

tensile

specimen,

was

almost

three

times

higher

paper the semi-empirical expression proposed by

than theMjornell

post-cracking

strengthbecause

obtainedit

Norling

(1997)tensile

is adopted

Proceedings of FraMCoS-7, May 23-28, 2010

explicitly

accounts

for theThis

evolution

of hydration

from direct

tensile tests.

is very close

to anareaction

SF content.

Thisconditions

sorption (Naaman,

isotherm

lytically and

predicted

best case

reads

2003).

y As the size of specimen decreases, both the equiva the deflection capacity

in1

(h, , ) = G ( , ) 1

wcrease.

+

c s 10(g )h

e c s

1

y The ratio of equivalent bending

strength

direct

c to

1 c

e

(4)

tensile strength for all test series ranged from about

range

)h predicted

10(g the

c

1 c

) e

K1 ( c , s2003

1

analytically (Naaman,

)

response cannot be uniquely predicted from bending

where

the without

first term

(gel isotherm)

represents

the

response

consideration

to size

effect and

physically

bound

(adsorbed)

water

and

the

second

span length or span to depth ratio.

water.

This expression is valid only for low content

It is hoped that additional studies will be carried

the amount

of

of SF.

Thefuture

coefficient

G1 represents

out

in the

to provide

additional data

to further

water

per

unit

volume

held

in

the

gel

pores

at

100%

resolve whether the tensile response can be uniquely

relative humidity,

and it can

be expressed

(Norling

predicted

from the bending

response,

and if so,

which

Mjornell

1997)

as

parameters are needed.

c c+ ks s

G ( c s ) = k vg

c vg s

6 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

(5)

k vg are material

parameters.

From

the

where

k vg anddescribed

The

research

herein was

sponsored

by the

maximum

amount

of water

per unitunder

volume

that No.

can

US

National

Science

Foundation

Grant

fill all0754505

pores (both

capillary

pores of

andMichigan.

gel pores), The

one

CMS

to the

University

obtains

can calculate

K1 as one

opinions

expressed

in this

paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the

sponsor.

g h

c

c

w

s + s G e

c

s

(6)

( ) =

K

REFERENCES

c s

g h

e c c

c

10

0.188

0.22

10

flexural performance of fiber creinforceds concrete (using

and k vgSociety

and ofg1Testcan

The material

parameters

k vgAmerican

beam

with third-point

loading).

be ing

calibrated

by

fitting

experimental

data

relevant

to

and Materials, pp. 18.

free (evaporable)

content R.,

in 1994,

concrete

at

Bazant,

Z. P., Ozbolt, J.water

& Eligehausen,

Fracture

size effect:

Review

of &

evidence

concrete structures,

various

ages (Di

Luzio

Cusatisfor2009b).

ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 120, No. 8,

pp. 2377-2398.

Bazant,

Z.P. & Planas,

J., 1998, Fracture and Size Effect in

2.2 Temperature

evolution

Concrete and Other quasi-brittle Materials, CRC Press,

Note

that,

at and

early

age, pp.

since

Boca

Raton

London,

616.the chemical reactions

associated

with cement

reaction

Kim,

D. J., Naaman,

A. E. & hydration

S. El-Tawil, and

2008,SF

Comparative

behavior

four fiber reinforced

cementitious

areflexural

exothermic,

theoftemperature

field is not

uniform

composites,

Cement

and

Concrete

Composites,

Vol.30,

forNo.10,

non-adiabatic

systems even if the environmental

pp.917-928.

temperature is constant. Heat conduction can be

Kim, D. J., Naaman, A. E. & S. El-Tawil, 2008, High tensile

described

in concrete,

leastcomposites

for temperature

not

strength strain

hardeningatFRC

with less than

exceeding

100C

(Baant

&

Kaplan

1996),

by

2% fiber content, Proceedings of Second International

Symposium

Ultra reads

High Performance Concrete, GerFouriers

law,onwhich

many, E. Fehling, M. Schmidt and S. Strwald, Co-Editor,

q =Kassel

TUniversity Press GmbH, Heft 10, No. 10, pp. 169(7)

176

Lepech, M. & Li, V. C., 2004, Size Effect in ECC Structural

Members

in Flexure,

Proceedings

Vail,

where

q is

the heat

flux, Tof FRAMCOS-5,

is the absolute

Colorado,

USA,

pp.

1059-1066.

temperature, and is the heat conductivity; in this

Naaman, A. E. & Reinhardt, H. W., 1996, Characterization of

High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites,

A. E. Naaman and H. W. Reinhardt, eds., RILEM, No. 31,

pp. 1-24.

Naaman, A. E., 2003, Strain Hardening and Deflection Hardening Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites, High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites

(HPFRCC-4), A.E. Naaman and H.W. Reinhardt, Editors,

RILEM Publications, Pro. 30, pp. 95-113.

Soronakom, C. & Mobasher, B., 2007, Closed-Form MomentCurvature Expressions for Homogenized Fiber-Reinforced

Concrete, ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 104, No. 4, pp.

351-359.

Soronakom, C. & Mobasher, B., 2008, Correlation of tensile

and flexural responses of strain softening and strain hardening cement composites, Cement and Concrete Composites, Vol. 30, pp. 465-477.

Ward, R. & Li, V.C., 1990, Dependence of Flexural Behavior

of Fiber Reinforced Mortar on Material Fracture Resistance and Beam Size, ACI Materials Journal, V. 87, No.

6, pp. 627-637.

= D ( h , T ) h

moisture permeability and it is a nonlinea

of the relative humidity h and temperature

& Najjar 1972). The moisture mass balanc

that the variation in time of the water mas

volume of concrete (water content w) be eq

divergence of the moisture flux J

= J

w

t

of the evaporable water we (capillary wa

vapor, and adsorbed water) and the non-e

(chemically bound) water wn (Mil

Pantazopoulo & Mills 1995). It is reas

assume that the evaporable water is a fu

relative humidity, h, degree of hydration

degree of silica fume reaction, s, i.e. we=w

= age-dependent sorption/desorption

(Norling Mjonell 1997). Under this assum

by substituting Equation 1 into Equati

obtains

w h

e + ( D h) = we

h

h t

w

&c + e &s + w

c

s

isotherm (also called moisture capac

governing equation (Equation 3) must be

by appropriate boundary and initial conditi

The relation between the amount of e

water and relative humidity is called

isotherm if measured with increasing

humidity and desorption isotherm in th

case. Neglecting their difference (Xi et al.

the following, sorption isotherm will be

reference to both sorption and desorption c

By the way, if the hysteresis of the

isotherm would be taken into account, two

relation, evaporable water vs relative humi

be used according to the sign of the varia

relativity humidity. The shape of the

isotherm for HPC is influenced by many p

especially those that influence extent and

chemical reactions and, in turn, determ

structure and pore size distribution (waterratio, cement chemical composition, SF

curing time and method, temperature, mix

etc.). In the literature various formulatio

found to describe the sorption isotherm

concrete (Xi et al. 1994). However, in th

paper the semi-empirical expression pro

Norling Mjornell (1997) is adopted b

Proceedings of FraMCoS-7, May 23-28, 2010

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