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2012 International Conference on Optoelectronics and Microelectronics (ICOM)

Monitoring System of Sewerage Treatment based on

Wireless Network
Xianhui Shao*, Xiaowei Liu, Haifeng Zhang
MEMS Center
Harbin Institute of Technology
Harbin, China
monitoring. For environmental observation, sensor nodes are
usually diffused into the certain areas, where the factories
output their waste water. Thus, the sensor nodes can monitor
the water quality or detect the changes of the environment,
collect the messages of the environment and send them to the
upper tier directly.

AbstractHow to protect the fresh water sources is one of the

principal problems in the human society, and obviously the
industrial sewerage is the main pollution source. However, some
water quality monitoring systems based on WSN have been done;
we found that the traditional WSN nods have a disadvantage of
short-distance communication among the nods, which limits the
application in monitoring the industrial sewerage. In this paper,
we describe a new monitoring system, which is based on the
ZigBee network, the RF front circuit and the dynamic routing, in
order to realize long-distance communication among the nods
and real-time monitoring. This system described is general,
extensible, self-organized and adaptive, with large area overlay
and excellent compatibility.

The route tier: The route tier is composed of many route

nodes, which belong to different groups. Based upon the
infrastructure tier, the route nodes collect and transmit the
infrastructure tier messages, receive and send the user
commands to the sensor nodes. The route nodes can be also
organized in the format of group.

Keywords-Monitoring System; WSN; long-distance; ZigBee;

embedded OS



How to protect the fresh water sources of the earth and

reduce the gross of industrial sewerage has become one of the
main issues for the whole world from now to future [1]. In
order to save the water source, environmental monitoring is
adopted as the most promising technology, via the application
of the wireless sensor network (WSN) [2][3].

Figure 1. System architecture

ZigBee is a optimized standard for WSN, which is used in

several applications such as sensors interconnecting,
monitoring and automating different systems in home,
hospitals, manufactories and agriculture [4][5]. In recent years,
many successful research works have been done in the
environmental monitoring areas. There are several hardware
and software solutions for implementing monitoring systems
for the most varied scenarios. But the range of communication
distance among the nods is usually from 10m to 100m. Thus,
the systems referred above are not suitable for the application
of monitoring the environment around the factories. So, a new
wireless environmental monitoring system based on ZigBee is
designed, with 1.5km maximal communication distance
between two nodes. This new system is self-organized and
adaptive with large area overlay.

The user tier: As the important part of the monitoring

system, the user tier collects all the messages from the sensor
nodes and also sends the commands to these nodes, via the
route tier.
A. Hardware Structure
Fig. 2 shows the Hardware structure of the wireless node,
which comprises six basic parts. MCU Module, Wireless
Module and RF Front Circuit is important.


Fig. 1 shows the system architecture, which comprises three

basic tiers as described below.
The infrastructure tier: This tier contains the wireless sensor
nodes and the special sensors for the industrial sewerage

978-1-4673-2639-1/12/$31.00 2012 IEEE

Figure 2. Hardware structure of the wireless node



2012 International Conference on Optoelectronics and Microelectronics (ICOM)

the tasks of the node are added into the Task Control Block
(TCB), and scheduled upon the priority level by the OS.

MCU Module: LPC2138 with the core of ARM-7, which

has 512k flash memory and 32k RAM, is selected as the microprocessor (MCU). The C/OS
operation system (OS) is
embedded in the MCU module to realize these functions.

CC2530_Route_TaskThis task is the important part of

the protocol stack. Its function is dynamic routing backup.

Wireless Module: The CC2530 SoC (System on Chip) is an

appropriate solution specifically tailored for IEEE 802.15.4 and
ZigBee applications. The CC2530 combines an industrystandard enhanced 8051 MCU, 128 KB flash memory, 8KB
RAM and combined with the industry leading ZigBee protocol
stack (Z-Stack) from Texas Instruments.
RF Front Circuit: Fig. 3 shows the RF front circuit
structure. The best working band at 2.4GHz-2.5GHz lowpower linear RF amplifier chipRF5189 is used in RF power
amplifier section. The chip's small-signal gain is up to 25dB,
the maximum of output RF power is +30dBm, and it can
maintain a good linearity. RF power amplifier needs an extra
bias voltage for operation. If the RF power amplifier suspends
the work, the offset voltage should be canceled.

Figure 4. C/OS II application program

In a traditional wireless network, there is only one piece of

routing information at a certain time. When the link is blocked,
a long time is need in the process of rebuild routing. This leads
to the phenomenon of loss of data and system communication
low reliability.

In order to meet the requirements of the working status of

the RF power amplifier chip fast switching in the systems
work. The ultra-low dropout, ultra-high-speed LDO chip is
used to provide the necessary bias voltage for the RF power
amplifier in this design. The chip has an enable end EN. When
EN is high, the chip is to provide precise, stable bias voltage
for the RF power amplifier chip. When EN is low, the chip
immediately stops working and cut off the RF power amplifier
chip bias voltage, the RF power amplifier chip is in the standby

In this paper, the dynamic routing backup mechanism is

added in the Z-Stack protocol stack, terminal node to the
coordinator of the multiple routes are calculated based on the
strength of the Received Signal Strength Indication(RSSI) of
wireless sensor nodes. They are backed up in the local routing
table. The routing information is be refreshed in time. When
an exception occurs in communication, it automatically
switches to the backup route to re-communicate. The
mechanism has the advantages of fast response and high
adaptive. In practical applications the PC software can realtime monitor the ZigBee network routing topology.

HMC286 chip is used as the Low-noise amplifier, which

best band is 2.3GHz-2.5GHz. It can provide gain of 19dB For
RF small-signal. Due to the bandwidth of the chip is big; In
order to further reduce interference, the narrow band-pass-filter
BF2500 with a center frequency of 2.4GHz is inserted in low
noise amplifier and antenna in the design. The received signals
of antenna can be filtered to retain only 2.4GHz band. The ratio
signal to noise can be enhanced.

Fig. 5 shows a method for determining the network

topology for any given network using a subset of the Z-Stack
ZDO (Zigbee Device Object) layer APIs.
Using IEEEAddrReq(), one can start the process by issuing
this request to the PAN coordinator since it always has short
address 0x0000. The ReqType parameter should be set to 1, to
obtain the list of devices that have associated to the

The single-pole double-throw CMOS RF switch chip

PE4237 is used in this design. It used to the high-speed
switching from DC to RF signal and fully meets the design

By using the callback function IEEEAddrRspCB, one can

obtain the list of associated devices which will include their
short addresses, as well as the IEEE address of the coordinator.
The NumAssocDev parameter in the callback function returns
the number of devices that are associated with the coordinator.

Figure 3. RF front circuit structure

B. Software Structure
The running course of the application program has been
given in the Fig. 4.When the nodes power is turned on; the
application program firstly initializes the OS, then, the
hardware devices of the node are initialized, e.g. the
environment monitoring sensor, the wireless communication
module and the ports or function modes of the MCU. Secondly,

978-1-4673-2639-1/12/$31.00 2012 IEEE

Figure 5. Sequence diagram for discovering network topology



2012 International Conference on Optoelectronics and Microelectronics (ICOM)

Once the first list from the coordinator is returned, one can
repeat the above procedure targeted at each short address in the
list. By iterating this procedure over all parents and children,
the application will be able to map out the topology of the
entire network.

The overview of the User tier application program has been

given in the Fig. 7. On the left, there are six nodes in the
network, except the Coordinator Node. The program can gather
monitoring data, the network address and the working status
from these nodes. The hierarchical topology structure will be
given, if the Topo button is pressed. The details of the
hierarchical topology will be described on the right. This
figure can be real-time monitoring of network status.


In this section the monitoring system has been tested,

including the hardware and the software, in order to analyses
and evaluate the whole system.

Fig. 8 shows the monitoring data of one node in the

network. The Node ID is 7559, which means the nodes short
address in the network. In order to test the sensitivity of the
node, the node described has been put into a steady area, for a
moment. During the testing period, a kind of specific condition
is added in the environment of the testing area for a short time
and then removed immediately. Obviously, the monitoring data
can be observed via the windows of the application program.
The cycle of the monitoring data is 0.5s; and Fig. 8 also shows
the changing trend of the environment around the node.

Figure 6. Output power of the wireless sensor node


Fig. 6 shows the capability of the RF Circuit. The capability

of this circuit is the key of the long-distance communication
among the nodes. Test parameters to select the frequency
2405MHz and enable the power amplifier module and lownoise amplifier. Continuous carrier output test. From this
picture, we can see that the output power of the node is
+25.99dBm. In our testing course, this kind of output power
can realizes the requirement, which means that the nodes can
communicate with each other within 1.5km.






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Figure 7. User tier application program

978-1-4673-2639-1/12/$31.00 2012 IEEE


Fig. 8 Monitoring data of one node