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Loader Hydraulic Training Courseware

2011

Main Content
 Suitable Group
 Training Objectives
 Contents
 Evaluation Topics

19/05/2015

Suitable Group
This course is suitable for domestic and foreign intermediate and
above technical service personnel
It also applies to

19/05/2015

Main Content
 Suitable Group
 Training Objectives
 Contents
 Evaluation Topics

19/05/2015

Training Objectives
1. This training course is expected to have 12 hours.
2. After training of this course, students should master the following main
knowledge points:
1Basic knowledge of hydraulic system
2Structure and principle of LG hydraulic system
3Common failure and troubleshooting of systems and components

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Contents

2015/5/19

Basic Knowledge of
Hydraulic
Transmission

Hydraulic
System Introduction of LG
Loader

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Part 1 Basic Knowledge of Hydraulic


Transmission
Basic Principle of Hydraulic Transmission

1
Composition of Hydraulic Transmission System

2
1

Advantages of Hydraulic Transmission System

3
4
5
6
7

Disadvantages of Hydraulic Transmission


System
Hydraulic Medium
Hydraulic Power Components

Hydraulic Control Components

8
Hydraulic Actuating Components

2015/5/19

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. Basic Principle of Hydraulic Transmission


A machine is basically made up of four parts, including prime motor,
transmission device, working mechanism, and assistant mechanism.
The purpose of prime motor is to change various forms of energy into
mechanical energy, which is power supply of the machine. Working
mechanism works outside with mechanical energy. Transmission device
between prime motor and working mechanism transfers power and
controls.
There are many transmission types. Transmission can be divided into
mechanical transmission, power transmission, pneumatic transmission and
liquid transmission by parts or working medium.

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. Basic Principle of Hydraulic Transmission

Transferring and controlling energy with liquid as working

medium is

called liquid transmission.

It can be divided into hydraulic pressure transmission and hydraulic


transmission by principle. Hydraulic pressure transmission mainly
delivers power with liquid pressure. Hydraulic transmission mainly
transfers power with kinetic energy of liquid.

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. Basic Principle of
Hydraulic Transmission
Take hydraulic jack for example to
illustrate principle and features of
hydraulic transmission.
1. Force transmission follows Pascal's
Principle
1
Thrust on piston equals oil pressure times
piston area.
2
P, oil pressure, depends on external load.
2. Loading speed transfers according to the

Figure 1-1 Working Principle of Oil Jack


1-oil tank 2-control valve 3,6-cylinder 4,7-plunger 5-lever
8,9-one-way valve 10,11-pipelines

principle of equal liquid volume after


changes. Its speed depends on quantity
of flow. Ignoring loss, hydraulic
transmission force is irrelevant with
speed.

Pressure
P=F1/A1=F2/A2
(Pascal's Principle)
Quantity of flow
Q=A1V1=A2V2; (V=S/t)
(the Principle of Continuity )

Power
P
V1F1=V2F2=PQ

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. Composition of Hydraulic Transmission System


1. Hydraulic Power Supply
Components converting mechanical energy into liquid pressure. Typical
component is hydraulic pump.
2. Control Components
Control force, movement speed and direction actuating components by
controlling pressure, flow quantity and direction of fluid. Pressure, flow
quantity and direction usually control hydraulic valve.
3. Actuating Components
Components converting liquid pressure into mechanical energy,
including hydraulic cylinder moving in a straight line and hydraulic
motor with rotation movement.

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. Composition of Hydraulic Transmission System


4. Assistant Components
Other devices besides the above three components to guarantee
normal operation of the system in the system have delivering, storage,
heating, cooling, filtration, measurement and other functions, such as
pipeline, connector, fuel tank, radiator, filter, etc.

5. Working Medium
Deliver energy and signal with it.

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. Advantages of Hydraulic Transmission System


1. Unit power is light in weight, which means large force and torque can be obtained with
lighter equipment weight.
2. Small inertia, fast starting and braking due to its small volume and light weight.
3. Stepless speed regulation is easy during operating process with a large speed regulation
range.
4. Linear reciprocating motion can be easily achieved with the help of hydraulic cylinder with
simple structure.
5. Easy to realize automation
6. Easy to achieve overload protection. Work is safe and reliable.
7. Hydraulic transmission can layout transmission mechanism flexibly.
8. Liquid working medium with elasticity and vibration absorbing ability makes hydraulic
transmission smooth and reliable.
It can be lubricated by itself during operation. Easy heat dissipation and long service life.
9. Easy to realize standardization, serialization and universalization. Easy to design,
manufacture and market.

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. Disadvantages of Hydraulic Transmission System


1. Low transmission efficiency (75% ~ 80%). Leakage and environmental pollution.
2. Largely influenced by temperature change during operation.
3. Reliability of hydraulic system is still not as good as that of power transmission and
mechanical transmission.
4. Hydraulic components have high requirements to manufacturing accuracy and high
manufacturing cost. Use and maintenance require a certain professional knowledge and
a higher level of skill.
5. Acquisition and transfer of hydraulic energy is not as convenient as that of electricity.
Due to pressure loss and other reasons, hydraulic energy should not be transmitted
over a long distance.
6. Components, accessories and working medium in the hydraulic system work in a
closed system. Failures are difficult to discover in time. Failure causes are difficult to
determine.
7. Hydraulic transmission is sensitive to pollution of hydraulic oil and easy to have
failures.
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. Hydraulic Transmission Medium


1. Functions of Hydraulic Medium

Energy and signal transmission;

Lubricate hydraulic components, and reduce friction and wear;

Heat dissipation;

Corrosion prevention;

Sealing of clearance in hydraulic components to prevent dual friction;

Transmission, separation and precipitation of non-soluble


contaminants; and

Provide diagnosis information for component and system failure.

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. Hydraulic Transmission Medium


2. Types of Hydraulic Medium

One is flammable hydrocarbon hydraulic oil (mineral oil type and


synthetic hydrocarbon type);

Another is nonflammable (or fire resistant) hydraulic fluid.

Nonflammable fluid includes aqueous (such as HFA, HFB and HFC)


and non-aqueous synthetic fluid
HFD
.

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. Hydraulic Transmission Medium


3. Main Performance of Hydraulic Medium
1
Viscosity
2
Abrasion resistance
3
Oxidation stability and thermal stability
4
Demulsibility and hydrolytic stability
5
Defoaming
6
Anti-corrosion

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. Hydraulic Transmission Medium


3. Main Performance of Hydraulic Medium Continued

7
Shear stability
8
Material compatibility
9
Filtering property
10
Other performance requirements
Other requirements include flame resistance, resistance to low temperature,
radiation resistance (radioresistant) stability, nonpoisonous and tasteless,
harmless to human body, easy processing of waste fluid and other
performance.

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. Hydraulic Transmission Medium


4. Classification and Features of Hydraulic Oil of Mineral Oil Type

HH Hydraulic Oil. HH Oil is refined mineral oil without any additives.

HL Hydraulic Oil. HL Oil is made from neutral base oil with high refined depth,
and antioxidant and anti-rust . It is anti-corrosive and anti-oxidative type.

HM Hydraulic Oil. HM Oil is developed from HL anti-corrosive and anti-oxidative


oil.

HR Hydraulic Oil. HR Oil is HL Oil added with viscosity index additive, which
makes oil viscosity decrease with temperature change.

HG Hydraulic Oil. HG Oil is HM Oil added with anti-sticking agent (oiliness


solvent or antifriction agent)

HV and HS Oil. HV and HS Oil are both low-temperature hydraulic oil used over
wide range of temperature variation according to ISO Standard. HV Oil is mainly
used in cold area. HS Oil is mainly used in freezing area.

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. Hydraulic Transmission Medium


5. Reasonable Use and Maintenance of Hydraulic Medium
Key Points of Reasonable Use
1
Identify variety and mark of oil;
2
Hydraulic system should be thoroughly cleaned before
liquid filling;
3
New oil must be filtered before use;
4
Oil cannot be mixed optionally;
5
Pollution should be strictly controlled to prevent moisture,
air and solid impurities from entering hydraulic system.

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. Hydraulic Transmission Medium


5. Reasonable Use and Maintenance of Hydraulic Medium
Monitoring of hydraulic oil of mineral oil type
Due to mechanical, chemical and physical effect, additive in oil will be
gradually consumed during use and oil will decay. Its performance will
gradually deteriorate, which is characterized by:
1
Changes of oil state, such as odor, color and appearance;
2
Point of flammability decreases. other oil may be mixed;
3
Mechanical impurities increase;
4
Viscosity changes

5
Acid value increases;
6
Demulsibility becomes bad; and
7
Defoaming becomes bad.
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. Hydraulic Transmission Medium


5. Reasonable Use and Maintenance of Hydraulic Medium
Replacing of hydraulic oil of mineral oil type
For some main performance parameters of oil should be monitored periodically
and frequently. When deterioration reaches a certain degree, oil must be
replaced. At present, there are generally 3 methods to determine the oil
replacing period.
1) Specify fixed oil replacing period
Specify fixed oil replacing period according to equipment, condition and type of
oil and oil injection quantity, such as half a year, one year or operation of 1000
to 2000h;
2
Determine whether to replace oil according to experience and observation of oil
sample; and
3
Specify oil drainage index. Determine whether to replace oil according to test
result of oil sample;

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. Hydraulic Transmission Medium


6. Pollution and Protection of Hydraulic Oil
Pollution of hydraulic oil is mainly caused by the following reasons.
1
If sand, scraps, abrasive materials, welding slag, rust slice, dust and other dirt in
pipelines of hydraulic system and hydraulic components are not removed in
washing before use, these dirt will enter hydraulic oil when hydraulic system
works.
2
External dust and sand, and oil lead flowing back into the tank pass the
repeatedly stretching piston rod during operation of hydraulic system and enter
hydraulic oil. In addition, dust, cotton lint and other things may enter hydraulic oil
during maintenance due to carelessness.
3
Hydraulic system itself also constantly produces dirt, which will directly enter
hydraulic oil, such as wear particles of metal and seal materials, particles
dropping form filter materials, jelly generated due to oxidative deterioration of
fiber and oil caused by oil temperature increase, etc.

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. Hydraulic Transmission Medium


6. Pollution and Protection of Hydraulic Oil
Harms of oil pollution
Serious hydraulic oil pollution will directly influence work performance of
hydraulic system, cause frequent failure of hydraulic system , and shorten
service life of hydraulic components. Main reason causing these risks are
particles in dirt. For hydraulic components, if these solid particles enter
components, wear of sliding parts of components will be intensified, orifice and
damping hole in hydraulic components may be blocked, or spool will be stuck,
causing hydraulic system failure. Water and air mixing will reduce lubrication
capacity of hydraulic oil reduction, accelerate oxidative deterioration, cause
corrosion, accelerate corrosion of hydraulic components, and make hydraulic
system vibrate or craw.

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. Hydraulic Transmission Medium


6. Pollution and Protection of Hydraulic Oil
Pollution prevention measures
1
Keep hydraulic oil clean before use;
2
Keep hydraulic system clean after assembling and before operation;
3
Keep hydraulic oil clean during operation;
4
Use appropriate oil filter;
5
Regularly replace hydraulic oil; and
6
Control working temperature of hydraulic oil.

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. Hydraulic Transmission Components


1. Working Principle of Hydraulic Pump
Hydraulic power components provide power supply for the system. They are
indispensable core components of the system. Hydraulic pump is the power
component providing the system with certain flow quantity and pressure.
Hydraulic pump works on the principle of
seal volume change, so it is generally
called volumetric hydraulic pump.
The operation principle is explained with
Figure and gear pump.

Figure

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. Hydraulic Transmission Components


2. Features of Hydraulic Pump
1
With several seals and can periodically change space;
2
Absolute pressure of liquid in the tank must be identical to or greater than
the atmospheric pressure, which is the external condition for volumetric
hydraulic pump to absorb oil.
3
Have corresponding assignment mechanism to separate oil absorption
cavity from liquid discharge cavity.
Ensure regular and continuous absorption and discharge of liquid of
hydraulic pump . Hydraulic pumps with different structure principle have
different assignment mechanism.

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. Hydraulic Transmission Components


3. Main Performance Parameters of Hydraulic Pump
1
Pressure
Working pressure, rated pressure and maximum permissible pressure.
2
Discharge and flow
Theoretical flow, rated flow, and actual flow
3
Power and efficiency

Power loss of hydraulic pump includes volume loss and mechanical


loss.

Power of hydraulic pump: input power and output power

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. Hydraulic Transmission Components


4. Type of Hydraulic Pump
1
By structure: Gear pump, vane pump, plunger pump, screw pump, etc.
Gear pump: Inner gearing gear pump and outer gearing gear pump;
Vane pump: Single acting vane pump and double acting vane pump;
Plunger pump: Axial plunger pump, radial plunger pump and valve oil
distributing valve plunger pump;
2
By function: Constant delivery pump and variable pump

gear pump

axial plunger pump


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radial plunger pump

. Control Components (Hydraulic Valve)


1. Concept
Hydraulic transmission control and regulating components are also
called control valve, valve for short. They are used to control
direction of flow and adjust pressure and flow of fluid of, in order to
satisfy start, stop, redirection, speed regulation, voltage
stabilization, unloading, pressurization, decompression and other
operational needs of actuating components.

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. Control Components (Hydraulic Valve)


2. Common Features
1
In structure, all valves consist of valve body, valve spool (turn valve or
slide valve) and components of driven valve spool movements (such as
spring and electromagnet).
2
In working principle, relationship among opening size, pressure
difference between inlet and outlet of valve and flow through valve of all
valves comforts to orifice flow formula, but different valves have
different control parameters.

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. Control Components (Hydraulic Valve)


3. Performance Parameters and Basic Requirements of
Hydraulic Control Valve
Performance Parameters
Nominal pressure Maximum working pressure allowed by long-term reliable
work of hydraulic control valve , which is limited by intensity of valve. Actual
permissible maximum working pressure is also related to other factors, such
as reversing reliability of reversing valve and pressure regulating scope of
pressure valve.
Nominal diameter Unit of nominal diameter of hydraulic control valve is mm. A
certain nominal diameter represents a certain of flow capacity, which is
permissible maximum flow (nominal flow). It should be pointed out that, valves
with the same nominal diameter may have different nominal flow because of
their different functions.

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. Control Components (Hydraulic Valve)


3. Performance Parameters and Basic Requirements of
Hydraulic Control Valve
Performance requirements
a. High action sensitivity. Reliable to use. Small impact and vibration during
operation. Low noise.
b. When valve port is closed, sealing should be good. When valve port is opened,
direction valve should have small fluid flow pressure loss, direction valve
should have good core stability.
c. Controlled parameters (pressure or flow) should have high precision and
small fluctuation when influenced by outside interference.
d. Compact structure. Convenient to install, debug and maintain. High
universality.

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. Control Components (Hydraulic Valve)


4. Classification of Hydraulic Control Valve
There are many varieties of control valves used in hydraulic transmission, which can
be classified by characteristics. It is the most common to classify by purpose of
control valves.
1
Directional control valve (such as one-way valve and reversing valve);
2
Pressure control valve (such as overflow valve, pressure reducing valve and
sequence valve);
3
Flow control valve
such as throttling valve, flow speed control valve and flow
distributing and collecting valve );
They can also be classified by structure, operation mode, connection mode, control
mode, adjustability of output parameters, etc. Different combination valves can be
composed according to needs.

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. Control Components (Hydraulic Valve)


5. Pressure Control Valve

Concept
Valve used to control fluid flow pressure in the hydraulic system
or control.

Common Points
Work in the principle of balanced liquid pressure and
spring force on valve core.

Classification

Overflow valve
safety valve and constant pressure valve;
Pressure reducing valve
fixed pressure reducing valve, fixed
differential reducing valve and proportional pressure reducing valve;
Sequence valve
sequence valve, unloading valve, back pressure
valve, balanced valve, hydraulic switch, etc.

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. Control Components (Hydraulic Valve)


1
Overflow valve
Main purpose of overflow valve is pressure leveling (constant pressure valve) or
security protection (safety valve) of hydraulic system.
Almost all the hydraulic systems need to use it. Its performance has very big effect on
normal operation of the whole hydraulic system.

System figure illustrates the role of overflow valve. Overflow Valve 2 in the left figure
is constant pressure valve. Overflow Valve 2 in the right figure is safety valve.

constant pressure
valve

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safety valve

. Control Components (Hydraulic Valve)


1
Overflow valve
Continued

Structure type: can be divided into directly


operated type and pilot operated type by form
of structure and basic action mode.
Directly operated overflow valve
see figure

Directly operated overflow valve controls on-off


movement with pressure oil in the system directly
acting on valve core which is balanced with spring
force.

Figure of Low-pressure Directly Operated Overflow Valve

Limited by structure and control precision, directly


operated overflow valve is commonly used in little
traffic system with low pressure (less than 2.5 MPa).

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1-nut 2-pressure adjusting spring 3-top cover 4-valve core 5valve body

Function Symbol
Map

. Control Components
(Hydraulic Valve)

Remote
Control

1) Overflow valve
Continued

Pilot operated overflow valve see figure


for operating principle

Consist of main valve and pilot valve;


Damping hole has small diameter (0.6-1.2);
Easy to block. Will not operate normally.
Advantages in performance (pressure
adjusting range, on-off characteristic,

Pilot Overflow Valve


1-spring of main valve 2-main valve core 3-damper hole

dynamic performance, remote control, etc.).


Suitable for system with high pressure and
big flow.

4-valve core of pilot valve 5-sping of pilot valve

Principle
Demo
Function
Symbol Map

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. Control Components (Hydraulic Valve)


2
Pressure reducing valve
Pressure reducing valve is a pressure control valve
which makes outlet pressure (secondary pressure)
below inlet pressure (primary pressure). Its function
is to provide two or several different pressure
output with one oil source.
In addition, when oil pressure is unstable, a stable
low pressure can be obtained by putting a pressure
Pressure Reducing Valve

reducing valve in the return circuit.


It can be divided into fixed pressure reducing valve,

1-main valve core 2-damper hole 3-vavle core of pilot valve V-flow speed
of valve port
L-outside leakage port

fixed differential reducing valve and proportional


pressure reducing valve by pressure controlled by
pressure reducing valve.

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Function
Symbol Map

. Control Components (Hydraulic Valve)


2) Pressure reducing valve
As in the picture above, working principle of fixed pressure reducing valve can be considered according to
that of pilot operated overflow valve .
Compare pilot operated pressure reducing value and pilot operated overflow valve. They have the
following differences.
a.

Pressure reducing valve keeps outlet pressure basically unchanged, and overflow valve keeps inlet
pressure basically unchanged.

b.

When not working, inlet opening and outlet opening of pressure reducing valve are connected. Inlet
opening and outlet opening of overflow are not connected.

c.

To ensure pressure setting value of outlet of pressure reducing valve is constant, its spring cavity of
pilot valve needs to be connected to external oil tank separately through drain port. Outlet of overflow
valve is connected to oil tank, so its spring cavity and oil leakage of pilot valve can be connected to
outlet through pass on the valve. It doesnt need to be connected to external oil tank separately.

Other types of pressure reducing valves will not be described.

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. Control Components (Hydraulic Valve)


Remote
Control

3
Sequence valve
Sequence valve is a pressure valve which allows
actuating components to act successively with
pressure. See figure for working principle.
Sequence valve includes directly operated type
and pilot operated type. The former is generally
used in low pressure system. The latter is used in
middle or high pressure system.

Pilot Sequence Valve

Sequence valve and overflow valve have similar


and pilot operated overflow valve. They have the
following differences.
directly operated external
control sequence valve

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pilot operated
sequence valve

Function Symbol
Map

structure. Compare pilot operated sequence valve

. Control Components (Hydraulic Valve)


Remote
Control

3
Sequence valve
Inlet pressure of overflow valve is basically unchanged
under through-flow condition. Inlet pressure of
sequence valve is determined by outlet pressure under
through-flow condition. If outlet pressure p2 is much
lower than inlet pressure p1, p1 will be basically
unchanged. When p2 increases to a certain degree, p1
will also increase. p1 = p2 + p. p is pressure loss

Pilot Sequence Valve

on sequence valve.
Overflow valve has internal leakage and sequence

which is external leakage.


Outlet of overflow valve has to return to the oil tank.
Outlet of sequence valve can be connected to load.

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directly operated external


control sequence valve

pilot operated
sequence valve

Function Symbol Map

valve needs to separately draw out leakage path,

. Control Components (Hydraulic Valve)


4) Pressure switch
hydraulic switch

Pressure switch is a electrohydraulic control


component converting oil pressure signal into
electrical signal. When oil pressure reaches setting
pressure of pressure switch, electrical signal will
be sent out to control movements of electromagnet,
electromagnetic clutch, relay and other
components, so as to realize sequential actions of
oil-way pressure relief, reversing and actuating
components, or close electromotor to stop

1Plunger 2Lever
3Spring 4Switch

operation of system for safe protection, etc.


Structure
Chart
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. Control Components (Hydraulic Valve)


6. Directional control valve
Concept: Function of directional control valve is to control flow direction of fluid. It
realizes connection or disconnection of pathways with relative motion between valve
core and valve body, to meet requirements of the system.
Type: Directional control valve includes one-way valve and reversing valve.
Left position of three-position

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four-joint reversing valve

Right position of three-position

four-joint reversing valve

Reversing Valve
2-position
figure

One-way

1
One-way valve
Classification of one-way valve
By function: Common one-way valve and hydraulic controlled one-way valve.
By structure: Tubular (direct connection) and plate (right angle)

Oil Inlet
P1

Oil Outlet
P2
Oil Inlet P1

Tubular

Oil Outlet P2

Plate

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Common One-way Valve

Principle and performance: One-way valve only allows fluid flow to flow in one direction, but not reverse
flow. It can be used for outlet of hydraulic pump, to prevent system oil from flowing back; it can be used
to separate the connection between oil channels, to prevent oil from mutual interference; it also can be
used as the bypass valve to connect parallelly with sequence valve, pressure reducing valve, throttling
valve and speed control valve, so as to assemble into one-way sequence valve, one-way pressure
reducing valve, one-way throttling valve one-way speed control valve, etc.

Opening pressure:

Oil Outlet
P2

Oil Inlet P1

Generally 0.04
0.1MPa;
opening pressure of back
pressure valve is 0.2

0.6 MPa

Structural form and

Mode
Oil Inlet P1

Oil Outlet P2
Mode

Oil Inlet P1

Oil Outlet P2
(d) Symbol

function symbol:

Mode

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Application:
Reverse protection of
hydraulic pump

Separate oil channels prevent


interference

On one hand, prevent


system pressure from
influencing normal
operation of pump. On
the other hand, prevent
the liquid from flowing
back to oil tank through
pump when stopped.

Comprise combination
valve

Installed in outlet oil line to


produce back pressure

One-way valve
can comprise
one-way
combination
valve with
other valves

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Hydraulic Controlled One-way Valve


Principle and performance: When the hydraulic controlled port K doesnt connect pressure oil,
its function is same to common one-way valve. When the hydraulic controlled mouth
connects oil, valve can flow freely in two ways. The figure explains the working principle.
Structure: Hydraulic controlled piston, plunger, valve, spring etc.
Application
Hydraulic controlled one-way valve has characteristics of common one-way
valve. It can also allow forward and reverse fluid flow to go through freely under certain
conditions. Therefore, it is commonly used in pressure maintaining, locking and balanced
circuit of hydraulic system.

P1
K

symbol

P2

Structure
Chart
Function Symbol

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2
Reversing Valve
Change flow direction and connect or cut off oil channels by relative motion of valve core in
valve body, so as to control reversing, start or stop of actuating components.
Classification of reversing valve
By motion mode of valve core relative to valve body:

By control method:

Manual
Reversing
Valve

Steering valve type, sliding valve type, ball valve type, etc.

Manual, engine driven, electromagnetic, hydraulic, electric


hydraulic, etc;
By working position of valve core on valve body:
Two-position valve and three-position valve

Two-port valve, three-port valve, four-port valve and five-port


valve.

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Electromagnetic
Reversing
Valve

By number of main oil port on valve body:

Control mode symbols of commonly used sliding


reversing valve

Manual

Hydraulic

Engine Drive (Roller


Type)

Hydraulic Pilot
Control

Electric

Spring

Electromagnetic-Hydraulic Pilot
Control

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Working principle of sliding reversing valve


Valve Body

Valve Core

Position of Valve Core

Valve Port State

Piston State

Middle

Port A and Port B dont connect oil

Stop

Left

Right

Right

Left

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Station and pathway symbols of main structure of reversing


valve
see figure

Big Box
Small
Box

Valve body
Station

Crossover point of arrow line in the small box or


symbol and bounding

Oil port
Oil channels connected not
always flow direction

Head of
symbol

Oil channels
disconnected
Normal position
valve core without
force);

A, B

Oil ports connected to the oil tank

P, O

Oil inlet and return opening


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Functional chart of threeposition four-port


reversing valve

Principle and type symbols of main structure of reversing valve


Name

Structure and Principle Chart

Symbol
A

Two-position
two-port

P
A

Two-position
three-port

P
A B
Two-position
four-port

P O
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Principle and type symbols of main structure of reversing valve continued

Name

Structure and Principle Chart

Symbol

Two-position fiveport

O1 P O2
A B

Three-position
four-port

PO
AB

Three-position five-

O1 P O2

port

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The most commonly used six median functions of


three-position reversing valve
Function

Median Symbols

State, Features and Application of Median

Model

Symbols
Port P, A, B and O are all closed

Hydraulic

cylinder is locked. Hydraulic pump doesnt


unload.

Port P, A, B and O are Hydraulic pump ; Piston

of hydraulic cylinder is floating. Hydraulic


pump unloads.
Port P is closed. Port A, B and O are

connected. Piston of hydraulic cylinder is


floating. Hydraulic pump doesnt unload.

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The most commonly used six median functions of threeposition reversing valve
continued

Function
Model

Median Symbols

State, Features and Application of Median


Symbols
Port P, A and B are connected. Port O is

closed. Pump and hydraulic cylinder are


connected, which can comprise differential
motion and connect inlet.
Port P and Port O are connected. Port A and

Port B are closed. Piston of hydraulic cylinder


is locked. Hydraulic pump unloads.
Port P, A and B are connected. Port O is

closed. Piston of is locked. Hydraulic pump


unloads.

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Several Commonly Used Reversing Valves


Electromagnetic reversing valve
Valve
Body
Coil
Armature
Valve
Core

Function
Symbol
Three-position four-port
electromagnetic reversing valve

Two-position four-port
electromagnetic reversing valve

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Performance of electromagnetic reversing


valve

AC power type: Convenient to use. Big starting force. Big reversing


impact. Noisy. Low frequency (about 30 times/min). Coil is easy to burn
out when valve is locked or voltage is low.

DC power type: Small reversing impact. High tolerance level of


reversing frequency. Due to constant current, coil is not easy to burn out.
Working reliability is high, but structure is complicated.

19/05/2015

Hydraulic reversing valve

Hydraulic
controlled
pressure
port

Hydraulic
controlled
pressure
port

Hydraulic three-position four-port


reversing valve
Function
Symbol

19/05/2015

Performance of hydraulic reversing valve


Hydraulic reversing valve changes position of valve core with oil pressure. It has
big starting force. When flow of hydraulic controlled oil is big, reversing impact is
big. To control movement speed of valve core and reduce impact, one-way
throttling device (called damper regulator) is usually installed in front of
hydraulic controlled pressure port.
Damper Regulator

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Electro-hydraulic reversing valve


Pilot valve
electromagn
etic valve

19/05/2015

Main valve
electromagnetic
valve

Principle drawing of electro-hydraulic reversing valve


Control oil
channel

Main oil
channel

Simplified Function
Symbol
19/05/2015

Performance of electro-hydraulic reversing


valve
Electro-hydraulic reversing valve is combination of electromagnetic reversing
valve (pilot valve) and hydraulic reversing valve (main valve). Therefore, it can
control the high-power main valve with small-power electromagnet. Oil source and
return oil of pilot electromagnetic reversing valve can be established separately. It
can also be shared with main oil channel.

19/05/2015

Engine driven reversing valve


motion valve

Oil Inlet

Roller Push
Rod

Lift type, two-port,


normally closed

Valve Core

Oil Outlet

Back-moving
Spring

Lift type, two-port,


normally opened

19/05/2015

Roller type, threeport

Performance of electro-hydraulic engine driven


reversing valve
Purpose of engine driven reversing valve is to move valve core with cam-action
strokedog installed on actuating mechanism, in order to control on-off of oil
channels and control stroke.

Appropriate reversing speed is obtained and reversing impact is reduced by


changing appearance of cam.

19/05/2015

Manual reversing valve

Mechanical
Positioning Type

Self-restoring
Type
19/05/2015

Performance of manual reversing valve


Manual reversing valve is convenient to use. It is applicable to
occasion with small flow and longer interval.

19/05/2015

Student practice: draw out symbols of


the following reversing valves
1. Two-position two-port electromagnetic reversing valve (normally
closed);
2. Three-position four-port manual reversing valve
Median function

H);
3. Three-position four-port hydraulic
hydraulic
with damper
damper
reversing valve
Median function
P

Figure 1

Figure 2

19/05/2015

Figure 3

. Control Components (Hydraulic Valve)


7. Flow Control Valve
Overview: Movement speed of actuating components in the hydraulic
system is determined by oil flow entering actuating components. Flow
control valve is a hydraulic valve controlling the flow by changing flow
area of port (local resistance of throttling port) or length of channels.

19/05/2015

. Control Components (Hydraulic Valve)


7. Flow Control Valve (Continued)
Classification: Common throttling valve, pressure compensation speed control valve,
overflow throttling valve, temperature compensation speed control valve, flow
distributing and collecting valve, etc. Functional chart of all kinds of valves is shown
as below. Working principle of each flow control valve will not be described. See
teaching material.

19/05/2015

. Hydraulic Actuating Components

Function
Convert pressure of liquid into mechanical energy. Make linear,
swinging and rotating with motion drive working mechanism.

Type: Hydraulic cylinder and motor.

1. Hydraulic Cylinder
1
Type of Hydraulic Cylinder
Hydraulic cylinder has the following types by structure and function.
Single-acting hydraulic cylinder Double-acting hydraulic cylinder
Swinging hydraulic cylinder

Combination hydraulic cylinder

19/05/2015

. Hydraulic Actuating Components


2
Single-rod Piston Cylinder
The piston only has piston rod at one end.
There are cylinder fixed type and piston
rod fixed type. Single-rod piston cylinder
is a commonly used oil cylinder type.

2. Motor

Sketch Map of Single-rod


Piston Cylinder

1
Features of Motor
Hydraulic motor is a device converting fluid pressure into mechanical energy. In
principle, hydraulic pump can be used as hydraulic motor, and hydraulic motor
can be also used as hydraulic pump. In fact the same type of hydraulic pump
and hydraulic motor have similar structure, but by the two have different work
situation, which makes the two different in structure. Main differences are as
follows:

19/05/2015

. Hydraulic Actuating Components


1
Features of Motor

Hydraulic motor generally needs forward and reversing rotating, so it should


have symmetry in the inside structure. Hydraulic pump usually rotates in single
direction. It doesnt have this requirement.

In order to reduce oil absorption resistance and radial force, inlet port of
hydraulic pump is generally larger than outlet port. Pressure in low-pressure
cavity of hydraulic motor is slightly above atmospheric pressure, so it doesnt
have the above requirement.

Hydraulic motor is required to operate normally at a wide speed range. Therefore,


we should adopt hydraulic bearing or hydrostatic bearing. Because when motor
is at low speed, if hydraulic bearing is used, it is not easy to formed lubrication
film.

19/05/2015

. Hydraulic Actuating Components


1
Features of Motor (Continued)

Vane pump rotates at high speed with blades to generate centrifugal force, so that
blades always adhere to the inner surface of stator to seal the oil and form working
volume. If it is used as motor, spring must be installed on root of blades of hydraulic
motor, in order to ensure that blades always adhere to the inner surface of stator and
motor can normally start.

Hydraulic pump should have self-priming capacity in structure , and hydraulic motor
doesnt have this requirement.

Hydraulic motor must have large starting torque. Starting torque is the torque that
can be output by motor axle when motor starts from static state. The torque is
generally larger than that under operation condition under the same operating
differential pressure. Therefore, in order to make the starting torque near to torque
under operation condition, it is required that motor torque has small pulsation and
small internal friction.

19/05/2015

. Hydraulic Actuating Components


2
Type of Motor
Hydraulic motor can also be divided into gear type, vane type, piston
type and other types by structure types.

19/05/2015

. Hydraulic Actuating Components


3
Axial Piston Motor
Structure of axial piston motor is basically
same to that of axial piston pump, so its
varieties are same to those of axial piston
pump. It can be also divided into straight axial
piston motor and bent axial piston motor. See
figure for working principle (see textbook for
content).

F1=p*A*tan

Torque force of cylinder


generated by piston

T1=F*r=F*R*con
=p*A*R*tan*con

Torque of cylinder
generated by piston

T=m*p*V/2

Total torque actually output


by motor

19/05/2015

Working Principle of
Swash-plate Axial Piston
Motor

Contents of Training
Courseware
1

2015/5/19

Basic Knowledge of Hydraulic


Transmission

Hydraulic
System Introduction of LG
Loader

19/05/2015

Part 2 LG Hydraulic
System Introduction
Working Device Hydraulic
System

2015/5/19

Steering Hydraulic
System

Case Analysis

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. Working Hydraulic System


1. Type
Loader working device hydraulic system has two types by control method of
multiple unit valve .

1) Manual (Flexible Axle) Control Working Hydraulic System;


918, 933, 936, 40F, 952, 953, 956 and other types of our company
use this type.
2) Hydraulic Pilot Control Working Hydraulic System;
Exported 918, 936, 938, 958, 959, 968, 969, 979 and other types of our
company use this type.

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. Working Hydraulic System


2. Principle of Working Hydraulic
System

Working and Steering


Hydraulic System Demo

Manual manipulation of flexible axel makes swing


arm slide valve and rotating bucket slide valve of
multiple unit valve do reciprocating movement,
connects ports of oil inlet and slide valve of multiple
unit valve, changes flow direction of hydraulic oil,
and realizes different actions of working device.
When flexible axel and rotating bucket reversing
valve of multiple unit valve are in the middle position,
flexible axel and bucket remain in the original
position. At this time, hydraulic oil in working oil
pump directly returns to oil tank through middle
channel of multiple unit valve.
19/05/2015

Principle Drawing of Working


Hydraulic System

. Working Hydraulic System


2. Principle of Working Hydraulic System
(Continued)
Swing arm can lift, descent or float by controlling reversing slide valve on
swing arm.
Bucket can turn forward and backward back controlling rotating bucket
reversing valve. Double-acting safety valves are installed on oil channels in
front and back cavity of rotating bucket oil cylinder to protect from
overloading of big and small cavity of rotating bucket cylinder caused by
rotating bucket link mechanism.

19/05/2015

. Working Hydraulic System


3. Composition of
Working Hydraulic
System
Gear pump
working
pump

Multiple unit valve


Oil cylinder (swing arm
cylinder and rotating
bucket cylinder

Oil tank
shared with
steering system

Pipe, filter and other


accessories
Describe the components
according to system
principle drawing
System Principle Drawing

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Gear Pump
Working Pump

Main parameters
take LG953 and CBGj3166 for example

1
Rated pressure 18MPa

2
Rated rotate speed
2200r/min

3
Displacement166ml/r

Liquid volume discharged per round of hydraulic pump


4
Flow
265 l/min)
Flow= DisplacementRotate speed

Module of transfer gear with 42 gear teeth, working pump spindle


with 42 gear teeth and steering pump gear with 48 gear teeth are all 4.

19/05/2015

Working Principle of Gear Pump


Gear pump is a hydraulic pump widely used in hydraulic system. It is generally made into quantitative
pump. By structure, gear pump can be divided into outer gearing gear pump and inner gearing gear pump.
Outer gearing gear pump is most widely used. working principle of outer gearing gear pump will be
explained with outer gearing gear pump.
It generally has separate three-piece structure. Three-piece
means front and back pump cover and pump body. A pair of gear
are installed in the pump body. They have the same number of
gear teeth and gear into each other. Their width are close to that
of pump body. This pair of gear form a seal chamber with covers
at two ends and pump body. Tooth point of gear and gearing line
divide the seal chamber into two parts, which are oil absorption
cavity and oil pressure chamber. Two gears are respectively
fixed on driving axle and driven axle supported by needle roller

Demo
Map

bearing with keys. Driving axle is driven by power machine.

Figure of Outer Gearing Gear

19/05/2015

Working Principle of Gear Pump (Continued)


When driving gear of the pump rotates according to direction of arrow as shown in the figure,
teeth on the right of gear (oil absorption cavity) will throw out of gear and gear teeth will exit
tooth space, so that sealing volume will increase and partial vacuum will be formed. Under
the action of external atmospheres, oil in the oil tank will enter tooth space through oil
absorption channels and oil absorption cavity. With gear rotating, inhaled tooth between oil
was brought to the other side, into the pressure oil chamber. Then rotation of gear, oil
absorbed into tooth space will be brought to the other side and enter oil pressure cavity. At
this time, gear teeth are engaged each other, so that sealing volume will decrease and some
oil in the gear will be squeezed out, which forms oil pressure process of gear pump. During
gear engagement, tooth contact line will separate oil absorption cavity and oil pressure
cavity for oil distributing. When driving gear of gear pump is driven by power machine, the
gear meshing side, withdraw because sealing capacity greaten is constantly from tank in oil
absorption, gear meshing side, the side of teeth throwing out of gear will continually absorb
oil from oil tank because sealing volume increases. The side with gear engagement will
continually discharge oil because sealing volume decreases. This is the working principle of
gear pump.

19/05/2015

Common fault analysis of loader gear pump


No.

Failure

Reason

Troubleshooting Method

Hydraulic oil decreases. Transmission


oil increases.

Oil seal is broken

Test pressure. Change working


pump (or steering pump)

Hydraulic oil increases. Transmission


oil decreases.

Oil seal is broken

Test pressure. Change working


pump (or steering pump)

Oil leakage on joint surface of pump


body

O ring or bolt is loose

Change O ring or fasten bolt

Oil leakage of pump body

Pump body cracks

Test pressure. Change pump

Overwear of spline shaft

Change spline shaft or pump

Overwear of side plate

Change side plate or pump

Poor size of spline shaft.


Push the shaft.

Change spline shaft or pump

Abnormal sound of pump

Bearing is broken

Insufficient flow of pump causes weak


and slow lifting

Internal leakage caused


by overwear of gear or
side plate

19/05/2015

Change bearing or pump

Change pump (or broken parts)

Multiple Unit Valve


1
Type

Double-joint multiple unit valve-used in loader with common


functions

Multiple unit valve-used in loader of multifunctional working device

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Multiple Unit Valve


2
Composition and Functions

Double-joint valve: Consisting of rotating bucket reversing slide valve, swing


arm reversing slide valve, safety valve, overload supplement valve, valve body,
etc.
Rotating bucket reversing slide valve is three-position valve. It controls middle
standing, front tilting and back tilting of bucket.
Swing arm reversing slide valve is four-position valve. It controls middle
standing, lifting, dropping and floating of swing arm.
Reversing action of slide valve is realized by manual control of flexible axle (or
pilot oil pressure). Rotating bucket slide valve returns to the middle position with
spring. Swing arm slide valve returns to the middle position by manual control
and ball locking.

19/05/2015

Piping Map of Working Device Hydraulic System

19/05/2015

Profile Map of Double-joint Multiple Unit Valve


DF32

Action
Demo

supravergence

Seal off

Turn below

1 Swing arm slide


valve
Lifting

Seal off

Descend

Float

2 Turning slide
valve
3 Turn cylinder
small cavity
overload valve
4 Turn cylinder big
cavity overload
valve
5 Safety valve
6 Valve body

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Safety Valve
1
Safety valve of multiple unit reversing valve is between oil inlet cavity and returning
cavity. When system pressure is greater than setting pressure, safety valve will open
and overflow, so that working pressure of the system will be within the scope limited
by the setting pressure for safeguard of system. See structure chart for working
principle of safety valve.
2
Pressure control: realized by adjusting pressure adjusting screw to change spring
preload.
3
Setting pressure of safety valve
of different types of LG Loader
LG956 and LG953 Loader
System setting pressure is 18MPa;
LG952 Loader
System setting pressure is 16MPa

LG933 and LG936 Loader


System setting pressure is 16MPa.

Structure Chart
of Safety Valve
19/05/2015

Demo Map of
Safety Valve

Overload Supplemental Valve


Overload supplemental valve (also called safety valve) is the combination of pilot type
overflow valve and on-way valve. It is installed on multiple unit reversing valve through
bolt. Two ports are respectively connected to oil channels in big and small cavity of turn
cylinder in multiple unit reversing valve . The other two ports are connected to oilreturning circuit.

Profile Map of Overload


Supplemental Valve

19/05/2015

Overload Supplemental Valve (Continued)


1
Functions of Overload Supplemental Valve
When turn reversing valve is in the middle position, front and back
cavity of turn cylinder are closed. At this time, if the bucket is affected by
external impact load, sharp rise of partial pressure can be effectively
prevented.

19/05/2015

Overload Supplemental Valve


When swing arm lifts or drops, oil drainage and oil supplementation will be automatically
completed. If swing arm lifts to a certain position, piston rod of turn cylinder will be pulled
out, which will cause pressure rise in front cavity of turn oil cylinder. When the pressure
increases to a certain degree, hydraulic oil cylinder or hydraulic pipelines may be
destroyed. Due to double-acting safety valve, oil trapped in front cavity of hydraulic oil
cylinder can return to hydraulic oil tank through safety valve. When volume of front cavity
of oil cylinder reduces, volume of back cavity will increase, forming partial vacuum.
Supplemental valve of double-acting safety valve will be opened to supplement hydraulic
oil for back cavity of turn oil cylinder and eliminate partial vacuum.
During unloading of loader, the bucket can quickly turn down by its weight. When the
bucket quickly turns down, after gravity center of the bucket goes over lower hinge point,
the bucket will turn faster by gravity, but movement speed of turn oil cylinder will be limited
by insufficient oil supple of oil pump. Because supplemental valve of double-acting safety
valve supplements oil timely for front cavity of turn oil cylinder, bucket can quickly turn
down, hit stop block, and realize unloading.

19/05/2015

Overload Supplemental Valve


2
Setting Pressure of Overload Supplemental Valve

Setting pressure of overload valve in big cavity of turn cylinder of LG953, LG956
and LG958 Loader is 21MPa. Setting pressure of small cavity is 12MPa.

Setting pressure of overload valve in big cavity of turn cylinder of LG952, LG936
and LG933 Loader is 19 MPa. Setting pressure of small cavity is 12MPa.

Setting pressure of overload valve in big cavity of turn cylinder of LG918 Loader
is 20 MPa. Setting pressure of small cavity is 12.5MPa.

19/05/2015

Basic Failure and Troubleshooting of Multiple Unit Valve (DF)


No.

Reason

1
Insufficient
working pressure

Insufficient
working flow

Failure

Troubleshooting Method

Pressure setting of safety valve is


low

Adjust pressure of safety valve

Slide valve of safety valve is locked

Take apart, clean and reassemble

Pressure adjusting spring is


broken

Change new spring

Pressure loss in system pipelines


is too large

Change pipelines or adjust


pressure of overflow valve within
permissible pressure scope

Oil supply of system is not enough

Check oil source

Port opening is not enough

Adjust control mechanism

Oil temperature is too high.


Viscosity drops

Take measures to reduce oil


temperature

Improper selection of oil

Change oil

Fit clearance between slide valve


and valve body is too big

Change slide valve or assembly


according to proper clearance

19/05/2015

Basic Failure and Troubleshooting of Multiple Unit Valve (DF)


(Continued)
No.

Reason

Failure
Restoring spring is broken or deforms

Troubleshooting Method
Change spring or assembly

Reset failure
Restoring parts are not in the same axle, Change broken parts or
pulled, etc.
assembly

Outside leakage

Big deflection of
swing arm

Seal ring is broken

Change to new parts

Oil temperature is too high. Viscosity


drops

Take measures to reduce oil


temperature

Flange face installed on port is not well


sealed.

Check fastening and sealing


of corresponding parts

Fastening screws on joint surfaces are


blocked or cap of pressure adjusting
screw is loose

Fasten corresponding parts

Clearance between valve body and


valve rod of multiple unit valve
increases

Change valve rod or


assembly

19/05/2015

Basic Failure and Troubleshooting of Multiple Unit Valve (DF)


(Continued)
No.
6

Reason
Bucket drops

Reason

Troubleshooting Method

Inner leakage of overload supplemental


valve in big cavity of turn cylinder (dirt
blocked and broken)

Disassemble, clean,
reassemble or replace

Wear and clearance between valve


body and valve rod of multiple unit
valve increases

Change valve rod or


assembly

Bucket is put away

Inner leakage of overload supplemental


valve in small cavity of turn cylinder
(dirt blocked and broken)

Change supplemental valve.


Low pressure

Front tire cannot


support

Setting pressure of overload valve in


small cavity of rotating bucketis low

Increase pressure of
overload valve in small
cavity

Large amount of leakage in small cavity


of rotating bucket

Change slide valve


according to proper
clearance

19/05/2015

Oil Cylinder

Type
Hydraulic cylinder used in loader is single-rod piston double-acting oil cylinder.

Classification: Swing arm oil cylinder, turn oil cylinder and steering oil cylinder.

Composition
Piston double-acting hydro-cylinder generally consists of oil cylinder
body, piston, piston rod guide sleeve, etc.

Comments
In order to analyze the problem, oil cylinder is usually divided into cavity
with rod (or small cavity, the side with piston rod) and cavity without rod (or big cavity).
Pressure oil enters left cavity of hydraulic cylinder from Port A and pushes piston to the
right. Hydraulic oil in the right cavity is discharged through Port B.
Structure of Oil Cylinder
1. Back cylinder cover
2. Stop collar
3. Lantern ring
4. Snap ring
5. Piston
6. O Ring
7. Back-up ring 8. Stop dog
9. Ax seal ring
10. Oil cylinder body
11. Port stand
12. Guide sleeve
13. Cylinder end
14. Dust ring
15. Piton rod
16. 16. Screw

Buffer Plunger

19/05/2015

Hydraulic Pilot Control Working Hydraulic System


1
Features of the System
Working hydraulic system of LG918, LG933, LG936, LG956L, LG958L and other loaders, which
are export products of our company, uses pilot control working hydraulic system. main oil
channels with high pressure and big flow are controlled by pilot oil channels with low pressure
and small flow. Compared with mechanical control hydraulic system, this working hydraulic
system has the following features:
Pilot control is light, flexible and efficient. Finger control can be realized.
By pressure-relief type proportional pilot valve control, stroke of valve rod of main valve is in
proportion to control angle of pilot value handle, which means proportional pilot control to
work of main valve is realized.
Safety valve, overload valve, supplemental valve and one-way valve use insert type structure.
With good generality, it is convenient to maintain.

19/05/2015

1
Features of the System (Continued)
Pilot valve uses overall structure. With a small volume it is convenient to arrange.
When engine shuts down, drop of swing arm and forward tilting of bucket can be realized
by pressure selecting valve and pilot valve.
Pilot valve has orientation with electromagnetic iron at lifting position of swing arm and
backward tilting position of bucket. Vertical limit of lifting height of swing arm and automatic
leveling control of bucket at any position can be realized, which simplifies operating
procedures, reduces labor intensity, and avoids energy loss and pressure shock caused by
frequent movement of safety valve.

2
System Composition
Composition of pilot control working hydraulic system:
Consists of Working pump, pilot pump. Pilot valve, multiple unit valve, pressure selecting
valve, swing arm cylinder, rotating bucket cylinder, oil tank, pipelines filter and other
accessories. See principle chart of hydraulic system.

19/05/2015

Principe of Hydraulic Pilot


Control System

19/05/2015

Pilot Valve
Pilot valve is equipped with control rod. Rotating bucket control has
forward tilting, middle standing and backward titling positions. Swing
arm control has lifting, neutral, middle standing, dropping and floating
positions. Pilot valve has orientation with electromagnetic iron at lifting,
floating and backward titling position. See figure.

Structure of Pilot Valve


19/05/2015

Working principle of pilot valveproportional

pilot

control and automatic control of electromagnet)


When pulling the control rod to dropping position, pressure pin will push down pressure
lever. Measurement spring will push down measurement valve core, cut off the channel
between control cavity and oil returning chamber, connect oil inlet cavity to control oil cavity,
guide pressure oil to the end of multiple unit valve, push multiple unit valve to move, and
corresponding reversing action. Meanwhile, oil pressure of control cavity will act on lower
end of measurement valve core, and balance with the force of measurement spring. When
control rod remains in one position, the spring force and control cavity pressure will be fixed,
which is similar to action process of fixed pressure reducing valve. Spring force will change
with pivot angle of control rod. The bigger pivot angle is, the bigger spring force will be and
the higher control cavity pressure will be. Thrust on valve core of multiple unit valve will
increase accordingly, which means stroke of main valve core is in proportion to pivot angle
of control rod of pilot valve, so as to achieve proportional pilot control.

19/05/2015

Working principle of pilot valveproportional pilot


control and automatic control of electromagnet)
When control rod is pulled from dropping position to floating position, because this
position has electromagnet positioning, pilot valve will be locked. At this time, oil pressure
at control port will increase. Sequence valve in pilot valve will open. Hydraulic oil in Drain
Hole K of multiple unit valve will enter oil tank through Drain Hole 2C in pilot valve.
Supplemental valve in small cavity of swing arm oil cylinder will open. Port P, A2, B2 and T
will be connected. Swing arm floating will be realized. When pilot valve is pulled out of
floating position and loosen, restoring spring will push up pressure lever. Control rod will
return to the middle position.
When control rod of pilot valve is pulled from whole lifting or bucket collecting position,
control rod will be locked and positioned. When swing arm or bucket reaches limited lifting
height or limited bucket angle, which is close to switch action, magnetic coil will shut off
and lose its magnetism. Control rod will automatically go back to the middle position under
the action of restoring spring.

19/05/2015

Multiple Unit Valve (D32)

The function of multiple unit valve is changing flow direction of working oil,
realizing different movement direction of turn oil cylinder and swing arm oil
cylinder, and completing corresponding different action of working device,
by different open direction of slide valve under the action of pilot control oil.

19/05/2015

Multiple Unit Valve (D32 Continued)

There are two-joint multiple unit valve and three-joint multiple unit valve.
Two-joint valve is used for common loader. Three-joint valve is used for
multifunctional work device of loader. As shown in the following profile
structure chart, two-joint multiple unit valve is hydraulic multiple unit valve
with overall structure. It is mainly consists of rotating bucket reversing valve,
swing arm reversing valve, overload valve, supplemental valve and one-way
valve.

19/05/2015

Multiple Unit Valve (D32 Continued)

Rotating bucket reversing valve is three-position valve. It can control middle


standing, forward titling and backward titling action of bucket. Swing arm
reversing valve is four-position valve. It can control middle standing, lifting,
dropping and floating action of swing arm. Movement of slide valve relies on
action of pilot control oil. It restores by spring. Two reversing valves are
connected to oil channels by series-parallel connection. They are at a certain
position under the pressure of pilot hydraulic oil and action of spring.

19/05/2015

Multiple Unit Valve (D32 Continued)


Automatic control of lifting height of swing arm
When swing arm automatically controls lifting
position, work position of slide valve of
multiple unit valve is exactly the same to lifting
position of swing arm. Because control rod of
pilot valve is pulled to whole lifting position,
control rod is locked and positioned at this
time. When swing arm reaches lifting height
limit, and stator fixed on swing arm is close to
switch action, magnetic coil will disconnect
and lose magnetic force. Control rod will move
to the middle position under the action of
restoring spring. Multiple unit valve will lose

Structure of Multiple
Unit Valve

control of pilot oil. Lifting of swing arm will


automatically end.

19/05/2015

Multiple Unit Valve (D32 Continued)


Floating of swing arm
When swing arm is at floating position, work position of slide valve of multiple
unit valve is exactly the same to dropping position of swing arm. Because
control rod of pilot valve is at floating position and this position doesnt have
electromagnet, sequence valve in pilot valve will open. Hydraulic oil in Drain
Hole K of multiple unit valve will enter oil tank through Drain Hole 2C in pilot
valve. Supplemental valve in small cavity of swing arm oil cylinder will open.
Port P, A2, B2 and T will be connected. At this time, piston rod of swing arm oil
cylinder will freely float under the action of external force. When control rod of
pilot valve is pulled out of floating position and returns to the middle position,
floating of swing arm will end.

19/05/2015

Multiple Unit Valve (D32 Continued)


Automatic leveling of bucket
When bucket is at automatic leveling position, work position of multiple unit
valve is exactly the same to backward titling position of bucket. Because
control rod of pilot valve is pulled to whole bucket collecting position, control
rod is locked and positioned at this time. When bucket reaches limited bucket
collecting angle, and stator fixed on turn oil cylinder is close to switch action,
magnetic coil will disconnect and lose magnetic force. Control rod will move to
the middle position under the action of restoring spring. Multiple unit valve will
lose control of pilot oil. Backward titling of swing arm will automatically end.
With this function, at any unloading height, when swing arm drops to ground
shoveling position of bucket, undersurface of bucket will be parallel with
ground.

19/05/2015

Pressure Selecting Valve


Function: Purpose of pressure selecting valve
is to provide a certain pressure of control oil to
pilot valve, and ensure swing arm on the ground

One-way
valve

position when diesel engine shuts off.


Structure: Pressure selecting valve is installed
in pilot oil channel. Control valve of pressure
selecting valve mainly consists of valve body,
valve core, spring, etc. Port P1 is connected to
pilot pump. Port Pr is connected to big cavity of

One-way
valve

swing arm oil cylinder. Port P2 is oil outlet,


which is connected to pilot valve. L is oil
returning port. See structure chart.

Structure and Principle of


Pressure Selecting Valve

19/05/2015

Working Principle
During operation, oil in pilot pump enters Port P1, and flows to pilot valve through valve
centre hole and oil outlet P2. When pressure of oil outlet P2 is greater than 1.5 MPa, valve
core will move left. Port P1 and Port Pr mouth will stagger to close the oil in lower cavity of
swing arm oil cylinder. Port Pr is equipped with one-way valve, in order to prevent reverse
flow of oil.
When diesel engine shuts off, Port P1 doesnt have oil supple of pilot pump. Pressure will
drop. Under the action of control spring, valve core will return to the connection position of
Port Pr and Port P2. If swing arm in at lifting condition and control rod is at the middle
position at this time , hydraulic oil in big cavity of swing arm oil cylinder will be sealed. At
this time as long as control rod is pulled to dropping position of swing arm, under the
gravity hydraulic oil in big cavity of swing arm oil cylinder will enter pilot valve through Port
Pr and Port P2. Pilot valve controls multiple unit reversing valve, so that valve core of swing
arm is at dropping position. Swing arm can be put down. In this process, valve core of
pressure selecting valve also controls pressure from Port Pr to pilot valve of about 1.5 MPa.
If pressure of oil outlet P2 rises, valve core will move left, throttling damping will be
increased, flow of Port Pr will be reduced, and pressure of oil outlet P2 will be reduced,
which will realize pilot pressure control.

19/05/2015

. Steering System

Function: Wheel loader steering system is used to control driving direction of


loader. It can make loader run straight steadily and change driving direction
flexibly according to requirements.

Classification: By steering method, wheel loader can be divided into deflection


wheel steering, skid steering and articulated steering.

Advantages of articulated steering: Work device is installed on front frame.


When the frame deflects relatively, direction of work device will be always same
to that of front frame, which can help work device to quickly aim at working
plane, reduce distance and time of work cycle, and improve working efficiency
of the loader. Therefore, articulated steering becomes the most widely used
steering method of modern loader.

19/05/2015

Type of Steering System


Steering system has many varieties. Different types of steering system
respectively represent development level of different hydraulic technique.
At present wheel loader uses the following types of steering system.
Whole hydraulic steering system consisting of single stable valve and
open center non-reaction steering gear;
Load sensing whole hydraulic steering system consisting of priority valve
and load sensing steering gear;
Load sensing whole hydraulic steering system consisting of priority valve
and coaxial flow amplifying steering gear;
Flow amplifying steering system

19/05/2015

1. Whole Hydraulic Steering System Controlled by


Solenoid Valve
1) Composition of System
Whole hydraulic steering system controlled by solenoid valve
mainly consists of hydraulic pump, one-way steady flow
divider valve, BZZ1 (open center non-reaction) whole hydraulic
steering gear, steering oil cylinder, pipelines, etc. See principle
chart of the system.
2)Steering Gear
BZZ Whole Hydraulic Steering Gear is a cycloid
rotary valve whole hydraulic steering gear consisting of servo
valve and pin wheel gear pair. It is current widely used steering
component at home and aboard. It is flexible to operate, energy
saving, compact in structure, reliable, and convenient to install.
Manual steering can be realized after engine shuts off.

19/05/2015

System Principle

Type of Whole Hydraulic Steering Gear


There are the following major types of
BZZ Whole Hydraulic Steering Gear.
Open center non-reaction BZZ1

Open center reaction BZZ2

Closed center non-reaction


BZZ3

Load sensing BZZ5

Coaxial flow-amplifying
BZZ6

and other structural styles


Function symbols are shown in the
figure.

Type Symbol of BZZ

19/05/2015

Structure of BZZ Whole Hydraulic Steering Gear


It is mainly consists of valve body, valve core,
valve pocket, universal driving shaft, guide
spring, pin, rotor, stator, rear cover, etc.

Working principle of steering gear

Middle position

Steering position

19/05/2015

Structure of Whole Hydraulic


Steering Gear

Correspondence of valve core, valve


pocket , stator and rotor

High
HHigh
igh Pressure
Pressure
PPressure
Pressure
ressure
H
igh

Low
Low
Low
Low
LowPressure
Pressure
P
Pressure
ressure

19/05/2015

Oil
Oil
O
Oil
Trap
ilTrap
Trap
Trap
O
ilOilTrap

3) Combined Valve Block


Combined valve block is a combined hydraulic component. Connected between
steering oil pump and steering gear, it forms a complete set with whole hydraulic
steering gear. It is generally installed directly on flange of valve body, and makes a
whole with steering gear.
FunctionsOn one hand, ensure that steering gear and the whole steering system
Functions
works normally and smoothly under pressure rated; On the other hand, ensure that
steering cylinder and connected pipelines will not be damaged during sudden
overload, and protect steering pump. So valve block is an indispensable hydraulic
component in hydraulic steering system.

19/05/2015

3) Combined Valve Block


Composition of Combined Valve Block

According to different requirements of


steering system, combined types of valve
block are different. Valve block generally
consists of one-way valve, overflow valve
(safety valve), two-way buffer overload
valve, supplementary valve, etc. (but some
valve blocks are only equipped with twoway buffer valve and one-way valve, and
some only have overflow valve and one-way
valve). Structure of valve block is shown in
figure.
Composition of existing steering gear valve
block: one-way valve, overflow valve (safety

Structure Chart
of Valve Block

valve), and two-way buffer overload valve.


Functional Chart
of Valve Block

19/05/2015

4) Single stable Valve


Single-channel stable flow divider valve (single stable valve for short) mainly works with BZZ
series of whole hydraulic steering gear. It is used in whole hydraulic steering system. When oil
supply of steering oil pump and system load change, stable flow required by steering gear is
ensured by single stable valve, to satisfy hydraulic steering requirement of loader.
Single-channel stable flow divider valve mainly consists of valve body, valve core, spring,
safety valve, damping plug and other parts. It has shunt type and constant-current type. See
figure.
Single stable valve is used in
independent system. Oil from steering is
supplied to the system. The rest oil and
oil overflowing when safety valve opens
unloading will flow back to the oil tank
through Port T.

Structure and

Safety valve is on the valve


block now

Principle Chart
19/05/2015

2. Load Sensing Whole Hydraulic Steering System


1
Composition of System
Mainly consisting of priority valve, BZZ5 load sensing
steering gear (or BZZ6 coaxial flow amplifying steering
gear), steering oil cylinder, pipelines, radiator, oil tank,
etc.
Priority valve can realize combination and distributing
with working hydraulic steering system, improve
efficiency, and reduce loss. This type is widely used at
present. LG933, LG936, LG953, LG956 and other types
of our company all use this type.
System Principle
Chart

19/05/2015

2. Load Sensing Whole Hydraulic Steering System


1
Composition of System
Continued

If LG953 steering hydraulic system is independent load


sensing hydraulic system steering, this system will
preferentially supply oil to steering hydraulic system.
The residual oil will return to oil tank after combining
with returning oil of steering system through radiator.
Safety valve is on priority valve. The system setting
pressure is 16MPa. See system principle chart.

System Principle
Chart

19/05/2015

Load Dynamic Sensor System

19/05/2015

2
Pipeline Direction of Load Sensing Whole
Hydraulic Steering System

19/05/2015

3) BZZ5 Load Sensing Whole Hydraulic Steering


Gear
Structure of BZZ5 Load Sensing Whole Hydraulic Steering Gear is similar to that of BZZ1
Whole Hydraulic Steering Gear. It is mainly consists of rotary valve and measurement motor.
The valve body has 4 ports, respectively connected to oil inlet, oil outlet and two cavities of oil
cylinder. Load Feedback Port Ls is connected to priority valve. See the following photo for
position of ports of steering gear.

Following
Rotary Valve

Measurement
Motor

Ports of Steering
Gear

3D Profile of Structure
19/05/2015

T
oil return
P
oil inlet
R
right
steering
L
left steering

LS

T
L
P
R

Position of ports on
steering gear

19/05/2015

Main Components
of Steering Gear

Core components of whole hydraulic


steering gear:
Metering mechanism---stator and rotor
Servo proportional control valve ---valve
core/valve pocket pair
19/05/2015

Working Principle
BZZ5

When following rotary valve is at the middle


position (steering wheel doesnt move), valve
Combin
es or
returns
to oil
tank

package and valve core are in the middle


under the action of positioning spring, and
channels connected to tooth cavity of rotor
and stator and two cavity of steering cylinder
are closed, only a small amount of pressure
oil pumped from steering pass through

Pump

inside of steering gear, and most oil will be

Diesel
Engine

Hydraul
ic oil
tank

distributed by Port EF of priority valve


(combined to working hydraulic system or
flows back to oil tank). Oil in two cavity of
steering cylinder will be closed, piston
cannot move, and loader will run in original
direction.

System Sketch Map


19/05/2015

Working Principle
BZZ5 Continued

When steering wheel turns, priority valve will preferentially satisfy steering needs.
Oil in steering pump will go to measurement motor through priority valve and
following rotary valve, and turn in the direction of steering wheel with rotor.
Working oil will be delivered to a cavity of steering cylinder and realize steering.
Oil in the other cavity of steering cylinder will return to oil tank with following
rotary valve. When steering wheel turns fast, a large amount of oil will reach
steering cylinder through measurement motor. Steering will be fast.

19/05/2015

4) Priority Valve
This valve works together with BZZ5 Steering
Gear (or BZZ6 Steering Gear) and forms load
sensing steering system. When rotate speed of
steering wheel changes, flow required by
steering gear can be ensured preferentially.
The red oil will enter working device hydraulic
system or flow back to oil tank.

Structure and
Principle Chart of
Priority Valve
19/05/2015

4) Priority Valve (Continued)


When steering wheel doesnt move, pressure oil from steering pump will enter working
device hydraulic system or directly flow back to oil tank through Port P, valve core and
Port EF.
When steering wheel turns, valve core will move right under the action of spring force and
LS pressure. Port P will be connected to Port CF. Pressure oil will enter steering gear and
push oil cylinder to realize loader steering. The rest oil will be distributed by Port EF, enter
working device hydraulic system or flow back to oil tank. Therefore, when priority valve
preferentially satisfies steering, the rest power oil will be distributed by Port EF and
applied to other working hydraulic system, which will reduce system power loss and save
energy.

19/05/2015

5
Coaxial Flow Amplifying Steering Gear
Coaxial Flow Amplifying Steering Gear (BZZ6 and TLF) and BZZ5 type are all load
sensing steering gear. With the same displacement, two steering gears can replace
each other. But displacement of coaxial flow amplifying steering gear changes with
input turning speed of steering wheel.

19/05/2015

5
Coaxial Flow Amplifying Steering Gear
(Continued)
In low-speed steering (turning speed of steering wheel is under 10 rpm), effective
displacement and measurement displacement of steering gear are identical; When input
turning speed of steering wheel increases (turning speed of steering wheel is 10 ~ 40 rpm),
the effective displacement is in proportion to turning speed of steering wheel. At this time
only part of oil in oil inlet P will enter stator and rotor pair for measurement. The rest oil will
directly enter oil cylinder through Port A or Port B, so it has flow amplifying function at this
stage. When input turning speed of steering wheel is above 40rpm, effective displacement of
steering gear will be its calibrated equivalent displacement.
Coaxial Flow Amplifying Steering Gear has good relative performance. It has high pressure
loss (about 0.5MPa higher than the first two kinds), good sealing and small leakage.) At
present, LG953 Loader uses BZZ6 (or TLF) Coaxial Flow Amplifying Whole Hydraulic Steering
Gear to replace BZZ5 Load Sensing Steering Gear.

19/05/2015

3. Flow Amplifying Steering System (Flow


Amplifying Valve)

Flow amplifying system mainly consists of hydraulic pump, flow


amplifying valve, limit valve, steering gear (BZZ3) , steering cylinder, etc.
Oil channels are divided into pilot oil channel and main oil channel. oil
amount change of pilot oil channel is in proportion to flow change of
steering cylinder in main oil channels. High pressure and big flow is
controlled by low pressure and small flow, so that steering control is
convenient and flexible. Because flow amplifying valve has pressure
compensation device, flow doesnt change with load, which improves
performance and has certain energy-saving effect. Therefore, it has small
power consumption, reduces system heating, and improves flow
adjusting property.
19/05/2015

3. Flow Amplifying Steering System


Continued

Besides functions of common flow amplifying valve, priority flow


amplifying valve can combine with working hydraulic system by priority
valve. It has characteristics of load sensing steering system.

For example, LG958 Flow Amplifying Steering System mainly consists of


double pump, steering gear, flow amplifying valve, unloading valve,
steering cylinder, hydraulic oil tank, pipeline accessories, etc. See the
following figure for system principle.

19/05/2015

1
Oil returning filter
2
Radiator
3
Hydraulic oil tank
4
Working pump
5
Pressure selecting
valve
6
Steering gear
7
Steering cylinder
8
Flow amplifying valve
9
Air change filter
10
Steering pump
11
Unloading valve
12
Oil absorption filter
core

Principle Chart of Flow Amplifying System


19/05/2015

1
Flow Amplifying Valve

Structure and working principle of priority flow amplifying valve:

1 front door 2 amplifying valve core 3 valve body 4 adjusting washer 5 steering valve spring
6 back door 7 pressure adjusting screw 8 pilot valve spring 9 cone valve 10 flow divider valve
spring 11 adjusting shim 12 flow divider valve core 13 shuttle valve

19/05/2015

1
Flow Amplifying Valve
Continued

Middle Position
When steering wheel stops turning or turns to extreme position, pilot oil will be
cut off. Steering valve spring (5) will make amplify valve spool (2) keep in
middle position. Oil in steering pump will push distributing valve core (12) right.

19/05/2015

1
Flow Amplifying Valve
Continued

Flowing into working system from Port PF, oil in steering pump is fully utilized,
so as to reduce displacement of working pump. Because amplifying valve core (2)
is at the middle position, hydraulic oil in p cavity will not be connected to
hydraulic oil in A and B cavity of left and right steering cylinder, so that loader
will run in the direction when steering wheel loader stops turning. Hydraulic oil
sealed in A and B cavity of left and right steering port will act on cone valve (9) of
safety valve through internal channel. When steering wheel carries external
resistance, pressure in A (or B) cavity will increase, until cone valve (9) is opened,
in order to protect steering cylinder and other hydraulic components from
damage.

19/05/2015

Right Steering Position


When steering wheel turns right, pilot oil will flow into spring chamber from pilot oil port
along direction b. As pressure in spring cavity of steering valve spring (5) increases,
amplifying valve core (2) will be pushed left. Then P cavity will be connected to right
steering port (B). Left steering port (A) will be connected to oil returning port (T1).
Hydraulic oil will enter oil cylinder of right turning port and realize right turning. When
right turning is preferentially met, the rest oil will be distributed to working system
through Port PF.
Movement amount of valve core is controlled by turning speed of steering wheel. The
faster steering wheel turns, the larger pilot oil flow is, the greater valve core displacement
is, and the higher steering speed is. Conversely, if steering wheel turns slow, valve core
displacement will be small and steering speed will be low (Note: Two ends of valve core
are connected to orifice on the oil channels. The hydraulic damping realizes this function).

19/05/2015

Right Steering Position (Continued)


When pressure oil flows into right turning port (B), because of load feedback effect,
pressure difference of two ends of distributing valve (12) remain unchanged, so as to
ensure that flow in steering cylinder only relates to displacement of valve core , and
doesnt related to load pressure. Oil pressure acts on core valve (9) and distributing
valve core (12) through shuttle valve (13) , which automatically controls flow. If
pressure continues to rise and goes beyond the setting pressure of safety valve,
cone valve (9) will open, distributing valve core (12) will move right, and flow will go
to working system. Oil returning in oil channels at middle position will have
protection function. When load is eliminated, pressure will reduce, distributing valve
core (12) will go back to its normal position, and cone valve (9)will be closed.
Left steering is similar to right steering.

19/05/2015

. Failure Case Analysis


1. Failure Case Analysis of Working Hydraulic System
1
Weak lifting of swing arm
2
Slow and weak bucket
3
Bucket turns over or shakes during lifting operation
4
Hydraulic oil temperature is too high

19/05/2015

. Failure Case Analysis


2. Failure Case Analysis of Steering Hydraulic System
1
Heavy steering
2
No terminal point for steering
3
Reason for vehicle deflection
4
Inaccurate steering
5
Steering wheel rotates freely. Steering doesnt move or slow.
6
Blanking stroke of steering wheel
7
Steering wheel shakes or rotates
8
Steering wheel rebounds

19/05/2015

1. Failure Case Analysis of Working Hydraulic System


1
Weak lifting of swing arm analysis and
judgment process

Reason

Yes

No
Check whether
stroke of multiple
unit valve rod is in
place
Action stroke of 918 swing
arm valve is 7mm. Action
stroke of rotating bucket
valve is 8.1mm. Action
stroke of the two valve
rods of other types are all
16mm.

No

Check whether
hydraulic oil
amount meets
standard

Yes
Measure when
pressure is zero or Yes
low

When bucket is flat on the


ground, oil position is
between 6 and 10 on mark
of hydraulic oil tank

Check whether oil


absorption tube of
working pump is
blocked

Check whether
pump driving axle
is broken or falls

No

Measures

1. Valve rod is blocked

1. Check valve rod,

2. Positioning steel ball of

steel ball, positioning

valve rod becomes invalid

spring of valve rod or

due to wear. Positioning

change valve

spring becomes invalid

2. Check control

3. Control mechanism

mechanism

doesnt control well

Add hydraulic oil to

Hydraulic oil amount is not

specified mark

enough
Remove dirt or change

Yes

Dirt or rubber dropping of

rubber tubes

tubes makes pump unable to Change pump axle


absorb oil

Yes

Test pressure is
below requirement Yes

Yes

Check whether
working device
hydraulic system is
normal

When big arm lifts to extreme


position and control rod of swing
arm is at lifting position, rotating
of engine will gradually increase
to not less than 2200r/min. And
than measure

Pressure changes
after adjustment

Pressure doesnt
change after
adjustment

No

Pump axle is broken or

Set to system pressure

drops. Working pump cannot value


absorb oil

Yes

Setting pressure of main

Wash or change spring

safety valve is low

Adjust pressure of main safety valve. 933, 936 and 952 are 16MPa. 918 is 17.5MPa.
953, 956 and 958 are 18MPa.
Pressure increases
with engine throttle,
but doesnt reach
Yes
setting pressure

Yes

Check whether
swing arm cylinder
has internal leakage
No

Check whether
multiple valve leaks

Change gear pump or

is broken or valve core is

repair

blocked

Repair of change oil

Working gear pump wears or cylinder

Yes
Meets setting
requirement of
working system
pressure

Spring in main safety valve

Yes

is broken

Repair or change

Internal leakage of swing

multiple unit valve

arm cylinder

Check pedal and cable.

1. Leakage of swing arm

Adjust rotating speed

slide valve

to specified value

2. Internal leakage of main

Change filter screen

safety valve

When stroke of valve rod is in


place and hydraulic oil amount
meets standard, check whether
rotating speed of engine meets
standard
Measure with tachymeter
to check whether rated
rotating speed of engine
reaches 2200r/min

19/05/2015

Accelerator pedal or cable


cause low rotating speed

No

Oil absorption channels are


blocked

Yes

2
Slow and weak bucket analysis and judgment
process

Reason
Broken seal ring causes
Yes

Check whether
rotating bucket
cylinder has internal
leakage

No

Check whether setting


pressure of two
overload valves in
rotating bucket
cylinder is normal
Pressure in big cavity of 933, 936,
938 and 952 is from 18 to
18.5MPa. Pressure in big cavity
of 918, 953 and 956 is from 20 to
20.5MPa. Pressure in big cavity
of 958 and 968 is 21.5MPa.
Pressure in big cavity of 40F is
15.5MPa. Pressure in small
cavity of all types is from 12 to
12.5MPa.

Measures
Change seal ring

internal leakage and bucket


dropping

Yes

Check whether broken


rotating bucket slide
valve causes internal
leakage

Scratching or wear on valve


Yes

rod or valve hole of rotating

Repair or change

bucket makes leakage of


hydraulic oil large
1. Main valve core of

No

Check whether
overload valve has
internal leakage

Yes

No

overload valve has dust

1. Wash main valve

particles, which makes

core and remove

overload valve open

impurities

2. Aging of seal ring

2. Change seal ring

3. Improper clearance

3. Change overload

between valve core and

valve

valve body
1. Low pressure of overload

Check whether
pressure of overload
valve is low

19/05/2015

Yes

valve causes bucket

1. Adjust pressure to

dropping or floating

specified value

2. Spring of overload valve

2. Repair or change

is broken or invalid

3
Bucket turns over or shakes during lifting operation
analysis and judgment process

No

Reason

Measures

Oil amount is not

Add hydraulic oil to

enough

specified mark
Change or repair

Check whether
oil amount
meets standard

Oil position is
between 6 and 10
on mark of
hydraulic oil tank

Yes

Test pressure of
working device
hydraulic system

When big arm rises to


extreme position and
control rod of swing arm
is at lifting position,
rotating speed of engine
will gradually increase to
not less than 2200r/min.
And then measure. 933,
936 and 952 are 16MPa.
918 is 17.5MPa. 953, 956
and 958 are 18MPa.

Check pressure
increases with
increase of engine
throttle

No

Check whether
indicator of
pressure gage
swings
intensively
No

Working gear pump


Yes

Check whether
starting pressure of
safety valve is
stable

Yes

No

wears or is broken

Check setting

Unstable starting

pressure of valve, and

pressure of safety

whether spring

valve changes

deforms. Adjust

pressure of hydraulic

starting pressure

oil

Repair or change

Caused by aging and

Check whether oil


channels are
blocked or flat

foaming of inlayer of
Yes

rubber tubes, or
blocking of transiting
valve block and joint

When system pressure and


hydraulic oil amount are
normal, check whether leakage
amount of rotating bucket
cylinder and swing arm
cylinder are same

Check whether oil


absorption rubber
tubes are well
sealed

Yes

makes working

Repair or change

pressure unstable
Different leakage
No

amount causes flow


fluctuation and
shaking

Yes

Loosen piston makes


When system pressure and
hydraulic oil amount are
normal, check whether pistons
in rotating bucket cylinder and
swing arm cylinder are loosen

Repair or change

Air entering system

piston rod move in


No

19/05/2015

hydraulic cylinder

Repair or change

4
Hydraulic oil temperature is too high
analysis and judgment process
Reason

Check whether position of hydraulic oil is too


low

Insufficient hydraulic oil

Yes

Add hydraulic oil to specified mark

makes working pump absorb

No

Check whether hydraulic oil is too dirty or goes


bad

Measures

air

Change or filter hydraulic oil

Hydraulic components are


Yes

blocked, causing throttling


and temperature rise of

No

Clean with high pressure gun

Too much grease causes poor

Check whether there is too much grease


between blades of cooling fin in water box

heat dissipation

Yes

Repair or change

Blocking in radiator or other


reasons cause poor heat

No

Check whether hydraulic radiator has


problem

dissipation

Repair or change

When system pressure is set


Yes

too high, overflow valve


cannot overflow and reduce
pressure normally, internal

No

leakage will increase, oil


temperature of system will

Check whether improper pressure setting


causes high temperature of hydraulic oil

rise. When oil returning filter


Yes

core is blocked or oil


returning channels become
old and delaminate, back
pressure will be high and oil

Repair or change

temperature will rise.

No

Serious internal leakage of


hydraulic components will

Check whether cylinder, pump and valve have


leakage

cause temperature rise of

Yes

system
Low volumetric efficiency will

No

cause temperature rise of

Check whether gear pump, gear pair, side plate


or pump body have wear

hydraulic oil
Yes

19/05/2015

Repair or change

2. Failure Case Analysis of Steering Hydraulic System


1
Heavy steering
analysis and judgment process

Reason
Air in system

Decide according to fault


phenomenon

oil pump leaks.

Yes

Heavy steering. Steering cylinder


doesnt move.

Check whether
steering pillar is
flexible
No

Is fast steering
heavy and slow
steering light?

Remove air in system.


Check whether oil inlet of

Yes

Cylinder crawls. Foam in oil. Regular


sound

Measures

Yes

-One-way valve

-Check whether steel ball

failure of manual

exists and whether it is

steering

blocked

-Leakage of FK

-Change FK combination

overload valve

valve

-Internal leakage of

-Check whether oil cylinder

oil cylinder

has internal leakage


Repair or change

No
Whether system
pressure meets
the needs

No

Check whether
feedback oil
channels are
unblocked

Yes

Steering pillar is

Yes

broken

Clean or change

Pipelines are

No
Adjust system
Yes
press. Does the
pressure change?

blocked

Repair or change

Low system
pressure

Adjust system pressure

Spring of priority

No

valve is broken.

Yes

Shuttle valve is

Is surface of
hydraulic oil low?

Yes

Supplement hydraulic oil

Lack oil

Clean or change

Pipelines are

No
Is oil sucking pipe
blocked?

Yes

blocked
Wear and internal

No

19/05/2015

blocked

leakage of steering
pump

Repair or change

2
No terminal point for steering or limit position
cannot be reached analysis and judgment process)
No terminal
point

Failure Reason

Troubleshooting
Method

After steering cylinder turns to extreme


position, turning the steering wheel,
steering wheel can turn lightly, which
means no sense of terminal point.

Low overload

Increase overload

valve pressure

valve pressure
properly

Steering cylinder cannot


turn to extreme position

Steering cylinder cannot turn to


extreme position. Steering
response is heavy.

Failure Reason

Troubleshooting Method

Low safety valve

Increase safety valve

pressure

pressure properly

19/05/2015

3
Reason for Vehicle Deflection
Leakage at cylinder port when closed center steering gear is at middle
position. It is normal for closed center steering gear system to have
slight deflection.
Check whether connecting rod of oil cylinder is loosen.
Leakage in oil cylinder
Pressure of two tires has big difference.
Leakage on two-way overload valve or two-way supplemental valve.
Air in oil

19/05/2015

4
Inaccurate Steering

Air in system;
Pin of oil cylinder is loosen;
Priority valve or main valve of
flow divider valve is blocked;

Oil cylinder has leakage;


Low efficiency of pump causes
unstable pressure.

p
Fixed
Pump
Filter
Reservoir

19/05/2015

Engine

5
Steering wheel rotates freely. Steering doesnt
move or slow.
Serious leakage in two-way
overload valve

Serious leakage in piston of oil


cylinder

19/05/2015

6
Blanking Stroke of Steering Wheel
Connection of steering pillar and steering gear
wears or is broken
Nut on steering wheel
moves
L

Air in oil
p

Leakage in two-way
overload valve

Fixed
Fixed
Pump
Pump
Filter

Leakage in steering
cylinder

Reservoir

19/05/2015

Engine
Engine

7
Steering wheel shakes or rotates
Assembly relation mistake. During overhaul
and reassemble, it is required that spine gear
corresponding to pin groove of universal
driving shaft engages with internal spine
gear corresponding to gear groove of rotor
When oil in pump is connected to Port R or
L, steering gear will rotate like motor.

19/05/2015

8
Steering wheel rebounds
Reason
One-way valve at oil inlet of
steering gear is broken.

Function of one-way valve:


Prevent backflow of oil when pressure of
steering oil cylinder under external force is
higher than that of oil inlet. If one-way valve
is damaged and oil backflows, steering
wheel will rebound.

19/05/2015

Reliability
bears great
trust!
19/05/2015