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Classical Mechanics

Assignment #9 Solutions

#1 (10 points) JRT Prob. 11.2

A massless spring (force constant k1 ) is suspended from the ceiling,

with a mass m1 hanging from its lower end. A second massless spring (force

constant k2 ) is suspended from m1 , and a second mass m2 is suspended from

the second springs lower end. Assuming that the masses move only in a

vertical direction and using coordinates y1 and y2 measured from the masses

equilibrium positions, show that the equations of motion can be written in

the matrix form M

y = Ky, where y is the 2 1 column made up of y1

and y2 . Find the matrices M and K.

Solution

Let y1 and y2 be the extensions of the two springs from their unstretched

lengths and y10 and y20 be their values at equilibrium. The displacements

from equilibrium are

y1 = y1 y10

and y2 = y2 y20 .

(1)

F1 = m1 g k1 y1 + k2 (

y2 y1 ) and F2 = m2 g k2 (

y2 y1 ),

(2)

m1 g = k1 y10 = k2 (y20 y10 ) and m2 g = k2 (y20 y10 ).

(3)

Now, applying Newtons 2nd law and using eq. (1) to eliminate y1 and y2

from eq. (2), we find that

m1 y1 = F1 = m1 g k1 (y1 + y10 ) + k2 [y2 y1 + (y20 y10 )]

= k1 y1 + k2 (y2 y1 )

(4)

(5)

(the equilibrium condition is used to eliminate several terms in the last line.)

Similarly,

m2 y2 = F2 = m2 g k2 (

y2 y1 ) = k2 (y2 y1 ).

(6)

1

y = Ky, where

k1 + k2 k2

m1 0

and K =

M=

.

(7)

k2

k2

0 m2

#2 (15 points) JRT Prob. 11.10

(a) Write down the equations of motion corresponding to eq. (11.2) for

the case of two equal-mass carts with three identical springs, but with

each cart subjected to a linear resistive force bv (same coefficient b

for both carts).

(b) Show that if you change variables to the normal coordinates 1 = 12 (x1 +

x2 ) and 2 = 12 (x1 x2 ), the equations of motion for 1 and 2 are

uncoupled.

(c) Write down the general solutions for the normal coordinates and hence

for x1 and x2 (assume that b is small, so that the oscillations are underdamped.)

(d) Find x1 (t) and x2 (t) for the initial conditions x1 (0) = A and x2 (0) =

v1 (0) = v2 (0) = 0, and plot them for 0 t 10 using the values

A = k = m = 1, b = 0.1.

Solution

(a) As in section 5.4, we define = b/2m and 02 = k/m. Then, the

equations of motion are

x1 = 2 x 1 202 x1 + 02 x2

x2 = 2 x 2 + 02 x1 202 x2 .

(8)

(b) If you take first the sum and then the difference of these two equations,

you will get the uncoupled equations

1 = 2 1 02 1

and 2 = 2 2 302 2 .

(9)

(c) The equation for 1 is exactly the equation (5.28) that we found for

a single damped oscillator, and has the solution (5.37), which we can

rewrite as

q

t

1 (t) = e (B1 cos 1 t + C1 sin 1 t), where 1 = 02 2 (10)

2 (t) = et (B2 cos 2 t + C2 sin 2 t), where 2 =

q

302 2 . (11)

The expressions for x1 (t) and x2 (t) follow at once by adding and subtracting these expressions for 1 (t) and 2 (t).

(d) The given initial conditions imply that 1 (0) = 2 (0) = A/2, with

both derivatives zero. Therefore, B1 = B2 = A2 , C1 = A/21 , and

C2 = A/22 , from which we can write down

A t

cos 1 t +

e

sin 1 t

(12)

1 (t) =

2

1

A t

2 (t) =

cos 2 t +

e

sin 2 t .

(13)

2

2

0.5

0.5

x1

The sum and difference of these two functions give us x1 (t) and x2 (t),

which are plotted below.

0.5

1

0

0.5

10

15

20

25

30

10

15

20

25

30

t

Fig. 1: x1 (t) and x2 (t) for question #2

Two equal masses m are constrained to move without friction, one on the

positive x axis and one on the positive y axis. They are attached to two

identical springs (force constant k) whose other ends are attached to the

origin. In addition, the two masses are connected to each other by a third

spring of force constant k . The springs are chosen so that the system is

3

length). What are the normal frequencies? Find and describe the normal

modes. Consider only small displacements from equilibrium.

y

L

k

k

k

O

Solution

Let the equilibrium length of the

first 2 springs be L and that of the one

that connects the two masses be 2L. Let x and y be the displacements

of the two masses from their equilibrium positions; these will be our two

generalized coordinates. The total KE is T = 12 m(x 2 + y 2 ) and the total PE

is U = 12 k(x2 + y 2 ) + 12 k z 2 , where z is the extension of the diagonal spring

(which is a function of x and y; that will take a bit of work to figure out).

Since we are interested only in small oscillations, we can write

p

p

z = (L + x)2 + (L + y)2 2L

2L2 + 2L(x + y) 2L (14)

p

=

2L

1 + (x + y)/L 1 (15)

1

(16)

2L (x + y)/L,

2

where for the last expression on the first line we dropped terms higher than

1st order in x and y and for the final expression we used the binomial expansion for the square root. Therefore, we can write z 2 = (x + y)2 /2, and the

4

total PE is

1

1

k

k

1

2

2

2

2

2

k+

x + k+

y + k xy .

U = k(x + y ) + k (x + y) =

2

4

2

2

2

(17)

Writing down Lagranges equations for x and y leads to

k

k + k2

m 0

2

and K =

M=

.

(18)

k

0 m

k + k2

2

Next, we set det(K 2 M) = 0, or (m 2 k)(m 2 k k ) = 0. Thus, the

normal frequencies are

r

r

k

k + k

1 =

.

(19)

and 2 =

m

m

For the first normal mode, solving (K 12 M)a = 0 gives a1 = a2 ; the

masses oscillate with equal amplitudes but out of step. In this mode, the

diagonal springs length remains constant (at least in the small-oscillation

approximation), which is why k is irrelevant to 1 . For the second normal

mode, we have a1 = a2 . Here, the masses move with equal amplitudes and

both in step (both x and y increase together and decrease together). In this

mode, the diagonal spring does stretch and compress; this extra contribution

to the PE increases the frequency of oscillations.

A bead of mass m is threaded on a frictionless circular wire hoop of radius R

and mass m. The hoop is suspended at the point A and is free to swing in its

own vertical plane as shown in Fig. 11.20 of the text. Using the angles 1 and

2 as generalized coordinates, solve for the normal frequencies of small oscillations, and find and describe the motion in the corresponding normal modes.

Solution

The moment of inertia of the hoop about its edge is I = 2mR2 , so its kinetic

energy is

1

(20)

T1 = I 21 = mR2 21 .

2

The velocity of the bead is (for small oscillations) the sum of the velocity of

the bead relative to the hoops center and the velocity of the hoops center

5

relative to the pivot point. Thus, the beads speed is equal to R 1 + 2 .

The total kinetic energy is therefore

1

(21)

T = mR2 3 21 + 2 1 2 + 22 .

2

The total potential energy is

U = U1 + U2

= mgR (1 cos 1 ) + mgR [(1 cos 1 ) + (1 cos 2 )]

1

mgR 221 + 22

2

(22)

(23)

(24)

(we attribute the entire mass of the hoop to a point at its CM). Therefore,

the matrices are

2 0

3 1

2 2

2

,

(25)

and K = mR 0

M = mR

0 1

1 1

where 02 = g/R. Setting the determinant of K 2 M to zero, we find the

normal frequencies

1

1 = 0

2

and 2 =

20 .

(26)

The first leads to the normal mode where the angles oscillate in phase with

equal amplitudes. The second leads to the normal mode where the angles

oscillate 180 degrees out of phase with the amplitude of 2 twice that of 1 .

Consider a frictionless rigid horizontal hoop of radius R. Onto this hoop I

thread three beads with masses 2m, m, and m, and, between the beads, three

identical springs, each with force constant k. Solve for the three normal frequencies and find and describe the three normal modes.

Solution

This problem is best solved using Lagrangian methods. The masses are constrained to move along a circular arc of radius R. Therefore, the speed of

6

2

2

2

1

2m R1 + m R2 + m R3

T =

2

1

=

mR2 2 21 + 22 + 23 .

2

The three springs contribute to the potential energy. We have

1 2

kR (1 2 )2 + (2 3 )2 + (3 1 )2

U =

2

= kR2 21 + 22 + 23 1 2 2 3 3 1 .

(27)

(28)

(29)

(30)

L = T U

(31)

1

=

mR2 2 21 + 22 + 23 kR2 21 + 22 + 23 1 2 2 3 3 (32)

1 .

2

This leads to the Lagranges equations

L

d L

=

= kR2 (21 2 3 ) = 2mR2 1

1

dt 1

d L

L

=

= kR2 (1 + 22 3 ) = mR2 2

2

dt 2

L

d L

=

= kR2 (1 2 + 23 ) = mR2 3 .

3

dt 3

(33)

(34)

(35)

We can immediately cancel out the R2 terms from all equations. Then, the

= K, where

equations become M

2k k k

2m 0 0

(36)

M = 0 m 0 and K = k 2k k .

k k 2k

0 0 m

We then need to find all such that det(K 2 M) = 0. We start by dividing

this matrix by m and making the substitution k/m = 02 = 1:

2k 2m 2

k

k

k

2k m 2

k

(37)

K 2M =

2

k

k

2k m

2

2(1 )

1

1

1

2 2

1 .

(38)

=

1

1

2 2

7

to zero. The algebra proceeds as follows:

det(K 2 M) = (2 2 2 ) (2 2 )2 1 + 1 (2 2 ) 1 1 1 + (2 2 )

= (2 2 2 ) 3 4 2 + 4 (2 2 ) 1 1 (2 2 )

= (2 2 2 ) 3 4 2 + 4 6 + 2 2

= 2( 6 5 4 + 6 2 )

=0

(39)

This produces the characteristic equation 6 5 4 + 6 2 = 0. Since there is

no constant term on the left-hand side, one obvious normalized frequency

is 1 = 0. Factoring this solutionpout gives us the p

quadratic equation 4

5 2 + 6 = 0, which gives us 2 = 2k/m and 3 = 3k/m. By substituting

1 = 0 into the equation (K 2 M)a = 0, we find that a1 = a2 = a3 . That

is, the masses move with constant speed around the hoop at their equilibrium

separation (and hence none of the springs are ever stretched or compressed thus the zero frequency). For 2 , we find that a1 = a2 = a3 ; here, mass 1

oscillates in one direction while the other two oscillate in the other direction

(all amplitudes being equal). For 3 , a1 = 0 and a2 = a3 . Here, the heavier

mass is stationary while the other two oscillate with equal amplitudes and

completely out of phase. These solutions are similar to those found for the

linear triatomic molecule in the class notes.

#6 (5 points) JRT Prob. 10.15

(a) Write down the integral for the moment of inertia of a uniform cube of

side a and mass M , rotating about an edge, and show that it is equal

to 23 M a2 . (1 point)

(b) If I balance this cube on an edge in unstable equilibrium on a rough

table, it will eventually topple and rotate until it hits the table. By

considering the energy of the cube, find its angular velocity just before

it hits the table. (4 points)

Solution

(a) This is example 10.2 from the text. For a uniform solid cube rotating

around its edge, I = 23 M a2 .

8

(b) The initial energy of the cube is pure PE, since there is no motion.

Recall that we calculate the PE of a continuous body by the equivalent

notion that its entire mass is located

at its CM. The CM of a cube is

at its center, which is a height a/ 2 above the table when the cube is

at equilibrium on its edge. Just before it hits the table, its CM is a/2

above the table. Thus, the change in PE is

a

M ga

a

U = M g

(40)

=

( 2 1).

2

2 2

This energy has all been converted into rotational kinetic energy, T =

1

I 2 . Therefore,

2

1 2 1

M ga

I = M a2 2 =

( 2 1)

2

3

2

(41)

=

3g

( 2 1).

2a

(42)

Find the moment of inertia for a uniform cube of mass M and edge

a as in Problem 10.15, and then do the following: The cube is sliding with

velocity v along a flat horizontal frictionless table when it hits a straight very

low step perpendicular to v, and the leading edge comes abruptly to rest.

(a) By considering which quantities are conserved before, during, and after the brief collision, find the cubes angular velocity just after the

collision.

(b) Find the minimum speed v for which the cube rolls over after hitting

the step.

Solution

(a) The moment of inertia for this cube as it rotates about its edge is

shown in example 10.2 (and required in the previous problem); it is

I = 32 M a2 . During the collision, it is incorrect to assume that kinetic

9

energy is conserved (it might be an inelastic collision). However, angular momentum is always conserved; in particular the component of L

about the edge of the step, which we call Ly (see attached figure). We

find that

X

5

M av

a

=

(43)

Ly =

m r v = M Rv = M v sin

4

2

2

(the negative sign simply indicates that L is directed into the page).

Immediately after the collision, the cube is rotating, and we have

2

Ly = I0 = M a2 0 ,

3

(44)

immediately after the collision; will decrease over time as the cube

tips. Equating these two expressions for Ly (that is, conserving angular

3v

momentum), we find that 0 = 4a

. This tells us the angular frequency

of the initial rotation as a function of the initial velocity of the cube.

(b) To continue this problem, realize that we are running problem JRT1015 in reverse. There, we balanced the cube on its edge (with = 0

initially), and calculated at the point where it fell on its side. Here,

we wish to start with an (unknown) angular velocity that results in

= 0 at the tipping point. Therefore,

q we rewrite our velocity as a

3g( 21)

from that assignment

function of 0 , and substitute 0 =

2a

solution. The resulting velocity is

s

8ga( 2 1)

v=

.

(45)

3

Consider a rigid plane body or lamina, such as a flat piece of sheet

metal, rotating about a point O in the body. If we choose axes so that the

lamina lies in the xy plane, which elements of the inertia tensor are automatically zero? Prove that Izz = Ixx + Iyy .

Solution

10

Since the whole body lies in the plane z = 0, the four products of inertia

involving z are all zero: Ixz = Iyz = Izx = Izy = 0. For the same reason,

X

X

X

Ixx +Iyy =

m (y2 +z2 )+

m (z2 +x2 ) =

m (x2 +y2 ) = Izz . (46)

#9 (10 points)

A rectangular brick of mass M is positioned with one corner at the origin

and with side lengths a, b, and c in the x, y, and zdirections, respectively.

(a) Calculate the inertia tensor I with respect to the origin. (10 points)

(b) Suppose that the brick is rotating with angular velocity , about the

yaxis. Find the resulting angular momentum L. (3 points)

, y

, and z constitute a set of principal axes

(c) Discuss whether or not x

for the brick. (2 points)

Solution

(a) Note that this is essentially Example 10.2 from the text. We just need

to change the limits of integration to account for the fact that we hae

a rectangular brick and not a cube. Well start with Ixx . Noting that

11

Ixx =

=

=

=

=

=

=

dz y 2 + z 2

dy

dx

0

0

0

Z b Z c

Ma

dy

dz y 2 + z 2

abc 0

c

0

Z

1 3

Ma b

2

dy y z + z

abc 0

3

0

Z b

Ma

1

dy cy 2 + c3

abc 0

3

b

M ac 1 3 1 2

y + cy

abc 3

3

0

M ac 1 3 1 2

b + cb

abc 3

3

M 2

b + c2 .

3

(47)

(48)

(49)

(50)

(51)

(52)

(53)

The other two moments of inertia are Iyy = M3 (a2 + c2 ) and Izz =

M

(c2 + a2 ), as can be found using the same equation (or by observing

3

the symmetries inherent to the problem).

12

Z

Z b

Z a Z b Z c

Mc a

dx

dy xy (54)

Ixy =

dx

dy

dzxy =

abc 0

0

0

0

0

b

Z

Z

Mc a

Mc a

1 2

1 2

=

(55)

xb

dx xy

dx

=

abc 0

2

abc 0

2

0

a

1

Mc 1 2 2

Mc 1 2 2

xb

=

a b = M ab.

(56)

=

abc 4

abc 4

4

0

By observing the symmetries inherent to the problem (and by recalling that the inertia matrix must be symmetric), we find that Iyx =

M ab/4, Ixz = Izx = M ac/4, and Iyz = Izy = M bc/4. Therefore,

the inertia matrix can be written

4 (b2 + c2 )

3ab

3ac

M

.

3ab

4 (a2 + c2 )

3bc

I=

(57)

12

2

2

3ac

3bc

4 (a + b )

a = b = c, I takes the same form as in example 10.2 of the text.

(b) This particular angular momentum can be written = (0, , 0). Therefore,

M ab M (a2 + c2 ) M bc

.

(58)

L = I =

,

,

4

3

4

(c) Since rotation about the yaxis does not produce an angular momen, y

, and z do not constitute a set

tum L parallel to , it is clear that x

of principal axes for the brick. You can also claim that this is the case

because of the non-zero off-diagonal elements of I.

Find the inertia tensor for a uniform, thin hollow cone, such as an

ice-cream cone, of mass M , height h, and base radius R, spinning about its

pointed end.

Solution

Since this is a thin cone, it has an areal mass density (mass/area). All

13

points on the cone can be described by the two cylindrical coordinates and

(you can use z and instead, but its very slightly less convenient). Refer

to the figure below, and imagine dividing the surface into strips as shown,

and then dividing the strips into small increments of angle d. Then, the

element of area is dA = (d/ sin )( d), where is the half-angle of the

cone. The moment about the z axis is therefore

Z

Z R Z 2

d d

R4

2

2

Izz = (x + y )dA =

2

=

,

(59)

sin

2 sin

0

0

since the integral evaluates to 2 and the integral evaluates to R4 /4.

2

The area of the cone

can check this by performing

R is A = R / sin (you

2

the integral A =

dA). Therefore, R / sin = M , the total mass. All

together, we have Izz = M R2 /2.

The other two moments, Ixx and Iyy , must be identical by symmetry. For

the first of these,

Z

Ixx = (y 2 + z 2 )dA.

(60)

The first term here is the same as the second term in Izz . Since the two terms

in Izz are equal (again, by symmetry), we conclude that the first term in Ixx

is equal to Izz /2. In the second term of Ixx we can replace z by h/R, from

which we see that the second term in Ixx is h2 /R2 times Izz . All together,

we find that

1

1

h2

Ixx = Iyy =

(61)

+ 2 Izz = M (R2 + 2h2 ).

2 R

4

about the z axis (as was the case with the solid cone). Therefore,

(R2 + 2h2 )

0

0

M

0 (R2 + 2h2 )

0 .

I=

(62)

4

0

0 2R2

#11 (10 points) JRT Prob. 10.36

A rigid body consists of three equal masses (m) fastened at the positions (a, 0, 0), (0, a, 2a), and (0, 2a, a).

(a) Find the inertia tensor I.

14

(b) Find the principal moments and a set of orthogonal principal axes.

Solution

(a) The three masses are equal (m1 = m2 = m3 = m) and their positions

are r1 = a(1, 0, 0), r2 = a(0, 1, 2), r3 = a(0, 2, 1). Therefore,

X

Ixx =

m (y2 + z2 ) = ma2 (0 + 5 + 5) = 10ma2

(63)

X

Iyy =

m (x2 + z2 ) = ma2 (1 + 4 + 1) = 6ma2

(64)

X

Izz =

m (x2 + y2 ) = ma2 (1 + 1 + 4) = 6ma2

(65)

X

Ixy =

m x y = ma2 (0 + 0 + 0) = 0

(66)

X

Ixz =

m x z = ma2 (0 + 0 + 0) = 0

(67)

X

Iyz =

m y z = ma2 (0 + 2 + 2) = 4ma2 .

(68)

That is,

5

0

0

3 2 .

I = 2ma2 0

0 2

3

15

(69)

det(I 1) = (10ma2 )2 (2ma2 ) = 0.

(70)

If we set = 10ma2 , the equation (I1) = 0 yields three equations:

0 = 0, 2 + 3 = 0, and 2 + 3 = 0. This tells us that 2 = 3 , and

that the two normalized eigenvectors corresponding to = 10ma2 are

e1 = (1, 0, 0),

1

and e2 = (0, 1, 1)

2

(71)

and e2 are also suitable principal axes.)

Setting = 2ma2 , the equation (I 1) = 0 yields three equations,

1 = 0, 2 3 = 0, and 2 + 3 = 0. When normalized, this defines

the principal axis

1

e3 = (0, 1, 1).

(72)

2

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