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E N G I N E E R I N G.

Nov. 29, 1901.]


THOUGH machine tools ar e not numerous this year
at t he Stanley Show, their interest makes up for lack
of number. No English tools of impor tance are to be
seen; but we have the four-spindle Acme screw
machine-a recent tool which promises to hit the
ordinary turret lathes hard, and we also have some

and other tools. But the objects of gr ea.test

interest are three Acme four-spindle automatic
th latest development in t his
screw mac tnes,
class of tool, illustrated by Fig. f on page 734,
and by detailed figures on that page and page 735.
I t marks what will probably prove to be a most
importan t departure in screw-machine design- the
substitution of several work spindles for one, so
multiplying t he output of a single machine. And

t s a a*


are proceeding simultaneo~sly on four differ~~t

pieces, and when the fourth IS completed, t~e thud
is also accomplished on the next one behind, the
d th fi t e has passed
second O
? t he next, an
e rs ptec
through Its first stage.
At each .compl~te revol~t10n. or cycle of the four
work-holdtng spindles a ptec~ IS completed ~nd c~t
off, while t he other three spindles carry p1~ces 10
successive stages of progress. Of course, 1n the





J. E.





26. TaE


fine examples of the Reh'lecker machines, that are it has passed t he experi mental stage, being in
second to none of German man ufacture. Messrs. successful use in many works.
Schischkar and Co. are exhibiting the first and
The idea which underlies t he design is this : that
Messrs. Pfeil and Co. the second , both situated at instead of a single bar being operated upon at one
the lower end of the Agricultural Hall-on t he time by a succession of tools held in a t urret, four
ground floor.
bars are being cut and shaped simultaneously by
We commence at the stand of Messrs. Schischkar four separate tools or groups of tools in the main
and Co., whose bnsiness premises are located at 1 tool-carrier. Supposing now that four successive
65 to 69, Stafford-street, Birmingham. It com- cutting operations are n ecessary to complete a.
prises ~ good collection of Ja.thefl, drilljng machines, piece of work ; the first., second, t hird, and fourt h



S c nrscHKAR AND Co.

case of some plain pieces this result is duplicated

in one cycle. I t follows t herefore that the longest
single operation governs the speed of the work.
If this is hastened to the maximum practicable, the
others can be performed at any convenient r ates,
even t hough they should be under those done in
ordinary circumstances. In the common acceptance of the term the ma.ch1ne is n ot a turret lathe.
Yet in strictness there are two turrets, of cy lindrical shape-one, which carries the four work
spindles; the other, in alignment with it on the
same bed, carries t he tool-holders. The various
synchronous movemen ts of t hese two cylindrical
heads or turrets form an interesting study in
automatic devices, to which we can hardly do full
justice in a brief description.
L ooking at the perspective view, Fig. l, the general
arrangement is seen to comprise the work-spindle
carrying head, to the left, opposed to t he tool-carrying head to the right hand, and three supplementary tool slides for cross-cutting, forinina, and k.nurling. All these are driven from t he pull~y to the ex
t reme right, operating a shaft that passes through
both heads. The cam-shaft below, actuated by gears
par tly seen in front, protected by a casing, carries
two drums and a disc. The drum t o the right
actuates the t ool-head, that to the left the wire
feed and chucks of the work-spindles, and a diso
about the centre the two cross-slides on the bed.
The tool-head or slide has but one movement for
each piece of work completed, and therefore but
one camplate is required, which simplifies the fixing
up, and lessens the wear on the pin. Simple tools,
or box tools, as on ordinary turret lathes, are employed, so t hat it is possible to have not merely

E N G I N E E R I N G.

seven tools-four on the tool-head and three on

sliles-but seven sets of tools if necessary.
In the various detailed figures the bed is marked
A, the spindle, or work-carrying, turret B, and the
main tool-carrier C. All the mechanism stands
over an oil tray. To understand the method of
operations it is necessary to trace out the principal
portions of the machine, beginning with the workcarrying turret.
The cylindrical turret or head B (Figs. 2 and 3,
page 735), shown in detail in Figs. 4 to 7, has a bearing in a turret casing D (Fig. 8), which is fianged
and bolted to the bed near the left-hand end of the
machine when viewed from the front. The turret
carries four hollow spindles for bar work (see Figs.
11 ~nd 12), each spindle being located at the same
radius from the centre, and equidistant from its
fellows. Each is encircled with a pinion a (Figs. 4,
5, 11, and 12), driven simultaneously from a central
wheel b, on the main shaft E, engaging with each.
The shaft E has its bearings in the work-spindle
turret at one end, and in a bearing at the other end
of the bed, and is driven by the belt pulley to the
right hand, as already stated. The shaft passes
through the centre of the main tool-carrier C. This
operating mechanism imparts rotation to the workspindle head of an intermittent character, to bring
the spindles. into line with the tools, in which
positions these are locked while the spindles are
rotated simultaneously. The direction of rotation
of these is backwards, or in the opposite direction
to that of lathe spindles. The spindles are not
driven directly, but through a clutch mechanism,
in order that their motion may be arrested automatically. They have no endlong movement, but
the necessary advance is imparted to the main toolcarrier C-slowly for cutting, with a quick return.
These movements are actuated by mechanism
through the cam-shaft J underneath the machine (Figs. 2, 4, 5, 6, and 7). Fig. 6 is taken
on the plane z y of the casing, seen separately
in Fig. 8, and Fig. 7 through x y, the locking pin
1t and the index pin x being in different planes.
sector gear d is carried on the shaft through which
the four intermittent movements are conveyed to
the cylindrical head B by means of the engagement
of d with the spur gear e cut on the outer end of the
head. The cam-shaft carries the drum K, upon
which cam strips (Fig. 2) are screwed to engage
with a pin f on the bottom of the tool-carrying
head C. A worm-wheel Lis also keyed on the shaft,
and by this the shaft J is driven at a slow speed
for feeding, and a quick speed for withdrawal
through the differential gear H. The early form
of this gear is shown in Figs. 9 and 10, but on
recent machines, as shown at the Stanley Show, the
bevel gears are dispensed with, and more compact
pairs of spur gears on a shaft and an encirclin
sleeve are substituted, producing the same results
of driving the worm gears and cam-shaft at differential rates; while the driving pulley i is brought
round parallel with the machine bed.
In Figs. 9 and 10 the supplementary shaft in the
bearing h, which is driven by the belt pulley i from
the overhead, actuates through the mitre wheels k
the short spindle l, on which two spur-wheels nt
and n , of small and large diameters respectively,
are k~yed fast. These engage with wheels o, p on
a short horizontal spindle q which carries the worm 'r
that gears with the worm-wheel L on the cam-shaft
J, which spur-wheels are still retained. The
wheels o and p are put into and out of gear with
m and n by n1eans of the sliding clutch s, which is
actuated by the lever t. The result is either a slow
or a rapid rotation of the cam-shaft, according to
which pair of spur-wheels are actuating it t hrough
the worm gear. The automatic action of the rapid
and slow speeds of rotation is effected by the clutch
lever t as follows: It is pivoted as shown in Fig. 9,
and one arm t 1, counterweighted, is prolonged to
the cam-plate M, on which are two attachments
that strike the a1m t 1 in turn. One of these moves
the clutch s into engagement with the wheel p, to
produce a rapid rotation of the cam-shaft J, for
quick return of the tool-carrying head, and o. rapid
. rotation of the work- spindle turret during the
intervals of cutting. The shifting of the clutch into
with the slow-speed gear o is effected
by another lever u pivoted at the side of the first.
It is actuated by one of the abutments of the camplate M, and its movements are 1nade to alternate
with those of the arm tl through contact with a projection on tl (seen in Fig. 10). The slow-speed
gears o, 1n then drive the worm gears and cam-shaft
J at a ~low speed for cutting, during which period

[Nov. 29,

the work-holding turret is held stationary. The

relation betw een the cutting and return speeds is
about four-fifths of a complete rotation of the camshaft for cutting, and about one-fifth for the return
of the tools.
The details of the work-spindle head may now be
con>idered. It is clear that when four work-spindles
have to be maintained in alignment with four toolspindles carrying single tools or sets of tools in a
separate head, the difficulties of securing the permanent accuracy of each in service are greater than
in the case of one-s{>indle lathes. The design of
the Acme machine embodies neat provisions for
locking, and also fo1 effecting adjustments from
time to time, if such should be found necessary,
though we are informed that such adj ustments are
practically never required. These are shown in
Figs. 6 and 7, which represent the turret in two
positions : that in which it is locked (Fig. 6), as when
the tools are in action, and that at the intermediate
position while it is being rotated through a fourth
of a circle by the sector gear d (Fig. 7).
On the cam-shaft J there is a disc N fitted with
cam-pieces which raise the lever 0 and draw back
the locking-pin u from its notch in the turret
cylinder, at which instant the st=~ctor d comes into
action and rotates the cylinder. During its rotation the index-pin xis thrust back against the push
of its spring by the pressure of the sloping side of
the notch against the end of the pin. When the
next notch has come round, the lever is released,
and the pin 'I~ is pulled into its notch by the action
of a coiled spring, not shown in the figure.
Instead of a notch into which the tapered end
of the locking-pin 'tll would fit closely, a slight


vanced by the sleeve 5 having a collared head 6

operated by the series of parallel levers S from camd
on the cam-drum R. A screw adjustment in the
upper portion of these levers permits of making all
changes of feed up to the full range of the machine
without ever changing the cams. The overhang of
the stock-bars is supported in a lantern of tubes
which revolve through rollers in a circular guide. '
We have already mentioned that the workspindles are not driven directly, and therefore the
driving geaFs a (Figs. 4, 5, 11, and 12) are not
keyed directly on their spindles, but are connected
to a spring collet, or friction clutch, that encircles
the spindles P. The action of the clutch is automatic through the cam-drum below, so that a
spindle can be rotated, or its rotation be arrested
at any predetermined stage, a device which is
utilised in screwing. There is no reversal, and
therefore no crossed belts. When screw-threading has to be performed on bar-work, the endlong
movement of the bar is arrested by disengaging
the friction clutch in connection with the driving pinion a (see the sectional view in Fig. 12).
The recessed portion is in one with the pinion, and
both are run loosely on a collar 7, which is secured
to the sleeve P. The inner portion of the clutch
8 is keyed to the sleeve, and confines two curved
springs, and cam-levers which abut against the
springs. The other portion of the clutch, keyed to
the sleeve P, actuates the cam-levers which clutch
the loose and fast portions. The springs 10 bearing against the disc 11, which is fixed to the sleeve,
drive the fast portion of the clutch and the disc as
one by the pressure they exercise on the levers and
curved springs. The clutch is released automatic


l-..-------- -

----- ----~







Fig. 20.


,,_,. Fig.'21.





-.L ._




, Ftf1.22.

J.' i.fJ. 18.

~ -- -

-- ----~




clearance is allowed on the lower side, and this,

with the hardened plugs 3 abutting against the
spring stop or index pin x, permits of a slight
adjustment without undue friction between the
tapered end of the pin, and the notches into which
it is pulled. The cylinder rotates a little way past
t he q uarter circle, and the pin u slips into a notch
fibting loosely therein. But the tapered face of the
index pin is pushed by its coiled spring against the
hardened plug 3, so moving the cylinder backwards
through a minute arc, and forcing the top edge of
the tapered notch and the upper portion of the
tapered pin 'tli into close contact. The pressure of
the pin 'tli taking place in opposition to that of the
faces of the index or stop-pin x against the plug,
the result is that the turret is locked securely without the slop that would rt=~sult from gradual wear of
pin and notches when these slide over one another.
The possible wear of the work-spindle cylinder
B in its casing D is provided for by splitting the
cylinder along a portion of its top face and inserting clamping screws, similarly to the split lug
device on the barrels of lathe poppets. But t~e
area of the bearing surfaces is so large that wear 18
a r emote contingency. Oiling is provided for
through a lubricator on the top of the casing.
The mechanism by whic~ the rods being ~perate.d
on are clamped and fed ID the hollow spmdles IS
illustrated in Figs. 11 and 12. 'l'he spindle, or
chuck sleeve P-the portion which is inclosed in
the cylindrical turret-contains a thrust tube 1 for
compressing the chuck y , closed against the chuckhead 3. The tube 1 is actuated by the forks 2, 2
pressing against a collar 3 on the end of
the thrust-tube 1, these being pivoted in arms
fixed to a collar on the sleev.e P. The forks
are actuated .through the. contcal . collar 4, the
fork of which, CJ (F1g. 2) 1s moved by
the strips on the cam-drum. R at the l~ft-hand
end of the mach~n~, so openmg and closm~ the
chucks by the shdmg of the thrust-tub? 1 ~n the
intervals of the feed of the stock-rod, which IS ad-

ally by a lever T (see Figs. 2 and 3) operated from

the cam-drum.
When screw-threading is done, the dies n either
open nor reverse, so tbat no crossed belts are used.
When a thread is being cut, the work-spindle is
stationary ; but as soon as the thread is completed,
it starts and rotates rapidly-to the left, of course
-aud so runs the die or tap from off the work.
The spindle which carries the screwing tools is
made in two parts (Fig. 13), to be engaged with a
pin clutch during cutting. Afterwards the spindle
is held against rotation while the die is being
released, and pulled back quickly by a spiral spring.
Instead of the forks t:hown in Fig. 13, a ratchet
and pawl is now emp~oyed on the later machines
for arresting the rotation uf the die-spindle, though
the effect is the same as the method illustrated.
In screwing, the dies are drawn over the bar by
the started thread. But to insure the initial cut
taking place there is a. neat little device in the
shape of a die-starter that pushes tho tool-holder in
Fig. 13 against the end of the bar and gives it a
positive lead.
The method of gearing up the tool spindles from
the main shaft E is seen in Figs. 14 and 15. One
spindle-the die-spindle- is back-geared.
Supplementary tool-slides are fitted, one above
the turret heads, and two others of the cross-slide
type. These are shown in F~gs .. 1, .2, and 3. T~e
position of the firs~ nam e~ 1s md~cate~ by_ U In
Figs. 2 and 3, and Its details are given m F1gs. 16
and 17. It is carried on a bracket on the workcylinder casing D, and is .fed and with~rawn by
the movements of the mam tool head C through
the medium of cam pieces 12, 13 placed one
above the other and attached to the main
tool head C.
As these move forward and
backward the bevelled edges at the forward
' impart a transverEe motwn,
ends of each
up or
down r espectively to the tool slide, by which forming, knurJing, and cutting-off are performed. T~e
longitudinal positions of these bars are readtly

N0 V . 2 9.

T 90 I.

adjustable to suit different diameters. The other

cross slides are mounted on the bed of the machine
at front and back respectively V, V (Figs. 2 and 3),
and are operated by the c-am-disc W and the levers
X, X. There is a complete jointed system of oil
pipes, the lubricant being supplied through a pump
at the rear of the machine, belt-driven from the
right-hand end of the main shaft, and seen in the
general view (Fig. 1). The range of the various
sizes in which the machines are manufacturedN~s. 1 ~ 5 - takes stock from l (f in. in the smallest
w1th 0-m. feed, up to 1i in. in the largest with
5-!-- in. of feed. It should be mentioned that the
three Acme machines are running at the Stanley
Show, and producing work from bars.
'Ye have now described the leading features of
the Acme machine, but besides there are numerous
minor details that must be observed when the machine is in operation. The work turned out is a
matter that comes home to practical men; and we
have figured a few samples to illustrate this, giving
the over-all dimensions. Thus the mild-steel pin
(Fig. 18) is produced from bar at the rate of 38 per
hour; that in Fig. 19 at 68 per hour. Of the squareheaded screw (Fig. 20) made frOJn bright square
rod, 100 per hour is the record. The smaller screw
(Fig. 21), also made from square bar, and having a
left-hand thread, is turned out at the rate of 120 per
hour-two in each minute. Of the cycle pedal cup
(Fig. 22), :which is also knurled, 90 per hour are
made. These are all in steel. The brass terminal
(Fig. 23) is made to the tune of 600 per hour-ten
in each minute, one in six seconds I vVe were
also informed of a case that occurred in an agricultural shop in Lincoln where the Acme machine
produced 70 studs per hour from black bar,
against 20 per hour on three single-spindle machines working on bright stock. A small grub
screw has been produced in the American factory
at the rate of 9400 a day, on a single machine, and
the A:cme firm ma~e. br~ss screws and pieces on the
machme, the cond1t10ns being that the customer
supplies the brass bar and leaves the chips as sole
payment for the work. The Acme Company has fifty
of these machines in use in their own shops, with
only seven men in charge. Another screw-making
company in Cleveland have fifty machines, and they
have also been installed in a number of English
shops during the last twelve months.
Among the other exhibits by Messrs. Schischkar
and Co., three aro of special interest : an eight~pindle drilling machine, a milling machine, and a
Le Blond lathe. The eight-spindle drill (see Fig. 24,
page 731) is of the vertical type, in which the spindles are adjustable for centres, either in a circle or in
various patterns. Each spindle has universal joints
tv permit of these dispositions, and to 1etain the
drills and their sockets in a truly perpendicular
position. Each is locked securely when in place
by means of a slotted bearing plate and bolt.
'!'here is a knock- out stop movement which
comes into play automatically at a predetermined
point. Machines of this class are most valuable for
drilling a number of holes simultaneously in cylinder flanges and covers, and in pipes, unless the
latter is long, in whieh case a horizontal machine
of the same general type is employed. The drills
can be set to correct centres by a templet, or against
popped centres. The Milwaukee milling machine
is one of those modern types in which changes of
feed are varied instantly by a lever moving over a
dial plate, and actuating a nest of gears. Twelve
changes are given, ranging from .006 in. to
.130 in. per revolution of the spindle.
Le Blond lathe is a rather familiar type, with
a taper attachment at the rear. But a little
device in the one shown by Messrs. Schischkar
should be noticed. It consists of a small worm
that engages with the lead screw, its spindle passing vertically through the carriage ; the head
being enlarged and indexed, flush with the top face
of the carriage. By this means it is easy, when
cutting screws, to locate the exact position for
starting the tool again after running the carriage
back. Turners who rely on chalk marks on change
wheels will appreciate this little dodge.
Messrs. Pfeil and Co., of Clerkenwell, have a
very fine collection of tools. They comprise mostly
the famous machines of Messrs. J. E. Reinecker,
of Chemnitz-Gablenz, Germany. Built mainly on
American models, we are inclined to think that in
some details, as in stiffness and wearing capacity,
they go a point better. Certainly they leave
nothing to be desired by the most exacting tool
user. The stand of this firm at the Paris Exhibi

E N G I N E E R I N G.


tion last year was one of the most attractive in the arm by grh~ding to a circular column, the large .size
and width of face of the bull wheel that gears tnto
Champ de Mars.
The No. 4 relieving lathe of this firm- a very stiff the table rack, by which a return speed of 80 ft.
tool- is illustrated in Fig 26, page 731. In it reliev per minute is obtained smoothly; the flat tableing may be done on cutters having from 4 in. to ways, with setting-up strips in. p~ce .of vees, and
400 in. of lead. The swing of the lathe is 9tif in. the concession to possible preJudice 1n the shape
measured over the rest, and 39~ in. can be taken of a temporary bracket fitting, and upright to. the
in length. It is therefore well adapted for cut- overhanging arm, that can be used when work 1s no
ting and relieving worm-bobbing tools with spiral wider than the table.
A neat little full automatic screw machine of
grooves. Messrs. Reinecker have made a speciality
of this type o'f machine to meet the growing demand Continental manufacture at Messrs. Pfeil's stand
for correctly-shaped milling cutters. One of their is also worth noting. It takes a 14-milli~etre ro~,
devices is a means for timing the stroke of the re and larger sizes in other machines built on thts
lieving tool. Another has for its object the proper model, and contains several novel features. The
r elief of cutters sideways- that is, at angles other arrangement by which the belts are shift?d f<?r
than those perpendicular to the axiR of the cutter. quick reverse is interesting. . The mac~1ne lB
Another is the introduction of a push-key, by means stiffer than some of those bullt for cuttmg the
of which the lead screw is driven off the first back- smaller class of screws. We almost wonder what
gear pinion on the main spindle for very coarse becomes of all the screw machines that come
leads or pitches. The relieving motion may be into competition with the older ones year by
reversed by the movement of a lever, independently year, and where the countless millions of screws
of the direction of rotation of the cutter spindle, a turned out find their allotted spheres.
A small forming milling cutter machine also is
device necessary in relieving hollow tube-like tools
or face cutters. Another mechanism provides for interesting. It combines the use of a former, the
the relief of spirally-fluted cutters. Right and edge of which controls the movement of the grind
left-hand spirals are cut through the change ing wheel, with a pantagraph, by which a cutter
wheels and differenti~l gears. A copying de- can be made of a different size to that of the profile
vice is added for facilitating the making of pro- of the former used.
In conclusion, we think, as regards machine tooltS,
filed cutters. This particular type of machine
is not one in which English manufacturers have this year's Stanley Show contains enough of interest
shown to advantage. Not long since we saw some to repay a visit of a few hours. We expected to
relieving lathes in an advanced English shop occu- find little of interest, and have been agreeably
pied in cutter-making, and the proprietor informed disappointed. We have not mentioned all, but
us that he had no alternative but to go to Germany those only which seemed of special interest. As
before, all these tools are of foreign manufacture.
for good tools of this class.
The American Bilgram bevel-gear cutting machine, though sixteen years old, as yet is only
known to many English engineers by name.
Visitors to the Stanley Show can now see one of
(Concluded from page 701.)
Reinecker's make at the stand of Messrs. Pfeil and
Co.-the No. 2 size (Fig. 26, page 731), the maxiThe factors we have been considering chiefly
mum diameter of wheels which can be cut in this affect works which are fully or partially employed;
being 14 in. The Bilgram machine is one of the which are sufficiently remunerative to their owners
generating type, but it differs from others in the as to raise no question of sale; and which are
method of obtaining the tooth shapes. These are suffering natural decrease in value through user of
of necessity involutes, and the teeth are planed machinery, improvements in buildings or equipby a triangular shaped tool or cutter, the cutting ment of competing firms, or general conditions proflanks of which are at an angle of 75 deg. with the rooting removal of trade from the district. These
horizontal plane. The tool represents a rack tooth, force&, or in private firm s the death or ailn1ent of
the base of the involute system, and it cuts by its some of the partners, or in other instances . inflanks while the blank is rotated in a path corre- ducements offered or compulsion applied from
sponding with its pitch surface. The standard outside, may render the sale of the premise.~ and
type of tool, therefore, cuts all wheels, irrespective business necessary or desirable. An intended sale,
of diameter and number of teeth, with mathema- however, introduces new conditions which only
tical truth- several pairs of wheels are exhibited. come into force when such sale is contemplat~d, but
The depth of teeth in different pairs can be which have then to be carefully considered. It is
varied readily when desired, to avoid under- unnecessary to treat of values in the case of bankcutting in small pinions, a feature which has one ruptcy or liquidation. The prices then obtained
special application of value- that of cutting pattern are generally a complete sacrifice of the property;
gears for moulding from. No templet is used, sometimes because it is offered at a. time when
since all provisions are embodied in the construe- the market is suffering from depression in trade;
tion of the machine itself, and all the workman frequently because of the liquidator's ignorance
has to do is to set certain gauges to the instructions of the particular industry ; and al}Vays because of
We cannot attempt here the natural desire of the purchasers to make a
given from the office.
to give an account of the machine ; and, in fact, good bargain for themselves. Setting aside such
its mode of operation cannot readily be grasped forced realisations as ar.e induced uy insolvency,
by the aid of diagrams alone : but it was described and which are conducted by official recPivers,
in ENGINEERING, vol. xl., page 21. Various gauges trustees, or liquidators, there are three other
are supplied, and a set of .. about fifteen roll curves, forms under which sales may be contemplated,
viz., as a going concern; as an idle factory, either
with the machine.
Another speciality is a beautiful Reinecker uni- equipped, partially equipped, or dismantled ; and
versal cylindrical grinding machine, of the table- under compulsory powers exercised by a local
sliding type, with a very fine adjustment. It is authority, a. railway company, or other corporation
built on the lines of the well-known Brown and armed with Parliamentary powers. The problem
Sharpe model. Messrs. Reinecker have largely will also present itself in different aspects to the
developed this branch of t ho tool trade. In their vendors and purchasers, and the reconciliation will
own shops they employ fifty-five grinders of various ultimately depend on t he induce1nents respectively
presented to them by the apparent advantages or
Two milling machines by the same firm are also disadvantages of the property. We may disregard
shown : one built on the plain '' Lincoln " pattern, the pressure sometimes exercised by the necessity
the other of the vertical type, with a swivel head, for realising the estate in consequence of family
for milling at any vertical angle, a device common arrangements : such negotiations can generally be
on the Continent. A circular table is made to bolt conducted in a sufficiently leisurely manner to
on the top longitudinal table. The lower spindle obtain the best market price; and when they have
bearing is provided with means for fine adjustment. to be hurried forward are seldom so disastrous as
Some Reinecker milling machines of the planer realisations in bankruptcy.
type are of very large dimensions. This German
As a going concern, the vendor will seek to
firm employs at present 1260 men, and operates obtain, at least, the value which appears in his
800 machine tools.
balance-sheet at the last previous stock-taking.
A "Billet er " open side-planing machine of Ger- This he ought readily to do, if the assets have
man n1ake is also exhibited at this stand. The been written down with a sufficient scale of depre4
utility of such machines is not yet so fully recog~ ciation. But in fixing the price which he should
nised as it will be in the future. We noted as special ask, it is necessary t o examine the previous valuafeatures in this, the casting of the column support- 1 tions, and carefully consider whether they have not
ing base in one with the hod, the fitting of the tool been reduced below the figures which a prudent



E ER 1 N G.

[Nov. 29,



(F 01 Description, see Page 731.)






t--- - -

t- -


(712 5 0)

Fig . 12. .

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E N G I N E E R I N G.

Nov. 29, 1901.]


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and s~lful investor might be expected to

Th~s, In the ~ase of land- in which instance,- t~;:
ever! the ~s~tstance of a land valuer should be
obta~ned-tt IS possible that a depression in trade
and In the value of property in the neighbourhood
general~y, may have been discounted, and yet the
~epress10n have proved only temporary
In th
Instance of Nottingham we have had such a cycle o~
bad trade and lo'Ye~ed val~es extending over a period
of ten !ears. I t IS Impossible to conceive that durin
such ttme hope of a revival would not desert man g
of the man~facturers. They would find it diffi
to work thell' factories at a profit and they c c~d
not sell th~m without heavy loss: Their fri~ud
a~db competitors would tell the same miserable ~1!
o ad trade and loss, the banks would look askance



, t--4- ....

t ;.

E N G I N E E R I N G.

[Nov. 29, I 901.

a.t applications for assistance, and auditors would worn machines may have been so renovated and 1
dwell on the danger of overvaluing assets. If the added to as to be really worth more than when new, I RB CONCILTATION WITH BooK-KEEPERS' VALUES.
directors of a limited company have in such a period but to the purchaser they are partly-worn machines,
"\Ve have already referred to the defects of bookyielded-and probably it would be wise to yield to and his interest is to decry them. Allowance must keepers' values, defects inherent in their method,
adverse influences-and written down land, build- also be made for the rapidity with which mechanical and which will equally arise whether they are fixed
ings, and machinery, it would be unwise, and, improven1ents follow each other in the present day. by the secretary or accountant of the firm, or by a
indeed, unjust to the shareholders, to give the Machines speedily become not merely partly worn, chartered accountant or auditor. It must., howpurchaser the benefit of such reduced valuations.
but obsolete, and no wise engineer will purchase ever, be admitted that the exigencies of joint stock
Again, the machinery has been automatically an obsolete machine because it is low-priced: he companies frequently induce the directora to adopt
written down to a margin of safety, but during a con- knows that it would not be really cheap.
an average scale of depreciation and consequent
tinuance of prosperous years such numerous renewals
Some advantage, however, arises from purchasing approximate valuation of assets. Probably the
and replacements have been debited to revenue a factory which has stopped working, from the necessity has been exaggerated; the shareholders
instead of capital as to render the balance-sheet facility with which alterations can be made. This, in most concerns would be willing to exchange a
value much less than it really ought to be. Here again, is limited by the future purpose to which it mere progression of figures for an annual revision,
again the estimate must be corrected by the vendor is intended it should be put. Should the purchaser so far as it could be made, if they were assured that
before he fixes his price for the works. It would, intend it for an inferior class of workmanship, or 1 the latter plan would more correctly represent the
however, be better in all cases of increment less important operations, he will certainly discount state of their property. But so long as directora
of value to keep the valuation accounts and very largely any price which may be fixed in the and financiers will imagine themselves compelled to
diagrams as nearly correct as human ingenuity a.nd vendor's books. He can always find in the market adhere to the present system, it is at least desirforesight can attain, leaving the financing considera- plenty of machines, some of them really good, able that the more correct method we have indicated
tions to be dealt with in the ordinary books of the which have been discarded by the more progressive should be adopted as a private record, and that an
firm, and an agreement effected between the results firms iu favour of improved types.
adjustment account should also be prepared. The
by means of a reconciliation account. If this were
When a factory i<J acquired by compulsory pur- following form will serve for this account:
done in all cases, and continuously, there would
be less difficulty in examining previous valuations.
The purchaser, or intending purchaser, natura11y
DepreciaValue at
Deprecia- January 1 Additions
regards price from a different standpoint to that of
January 1 Addttions tion Written
per Valua- Written Plus or
Valuathe vendor : his object is to reduce by all possible
per Balance per Balance Off DecemMinus. Sheet and
ber :n.
means the amount he has to pay, and to discredit
Account. Account. oember31.
the quality of the commodities he has to acquire.
, s. d .
, 8. d.
, s. d .
, s. d.
In this he has a great advantage, from the fact,
8. d.
9. d.
a. d.
.. I
now generally acknowledged by political economists, L~nd
Buildin~ and wharfs . .
that prices are fixed by consumers, and not by pro- Steam engines, boilers, and furnaces
ducers. Dr. Willia.m Smart, of Glasgow University, Fixed plant and machinery . .
Small loose plant, patterns, and tools
in his '' Studies in Economics," says : '' Human Horses ..
.. 1
desire-carefully distinguishing the word from de- Preliminary expenses

sirability-is the only thing that can, in the last Goodwill
resort, confer value on any commodity. To put it

in terms of the now dominant theory, value is mea----------------------~----------------~------~-------------------------- ---- sured by marginal utility, meaning by this the
particular utility or desirableness in the particular chase, the conditions are widely different. Primarily,
The balance-sheet valuations, additions, and decircumstances of provision or supply." In a nego- the price is eventually fixed by an arbitrator after preciation~, may also be plotted out on the diagrams
tiation for sale the purchaser is in the position of hearing such evidence as may be brought before in different coloured inks.
the consumer, and his desire, his measurement of him, if the parties are unable to agree upon it.
There is one additional way in which the valuamarginal utility, practically fixes the price-that is, Thus, although the vendor is compelled to part tion sheets and diagrams may prove useful, and
the value in the sense in which we use the term. with his property whether he desires to sell or not, that is in the correction from tilne to time of the
It is natural to suppose that he will, if there be he is protected against its being taken from him rates of percentage written off the book-keeper's
any bargaining, magnify the defects, and discredit without reasonable compensation. The "marginal valuation. Directors and auditors do not usually
the advantages, of the works; and in particular utility" is also fixed by the owner, the producer, fix these rates on a false basis through any desire
that he will, except in the case of the first advances and not by the purchaser, who is equivalent to the to deceive ; they generally err through ignorance
The human desire- the marginal of the true conditions which affect the problem
being made by himself, strictly inquire into the consumer.
reasons which induce the vendor to sell. If the utility- is, in fact, the particular utility to the Our readers will readily see that from the valuation
sale is that of a closed factory, then the inquiry vendor, who wishes to retain the property, and accounts and diag-A.am, curves, or a curve, of percenwill probably be directed to the especial motives '\\' ho has certain risks and disabilities forced upon tages could be constructed by which the directors
which have induced the stoppage of working, as him by being deprived of it. He has to consider might correct their financial accounts. Possibly a
well a~ to the general reasons for the sale. All the expense and trouble of removal, the damage short acquaintance with the engineers' calculations
these inquiries the vendor must be prepared to to plant and stock caused thereby, the cost of might induce them to abandon their own rule- ofanswer, and on the satisfactory replies he can give erecting new premises, and possibly the loss of thumb method.
will largely depend the measurement of marginal profit during the time his business is at a. stand.
It is hardly necessary t o say that these valuation
Much that is a loss to him will be no profit to the accounts and diagrams should be regarded as confiutility.
Some of the causes may be so radical in character purchaser ; but this is no fault of his ; he is under dential documents, and kept as strictly guarded
as to pro~ bit a sale, to any ~rudent investor, .for the duress in selling, and must be compensated for from observation as the detailed cost. accounts of
same business as has previously been carried on. what he loses, not for what the other gains. It is the firm. The diagrams might make a nice ornaIf the locality is unsuitable for the trade ; if it evident that these conditions make it desirable to ment on the wa1ls of the manager's private office,
became unsuitable through the development of produce very complete an~ detailed accounts to ~he prettily engrossed and neatly framed ; but they
facilities in other districts, whilst those around it arbitrator : careful valuatiOn schedules extendmg would afford too great an opportunity for observant
have remained stagnant; if the trade generally over many previous years will be a record to which criticism. Photographs of machines, bridges, or
hen a sum has other erections constructed by the company might
appears a decaying one in this country, and to be he will give great consideration.
migrating abro~d, it may probabl.Y be foun~ more been fixed, adequate under ordinary circu~stances be a good advertisement ; diagrams of values of
economical to dismantle the premises and dtsperse to compensate the vendor, he is entitled to a assets would be too c"ndid a revelation to the
the machinery than to keep it clean and in repair furt.her allowance for the compulsion exercised- visitor, especially if they at all varied from the
awaiting a possible purchaser. If, however, the 10 per cent. on the total is the a:mount which is balance sheet. They should therefore be retained
stoppage has be.en brought about by. ~ere financial usually allowed, and this percentage should in all under lock and key, and access to them permitted
blundering, which so often wrecks JOI!lt-stock e.n- cases be added by the owner in fixing the price for only to those few trustworthy and confidential
officers whose duties may from time to t.ime require
terprises in these d~ys, and not by any In~ernal dts- which he is willing to sell.
Formerly corporations and other local authont1es them to refer to costs and valuations.
order in the trade Itself, then the restarting of the
works under sounder auspices and management may were in little, if any, better position with regard
prove the commencement of an era of prosperity. to compulsory purchase than railway or canal comThe overloaded capital account, onerous agreements panies ; but it is impossible to overlook t~e trend
for commissions, and unremunerative agencies will of modern ideas to take any property req m red for
have been got rid of, whilst the foundations and public improvements subject to the payment of
(Continued from page 674).
payother accessories to machines will remain, ready
HAviNv described the general arrangement of
for use and with their utility proved by previous ment to the owners. The baleful effects of the
These considerations will, however, Electric Lighting Act may be observed bot h in the station- the joint property of the Great
treatpresent themselves in. different aspects to .the two
parties : the vendor wtll see the errors whiCh have ment which municipal officials mete out to the we now come to that important item in the strucbeen made and the methods by which he imagines public. It will be important to engineers to re- ture--the wind screen at each end of the several
they can b~ remedied: the purc~aser
remember member that in preparing evidence for arbitrations spans of the main roof. Here again we may confine
the certain failure in the past wh10h has Induced stop- in which local or Government authorities are con- ourselves to the central screen, which is, of
paae and the uncertainty of the future producing the cerned there is more probability of obtaining a. course, typical. The. total area of . this screen is
ra:o~rable results optimistically pre~ict~d. ~t is reason~ble allowance for buildings, machinery, and 3000 square feet, it 1s 53ft. deep In the centre,
almost certain that the item of good will w1ll entirely
disappear in effecting a sale, .and t h.at machinery, aoodwill or prospective increase of profit, wh10h are by the fact that ~8 tons of steel have been work~d
if stopped for any length of trme, w1ll sell {or less
at the same time being workml\nltke. Ddatled
than the vendor has valued it in his books. Partly- inimical to the public interest.





E N G I N E E R I N G.

Nov. 29, 1901.]

drawings of it are reproduced this week on our two- York-street b ridge it was not n ecessary to build
page plate (Figs. 56 to 86).
such a roof. The height from platform lev.el to the
The main structure or support consists of a line top of the awing roof is about 20 ft. 6 1n. The
of girders built 20 ft. from the bottom of the screen platforms arc on varying curves, and thA roof follows
(Figs. 60 to 67), -and to this the whole frame is the curves and narrows to suit the decreasing width.
suspended, while at the toE there is an a.pex girder of The awning roofs do not cover the bays or docks
the plate type, 2ft . 6 in. deep, with !-in. web, and at the ends of the platforms. They are built .in
3-in. by 3-in. by !in. angles at top and bottom, to pairs, one on each side of the bays, but a latt1ce
give a finished appearance and to afford a means airder stretches right across the bay at the same
of securing the ends of the purlins (Fig. 68), while intervals as the columns, and thus binds the whole
along the bottom edge there is a simple lattice girder stru0ture over each platform together (Fig. 87).
15 in. deep (Fig. 86), which follows the line of the The columns, along with their foundations and
arch formed in the centre to assist in improving the brackets and the drainage arrangements, are illusgeneral effect. The cross-section of the screen trated on page 738 (Figs. 88 to 103). These columns
shows these several members, and indicates also are spaced along the platforms at ~O-ft. cent~es.
that the main girder in the centre of the depth, The height of each at the north end 1s 16 ft. k 1n.,
although of lattice construction, represents a rect- and at the south end 17 ft . 2! in. The r oof is
angular or box section, 6ft. 10! in. deep, the front horizontal : this was necessary owing to its conand back members being 6 ft. 9! in. apart, with nection with the wind screens. The difference in
horizontal and diagonal lattice bracing at top and height of columns is due to the gradient of ~ in
528, at which the rails are laid through the statwn.
The supporting of this girder was a somewhat The platforms follow this gradient, but for facility
difficult matter, and for the purpose the colun1ns in construction it was decided to make the columns
at the ends of the platform buildings, where the at the north all alike in height and those at the
screen is built, had to be greatly reinforced. The south equal with each other. The difference is
columns at this part are 43 ft. 4 in.
height and made up by sinking the foundations further into
their section was increased to 14 in. by 12 in., the ground according to the gradient. The columns
being made of two plates 14 in. by i in., two plates (Fig. 94) are built of two plates, 8! in. by ! in., and
12 in. by t in. se.cured to~e~her in a ~ectaugle ty fo.ur angles 3~ in. by 2t in. by! in., braced ~iagonally
four angles 3! m. by 3i 1n. by ! In. It was w1th bars 2! m. by i 1n. The base-plate 1s 3ft. by
decided to make not only a strong column at 2ft. by ~ in., and the connection with the stem is
the outer corners of the buildings, but also . strengthened by ~-in. gussets. rhere are riveted


108. It is 1 ft . 3 in. deep. This also carries the

cast-iron moulded gutter.
The ends of the awning r oofs at the ends of the
station ar e hipped. This part, which extends for
a distance of about 13 ft., is suspended from the
ends of the longitudinu 1 girders in the form of two
half-principals, splayed at an angle, and connec~ed
to the end valance girder at distan~es ? f 8 f.t. 4 1n.
apart. The adoption of two. ~aJ!-prtnCipals tnstea(l
of one was to increase the ng1d1ty of the structure
against wind pressure.
The awning roof is returned at the .1nner end,
where it joins the main r oof at the wmd screen.
The half-principals in this cas~ ar e attached .to t he
1ower girders of t he main wtud screen, a~ 1s also
the valance girder. Some of them, agan:tst . the
end of the buildings, rest on pad-ston es butlt 1nto
York-street bridge cuts through the awning r~of
at an angle (Fig. 1, pag~ 678 ant~), and speCial
prin<;ipals had to be prov1ded to su1t the ~ke~ of
the bridge. The connection between the pr1n01pals
and the columns of t he bridge is made by tap
bolts. A glazed screen is ~rri.ed by angles 01~ the
under side of the outer man1 guders of the bridge,
and is connected to the special skew principals.
The total area of the awning roof is 49,248 square
feet and it is entirely glazed. The iron and
steei in the awning r oofs are supplied by Messrs.
H andyside and Co., Derby.

( To be oontin ued.)



Fifl 87.



O.E., New York.

(Continued from page 700.)


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to uLilise the next column within the wall of

the building for assisting to resist the wind pressure, and this was accomplished by substituting for
the ordinary longitudinal joist connecting all
columns within the building walls, a double lattice
girder 2ft. 8 in. deep, the front and back members
beina0 2 ft. 6 in. apart and braced at top and bottom.
1.'his girde1, which corresponds to a box section
about 2 ft. 8 in. square, is firmly bolted to the
two end columns ; and while the outer member
of the main (86 ft. 11 in.) girder of the screen is
carried by t he outer columns, the inner member
rests on, but is not secured to, the top of t.his
2-ft. 8-in. girder, as is shown in Fig. 57.
The cross-section of the wind screen shows its
relation to this girder fur stiffening the columns.
Carried on the top of the main screen girder of
box se.ction are struts placed at 9-ft. intervals along
its length, the width of the struts at bottom corresponding with the width of the girder (6 ft. 6 in.).
They taper to meet the apex girder, as shown on
the dotted lines on the section. These struts, of
lattice section, as shown in Figs. 69 to 72, are
composed of T-iron 6 in. by 3 in. by ! in. , with
double cross bracing of angles, and they support
not only the apex girder at the top, but carry the
glazing bars. On the under side of the main
girder there are corresponding struts, the only
difference being that the narrow end is downwards,
and they do not vary to the same extent in length
(Figs. 73 to 75). They carry the horizontal girder
at the bottom of the screen and also the glazing
bars. These are on Mellowes's system, of -l1f-in.
glass, attached to horizontal angles. The elevation is relieved by mouldings of pitch pine, and
at the apex there is a cast-iron ornamental crest.
Including the wind screen, all girders, columns,
&c., the main roof required 987 tons of steel, and
it is almost unnecessary to state that there is a
complete system of wind ties. These are 1! in.
in diameter, and are provided with screw couplings
throughout. GAlvanised ladders, too, are provided
for cleaning purposes.
We come now to the awning roofs, which cover
the platforms north and south of the main roof for
a length in each direction of 236 ft. ; but under

to the columns at their tops curved brackeis of steel,

i in. thick and 8ft. in length, to carry the girders
which stretch across the bay, and also extend
as cantilevers to the front edge of the outside
platform, to carry the front screen, &c., as shown
on Fig. 87. The edges of the brackets are stiffened
by T-irons 6 in. by 2! in. by ! in., firmly riveted
to 3-in. by 3-in. by -fr-in. angles on the cross girders
already mentioned (Fig. 89). The base of each
column is protected by a cast-iron plinth surrounding it (Figs. 98 to 100), while there are cast-iron
mouldings on top with neck below to enhance the
appearance (Figs. 96 and 97). There is a surfacedrainage pipe in the interior of the column (Figs
95 and 101 to 103). The awning-roofs, with their
supporting girders, are illustrated on page 739
(Figs. 104 to 110).
The girders, which extend across the bays as
well as across the platforme, are of the lattice type,
1 ft. 3 in. deep, of double section, the width being
1 ft. 2f in. (Figs. 105, 109, and 110), and the
two parts are thoroughly braced together. These
girders are carried on the bops of the columns,
and are riveted to the brackets on either side.
The brackets are 8 ft . long and the maximum
overhang of the girders and rouf is 13 ft. 4! in.,
lessening towards the ends of the platform.
The total length of these tie or cross girders is
70 ft. 6! in. over the angles, and this also decreases towards the end owing to the narrowing of
the platforms. These tie girders and the columns
are at 30-ft. centres, and in line with the platforms
there run longitudinal girders, also of the lattice
type and 5 ft. deep. These longitudinals carry
three principals intermediate between those supported by the columns. The principals over the
columns are double, the others single, and the interval betweeu each is 7 ft. 6 in. The single
principals are shown by Fig. 104, and the double
principals by Fig. 106. They ar e built up of angles
and flat bars, and the two are 10f in. apart, ,the
gutter being carried between them from t he eaves
to the tops of the columns. The purlins ar e of Zbars, with Mellowes's glazing. The valance boarding
is carried by a light lattice girder connecting th e
ends of the principals, as shown in Figs. 107 and

THE second part of the fifth section of the sub~

way, known as Section 5 B, extends for nearly
three-quarters of a mile along Broadway from 47thstreet to 60th-street. It presents several interesting
engineering features, such as the work to be don~
under the Elevated Road at 53rd-street, and the
underpinning of the Oolumbus Monument at the
Circle, 59th.street. The section is being built by
Messrs. Naughton and Oo., the sub-contractors,
with the aid of Mr. G. W. Wilson as engineer-incharge.
The soil through which the work is being done
is chiefly hard rock, a pocket of loose soil being
encountered at 47th-street, and extending a distance of 400ft. This soil consists of reddish clay,
rendered somewhat plastic by an underground
stream. The clay is followed by a mass of soft
rock of the usual mica-schist composition, but very
friable and full of seams. In some places it is quite
disintegrated. For the length of only two streets
- viz., from 66th-street to 58th-street -is the rock
sufficiently solid and compact to allow of its being
used in building the walls of the subway. After
this, soft rock is again met, which dips down nearly
to the edge of the Circle at 59th-street, where sand
and gravel are encountered up to the end of the section at 60th-street.
Two methods of construction have been em:ployed on this section, viz., the open cut and the
two side-trenches, both being greatly modified to
meet local conditions. Along Broadway the fourtrack standard section, which is 55ft. wide, takes
up nearly the whole width of the strEtet, extending
in some places even under the side walks. In order
not to interfere excessively with traffic and the
trolley-cars, only one side trench was dug at a time
along Broadway. It was worked down to the foundations of the subway, and well strutted whenever
it passed through loose soil. The water-pipes, gaspipes, and electric conduits which were met with
were held in position by means of chains suspended
from timbers placed across the t rench.
Under the car-tracks, at distances of 12ft. apart,
narrow headings 5 ft. wide were driven across the
street, and needles inserted composed of beams
10 in. by 12 in. The needles are held up by a
vertical beam, 12 in. by 12 in., resting on the floor
of the trench, and by shorter timbers resting on
the bottom of th e headings. The earth or rock
between and under the needles is r emoved, and
new upr ights put in position, so as to secure the
sub-structure of the car-tracks at the surface and
in such a way that when the men have finished
excavating, the needles remain supported by four
uprights, two under each car-track. In the space
which has been cleared the foundation- bed is laid
and three panels of the steel bents of the standard'






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four-track section set up, the arches of the sidewalls and the roof being s uccessively built.
On the roof of the subway, at distances of 10ft.,
rubble masonry pillars, 8 in. wide, are erected, in
order to underpin the car-tracks and allow the
needles to be taken away. The vacant spaces
between the roof of the subway and the car-tracks
is then filled in with dry rubble masonry, and the
trench itself with well-rammed earth, after which
the surface of the street is re-paved.
On the other side of the street a second trench is
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the subway. It is driven down to the foundation

level of the new road, after which the concrete is
laid, and the fourth panel of steel bents erected
and connected with the three others previously set
up from the other trench. The arches of the sidewalls and the roof are then completed, and the
whole structure made continuous.
The Metropolitan Elevated Railroad, which runs
along 53rd-street, is carried by strutted beams on
cross-strutted beams, the whole being supported
by strong vertical columns. As it crosses Broadway at 53rd-street, the "L ,, road is supported by




two columns, under which the subway will be built

in such a manner that their foundations will rest on
the roof of the completed structure. The work
will be somewhat troublesome at this point ; but
as the columns are known to carry a weight of '70
tons each, and the subsoil is of rock, no extraordinary difficulties are anticipated. The subway will
then be continued along 53rd-street, leaving only
a trench for the purpose of carrying the foundation
of the columns. The strutted beams of the elevated road will be braced by two plate-girders,
placed crosswise and supported by timbers resting

Scc.Ciorv C/ cL:


on the roof of the completed subway. The new

foundations of the two column.s will be constructed
on the roof of the subway, after which the strutting
of the Elevated Railroad will be removed. This
work has not yet been begun, as it has not been
decided how the pressure of the elevated structure
will be distributed over the roof of the subway.
This distribution of pressure will doubtless lead
the engineer to increase the thickneBB of the
girders of the steel bents, to place the bents nearer
each other, and to build the new foundations of
the steel columns on iron beams placed parallel
















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that they may rest upon several bents at the same

The Circle already referred to is situated at the
intersection of Eighth-avenue and 69th-street, and
in front of the south-western entrance to Central
Park. The traffic here is always very great, owing
to the convergence of streets and avenues to the
three double-track trolley lines of cars, and to the
adjoining entrance to the park. Rising in the
cent re of the Circle is a splendid rostra} column,

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of the discovery of America by Colum bus. The

plans of the subway necessitated a station at this
very point, so that the excavation had to be carried
on immediately under the foundation of the monument.
For work at the Circle the open-cut method
was adopted. A trench as wide as the subway
being opened, the car-tracks were supported on
transverse needles resting on uprights springing
from the floor of the excavation. In this way the

obstructed, wooden platforms being also provided

for t he accommodation of pedestrians. .A s soon as
t he excavation was finished, t he subway was constructed, the tracks being held up by masonry pillars
resting on ~he roof of the subway. :No difficulty
of any moment was encountered, except while
underpinning the monument.
The rostra! column is 4ft. in diameter, and has
a large and elaborately ornamented pedestal, from
which three steps lead down to the street level.




to the axis of the subway, and sufficient length erected in 1892 to commemorate the fourth cent ury enormous traffic at this r oint was n ever materially


The base of the monument is 35 ft. square, and

its foundation 45ft. This foundation is made of
rubble masonry 12 ft. deep, and rests on a 2-ft.
bed of concrete. The weight of the monument
has been taken as 724 tons, and its height above
the foundation is 75 ft. Tbe subsoil consists of
sand and gravel on a bed of clay. Rock is met
3ft. below the foundation on the west side of the
monument, but at a greater depth on the east.
To facilitate the construction of the subway, nearly
one-third of the foundation had to be cut away,




E N G I N E E R I N G.

thus necessitating h eavy and careful underpinning.
The latte r operation was carried out in t he following way: Two shafts, 50ft. apart, 6 ft. square and
25 ft. d eep, wer e dug on the n orth and t he south
sides of the eastern foundation. When these had
gone d own 3 fli. below the floor of t he subway,
they were connected by a heading 6 ft. by 7 ft.,
t he roof of which was formed by the concrete
footing of the old foundation. The east side of
t he drift was in the same plane as the west line
of t he subway. A layer of con crete, 2 ft. thick,
was next placed on the drift, which, when har.iened,
received the 12-in. by 12-in. beams which support
the roof. From the cen t re of the drift outwards,
rubble masonry was built up, enclosing t he strutt ing
beams, and forming a retaining wall for the ear th
beJow t he foundation of t he monument, and preventing at the same time lateral pressures against
the western sid e wall of t he subway, and strengthening the portion of the foundation directly under
t he monument.
A part of the foundat ion of the pedestal had t o
be partly cut away, t he remainder being suppor ted
while the work was in progress, and finally allowed
to rest on t he roof of t he subway when fin ished.
To effect t his, a horizontal 6-ft . drift was excavated
through the foundation of the pedestal, having its
roof 4-ft. below the upper surface of the subway.
It was carried 6 ft. in advance, where vertical
columns 12 in. by 12 in. were inserted for the support of t he roof, the drift being continued on one
side so as to reach th e western line of the subway.
At a shor t distance from the ends of the drift,
trestle bents were set up from the concrete floor of
the subway, which bents were formed of beams
12 in. by 12 in. After this op~ration, two steel
girders, 30 in. high and 35 ft. long, were passed
through the drift, one on each side of the vertical
props, and set on t he wooden trestle bents, as shown
iu }i'igs. 56 and 59. A cushion plank was next laid
on the upper flange of the girde1s, a .. d all irregu .
larities between t hese and the roof packed wit h
iron plates. When all the weight of the foundation of the pedestal was safdy carried by the t wo
steel girders, the lower part of the old foundation
and also the verliical props were r emoved. The
subway excavation was then begun. As soon
as the foundation level was reached , the concrete bed was laid, the steel bents set up, and
arches of t he side walls and roof constructed. On
the roof of the s ubway, corresponding to the
pedestal, a pier of rubble masonry was erected, and
titted on too
.. with two
. courses of cut stone with
steel wedges driven in between them, in order to
t ransfer part of t h e load from the girders to the roof
of t he s ubway, the interstices between the wedges
being filled in with cement. This was followed by
t he removal of the two steel girders, and the filling
in with rubble masonry of all the vacant ~paces
left between the old fou nd ation of the pedestal and
the roof of t h e subway. The trestle bents were
also removed, their place being taken by the panels
of t h e steel bents, after which the subway was
rapidly carried on to completion.
Compressed air is used for motive power throughout the section. The plant of the company is
erected on a. vacant lot at the Circle, fron ting 59thstreet and Broadway. I t consists of four r eturntube boilers, two of 100 horse - power each and
two of 125 h orse- power each, consuming 8 tons of
coal per working day of eigh t hours . There a re
three Ingersoll straight-line air-compressors, two
of them h~ving cylinders 22 in. by 22i in. by
24 in., each with a capaci ty of 960 cubic feet of
free ai r per minute. The third comp ressor has
cylinders 24 in. by 24!s in. by 30 in., and a capacity
of 1225 cubic feet. 'l'he air is delivered at a pressure varying from 75 lb. to 80 lb., th rough an 8-in.
pipe to a cylindrical bteel receiver, 54 in . in d iameter and 12 H. high. The compressed air is
carried in a.n 8-in. main from t he rccei vor to the
btreet, where it bifurcates : one pipe- a. 5-in. onegoing south a distance of nearly 3000 ft.: while the
othe r- a 4-in. pipe-goes t o supply the north end
of the section. 'fhe !Jipe line is provided with connections, 50 ft. apart, so t hat power may easily be
taken wherever needed for the work. The plant is
run by three men-an engineer, a fireman, and a
helper--in a shift of eight hours . It operates thir tyfive drills, four cable ways, and nine derricks.
The drills employed are of t he Ingersoll type ; t he
cableways situated along t h e trenches have been
supplied by the Carson Lidgerwood Company, and
have g iven great satisfaction. The stiff-legged
derricks are provided with t hree r opes-viz. , the

h oisting, t he boom, and t he slewing rope. T o work

t h ese derricks easily, e ngines wit h three drums
should be e mployed; h owever, double-drum eng ines are t he only ones used on this section, t he
slewing r ope being guided by the two winch-heads
of the drums.
The excavated material is h oisted from the
t renches in steel buckets, and dumped directly into
the r emoving carts, which convey it over to the
E ast River, wh ere i t is transferred to two scows,
one ta king t he broken r ocks , and the other the
earth. The latter is used in fillin g in some low
lands across t he river, and the for mer in rip-ra p
work along t he shor e . Good r ock, h owever, is
stowed away, t o be used for r ubble masonry, or
to be broken up by a steam-crusher for making
concret o.
This section h as two stations, both fo r local
trains, situated at 50th and b9th-streets r espectively.
Both have side plat forms, as well as underground
ticket-office, t oilet-r oom s, n ews-stands, and the like.
The work of this sect ion is well advanced, a nd
will probably be the first completed. I t is to be
hoped, h owever, that it is not being unduly accelerated . An early finish is not wanted in any
section ; time should be taken so as to secure fo r
every element of t he structure the two essential
qualities of solidity and durability.
(To be continuecZ. )


more than seven years ago* we mado an
excursion to the Leeds Forge Company's works to
inspect a new hydraulic plant of great power, which
had there been installed for the purpose of pressing
out from the solid the members of steel underfra.mes
and bogies for rail wa.y rolling stock ; and in our issue
of April 6, 1894, we illustrated a bogie truck a nd
some examples of goods wagons formed in this manner.
Since th!l.t date the syst em~has made considerd.bJe pr.>RATHER

F ro . 7.


gress ifl this cvunt.ry. I t is, hvworer, a n illustration

of the cautious manner in which new inventions are
taken up by us at home, t hat, though the invention is
British, and was here first practically developed, the
original drawings of these pressed frames and of the machinery for making them having been sent to America
by Mr. amsoniFox, the principle was no sooner introduced into tho United States than it was received most
warmly, and has resulted in an enormous number of
st eel wagons being built. About t wo years ago, when
making a tour of inspection in the U nited St ates, we
vi_sited the work~ of the Pressed Steel Car Company at
P1ttsbur_gh . Thts com~any manufact ure nothing but
steel ra.tlway caret, havmg purchased the American
patents, which were taken out for the system owned by
the Leeds Forg_e Company. The Pittsburgh works
were then turnmg out 50 to 60 cars a day. Their
chief difficulty then was to get enough steel.
They had a contract with their neighbours- the
Ca.roegie ' teel Company- for 30,000 tons a month
or, say, 1000 tons a day ; but this did not meet thei~
requirements. So far as we remember, the works had
been started in Pittsburgh- t he original establishment
having been at Chicago-about three years previously

* See ENCINEERtNO , vol. lvii., page 446.

to our visit, and they covered about 24 acres. In t~e

spring of that ye1r (1899) the company had found 1t
necessary to more than double t heir capacity, so. on
March 1 some fields were purchased on t he outsktrlis
of the to wn, and by October of the same yea r
another factory, capable of producing 75 cars a day,
had been started. Both these works were substantially built and completely fitted with steam and
hydraulic machinery, compressed-air plant, and electric travelling cranes.
\Ye mention these fatts
because they illustrate t he readiness with which inventions of merit are taken up in t he United :--, ~u.tes. In
this country, however, the Leeds Forge Company have
been ma king steady progress, and have ke pt thei r pla nt
abreast of the demand; which, indeed, has been con
siderable, and is continuously increasing, the output
of pressed-steel rolJing stock having increased eightfold since 1895.
Before proceeding to deal more spocifica.lly with the
wagons we illustrate on other pages, it may, perha ps,
be permissible to draw ano t her mora,l from A merican
practice, more especially as it refers to a question
recently prominently before the public in connection
wi th the supply of locomotives for t he Colonies.
During our visit to the Leeds ]forge \Vorks we S!LW
a. number of sole- bars pressed from blanks, which
a re simply steel sheets shaped to produce t he
required dimensions.
This work is so accurately
done by the press that the selvage edges of the
trough-shaped section produced arE>, as they come
from the press, approximately straight , and, if necessary, they can be made so close t o finished dimensions that; they a re, for all practical purposes, ready for
use. Iu spite of this, a great deal of work is put upon
them. They are taken to a. press where the edges are
t rimmed off by a slot punch, after which they have
to be ground on emery wheels, a.nd then filed to t ake off
the burr. These operations involve a great deal more
work than t he actual for ming of t he parts in t he press;
but when t he slotting and grinding a.re dont\, they have
involved a.not her operation which is almost as long,
a nd one which needs skilled labour. The cutting off
of the edge pulis the member out of shape, and the
fi.!\nges have therefore to be hammered true. All


thi:5 extra. work is underta ken for lhe ea.ke of " hat is
t ermed " finish. " That is to say, to make more ornamental certain erlges of members of the underfrarues
of goods wagons- edges that are turned inwards
and which one would neYer see unless one crept
underneath, or t he wagon were turned over. The
makers themselves acknowledge that the stamp
iogs are hotter for practical use as they come
from the pre~s than when "finished." W e did not
see in the Americl.n works the same elaborate installation of hydraulic slot t ing presses and grind ing
machinery for t he purpose, and we don bt if the
American firm would do the same work even jf asked.
1 n this matter BriLish manufacturers might d isplay a
litLle more common sense. \ Ve have heard a gocd
deal lately about the cheapness of foreign locomotives;
and this has Leen attributed by a. good many English
engineers to the inferior nature of the work done
abroad. H owever far this may or may not be t rue
of essential details, there is undoubtedly a. great deal
of expensive work done in this coun t ry which handicaps contractors in regard to price, and cont ributes
nothing towards efficiency. ' " e a re a.11 proud of t he
British t radit.ions of honest engineering wmk but
superfine unnecessary finish and superfluous orn~men
tal ion are things indicative of decadence.

Nov. 29, 1901.]

knees, bracket':>, and gusset-plates. By the use of these

large wagons, as compared to 8-ton trucks, it is said
the Cdedonian Railway will eave uearly 50 per cent.
in the length of train- t hus economising siding a.ccommodo.tion-and about 40 per cont. of tare weight.
This Eaving in haulage, it mugt be remembered, will
be present whether the train is loaded or the vehicleA
are returning empty. In our former article, written
in 1894-, to which reference has been made, we illustrated a. goods wagon suppli~d to the Sonth-vVestern
Railway. S ince that date the same company has had ~
large number of pressed-steel fram es, and it is reported
that practically nothing has been spent by the company in repairs upon any of them.

Trusting our friends will forgive us this mild criticism of their most excellent work, we proceed to deal
with the wagons illustrated. Figs. 1, 2, and ~ on
p9.ge 743, show an elevation, plan, and oross-secti~n of
a. high-sided steel bogie-wagon, with pressed steel
under frame, this wn.gon having a carrying capacity of
70,000 lb., and. being of a type of which 150 wagons
have been bmlt for the Imperial :M ilitary r ailways
of the Trt~.n.svaal Colony. Fig. 4, on page 746, is
a. reproductiOn of a photograph of one of these
wagons. As will be Eeen, theEo wagons are fitted
~ith r.: vacuum brakes.
The length over head-stocks
1s 3o ft., between centres of bogies 24 ft., and
over buffers 38 ft. 2~ in. The inside width is
7 ft. 9 in., the dep t h inside is 4 ft., and the height
to centre of buffers 2 f t. 11 in. unloaded. 'l'he
weight of the wa gon empty is 29,000 l b. ; the length
PniLADELPlliA, November 2 1.
of wheel-base of each bogie is 4 fli. 9 in.
I NDU TRIAL conditions throughout the, tates maniThere is one door in the centre on each side with
8 H. leng th clear in the opening. This door i~ only fest increasing vigour, and trade is in a general way
2 ft. 9 in. high, EO as not to come too near the ground of larger volume. As regards iron and steel inter ests,
when swung down ; but there is a movable door or the general tendency is in the direction of a hi gher
partition,. abov~? to clo~~ the opening thus )eft. This ran ge of values. The real purpose of the managers
1s shown m the tllustrat10n. The side and floor plates of the great steel interests is to prevent an upward
of the body are itr in. thick, with ~-in. rivets. The break which they believe would have a demoralising
influence upon values in general. It would be the
wheels are 2 ft. 9 ~ in. in diameter on tread.
A ~imila~ typ~ of ~agon, of which we give a per- easiest matter in the world to advancl3 prices 10
sp~cttve new m Fg: 5, on page 746, has been or 15 per cent. Buyers are willing to pay that
butlt for the Caledoman Railway; thirty of these advt1nce for the sake of assurances as to dates of
having been recently ordered. These are 30-ton coal delivery. P roductive capacity is sold so far ahead
wagons, allowing 40 cubic feet to the ton, and have that those consumers who have not yet fully provided
been designed for carrying locomotive coal. S ix of themselves are quite willing to pay an advance for
these were standing in t he sid ing at t he time of our the sake of being able to r ely upon suppliAs at a
given time. The over-sold condition now around the
visit, and made quite an imposing train.
In Fig. 6, on page 746, is shown the underframe of t rade is worse than at any time in our history.
the Ualedonia.n wagon mounted on i ts wheels and Inquiries are still coming in for very large quantities
carrying a weight of 90 ton~, in the shape of steel of material, and in a few cases contracts have been
blanks for stamping bogie frames. We refer to this made within the week for the delivery of material
again later. In Fig. 7, paae 740, is shown a Caledonian next autumn. The latest development in the affairs
car bogie, practically
the fame design as that of of the United States Steel Corporation is that it has
the Field ~orce car illustrated in Fig. 4 ; th ere being opened a Bureau of Mines and Mining at Pittsburgh,
only an ummportant difference in one detail- it is in for .the purpose, as is believed, of entering the coal
fact, the standard bogie of the Leeds Forge Compa~y. ~usmess on an extensive scale. This corporation, as
Annexed to Fig. 1 we give a diagram of the results 1s known, h_as become the owner of very large mineral
of the t est of the underframe before referred to. areas, part10ularly the Pocahontas district of West
This test was made in order to meet the require ments Virginia. This move shows that this great corporation
of the contract, although the load was about three proposes to develop its coal in terests upon a scale
times that specified. Mr. J. Falshaw Watson, the commensurate with its fuel requirements. The plans
inspector for the purchasers, certified that with 83 tons have not yet been set forth.
The new steel combination to which r eference has
distributed, and an additional 7 tons in the centre,
the max imum deflection of the underframe at the been. heretofore made is slowly taking shape, but no
centre was ~ in., and of the bogie ! in. After the d~fimte results have yet been reached. Its territory
removal of the load there was no permanent set in the wlll be east of the Alleghany Ivlounta.ins. Meetings
underframe or any other part. The result is certainly of steel managers have been held several times recently
remarkable, and shows how well long trucks con- a.t the Waldorf-Astoria. There is also a rumour of
structed on this principle can be trusted to carry their another combination which will abs?rb brass furnaces
load under any conditions of service. The thickness steel w?rks, ir~>n and ~oal pr?perties in Pennsylva.ni~
of metal of the outeide members or sole-bars is i rr in., and Oh10, and 10 certa1n port10os of the lake regions.
and of the centrallongitudinals is ! in. As shown, The Republic Iron and Steel Company has r ecently
the greatest depth is in the middle, and the deepest contracted for the deli very of nearly 100 000 tons of
flanges are also at the central part, where the stres~es Tennessee forge iron at 10.25 dols. atSouth~rn furnaceP,
Other large contracts have been enterei into for the
are naturally greatest.
A good deal has been said of late-some of it delivery of foundry iron, in some cases running all
foolishly-as to the desirability of int roducing the big through next year. Bess~mer iron is still in good dewagons, or freight cars, of America. into this country. mand. The Wabash Ratlroa.d Company have just
No doubt the 8-ton wa gon could be improved, but ordered 40,000 tons of rails, and the Illinois Cenliral
many difficulties stand in the way of running 35-ft. or ~a.ilroad 50,000 tons. There has been a scarcity of
40-fli. cars in regular service on British railways. The b1llets f\)r mon ths past, and there is no sign of relief.
chief of these are the arrangements at the collieries, The Ca.rn egie Steel Compauy have j ust booked an ord er
aud at the shipping ports. So far as curves are con- for 19,000 tons of structural material for one of our
cerned, the long bogie wagons are even in a better easte~n roads.. ~arge or~ers for rails will be placed,
position than the ordinary standard truck, for the as ratlroad bmldmg nqutrements are assuming larger
8ton wagon has a wheel-base of 9ft., whilst that of and larger proportiont~. The car shortage heretofore
each bogie in the 30-ton car is but little more than referred to is still a very serious matter, and some
half this. We s1.w one of these 35ft. wagons taken fur~aces have been shut. dow~ and others may be
round a quarter circle curve of 80 ft. radius without obl~ged to. There w~s qUlte an m orease of production
any grinding of the flanges of the wheels ; but that of tron and steel dur:mg October, but, notwithstanding
that fact, consumers m many cases are short of material.
is no more than would be anticipated.
A large number of these long wagons have been Th~ demand for shipbuil?ing material has become quite
supplied by the Leeds Forge Company to the Indian an .Important feature owmg to the policy of most shipand Colonial railways during the last ten years; a nd butlders to promp.tly ord e~ all the supplies necessary
the company has bad two 40-ft. wagons constantly in to c~ver construction reqturements as orders are taken.
use for two years bringing coal from collieries to the Adv10es fro~ .int~rior points indicate the prevalence of
works. The wagons need not, of course, be turned, ~nusual aot1vtty m all manufacturing and commercial
so the question of turntables does not arise, as with hnes. The industrial situaliion could not well be much
locomotives. Weighbridges are not long enough to better, and distributive agencies are being severely
take the whole wagon, but that is got over by putting taxed to keep the wheels turning. There are no evione end on at once. This method g ives accurate results, dences .of. depression, or of weakening of prices, or of
as was shown by some trials made at Derby. No a. substdmg dema~d. . Everything is. being run at
doubt tipping, and, in some cases, loading, are the htgb pressure, and 1t will be a long t1me apparently
chief difficulties, and here we shall have to possess our be~ore producing capacity will meet the general resouls in patience until appliances are altered at the quirements promptly.
shipping ports and collieries. In the meantime there
is a good deal of work that might be done, and
p~rhaps, now tha~ a .substantial example has bee~
AT the ordinary meeting, 01;1 Tnes~ay, November 26,
gtven, the use of btg mmeral wagons will extend .
The pressed-steel underframe is, we understand Mr. Charles Hawksley, Prekudent, m the chair the
read was "Train Resistance )J by l'v{r J A F
mad~ up ~f about a fourth the number of parts that ar~ paper


requued In a channel-bar trussed frame, and it would
This. paper dealt with the result9 of experiments carried
probably be about 3000 lb. lighter than the latter, if out
wtt.h a d~namoD?eter car on the L~ncashire and
of the same strength. Naturally there would be fewer Yor~htre Ratlway, m an endeavour to arrive at the
rivets in a case when parts in different planes are traott ve effort reqlllred to haul modern rail way carriages
stamped out of the solid, in place of being built-up with The author stated that a long series of exper1ment:a, th~



E N G I N E E R I N G.

results of which were nob recorded in the paper, ~ad

been previously tried, but that th~ effects of the w1~d
upon trains were such as to rq utre a mu.oh closer Investigation into this special branch of the subJect; and the
records presented in the paper were the results of a.
careful set of experiments made with a view to show how
much more important the ques tion of wind p~essure was,
as a.ffeoting trains, than any other item of which the total
resistance was made up. The several instruments used
for determining the velocity a.nd direction of the wind
were desoribed, and it was mentioned that the apparatus
fixed in the oar allowed two separate diagrams to be
taken. One diagram recorded (1) tractive effort ; (2)
thrusting e.fforb ; (3) speed in miles per hour; (4) vr-looity
of the wind; {5) time of application of brake; (6) time
occupied in minutes; (7) dtstance travelled; and (8)
points at which indicator diagrams were taken.
The second diagram was arranged to show (1) tractive
effort; {2) thrusting effort ; (3) speed in miles per hour;
(4) revolutions of ca.r-wheeh; and (5) time occupied on

The method of coupling engine and dynamometer-oar
by a. rigid coupling was described, and details were given
of the testR of the drawbar-springs. Modern bogiecarriages fitted with oil axle-boxes had been used for the
experiments, the number of carriages being varied, and
the results being recorded in each case. Di~ra.ms showing the wheel-bases, illustrations of the axle-boxes and
journalg, and a statement of the weights of the vehioles
were given in the paper, so as to show clearly the nature
of the stock experimented with.
T ests had been made at speeds v~rying between 5 and
50 miles per hour on the railway running between
Wigan and Southport, this line having been chosen as
it was almost straight and had easy gradients. The
trials had been conducted in the following manner :
The po3ition of the regulator and reversing gear on
the engine was marked for each trial, these positions
being governed by the speed ab whioh it was desired to
run. After the regulator and wheel ha.d been set, they
were left in position during the whole of the ran, the engine
being allowed toacquirewhatever speed it could, and ateam
pressure being kept a.s constant as possible. Both the oub~ard and return journeys were made with the engine set
tn exactly the same position. This was judged to be the
bes b method of ascertaining the traoti ve force required to
haul the train at different speeds, as the acceleration which
would have been caused by altering the position of the
re~ulator wa:s en~irely elimi.nated ; an~ the gradients
bemg very shghtJ, It was posatble to obta.m readings ab a.
constant speed for a mile or more.
The author drew attention to apparanb d~orepancies in
the results of several experiments, and suggested the probable causes thereof. The mean result of these tests
however, was embodied in the formula
R = 2.5 +

50.8 + O.U27d L

wher~ R was the .re~istance in pounds per tonJ

V the

veloctty of the tram m miles per hour R.nd L the length

?f the train, over coach bodies, in feet.' Numerous "coast
mg " expel'iments with trains of differ~nb lengths with
and without engin~, had also been made and the ~esults
w~re recorded in diagrams. Oa obher' portions of the
ratlwa.y where the gradients ad!Dit~ed of it, experimentd
ha~ been made to see on wha.t mchne a train would sbart
by 1tself; and the results' had led to the conclusion tha.b
the starting resistance was aboub 17 lb. per ton. The
author had. attempted. to r~~ olve the total resistance indic!l'bed by hts for~ula 1~to 1ts compone~ts, viz., axle fcicbJOn, atmosphenc resistance, and mtscellaneous resistances, the 1':'-tter including. r~istance due to oscillation
and . conouss1?n, flange fnct10n, and rolling friotion.
~avmg explamed th~ method of calculating the axle frictto~, be next dealt wtth ~he at~ospheric resistance, com.
parmg the results obtamed wtth those of experiments
made by Smeaton, Nipher, and Goss.
In~ioator diagrams had been taken from the engine
dra.wmg the dynamometer ca.r and train, but the results
~ad. nob shown any well-defined relation bstween the
t~dica.ted horse. power and tha.b calculated from the tra.c.
ttve effort, as recorded simultaneously by the dynamo.
meter, and the speed of the train.
. In conclusion,. the author pointed out that the formolas
gtven were apphoable only to the particular trains tried
under the cuoumst~~ces d&oribe~. ':1-'he eve!-varying
na~ure of t~e conditlOns of runnmg m praottce-with
trams somet.tmes shorb and sometimes long; fitted with
grease or oll a.~le-boxes; run upon well or badly.kepb
roads; fitted With brake-blocks which hung free from the
wh~els, or were constantly tipping against them and
subJect to a ~umbe~ of other influences which might ~ssist
or retard thetr mo~10n-rendered it almost impossible to
find a formula. wh10h could ~e applied in every case.
The paper was ~ccompamed by a.n Appendix, giving in
tabular. and .sraph~o form the results obtamed by a number
of prev1ous mvesttga.tor~, with references.

Mn: W. R. KINNJPLE.-We regret to learn

on th~ e~e of gomg to press, of the death of Mr. Walte~
R . Kmmple, the. w~ll-known harbour engineer, which
~ook place at Brtghton on the 26th inst., after a short
tllness. We hope next we~k to refer to the splendid work
done by Mr. Kinniple daring a long career of usefulness.
DEATU 0 1"

~RON ~INERALS .IN ~ll~LGHi ~l.-The imports of iron

mmerals mto Belgmm m the first te11; months of thi!

year were 1,468,7?6 tons,. as compared wtth 2,141,128 tons
m. the correspond1~g pe.r10d of 1900. The exports of iron
mmerals from Belg1um m the first ten months of this
were 279,4~0 tons,, as compared with 377 916 tons iny:hr
oorrespondtng pertod of 1900.

E N G I N E E R I N G.


[Nov. 29, 190t.


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E N G I N E E R I N G.

[Nov. 29, 19or.




GLASGOW, Wednesday.
Glasgow P ig-Iron Market.- The warrant market was
flat la.stJ _Thursday forenoon. Upwards of 7000 tons were
sold, chtefiy Cleveland iron, one lob being done at 43.3. 2d.
three months fixed. Scotch fell ~d. per t on, Cleveland
l~d., and hematite iron ld. per ton. At the afternoon
market 4000 tons were dealt in, and prices were without
further change, and Cleveland was again sold ab 433. 2d.
per ton three months. Scotc,h warrants were not quoted
m the afternoo~. The close was : Cleveland, 433. 1 ~d.
per ton cash, w_htle Scotch and Oumberla.nd hematite iron
were nob ment1oned. At the forenoon markeb on Friday
some 6000 tons were dealt in, and the tone was flat.
Cleveland fell ld. per ton; but subsequently it sharply
advanced, the net gains on the day being 2d. per ton
Scotch and 2d. per ton on Cleveland on the day. In the
afternoon about 8COO tons were dealt in and prices were
firm. The settlement prices were: S~otch. 55s. 7i d.;
Cleveland, 43!. ; Cumberland hematite iron, 57s. l i d. per
ton. The market was very idle on Monday forenoon
only 1000 tons changing hands, one lob each of Cleveland
a'!ld hematite iron. The former was l~d. better at 43s. 4i d.
per ton cash buyers, and the latter ld. up at 57s. lld. per
ton sellers one month. Scotch warrants were called ab
55s. 9d_. per ton cash buyers. About 6000 tons changed
~ands m the afternoon, all Cleveland, the price finishing, as
m the forenoon, at 433. 4!d. per ton cash bu yers. Scotch
warrants were quoted at 55s. lOd. per ton cash buyers and
56s. 3d. sellers, being an advance o( about 4~d. o~ the
day. The settlement prices were: 55s. 9d., 43s. 4!d.,
and 67s. 1Qld. per ton. About 7000 tons were dea.lb
in on Tuesday forenoon, including some lots of Cleveland
at from 43s. 3d. to 43s. 2d. p er ten three months; hub,
fina.llr, Cleveland was d own l~d. per ton. At bhe afternoon
meetmg of the b rokers a moderate amount of business
was done, and prices were weak, Cleveland having lost
3~d. per ton on the day. Cumberland hema.tite iron
changed bands at 57s. 7!d. per ton cash and one month.
The settlement prices were: 56s, 43s. 3d , and 57~. 7!d.
per ton. The market this forenoon was steady, and
aboub 90CO tons of iron were dealt in. BusineEs was confined to Cleveland iron, the price of which left off ab
43s. ld. per ton cash buyers. About 5000 tons ohan~ed
hands in the aftErnoon, all Cleveland, the price fimshing, as in the forenoon, 43s. ld. per ton, the lowest
quotation for a considerable period. The settlement
quotations were: 56s. 3d., 43s. l~d., and 57~. 3d. per ton.
The following are the quotations for No. 1 makers' iron:
Clyde, 66s. 6d. per ton; Ga.rtsherrie, 67s.; Calder-out of
the market; Langloa.n, 69~. 6d. ; Summerlee, 71s. : Ooltness, 71s. 6d. per ton-all the foregoing shipped ab
Glasgow ; Glen~a.rnook (shipped at Ardrossan). 66s. per
t on ; Shobts (sb1pped ab Leith}, 703. ; Cnrron (shipped at
Grnngemoubh), 67s. 6d. per ton. There is a large
amount of business doing in Cleveland iron from day
to day, the probable turnover during the week amounting to about 30,000 tons. A number of tired holders, eviden tly discouraged by the keen competition in Canadian
iron, made up their minds a few day~ ago to realise, and
the "bears" took ad vantage of the opportuniby, the consequen ce being that the price receded to 43s. O~d. cash
sellers per ton. The number of furnaces in blast is 83,
against 81 ab this time las t year. 'he stook of pig iron
in Messr&. Oonnal and Co.'s public warrant stores stood
yesterday at 57,319 tons, as compared with 56,612 tons yesterday week, thus showing an increase for the week
amounting to 707 tons. Private advices from America
report a strong demand and aoti ve business, chiefly for
immediate requirements.
F inished Iron and Steel.-Private cable ad vices received
rom America. last Friday state that the business doing
in the i ron and steel trades far exceeds the most sanguine
expectations ; the report for Scotland, however, is nob so
brilliant. Hema.tite iron d elivered ab the steel works is
quoted ab 62~. 6d. per ton, and there is a certain degree
of briskness in the demand for it ab the price. Shipbuilding and bridgebuilding steel is in fair demand at the ourrent prices, and finished iron id in somewhat! brisk d emand,
and prices are fairly well maintained.

Sulphate of .Ammonia.- There is in two or three

quarters a rather lively demand for this commodity for
J anua.ry to March deliveries, and the price here is from
lOt. 18!. 9d. to lll. 53. per ton shipped at Leibh. The
shipments l a.st week amounted to 1039 ton~.
Institution of Eflgineers amd Shipbuilders in Scotland.The second meeting of this Institution for the session
1901-2 oarrie off last night-the President, Mr. W. Foulis,
M. lnst. C.E., in the Chair. A large number of candidates were elected as ordinary members and as graduates.
The discussion took place on a paper read by Mr. Marshall Downie, B.So., on "The D esign and Construction
of Flywheels for Slow. Speed Engines for Electric Lighting and Traction Purposes." The principal speakers
were P rofessor J amieson. Mr. Hall Brown, Professor
A rcbibald Ba.rr, and Mr. H. A. Mavor. They were generally very complimentary to Mr. Downie, tspeoially for
having, in a. sense, broken new ground, as regards
the subjec t of his paper. They were also oritica.I, a nd
three of t he speakers made drawings on the blackboard to
.illustrate their remarks. One of the drawings was that
of a section of the flywheel erected a.tl the works of
the Mannessman T u be Company, of which Professor
Barr said that there were over 70 tons of pianoforte
wire used in its construction. The discussion will be
continued ab the next meeting.
A discussion also
took ph.oe on a p.1per which was held as read, by
Mr. G eorge J ohnstone on " Notes on the Serious D eterioration of Steel Vessels from the Effects of Corro~ion." M r. Archiba.ld D enny opened the discussion, as
he bad se~n sol:!e ot the vessels referr .d to !\. ~ C(\.1 CQbta. ;

and the other speakers were lYlr. James Molliaon of

Lloyd's, and. M r. Hand, of the British Corporation
for the ~eg1stry of Steamer~. This disouss10n was
cub shorb m order that the intensely interesting paper
on "Dredging- P lant ". might be read by M r. Wllliam
Brown~ of_ Messr&. S1mons and Co., Renfrew, which
dealt m 1ts course with certain well-kn own types :
(1)_ ~ow and ster~ well bucket hopper dredgers, recetvmg the mn.ter1a~s into one or more hopper comparb~ents ; (2) _st~t10nary-buckeb la!lder dredgers disohar~mg the spml m to barges moored alongside; and (3)
suohon-pump hopper dredgers. Then as representative
vessels of those types, Mr. Brown gave the names of
eleven v~ss.els ?onstructed by the firm, each having more
or less ~1stmct1ve features of its own. The vessels were
La.. ~uissan.te, the Percy Sanderson, t he St. Enooh, the
~1lham Pr10e, the Mermaid, the Miohael Lissovsky, the
Ltgster, No. 367, No. 15, the Walrus, and the Kate. In
thEs_e t here were stern-well and bow-well hopper dredgers,
sta:t10nary, or barge -loading .dredgers, hop:Q_er . barge
(Liverpool), an_d sand-pump hopper dredgers. The paper
was only read m abstraob.
Glasgow .Unive1sity Engineering Society.-A meeting
of the Somety w~s held on Thursday. the 21st inst.. Mr.
Bamford oocupymg t~he chair. Mr. W. B. H ird,
B. A. M. I E. E., gave a lecture on ' The Influence of
Comme~oial ~onsideration~ on .pynamo Designs." A
shorb d1scuss1on followed, m wh10h Dr. Henderson and
Messrs. Mavor.:. Strang, and Bamford took part. On
Saturday_ mornmg, the 2~rd inst. the members inspected
the maohmer_r ab the Edmburgh Corporation Electricity
~uppJy. Sta.t.u~n.
In t he afternoon they paid a most
mtere3bmg' vtsit to the works of Messr~. D. Bruce Peebles
and Co., Bonnington.


SHRFFIELD, W ednesda.y.
L eeds Engineers and T ramway Traction.-" The D evelopment and U tilieation of Electric Power for Traction "
was the title. of a lecture which Mr. J. Wilson. of Lou~h
borougb, deh vered to the Yorkshire College E ngineermg
Society on M~nday. He said, o!le:of the great problems
was the sbartmg of the eleotr1o motors economically.
The two motors were usually worked in series to oom~ence with, a~d parallel after'!ards; this plan oonstderably reduomg the waste whwh would reaulb from
giving the two motors on an electric car 500 volts at the
start. It WllS a. very important matter bo have the springs
of a. oar properly regulated ; and up to a year ago there was
no E nglish firm who would venture on this account to make
electric oars. In the discussion which ensued, P rofessor
Goodman mentioned that on his first visit to New York
there were horse-oars running in the Broadway; on his
second visit, the cable system bad been a{)opted; on his
third visit, the overhead electric system was at work;
while on the last occasion he had been in Broadway an
underground system of electric tra{}tion was in operation.
If the Amerieans found the underground system the besb,
when would L eeds adopt ib ?
Sheffield Society of Engineers and Metalturgists.-Professor Ripper, M. Inst. C.E., presided over a meeting of
this Society, held on Monday evening, when Mr. J. W.
Keraha.w delivered a lecture ou "The Transportation of
Materials." The le c~ure r remarked upon the value of
mechanical means of transportation where large quantities of ruaberia.l have to be handled, and showed the
ad vantage of conveyors for suoh purposes. Wire ropeways were also und er notice, and their cosb was stated to
be from 400Z. to 700Z. a mile, according to the system and
the length of the line, and the average price of working
from 2d. to 4d. per ton per mile, including wear and tear
and labour, hub excluding fuel. The lecture was illustrated by a. collection of lantern slides.
She,tJield University College.- On Thursday avenin~, Mr.
G. B. W a.terhouse read a paper on "Steel Rails" oefore
the members of the U niversity College Students' E ngineering and Metallurgical Society. The author gave a.
detailed account of the chemical reaction which takes place
in the steel produced by the Bessemer process, preparatory to being rolled into rails. He also summarised the
history of the gradual change from the use of wroughtiron to steel rails.
I ron and Steel.- The engineering establishments in the
city are complaining of lack of work. A fair amount
of repair is going on; but no disposition is shown
either to extenJ works or plant at the present time.
Firms who lay themsel v~ out to supply stores for engineering purpo3es also find business on the wane, and
there is considerably less doing in colliery requisites.
There is some prospect of bhe smoke nuisance in Sheffield being abated, by the abandonment of sbeam power
in favour of gas engines. Ab the present time the owners
of two or three large works are making the change, and
the system is extending, especially among the smaller
works. There is no change to report in the demand for
iron and steel, and makers appear reconciled to the
prosP.ect of only having to meet current requirements.
U ntil the year is turned, and stocks are taken, little or
nothing w111 bo done in the way of replacing them.
South Yorkshi1e Coal Trade.- For the besb class of coal
there is a ready demand ab full rates, buo the inferior
sorts are not so easy to dispose of. Some of t he best
house collieries are scarcely able to fill their orders. With
regard to abeam coal, some of the railway oompauies have
already invited tenders for supplies during the next six or
twelve monthE4, and owners are asking for an advance of
6d. per ton. The export trade continues fairly good, and
as one result of the trouble with the F rench ruinerfl,
inquiries that would have gone to collieries in that country
e,re uow oqping into this district. 'fbe strik~ at som~

?f the _Yorkshire col_lieries is having the effeob of stiffenmg prices. There 1s less hard coal b~ing consumed ab
many of the large works, and common o:>al is plentiful
and rather cheaper.


.T he Cleveland Iron Trade.-Yesterday there was a.
fatrly large attendance on 'Chan~e. but the market was
not very cheerful in tone, and h ttle business was transacted. No. 3 g.m.b. Cleveland pig iron of which
there is a plenti_ful supply, was offered ab '43s. 6d. for
early f.o.b. deh very, but the offer did nob bring
buyers f~rward. No. 4 foundry and grey for~e were the
sa~e pr10e as No. 3, and sellers reported that they experienced less difficulty in obtaining 43~. 6d. for forge
than they did for a. superior kind. This was accounted
for by forge beinE; none too plentiful and the faob that ib
1s needed for use m purposes to which better kinds are nob
suitable. For mottled iron the quotation was 43s. 3d. ;
and for white 42~. 9d. was the figure. It was understood
that some of the producers had stated that with present
?OSb of production they could nob make Cleveland pig
tron at a profit; and had intimated that if the Eame state
of affairs continued, they would very Rhortly blow out furnaces in preference to making iron at a loss. Easb Coast
hematite pig was still 60s. for this year's delivery of mixed
numberea, the supply of which is much less than could
be desired. It will be seen from the foregoing thab
hemabite pig is 16s. 6d. above No. 3 Cleveland, whereas
the usual difference is about lOa. T o-day there was n o
alteration in prices. R ubio ore keeps ab 153. 9d. ex-ship
Tees, though freights.Bilbao to Middlesbrough have eased
to 4s. 9d.
Ma;nfactured I ron and Steel.- The changes thab ocon r
in the manfaotured iron and steel ind ustries are small.
Wha t alberations, however, that have taken place since
last week are certainly n ob for the better. It is true tbab
most of the mills keep almost fully employed on old contracts, but very little fresh work is being secured, and n o
doubt new orders might be placed at rather below the
following market quotations: Common iron bars, 6t. 5:~. :
best bars, 6Z. 15~. ; iron ship plates, 6Z. 17s. 6d. : sted
ship-plates, 6l. ; iron ship-angles. 6Z. 5s. : steel shipangle?, fil. 16~. ; iron sheets, Bt. 6l . ; and steel sheets,
Bl. 15s.-a.ll less the customary 2! per cent. discount.
Heavy steel rails are still pub at 5Z. 10~. neb at works.
De1elopments at Eston Steel Works.- The subsbitution
of electrical motive power for steam ab the E~bon
Steel Works of Messrs. Bolckow, V a.ughan, and Co. is
approaching completion, several of t he contrstots having
already been fulfilled. The cost of the installation is
estimated at nearly 70,000l. When the tenders were submitted, one American firm, the Electrical and Manufacturing Company, of Pittsburg, were successful in securing
between lO,OOOl. and ll,OOOl. worth of the work, and
similar oontra_cts wer~ obtained by British firms. Every
modern electnoal apphanoe calculated to b9 of ad vantage in
driving machinery m steel works is being introduced ab
Eston, and the plant, when finished, will be one of the
finest in the country.
Wages in the Iron T1ade.- The accountant to t he
Board of Conciliation and A rbitration for the manufactured iron and steel trade of the North of England has
certified the average net selling price of rails, plates, bars,
and angles for t he two months ending October 31lasb, to
have been 6Z. 10.:1. 0. 32d. as against 6l. llt~. 4.18d. for the
previous two months; and in accordance with sliding scale
arrangements, wa~es for December and January will be
the same as prevailed during the preceding two months.
The return is le3s unsatisfactory than mtght have been
Coalanil Coke.-Coal keeps steady with a good demand
for prompb loading, hub forward business is very q uiet.
Coke very strong; average blast-furnace qualities being
16s. 9d. to 17s. delivered here, and t he supply is short.


Card~ff. -The

steam coal trade has shown a fi rm tone;

the best descriptions have made 163. 3d. to 163. 6d. per
ton, while secondary qualities have brought 15s. 9J. to 16a.
per ton. There has been an average demand for house-coal ;
No. 3 Rhondda. large has been q uoted ab 163. 9d. to 163.
per ton. Coke has also been in fair demand ; foundry
qualities have made 2ls. 6d. to 233. per ton, and furnace
dibto 17s. 6d. to 183. per ton. As regards iron ore, rubio
has been quoted ab 14~. 6d. t o 143. 9d. per ton, whi le
Tafna has brought 153. to 15s. 6d. per ton.
P enybont.- TheLooalGovernment Board has sanctioned
t he borrowing by the Penybonb Sewerage Board of 6000Z.
for the completion of a. sewera ge scheme. The total
outlay will thus be 30,000Z.
Pwllheli.-The Pwllheli Harbour project, to which the
Board of Trade has made a. grant of 17,500l., is estimated
to cost 52,500l. The C~mbrian RaHwa.y Company has
pledgd i tself to contribute 20,000l. towards bhe scheme,
and this is to be supplemented by 15,000l. from the
Pwllheli Town Council
Cardiff T1amways.-A meeting of the Tramways Committee of the Cardiff T own Council was held on Friday.
The electrical engineer (Mr. A. Ellis} reported that the
total expenditure on the new lines and power stn.tion was
511,893l. and he estimated that there would be a profit
of 30,000t. p~r annum when the system wa-s in operation.
The expendtture on.the <?athed~al- road route to the docks
was 274,092Z. ; and tf thts sectton alone were worked, he
estimated bha~ there would be a lo~s of 17,263l. The
. o:1.pital expendttuJe di~ pob ipol ude any amount for the

Nov. 29, 1901.]

porcha.se of cara an d d epOts. T he committee d iscussed
a propo3al of the local t ramways company to sell the
tram line3 for 54,000/ , and decided to recommen d the
Oou n cil to offer 50,000l .
Cowl Ventilatiorl.-Th e L ord s of the Admiralby have
ordered all th e ven tilating cowls an d tr unks t o be r em oved from the upper d ecks of t he third -class cr uisers
Ptl.otolus, P rome theus, a nd Pelorus ; and with the view
? f ascer tain ing !f they can b~ altogether dis pensed with
m vessels of ~bts type, tbet e 1s to b e a series of exper imen ts e~tendmg ?ver three months. Each ship has been
fitte~ wt~h eleotn~al fan s, which, it is hoped , will k eep
t he m _ter10r suffi01en t ly cool to obv iate the necessity of
rever tm g. to the cowl sys tem of ven t ilation. Cowls offer
great .restsbanc~ to t he w ind, especially when ships are
steamm g at a h tgh rate of speed .
T?'Oifltways in the W est . ...:.. T he D evon p or t and D istr ict
Tramways Company, whose ser vice of oars was in a~gurated last -! uly,_is taking p reliminary s teps with the
vte w of exten d m g 1t3 system as fa r as T avistock. A t
presen t the company's line in the direction of T avistook
extends only to M ilebouse ; but ib propo3es t o obtain
p ower s to cons tr uct and work t r amways from Milehouee
t o the boundary of the b orough.

I N the year 1880 there were altogeth er 163,&99 p ersons
en gaged at the German blast-furnaces and iron work s ;
in the year 1900 the figu re had risen to 5,336, !)04 p eraons.

Ab a m eeting of t he City and Guilds Institution's

Engineering Society, held on N ovember 21, 1901, a paper
on " Th e use of Com pressed A ir in E ngineer ing W orks"
was read by Mr. J . R . Hewetb.
The tenth "James Forres b" L ecture is to be d elivered
by Sir Willi am Rober ts-Austen, IC.O.B., at t he I ns titution of Civil E ngineers, on April 17, 1902, the s ubject
being '' M etallurgy in Relation to E ng ineering .''
The S wedish G o vernmen t h as placed a con t ract with
the K ockum Engineer ing and Shtpb uildin g Company,
Malmo, for t h e bnilding of a n e w ironclad, the p rice being
2,187,500 kr. There were t wo other offers, at respectively
2,297,002 kr. and 2,344,000 kr.
A Norwegian expedition, which was t his s ummer d espatch ed t o S pitzbergen by a number of Drontbeim firms,
for th e p urpose of examining nnd rep orting upon t he coal
fi ndings there, h as n ow r eturned. It b rings wi bh i t a goodsized sam ple s hipmen t of coal, and has discovered several
Oof!L ~n Wales. -P~eparator~ operation s are proceeding n e w, and, ib is thou gh t, very 6xbensive coal d ep osits.
for smkmg an extens1ve coal p t t on th e W rexbam side of
The n ew railway bet ween O renburg and T asohkend
R uabon, in the neighbourhood of t he Hafod.
will be a single-line railway, an d it will pass t hrough
vast dis tricts of thinly-p op ulated coun t ry. T he line will,
to. a g reat extent, foll_ow the S ir par ja,_and its mileage
PERSONAL.- W e ar e infor med that Messrs. F. D upre Will be about 1150 mtles. The r atlway 1s exp ected to b e
and Co., of 93, Billiter -buildings, L eadenh all-street ready for traffic at the beginning of the year 1905. The
L on don, E .C , bnve been a ppoin ted by M essrs. B olokow' calculat ed cost is abou t 115,000,000 r oub les.
Vaugban, an d Co. L imited, the Pyla and Blaina Works'
The Civil Ser vi ce Commissioners annnunoe t h at an
Limited, and the Dinsd a.le S mel ting Company, Limited'
sole agen ts in t he U nited S tates of A merica for th e sal~ open competitive examination for three appointments as
of their ferro _m an gan ese.- Tbe to wn oou_ncil of CtLpe Assistant 0 i vil Engineer in the A dmiral by W orks DeTown has a ppomted Mr. E . .J . L ovegrove 01ty en gineer. partment will b e held shortly. Cop ies of bhe regulations
a!ld forms of application for admisston to the examination
may be ob tained on application, by le tter, t o t he Secre~ME~IO.A.N Sa~nun,DING.-The progre~s of ~merican
s btpblllldmg durms- the la'3b t en years 1s for c1bly illus- tary, C ivil Service C ommission, W estmins ter, S. W.
trated by t he p r ahmina ry rep or t of t he U ni ted States
The traffic receipts for the week ending November 17
Ce~s~s Bur eau.. The bu~eau returns the number o f sh ip- on thirty-t hYee of the principal lines of the U nited
blllldmg est a.bh shments m 1900 ab 1083, as compared w ith Kingd om amounted t o 1, 740,595l., which was earned on
1006 in 18~0. The capi tal engaged had risen 10 1900 to 20, 153! miles. F or the corresp onding week in 1900 the
76,699,651 dols., as compared with 27,262,892l. in 1890, receipts o f the eame lines a mounted t o 1,723,823l . with
while the number of m en e mployed had increased to 19, 885~ miles op en. There was t hus an increase of 16, 772t.
46,121 in 1900, a'3 compared wit h 22, 143 in 1890.
in t he receipts, and an increase of 267~ in the mileage.
CATALOGUEs . -W e have recei ved from M essrs. R obert
B oy le and Son, Limi ted, of 64, H olborn V iaduct, L ondon,
copies of catalogues showing d iffer en t patternsof the firm'~
ven t ilating a pplian ces.- M essrs. R. Y . P iok ering and Co.,
Limited, of Wisbaw, n ear Glasgow, have sent us a copy
of t heir new catalogue of rail wa y rolling stook. Amongst
the pa tterns ill ustra ted is a 25-ton bogie mineral wagon
and a 4-wbeeled oil tank wagon taking a load of 10 t on s
on a tar e of 7 tons 17 c wb.- A p amphlet on producer gas,
and its applications, has been issued by M essrs. W . F.
Mason, Limited, o f L ong_aight, Manchester. The lett erpress is d ue bo Mr. F . J . Rowan, and illustrations are
given of large " D uff " plan ts er ected by t he fi rm.-A
price list of m achine-cub toothed gearing in cast iron, steel,
g un metal, and " Buffaline" has been issued by the
"Huffaline" Noiseless Gea r Compa.ny, of Chapel-st reet,
M anchester. The "Buffaline " wheels are claimed t o
be more durable than r aw hide, and to be fully
twice as s tron g as cast iron. Bevel as well as spurwheels ar e s upp lied, the teeth being accurately plan ed t o
sha.pe.- M essrs. C rozier , Stephens, and Co., of 2, C oiling wood-s treet, N ewoastle-on -Tyne, have issued a n ew circular d escribing selections from their stook of engineers'
sund ries, such a s spa.nners, bolts and nuts, BabbitJ me tal
tubes, valvae, a nd lubricators. -We h ave recei ved from
the Atlas T ool Works, L evenshulme, ~Ianchester, illust rd.tions of a n umber of electrically-driven p or table t ools,
for driJling, milling, boring, and slotting op erat iona.H am ble t's Blue B rick Company, Limited , of W est B r omwioh, Staffords hire, have issued a p amphlet giving results
of tests on the stren gth and porostty of th eir '' ironware ''
pi pes, which they make in all sizes from 3 in. to 42 in. in
diameter.-M essrs. Ship h a.m and Co . L imited, of the
Trinity B rass an d Cop per V:l orks, H un, have issued
a n ew cat alogue o f s team fibtin~s. in which they
d irect special attention to "Green's" accessible feed
ch eck -valve, of which they are t he m anufacturers.
T hese valves can be gob ab for cleani ng withou t the
necessity of blmving d o wn t he b oiler, since val ve and
seat can be r emoved without s us p ending the ordinary
work in g of the boiler.-An abridged catalogue of s team
users' apecialiti~, such as",injectors, sep ar a tora, and feed h eater s, hA.S been issued by M essu . Holden and B rooke,
L imited. of the S irius W orks, W est Gorton, Manchester.
- The U nion Electric Company, Lim ited, of 151, Queen
Victor ia-street, E .C., have just published a catalogue
exclusively devoted to their four-pole direct -current
dynamo3 and motors, which r ange in size from ~ t o 100
h orse-po wer. - T be B ritish Power, Traction, and Ltg h ting
Comp9.ny, Limited, of York, have issued a n e w catalogue
of exhaust steam feed -water h eaters and oth er appliances
of a similar character. - A catalogue illustra ting different
types of cok e-d ischarging rams, driven by s team or elect ricity, has been sent us by M es9rs. Jam es Bucban an and
Son, of t h e Caledonia F ound ry an d E ngine W orks,
LiverpooL-Messrs. F a lk, Stadelmaun, and Co., Lim ited,
of 83, 85, a nd 87, Farringd on -roa.d, E.O., have recen tly
published a n ew catalogue of " elecbric&l glass-wa re,;'
standards, aba des, and la mps. O ne variety of these la mps
is fit ted with a simple spr ing clip, permitting the lamp t o
be atta.ohed direct to two parallel m aim?. B y t his d evice
tue outlining of wind owt~, d oorways, and the like, in
the case of a gen er al illumina.tion 1 can be ver y r ap idly

T he experiments with electric r ailways in G ermany,

of which mention h as several times been m ad e in E NGI
NEERING, are going on eati~ faotorily, al thou gh t hey have
nob by any means b een b rough t to the expect ed p erfect ion as yet. A speed of 160.2 kilometres per h our- th at
is, 100 miles-has so far been compassed.

A tlantic fleet of the North German Lloyd . S h e was
then sh own on her m aiden voyage to N ew York, and s he
carried on board t he apparatus for a series of anima t ed
p hotographs, the resulting pictures from which were
shown in L ondon on Saburday last. T hese pictures
are of a hig h d egree of merit. a re very inter esting as
sh owing t he life on b oard, an d are graphic eviden ce of
the t err ific weat her she encoun ter ed whilst crossing t he
Atlan t ic ; they n umber some t hirtr subjects and cover
the voyage from t he sbar b from Brem erha ven to the
arrival and d ocking ab New York.
For elevating t h e refuse from the sbamp m ills ab the
L~ke Linden mine, owned by t he Calumeb and H eola
Mining Company, a very large sand-wheel b&s been built
to t he designs of Mr. E. D . L ea vitt. This wheel is 65 f t.
in diameter, and has 520 teeth, the teeth beins- milled t o
sh ap e. Ronnd its edge are buck ets, which p1ck u p t he
taihngs from a shallow pit below the wheel, and deliver
them a t the top t o a trough. The wheel m ounted, com plete, weighs 1,000, 000 Hi. The axle is of K r upp steel
32 in. in diam eter by 27 fb. lon g, and is h ollow, th ere
being a 16-in. hole from end t o en d . T he sp ok es are steel
r od s 4 in. in d ia meter , t ighten ed up by n uts, as in the
oa.se of a bicycle wheel. A n electric m obor is used for
driv ing the wheel by means of gearing, and is capable of
exer ting750 horae-power.
Much to the disappointment of all concerned , t he long looked for armour trials on bhe armoured coast defence
sh ip Belleisle h ave h ad to be p ostp oned. They were t o
h ave tak en p lace on Tuesd ay last, off t he eastern end of
the I sle of Wig ht, and early in the m orning bhe Belleisle was to wed out to th e moorings which h ad been laid
d own for h er off B embridge. V ice-Adm iral D oug las and
R ear-Admiral May r epresented the A d m iral ty, and a t
9 o'clock they proceed ed out t o Spitbead in the E nchantress. By the time t he y acht h ad reached the Bellei~le,
however, haze had con siderab ly thicken ed, so that it wa9
impossible t o see clearly for more th an half a mile. There
was also a strong n orth-east erly wind and a heavy sea., to
add to the diffi culty. In the circumstances i b was felt
unsafe t o carry ou t firing, and the trials were there fore
order ed to be post pon ed.
In a paper read b efore the Tenne3see Good R oad s Con vention, M r. Hunter M cDon ald r emarks that i t is often
a more difficult task to make a good road out of an existing bad one, than t o b uild one ab i nitio. First-class roads,
h e con.siders, should ha ye n o g!ad~ents exceedin g 3 in 100,
save m very m ountamous dtsbn ots, wher e 6 per cen t .
~ades may b e employed. The h eaviest railroad g ra d ien tJ
10 the Sta te is, he states, 1 in 24, and has to be worked
by m ean s of p ush er engines. S imilarly, if a road has all
i ts gradients but one of 3 p er cent., and that on e is 6 per
cen t. , a wagon er will be unable to haul over the en tire
line a greater load than he can take up t he 6 par cen t .
gradient, unless h e can d ouble his t eam. O n second-class
roads 5 p er cent. gradien ts may be ad mitted, and on t hirdclass roads 9 p er cent. in extreme oases, bu t in gen eral nob
greater than 6 per cent. Mr. M oDon ald holds t hat i t is
bad policy to build a wider road than the travel req u ires.
For road metal hard stone sh ould be used, b u t when t his
is purchased r eady brok en. and the work is d on e by h and,
ther e is a risk of soft, easily-b roken st one being provided .
H en ce Mr. M cDonald considers that hand-brok en s tone
is n ob so good as machine-brok en. The largest dimension
through any piece used should be 2 in. O n most roads a
6-in. layer is sufficient. In making repairs i t is impor tan t t o
loosen up the old macadam befor e spreading the n ew metal.

B y a dec ree recently issued by the Minister of P ublic

W orks, and which comes into force on January 10 n ext,
all the employ e3 of the F r en ch r ailways are to have
a b least one day's holiday every bwo mon th s, or h alf a
d ay every m onth ; and further , each mus t have a t least
nine h ours for uninterrupted r est every d ay, unless h e
resides on the premises of the comp any, when ei~h t hours
is deemed sufficien t . The ordinary day's work mus t n ob
exceed 12 hours.
The emigration from German y h as been greater during
t he p resent year t h an during any previous y ear. U p to
October 31, 19,659 em igrants have lefb the count ry vid
Hamburg and Bremen, which sh ows an incr ease of 1226,
as compared with the same p eriod last year. No less
than 175,000 p ersons- foreigner s and Germans- have le ft
HoLLAND. - The p op ulat ion of H olland h as j usb been
German ports by German vessels during the fi rat ten officially returned a t 5, 104,137. The foreign elemen t i3
mon ths of the presen t year , which is d ouble the num ber small, being only about 1 p er cent.
of t he corresp onding p eriod of the years 1894 and 1897.
A-cinem atograph picture of the Severn B ore, believed
t o be the firs t moving picture of a tidal bore, was exhi- the record of t he official t rial of th e tor ped o-boat
bited b y D r. Vaughan Oornish a t the meeting of the d estroyer Akaosuki. cons tructed for the I mperial Japan ese
Royal G eographical Society on M onday, November 25. Governmen t by 1\{e.~ srs. Yarrow and Co., Li mi ted ,
The p h otograJ?h is clear and sh arp, and the peculiar L ondon. Present: Captain J\!Iatsuo, C ap tain -E ngineer
m otion of a t tdal bore is accura t ely r eproduced. The Y amada, Commander N ak a.yam a. Lieuten ant-Constructor
fil m is 150 ft. long, and contains 2400 ind ividual pictures. Y amamoto, Lieu ten ant-E ng ineer O uchi, Lieuten an t-E nAbou t half the length is devoted to the b or e itself; the gi neer, Ibo. L oad carried, 40 t ons; runs on the 1viaplin
remainder shows the rapid current which follows, and the M ile ; wea ther wet, fresh breeze ; sea modera te. L eft
yard at Poplar, 8.45 a. m .; arri ved at Gravesend at 10 a. m . ;
filling up of the river.
left G ravesend, 10.1 t a. m . ; r etu rned t o Popl~~or a~ 5. 20 p . m.
The Burlington and Missouri Railroad, which has
T hree H ours' O.flicial Trial, N ovember 21, 1901.
suffer ed much by the burnin g of fen ce-posts in prairie
---fire~, has recen tly sub3bituted old boiler tubes for the

wooden fen ce-posts previously used. As from 6000 t o

8000 tubes have t o be removed each year, ther e is n o

... .

scarcity of material. P osts made o f old tubes are valued

., ~_ 0Cl
ab from 8d. to 10d. each, which is slightly m ore t han
~ c
a.. .C -::: +>

wood en p osts can b e obtain ed for ; bub as they are ex::a


~~ -oc::

c 1> 0
pected t o last much longer, it is anticipa ted that they ~ :::
Q) ~
will prove cheaper in the end. The holes for the fencin~ ~ I:Q ~cr. ~

wires are made by punching, and the p osts are provided

m. P.
wit h concrete feet.
1 11.8 1.5 407.0 1 61 132 .432 }
In hie speeoh to bhe s hareh olders of the B ritish W est30.779
ing house Company, Mr. W eatingh ouse etated that ib was 2 , ll.18 t 6 I 401.4 2 3.6 29.126 }
} 31.067
31. 35 &
expected that they would be able to s tart actual manu31.300 " t ~.
facturing ab Manch ester early in 1902. 'be works inoo mea.31. 6 16
clude a machine-shop 430 ft . wide and 900 fb. long. The 4 11 38 1.3 403.5 2 2 29 508
sn r ed
} 31 .3681
m le.
iron foundry is 170 fb. wide by 500 fb. lon g, and the oth er
3 1.1{)2
foundries, the pat tern-shop and the for ge occupy an Qbh er 6 , ll.47 1.3 408.5 l
31. 315 "
H. 438
buildin~, 170ft. wide by 580 ft. lon g. Special a t tention is
t o be p aid t o the comfort of the employ es in the m atter of 6 1 11.67 11.1 403.6 2 0 130.0301
beating, ventila tion, and lava tory accommodation ; and
h ouse accommoda tion, wi th electric and gas-heating app liMeans for the three hours' trial , 230 lb. steam ; 64 lb. in first
an ces will be provided near the works for such of the intermediate receiver, 13 lb. in second intermed iate receiver
20.8 in. vacuum ; air pressure in stokeholds, 1.3 in.; mean revo~
workmen as care t o take them.
lutions per minute, 404; mean speed during three hours
In our is m e of September 27 h st, we g ave an illustra- 31.121 knots; indicated horae-power, 6450; coal consumption 0 ~
tion of the Kronprin z Wilhelm, the latest nd c} ition to the the t hree hours' continuous run, 1,97 lb. per horse-power.






N G.

[ N 0 V.






F 0 R GE



N Y,

2 9, I 90 t



(Fo"t Description, see Pag ~ 740.)




(70,00 LB .


Fw. 5.



:1-J- ToN llooi E CoAL 'vVAOON

UNDBRFR.<ti\1.& AN.L>




'"l'r H TEsT LoAD



90 To.N



29, 1901.




( Fol' Description, see P age 736.)

Fig. 56.





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Fig. 64.
C. D .

- ---- - --- -- ------- ------ ---------------- - - Lrn1Jtlvof lOW<r I"'""" of

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Fig . 76.






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Fi..g. 71.



Fig- 8(1,.





G.H./f'iAJ . 73J

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SEC'f'ION ON L/NEL.H.(Fl<J. '7:l )

g' ~y.i












fFi.g. 7 7.)






J.K/Fi.g. {jlJ J


' N.O


E N G I N E E R I N G.

Nov. 29, 1901.]

AusTRiA, Vienr.a: Lehmann and Wentzel, Kii.rntnerstrnsse.
OAPB ToWN : Gordon and Gotoh.
EDINBURGH: J ohn Menzies and Co. , 12, Hanover-street.
F &ANOK, Paris: Boyveau and Ohevillet, Libmirie Etrang~re, 22,
Rue de la Bnnque ; M. Em. Terquem, Sl bla, Boulevard Haussman.
Also for Adver tisements, Agence Havas, 8, Place de la Bourse.
G BRMANY, Berlin: Messrs. A. Asher and Oo. , 6, Unter den Liltden.
Frankturt-am-Main : Messrs. G. L. Daube and Oo. (for
Leipzig : F. A. Brockhaus.
Mulhouse : H . Stuckelberger.
GLASGOW : William Love.
INDIA, Calcutta: Tbaoker, Spink, and Oo.
Bombay: Thacker and Oo., Limited.
ITALY: U. Hoepli, Milan, and any post office.
LIVBRPOOL: Mrs. Taylor, Landing Stage.
MANOB8STKR: J ohn Heywood, 143, Deansgate.
NoRWAY, Ch ristiania: Oammermeyers, Boghandel, Oarl J oha.ns
Oade, 41 nnd 43.
NBw SoUTu WALES, Sydney : Turner and Henderson, 16 and 18,
Hun ter-street. GOJ'don and Gotch, George-street .
QUEENSLAND (SoUTn), Bris bane : Gordon and Gotch.
(NORTH), Townsville: T. Willmett and Oo.
RO'M'KRDAM: H . A. Kramer and Son.
SOUTH AUSTRALIA, Adelaide: W. 0. Rigby.
UNITKD STATES, New York: W. H. Wiley, 43, East 19th-street.
Chicago : H . V. llolmes, 12571268, Monadnock
VICTORIA, Melbourne: Melville, Mullen, and Slnde, 261/264 Oollinsstreet. Oordon and Ootch, Limited. Queen-st reet.


(Published cm the fi'1'Bt T tUday i-11 eaoh month.)


PRIOR 28., Net ; POST FB.BB 28. 4d.
Publlahed at the Ofllces of ENGINBKIUNG, 86 and 86, Bedford Street,
Strand, London, W.O.


Systum" of Eleot.rlc Tn1otlon. l3y

The Economics of Rail ways. By
Phlllp D~ws?n ( Ulust.mt.lons In
the H on. Robert P. P orter ......
Text) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l Q:l The 7.n r h:h E leotrlo P ower Pla nt
Educ:1t.lon nntl Com~~aercl1,1 l Supre
(Pinto11 t,vrr. to r.x r., a nd Ill usm ncy. Hy G. R. D\mPl l. ...... 20i
tmtlone In T ext) .... ........... .
The LoocoSondrlo CGnu z) Eleotlo
The Inner Cir cle .... .......... .
Rullway (Plnt.e" X I.-I X . to LVJ. ,
1' h e \Vastc- R eut. Engi n e ( Ph~t.e~
an d llluat.rotlnnl\ In T11xt.) ...... 213
LXII. to l ,X I\7 .. und rt luat.raMunl olpnl TrAdin g.
By Major
I tlotlJI In 'J'('>..l) ............. .
FlouJ rug~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
I DEX '1'0 YOL. TT. Sll:P'J' II:l\JBF.R TO DECEl\l llER, 1901.




Advertisements from Germany should now be sent

through Messrs. G. L. Daube and Co., Fra.nkfurt--am
Main, \l ho have been appointed our Sole Agents for
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T&LEPRONB NuMlJ&R--8668 GePrard.




M 1chine Tools at the
El eo ~ rio R ailway Co:nmu oiStanl fy Sllow ( l llus. ) .... 781 1 cation within the M ~tro
Engineering _Yalu.tions . : . . 733 1 polis .. .. . . .. . . .......... ~~0
The New V10tor1a Stat10n
Notes ...... ..... ... . .... 1o2
at No~ting h a m (l llus.) .. 786 Gy roscopic Action a'lil t he
Th e New Subw~~.y in Ne w
Loss of the 11 Cobra" .. .. 762
York City (J llus. ) ...... i37 " The Architt>o ural Side cf
Large R'li lway Wagons (ll
I En ~ inee ring" ... ... ... ... ~6J
ltt8lrated) .. .. . ..... . .. 740 M. .Ma bot's Tes t of a Gas
Notes from t he United
Producer and a G.1s
Stat es .. .. .............. 741
E'lgi ne ...... .. ...... .. 753
Trai a Resietances ..... .... 74 1 Balancing Locomoti ves .. .. 753
Notes from the Nor t h .... 744 }loment of Resistance . .. . 76'!
Notes from South York
The Royal E ngineers .. . ... 763
shire .. .. ........... .. . .. 744 Industrial Notes . ......... 75J
Notes from Cleveland and
The Balancing or Locom?the Northern Counties .. 744
tiv ~>s (l llust.rated) . . .. . 766
Not es from the SouthThe Physical Society ...... 767
We~t ...... ...... . .... .. 744 Royal Meteorologica l SoMiscellanea .. .... .......... 746
clety .. .......... .. .. .. .. 767
Electric Haulage on RailThe Discharge of Sewage
ways . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. 747
int o a Tidal Estu!l.ry .... 758
Eogioeeriog Schemes in
Lannohes and Trial Trips . . 758
Parliament . . . . ..... ... 74 8 .. Eng ineering " Patent ReTorpedo-Boat Destroyers . 749
cord (lll1t8trated) ....... 759
Wi th a Two-Pagt E ngraving of T HE VI O'l'ORIA STA T I ON


RBADLNQ CASBl:J. -- Rending co.see for containing twenty-six

numbers or ENa J ~H BRlNG may be had of t he Publisher or of any
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SOCI,E'I'Y OF ENO INKEitS.-Monday, December 2, at lhe Royal

UnitPd Service Institution, Whitehall. A paper will he read,
entitled" The Sewage <ttPstion During the Lg,bt Century," by Mr.
EJ. Alfred Roechllng, O. E., F.G.S. The Chair will be t aken at
7.30 p.m. precisely.
SOCIETY OJ.o' Anrs.-Monday, December 2, at 8 p.m. Cantor
Lectures. 1 ' The Chemistry of Confectioner&' :Materio.l3 and Processes" (f.>ur lectures), by hl r. William Jago, F.C.S. , F.I.C.
Lecture ! I.- Wednesday, December 4, a.t 8 p.m. 11 The Ident ification of Wood and its Application t.o Scientifio and Commercial
Pur poEes," by .Mr. Herbert Stone. Sir Dietrich Brandis, .K.O.I. E. ,
Ph. D. , F .R. S., will preside.- Thursday , December 6, at 4. 30 p.m.
Indian Section. 1 1 The New Trane Rou te t o P~rsia by Nushki
and Seietan," by M r. Edward Penton, B. A. Oxon. Tbe Right
EJon . Sir H Pnry Drummond Wolff, G. C. B., Q. C.M.G., will preside.
TilE l~STJ TUTJ ON OF Cn111 ENO I N EER.S. -Tue~day, December 3,
nt 8 p. m. Paper to be fur ther discuised : 11 Train Resistance,"
by .Mr. John A . F. Aspinall, M. Inst.. 0. E. At t his meeting a
ballot fo r members will be taken. - Studen ts' meeting, Friday,
December 6, at 8 pm. Paper to be read : 11 Gas-E n~rine Con
struction ," by Mr. R. W. A. B rewer, S!iud. lost. C.E. Mr.
Chilli es H'l.wksl ~>y, the Preident, will occupy the Chair.
LI\'.BRI'OOL ENGJNERRtNG SOCIB'I'Y.- Wednesda.y, December 4, at
8 p. m., at the Royal Institution, Oolquitt street., when a
paper will be read by Mr. John Davidson, entitled "High-Speed
Steam E ngines." The adjourned discussion u pon .Mr. F. W.
Steele'.s paper, entit:ed "Modern Hydraulic .Machine Tools and
Labou rS:lving Appliances Worked by Hydraulic Pressure," which
was read on t he 20t h inst. , will take place prior to t he rending of
Mr. D ~vidsoo ' d paper.
Oecemuer 5, at 8 p.m., at St. Ermin's Hotel, Caxt.on-street, Westminster, when n plper will be read on cc The Geometric Interpretation of Photographs as applied to Photog raphic Surveying,"
by Mr. J. Bridge3- Lee, M.A.
ROXTOEN SOOlETY.-Thurl!da.y, December 6, a t 20, Hanover
squ are. Th e Chai r will be ta.ken at 8.80 p.m. .A paper will be
read by Mr. J . Hall Edwnrd-3, L.R.O. P., 11 Bullets and their
llillets : Experiences with X-Ra.ys in South Afri ca "
GEOLOGISTS' ASSOOIA'rJON, LOSDON. - Friday, December 6, at
8 p.m., at Univerdity College, Gowerstreet, \V.O. , when t he
following lfctu'r e will be deli vered: " Notes on a R ecent Visit
to E~y p t," by M r. 0. W. Andrews, D.So. , F.G.S.
Til E INSTITUTION OF J UNfOR ENGINEER.S.--F riday, December 6, at
8 p.m., at t he Westminster Palace Hotel. Paper on " Street Railway Construction for Electric Traction," by Mr. F. S. Pilling
(Member), of Devonpor t.


FRIDAY, NO V E!J1.BER 29, 1901.
THE inaugural address of Mr. William Langdon,
before the Institution of Electrical Engineers on
Thursday, the 2 lst inst., dealt largely with the use
of electricity a'3 the haulage power on railways.
Mr. Langdon is convinced that the steam locomotive has seen its best d!lys, and that in the futurethe comparatively near future- it will be replaced
by the electric motor. As a rail way man himself,
he k nows the great vis ine)'tiP3 which characterises
the Boards of our leading lines, and he is aware
tlnt they are not likely to undertake immense
expenditure as long as the slightest doubt
exists as to its being profitable. But he warns
them that there are such persons as rail way
engineers whose business is to construct railways,
and that these persons will seek to find opportunities for work, and will not be deterred by any
consideration of t he injury their schemes may
inflict upon established interests. "Railways, " he
says, " hMe to face the fact that electricity as a
motive power is before them. That if it is not
applied to the existing systems, it wi ll come independen tly, ani in competition with e.xisting io.

terests., _1\..lready Parliament has authorised the

construction of a high-speed electric rail way from
Manchester to Liverpool, al though there a~~ three
most efficient ser vices between the two c1t1es. A
scheme has been deposited for th_e next session: f~r
a line between London and Br1ghton; and 1f 1t
has been properly worked out, and is in re
sponsible financial hands, it will be difficult to
find as strong arguments against i.t as were a_dd uced
without effect against the monorail scheme 1!1 L_an cashire. In many directions there are d1strwts
which are tempting to the el~ctrical en~ine.er,
districts with good traffics, whtch are y1eldmg
capital d ividends to the rail ways which serve t,hem.
Whether they would pay for a fast passenger
traffic, without goods traffic, is by no means cer
tain. What is clear is that the new railway would
spoil matters for the old, for it would take a~ay
its best source of revenue. When we cons1der
that there are 1300 millions sterling in\ested in
the carrying lines of this country, it is evident that
the interests at stake are immense, and that the
matter is not one which can be safely left tJ take
care of itself while there are plenty of engineers
an d promoters ready to launch rival schemes.
I t is inconvenient that the necessity of taking
action should be pressed home on rail way managers
at a time when it is so difficult to decide what
system of electric haulage is the best to adopt. As
our columns have recently shown, there has been a
fierce fight between the advocates of direct and alternate current for the Metropolitan Rail ways, and even
when the j udgment has been given, the matter will
not be much clearer, for the verdict will apply only
to a very special kind of rail way, and will leave t he
broader question of main line systems quite open.
It is interesting to see that Mr. Langdon, with his
experience of the vast traffic of the Midland, holds
the opinion that '' on lines carrying a mixed
t raffic the power to vary the speed must have an
important bearing upon the working of the line.
The speed, subject to a maximum limit, must be in
the hands of the driver. , This evidently points
to the adoption of the direct-curren t system, as
against the three-phase system. Now, alt hough it
is very. d esirable on many grounds that the railway
speed shall be elastic, yet the necessity would not
be so urgent with electric traction on the alternatecur rent plan as . it is now, for there would not be
as many causes for trains losing time as at present,
and, consequently, there would n ot be an equal
necessity for extra speed. It must be remem
bered t hat with the three-phase system of tract ion t ime can only be lost in the stations and by
signals. Wind and weather make no difference,
and even inclines are mounted at t he same rate as
the flat por tions of the line are traversed. The
three-phase motor, within the limits of its power,
practically runs at one speed up-hill and down.
hill; and, so far, would introduce a welcome element
into rail way work ing from the passenger's point of
view. It either runs on schedule time, or it stops
completely. It does not., like a steam locomotive,
battle bravely against difficulties. Up to a certain
point 1t takes no heed of them ; but when that limit
is passed, it comes to a standst.lll. The result of this
characteristic would be t hat locomotive superintendents would cease to take the chances they n ow do.
They would find what was the maximum capacity of a
motor in the worst weather, and they would definitely
refuse to tak e a greater load under any circumstances. If more coaches were added to the t rain,
a second motor would be used. This would be a
vastly different 1natter, as Mr. Langdon points out,
from double heading with locomotives. One crew
would suffice for both motors ; the second would
merely be brought out of a siding, where it had been
standing absolutely without expense, except for
interest. This is a very differen t matter from keeping locomotives under steam, with men in attendance, on the chance that they may be needed.
Mr. Langdon advocates running goods trains
at a higher speed, which means, of course, diminishing their weight.. This is totally contrary
to modern idee.s, but a good many accepted
notions will have to be revised if electric working
should be adopted. Small highspeed passenger
trains at frequent intervals would render slow
goods traffic an impossibility during the day time,
and it would either have to be confined to the
night , or greatly accelerated. Indeed, it is scarcely
possible to see how a company, having a single
road in each direction, could obtain the full advantages of elect ric traction for passenger ser vice, and
at the same time work a fairly heavy goods traffic

E N G I N E E R I N G.
at a profit. Speed is undoubtedly expensive,
whether obtained by steam or electricity, and the
desired reduction in freight rates can never be
obtained if t he speed of the trains is to be increased.
Electric motors of any desirable power can be
obtained by coupling two or more together under
the con trol of one driver, and trains of any length
handled ; but this cannot be done economically at
high speeds. Mr. Langdon saya : " Let us assume
that in shortening these slow and heavy trains we
are able to run them at a speed of not less than
40 miles an hour. As there would be n o shunting, for the reason that, with the exception of the
express trains, all would be moving at about the
same speed, it is clear we should practically double
t he capacity of the line, and that without increasing, the labour charges ; because although we double
the trains, we halve the time. The number of
trains that would come under this category would
probably be 75 per cent. of the entire number, and
if the method would admit of the acceleration of
the exprec:ses also, it may well claim an increased
c1pacity of 100 per cent. In other words, such a
result would avoid that duplication of t he lines
which is now unavoidable, and which is adding
milli01u, year by year, to the capital account. "
Apparently Mr. Langdon would have only two
speeds on the line : expresses at the higher, and
goods, mineral, and stopping passenger trains at
the lower. There is a charming simplicity about
this ; but we doubt if it could be attained in
practice with economy. Electric traction will
require an enormous capital outlay, and it will
need to earn interest on this, chiefly by econ omy
in coal, added to a number of petty savings which,
insignificant severally, may be considerable in the
aggregat.e. But if the goods trains are run at
40 miles an hour, where is the saving in coal to
be obtained ? And if the number of locomotives for
a given traftic is to he doubled, where are the
smaller economies to be found ? The fact is that
lines having a very mixed traffic on one set of rails
do not offer a favourable field for electric traction.
If a company cannot secure a larger traffic, it will
scarcely see a return for its outlay, and a larger
traffic can only be got by increased facilities. The
merit of electric traction is that it enables a quicker
and more frequent service to be given, and this
means that the line will be fuller. With double
roads this presents no great difficulty ; the fast
traffic can take one, and the slow traffic the other.
But if both classes of trains have to run on the
same metals, there must be constant shunting and
It is worth while to point out that the threephase system of traction does no ~ req uire all trains
to run at one speed. It is quite easy to wind
motors to run at any speed within limits for a given
periodicity of current, while with geared motors
further varieties of speed can be obtained by using
different ratios of teeth. At the present time there
are several varieties of engines on all lines. Expresses are not run by the same ~ngines as stopping
trains nor are fast goods t ratns drawn by the
same i ocomoti ves as mineral trains. Each engine
is designed for a given speed on the level, and it
would be a g reat advantage if it could maintain this
speed on gradients, for it would save much delay.
\Ve hold n o brief for the alternate-current system ;
indeed, for the Metropolitan railways we have
taken a decided position against it ; but we are
strongly of opinion tha.t there is a field before it in
which it shows to great advantage. The matter at
issuE.\ is to decide what are its limitations and its
capabilities. It looks as if some of our rail ways
of second rank would have to come to a decision
on this point in the near future on very insuftcient
evidence. I t is quite possible that one or more of
them will have to undertake to apply electricity to
a part of its line~ in order to . prevent the co~
struction of a rival undertaking, and that It
will either have to take a leap in the dark or
else adopt a more expensive sy;;tem for the
sake of the assurances of safe working which it
can afford. It would be wor th the while of the
t hreatened companies to co~b~n~ to carry o ~t
complete experiments at their JOIDt expense, m
order that both they and the world migh t know the
exact truth. If electric working over a fairly long
distance did not offer the advantages claimed for
i t they could then oppose outside schemes with
s~ccess; wh ile if it were favourable on t he whol~,
t hey would know where they stood. In .any casd,
t he money would be well spent., and Parltamentar_Y
Committees would no lon ger feel t hat the oppos1-

tion of established companies was prompted solely

by selfis~~ess .and a desire to burke all progress.
The dec1S1on 1n the case of the monorail rail way
shows that the reign of monopolies is threatened
and that if established companies refuse to avad
t~emsel ves of the progress of science, other persons
wtll be afforded the opportunity.

THE engineering schemes to be submitted to
Parliament in its next session do n ot promise any
special activity in the matter of railway construction-at least so far as the principal companies are
concerned. For t his there is probably more than
one reason. In the first place the ITouse of
Commons last year treated in a very cavalier
fashion Bills promoted by certain of the companies
on the ground that no adequate measures were provided for in the Bills for the re housing of those to
be turned out of their d welliogs by certain of
the proposed works ; although the technical
advisers to the Board of Trade were of the
opinion that these works were highly necessary.
Such action is pretty sure to turn the attention of
railway directors to the question as to whether they
cannot, by a reconstruction of their rolling stock
and changes in their present methods of operation,
do a good deal to avoid the presen t necessity for
much of the new construction, and thus give Parliament no opportunity for the exercise of its somewhat short-sighted philanthropy. Apart from this,
the fact that during the past twelve months dividends have declined to an alarming degree must
also ha,e its effect in rendering directors chary
of still further increasing their capital account
by new extension~, the more especially as in
many cases they may have to meet the competition of a number of light railways constructed comparatively inexpensively and capable
of being worked at a much cheaper rate than a
line subject to the whole of the restrictions imposed on railroads proper by the Board of Trade.
In this connection i t has to be n oted that more
than one company is seeking powers to adopt
electric ..traction, and quite possibly this but foreshadows modifications in the working of rail ways
which may have nearly as great an effect in
stimulating passenger traffic as had the inauguration of the steam lines in the early part
of last century. At present, though an excellent service is provided between the larger
centres of population, the train services to t he
smaller towns and villages are infrequent and slow,
so that, including t ime lost in waiting at stations,
it often takes as long to complete the last 10 miles
of a 100.mile trip as to run the first 90.
Coming to the schemes for which Parliamentary
sanction is sought, we n ote that the district
lying east of Sheffield and south of Doncaster
is coveted as a feeder by more than one of
Thus the North - Eastern
our principal lines.
Railway Company propose in their Bill the construction by themselves alone, or in conjunction
with the L~ncashire and Yorkshire R~il way, of
three lines cantering in Maltby- one branch is to
run south to Dinnington, a distance of 3! miles ;
a second, 3 miles long, north-east to R avenfield ;
and a third, 17 miles long, through Potteric Carr,
near Rossington, on the Doncaster and Retford
line, and thence to Doncaster H.acecourse, beyond
which the line is to be continued to Thorne
Junction on the Doncaster and R elford line.
There will be a junction with existing lines at
Black Carr and also with the authorised Dearne
Valley line, near the same place. Ot~er li~es
will join up the proposed racecourse statwn '!Ith
,Joan Croft Station on the Doncastor-York hne,
and with the Lancashire and Yorkshire R ailway
at Shaftholme and at Heck Stations. The Bill
also provides for the purchase of the Isle of
Axholme Lioht Railway and of the Goole and
Marshland Lioht Railway. This purchase and the
construction ~f the lines proposed would extend
the southern range of the company considerably.
The other work proposed is of minor importance,
and consists of junctions at North Benton, Northumberland between the company's Blythe and
Tyne line, ' and their Newcastle. and Be~ wick line,
and also with the P onteland Ltght Ra1lway. In
Yorkshire they propose to construct at Altofts
a junction between their line and ~ha.t of the
Midland Railway Company. The prmCJpal proposals brought forward by the Great Northern


2 9, 1901.

~ai hyay Company are also related to the Maltby

dtstrwt. They seek powers to construct a line
from Scrooby to Tickhill, and thence to Rossington, thus forming a loop to their main line. From
T~ck~ill a brc:\nch would extend through Maltby t~
Dmntngton, and a second to Thrybergh, near
R otherham. The total length of new line proposed is about 20 miles. The other work proposed
is in the Metropolitan district, and is a branch
about 2! milos long from the authorised Great
Northern and Strand line at Islington to Hornsey.
A third Bill having reference to the Maltby district is that promoted jointly by the Midland and
Great Central Companies, who seek to take over
the powers granted last year to the Shireoaks,
Laughton, and Maltby Company. A deviation
from the line authorised is desired at Nor th and
South Anston, and it is further proposed to extend
the line in a north. easterly direction to a j unction
with the Great Central line at Kirk Sandell via
Wadworth, Cantley, and Armthorpc. The total
length of the line proposed is about 14! mile3.
The work proposed in the Midland Company 't~
Bill independently p romoted is insignifican t
so far a<J the construction of new railways
are concerned, consisting as it does of a couple
of small junction lines at Holbeck, the aggregate length of the two being apparently not
more than i mile . This company, in common with
most of the rest of the principal lines, are, however, making a serious attempt g,t increasin g their
siding and warehouse accommodation, and land for
these purposes is being acquired by the companies
in many localities. The Midland Company further
propose to widen their Swansea Vale line for some
4 miles north of Glais, and to acquire, in conjunction with the Great Eastern Rail way, the powers of
the Tottenham and Hampstead line.
The Hull and Barnsley and West Riding Junction
Railway Company have also a desire to open up
the East Sheffield district. Their Bill proposes
the construction of a line from Thurnscoe, on their
authorised Hull and South Yorkshire extension,
south through Conisborough and Maltby to Dinnington, a distance of about 13 miles. At Dinnington it is intended to have a j unct ion with the
metals of the authorised Shireoaks, Laughton, a nd
Maltby line.
A fifth competitor for the trade of this district is
the Sheffield, Rotherham, and Bawtry Railway
Company, who propose the c~nstruction of a line
from a junction with the Great Central Railway in
Sheffield to Tinsley, and thence through Whiston,
via Maltby and Tickhill, to Scrooby, on the Great
Northern line. This line will thus be about
20 miles long; and there will be a branch, making
a j unction with the Great Cent ral, at R otherham.
The Great Central Company in their separate
Bill propose the construction of a line in Lincolnshire, from Appleby, throughBroughton, to Glanford
Brig, forming a new junction between the company's San ton branch and their Doncaster-Barnetby
line. In Derbyshire a branch is proposed from
Heath to North Wingfield and Temple Normanton,
whilst in Leicester powers are sought to build a
siding to the Corporation Gas Works. Other
clauses give an extension of time for the construction of works authorised in previous sessions.
The new work proposed in the Bill promoted by
the London and North-Western Railway Company
includes the widening of their line from N uneaton
to Atherstone, a distance of about 5 ~ miles, and
also for about 3 miles between Armitage and Rugeley, Staffordshire. A new dock on the Mersey,
south-east of the company's existing Ga.rston Dock,
is also contemplated. Apparently the company also
intend to carry out widening works in the Metropolitan district, a.s . powers are sought for _the co~
st ruction of addit wnal arches to over-br1dges m
Regent's Park-road, Scrubb's-lane, and Stationroad, Wimbledon, Acton-lane, and also the bridge
by which the Midland Company's metals are carried
over the line.
The Great Eastern Rail way Company proposa to
construct a new bridge over the Ouse, near Hilgay,
and another over the Blackwater at Baintree, whilst
they seek powers to enlarge the present Herring
nasin at Lowestoft.. The Bill also provides for the
abandonment of lines authorised. in 1897, 1898, and
1900, and seeks to extend the time for the execution of other authorised work. The company further seek power to purchase additional accommodation at New Cross, and to acquire the undertaking
of t he N orthern and EaE>tern R~ilway Company.
The Lancashire and Yorkshire Company prop ')se

Nov. 29, I9or.]

E N G I N E E R I N G.


in one Bill to purchase the Southport and Cheshire thorpe, Doughton, Haughton, and West Drayton, junction at Ca.stleblaney, between t he Dunda.~ and
lines extension rail way ; whilst iu a separate Bill to Ordsa.ll, where there will be a junction with the Enniskillen line and the company 's N o. 1 R&Ilway
po V~~r3 are sought to construct a new line, about Great Northern and with the Great Central. The of their Act of 1900.
A glance at a railway map of ~ou~h vVales leads
4 miles long, from Ra.wcliffe, on their existing total length will be about 25 miles. At Farnfield
railway, through Airmyn, into GooJe, where j unc- there is to be a j unction with the Midland Rail- to the impression that there IS h~tle. roo!ll for
tions will be made with t heir existina line there way, and at Bough ton with the L1ncashire, Derby- additional railway development. This v1ew IS not,
however, shared by the companies operating there,
1\nd with the metals of the North-E!lste;n Company. shire, and East Coast line.
In Lancashire the company propose furth er widenThe chief feature of interest in the Bill of the as seldom a session passes without a fight ~etween
ing work, in addition t o that brought forward in Metropolitan Railway Company lies in the fact th e different rail way interests, each a.ccusrng the
t heir Bill of last year. Thus the Preston extension that power is sought to equip for electric traction other of endeavouring "to poach " by the conline is to be widened at Walton-le-Da1e, the Bolton lines over which the company havo running powers, struction of new lines. This year, h owever, no
and Preston line at Euxton ; whilst in Yorkshire such as the "\Vest London extension and the Ham- heavy work seems in prospect. ~he Rhymn~y
the vVakefield and Goole line is to be wid ened at mersmith and City line. The Knott End R~ilway Company propose to build a new lme from thetr
Whitley Bridge. Apparently, as last year, these Company are promoting a Bill to revive the powers existing one at Gelligaer to Bedwellty, where
granted to them in 1898, and to extend the limit there will be a junction with the Powell Duffryn
widenings o.re mainly station improvements.
The Great Western Company are apparently of time for the construction of the line in question. Colliery Jines. From Bedwellty a line is to be
"ca'ing canny, " though they are concerned in The Plymouth, Devon port, and South- Western carried to a junction at Rh;ymney, with the sidings
three Bills. In the one they merely seek powers to Junction Railway Bill aims to constitute the Bere, of the Tredegar Coal Company.
The Barry Company, the Liskeard and Love
make a deviation in the line between Charlton, Alston, and Calstock Light R~ilway and part of
~Iackrell, and Tomerton, authorised in Acts of the East Cornwall mineral line a separate under- Railway Company, and the Yorlcshire Vales Rail1898 and 1899, whiht their second Bill is designed taking. The Hastings Harbour Railway Complny way Company seek to raise addit ional capital. A
to prevent damage to the famous Crumlin Viaduct seek a revival of powers and extension of time for ne w company is promoting a Bill for the conby mining operations. To this end it is proposed the construction of the works already authorised. struction of a line from Neath to Brynaman viu
to purchase the mineral righ ts for a breadth of 16 The Lincoln and East Coast Railway and Dock Corn- Portardawe, a distance of 10 or 12 mi!es. J uncchains along the line of the viaduct. In a third pany and the Bexhill and Rotherfield Company tions with the Great Western are proposed at
Bill powers are sought to vest in the company the are each promoting Bills to ab~ndon the powers pre- N eath and Brynaman and at P ortardawe with the
undertaking of the Brynmawr and vVestern \ Talleys viously granted them. The Furness Railway Corn- Midland Railway. Another new company propose
pany desire powers to run steamships from Barrow the construction of a line from Swansea to Clydach
The London, Tilbury, and Southend Company and Fleetwood to Ireland and the Isle of Man. and Llangiwg, having junct ions with the Great
seek powers for widenings at Poplar and West A Bill has been promoted to vest in the Metro- Western at Coedfrank, and with the Midland near
Ham, and to construct a j unction at Bromley with politan, Great Western, Midland, Great Central, the Sisters' Pet sidings on the Swansea Vale line.
t he authorised line of t he Whitechapel and Bow and London and North-Western Companies the The Taff Vale Company merely propose a new
Company, and with the North London line in the undertaking of the Midland Counties Railway Corn- line at Egl wysilan, connecting their main line with
same parish. In connection with the former junc- pany, who have powers to construct lines from Railway No. 1 of the Cardiff Railway Act, 1897.
tion we note that the company propose to adopt Stratford-on-Avon to Evesham and Redditch.
The Scotch Bills are neither numerous nor imelectric traction.
The South-Eastern and Chatham Companies pro- portant, and they will be considered by the Special
A VERY instructive return has just been issued
pose a further extension of the widening work now Commission appointed under the Act of 1899, which
in progreEs in the Metropolitan district, seeking obviates committee investigation at Westminster. as a Parliamentary paper at the instance of Sir
powers to widen the L ondon to Greenwich line In connection with a new harbour and dock, with Edward Reed. It gives the names of all the
between Bermondsey and R otherhithe. At Hast- basin, on the shores of the Firth of Forth a t various torpedo-boat destroyers which have been
ings the Ashford and Hastings line is to be Cockenzie, near Prestonpans, several railways built for the British Admiralty, and states the
widened, whilst a new bridge, in substitution for to adjacent collieries in the counties of Mid- dates when they were launched, the number of
that now used, is to be built over the S wale on Iothian and Haddington are to be constructed, trials made, and the dates when they were accepted.
the company's Queensboro' line, and at Sheerness having connection with the North Briliish system, F or the earlier 27-knot boats only the number of
a couple of dock lines are also proposed.
and this company propose to acquire the harbour official trials is given; but for the later 30-knot
The London, Brighton, and South Coast Rail- and rail ways. These lines are in the parishes of boats the preliminary trials are also enumerated.
way, in their omnibus Bill, propose the widening Inveresk, Duddingston, Liberton, Newton, Dal- There are 113 of these little vessels in all. They
of their Bognor branch between Barnham Junction keith, New battle, Lass wade, and Cockpen, in Mid- have all been built by contract, the orders having
and Bognor, and seek powers to extend their Iothian ; and Preston pans and Tra.nent in Hadding- been distributed between 15 firms, the numbers
station premises in a number of towns. No hint tonshire. The North Brit ish Company propose to each ranging between 19 to Laird's and one
is given as to the proposed electrification of their several lines in Leith and district around Pteston- to the Thames Iron Works. Next to L'\ird's in
Brighton lin e, which is now under the considera- pans and Cockenzie, Tranent, and Gladsmuir; but point of numbers come Thornycroft's and Palmar's,
tion of Major Cardew and Mr. Philip Dawson. none of then1are of great importance. Land at various each of which have constructed 12 boats. The
On the other han.d, the Bill for the proposed points is scheduled, and the company are purchasing Clydebank yard has turned out 12. Hawthorn's
electric express railway has been deposited. This a 1-mile !-furlong line built by the Corporation of and F airfield, 9 each ; the Barrow yard, 8 ;
line is to have a terminus at Ranelagh-road, Pimlico, Glasgow in connection with their gas works Doxford's, 6 ; Yarrow's, 5 ; Earl's, 4 ; Armstrong's
and, crossing tho river on a bridge, will proceed in the east end of the city. The West Highland and "\Vhite, of Cowes, 3 each ; Hanna, Donald,
to Brighton via Streatham, Croydon, ~1erstham, Railway stock is to be converted into North British and Wilson, 2 ; and, as stated, the Thames Iron
Reigate, Horley, Cuckfield, and P~:Ltcham, and debentures, the Lauder Light Railway is to be Works, 1.
Doubtless for a good many of the firms named
will closely parallel the existing line throughout.
taken over, and the company seek powers in a
The Liverpool and Manchester Express R ailway separate Bill to work the steamers on the Clyde the tale is told, for it is by no means a simple
Company have also a Bill in which certain altera- hitherto run in connection with the railway from thing to get 30 knots from a vessel of about 400
tions in the arrangements at Salford, already sane- Craigendoran, but owned by an allied company. tons displacement, even when the drawings are
tioned, are proposed. These will involve the con- The Caledoni~n new works are in connection with completed, and the boat has passed the ordeal of
struction of a new street between Ordsall-lane and the Lochearnhead, St. Fillans, and Cornrie Rail- Admiralty inspection during construction.
The return bears evidence to this. Some of the
the point at which the line will pass under Tatton- way, which is being constructed across Perthshire,
street, and another new street between the west aud connects the East of Scotland with the Callan- trials have been of a most. protracted nature. Someend of R owland-street and the east end of Mount- der and Oban line. Deviations aro proposed at times, in the latter boats, this may have been due
Balquhidder to form a more convenient connection, to labour troubles, but we think the big strike did
In Derbyshire a new line is proposed by the and the new line will be purchased by the Gale- not greatly influence the result. In the column of
Clay Cross R ailway Uompany, which has been in- donian Company. The old Buchanan-street Station the return marked '' Particulars of typical cases
corporated to construct railways connecting up the in Glasgow is at last to be rebuilt., and land is to where those t rials have been exceptional in number
Clay Cross Collieries with the lines of the Lane~- be bought between the station and the canal for and have extended over considerable periods "
shire, Derbyshire, and East Coast Railway Company. this extension, Pulteney-street being closed. The there is some instructive reading. As our readers
To this end they propose to take over t he powers new P aisley and Darrhead line is also to be ac- are a ware, the boats that had originally locomotive
acquired by the latter company for the construction quired, and an extension of time is sought for to boilers have all been refitted with water-tube boilers,
of .Rllilway No. 1 of the Wingerford branch, and to carry out the Oallander and Oban \Vorks, the Ran- although the Havock, by Messrd. Yarrow and Co.,
make a new line starting in a junction with the frew and District Railway, and the Prince's Dock the pioneer of the class, had locomotive b oilers,
Lancashire, Derbyshire, and East Coast metals at branch railway in Glasgow.
and successfully passed her trial with them . It
In Ireland, railway enterprise seems as slack as will doubtless come as a surprise to t he majority of
Chesterfield, and proceeding south to WingerworLh, and on to 'fupton, Pil ley, and Morton. in the larger island. The Fishguard and Rosslare our readers to find the Poplar firm so low down on
The lotallength of the line pr0posed will be about Company have a Bill to take over the undertaking the list as regards number of destroyers supplied
of the Cork Electric Tramways, to construct a few to the British Navy. Considering t he important
8 to 9 miles .
The London and South-Western Company's Bill sidings and dock lines in Cork, and to adopt electric part taken by Messrs. Yarrow in the construction of
contains litble of interest, save that an extension of traction on certain of their lines. They also seek to torpedo craft from the earliest dayE~, and the great
t ime is sought for the constructioa of the Meon abandon the construction of the Cork and Fermoy success of their craft built either for our own Navy
V alley line authorised in 1897.
line. The only other Irish rail way Bills are two pro- or for foreign Governments, it appears a matter for
A ~ew scheme of some interest i3 the proposed moted by the Kingscourt, Keady, and Armagh Rail- regret that more vessels of this cla~s have not been
Notlimgham and Retford line, which will p~ss way Company. ln the first an extension of time is supplied by them for the British Navy.
throug.h the still little developed region of the sought for the construction of the line, and for
The first vessels of thi, class built appear to
Duker1es. Tho promoterR desire accsss to the Joint power to entel' into an aareement
with the Midh\nd haYe passed through the ordeal of official trial
station at Nottingham, and will have a. junction with Great vVestern Rnilwa.y, authorising the latter corn without difficulty. It will be remembered that
the Great lforthern at Arnold. From Arnold the line pany to subscribe capital and work the line. In four vessels were ordered as a commencement in
proceeds north through Calverton, Farnfield1 Bils- the second Bill powers are sought to construct a. 1892-two ft~om Thorn ycroft and two from Yarrow.

E N G I N E E R I N G.


These got through and were accepted at the first

trial, as also were two boats ordered later on from
Laird's. It is only when we come to the twelfth
vessel on t he list- the Conflict, built at Cowestha.t we meet with record of serious trouble.
This vessel began her trials in August, 1895,
but did not get t hrough unt il June, 1898. The
T eazer had almost as bad a time, for she was two
years and two months in getting passed. Her
builders must have thought her the most appropriately n a.med vessel ever built before they got
rid of her. The Fervent and Zephyr, built on
the Clyde, and having originally locomotive boilers,
were still mor~ unfort unate, for the former was four
years before she could reach 26! knots, being
accepted at that ; and the latter was four years
and five months, making t rials at intervals. The
Zebra, built at Blackwall, was more moderate in
her demands on her builders, her trials lasting
only a year and a quarter.
We now come t o the 30-knot vessels, concerning
which the number of preliminary trials is enumerated. We will only n otice those whose preliminary
trials ran into double figures. The first is the
Quail, built at Birkenhead. She had twelve preliminary and four official trials between March 25,
1896, and January 4, 1897. The Otter, built at
Barrow, had 22 preliminaries and eight officials
b etween April 7, 1897, and July 18, 1899. This
unusual number was principally due to t rouble
with propellers, but she also fract ured both her
port and her starboard crankshafts, which nat urn.lly
delayed her somewhat. Another troublesome destroyer to her builders was the Brazen, built at
Clydebank. Her trials lasted from September 17,
1896, till March 29, 1900, during which t ime she
made 21 preliminaries and six officials, being finally
taken over at 29! knots. One other vessel from
the same yard was also accepted at the same reduced speed, whilst another was half a knot short
of t he 30 knots. Both these vessels, however,
made fewer trials. The n ext difficult vessel on the
list was the Avon, built at B~rrow. She made
sixteen preliminary and five official t rials, in the
course of which she fractured a shaft bracket and
bent a crankshaft. The Bullfinch, whichr had
. so
tragic an experience, also made ten pre lmtna~y
trials and six official trials, and only succeeded m
getting 29 knots. The Dove, a sister ship, was
passed at 29 knots. The Gipsy, built on the
Clyde, had ten preliminary and six official trials.
The next notable trials were those of the Express,
and this vessel, together with the Albatross, stands
on a somewhat different platform to the r est. The
Express was contracted for by Laird's, of Birkenhead at the remarkable speed of 33 knots. Her
builders were apparently somewhat sanguine ; at
any rate, their courage has not met with the rew.ard
one always likes to see accompany t hat quahty.
The boat s tarted her preliminary t rials on October
20 1898 and has since then made twenty-seven
pr~limin~ry and ten official trials, but has not yet
been passed. Every good engineer will hope she
may soon get through.
The Albatross, as every one knows, was built at
Chis wick. Her contract was for 32 knots, which,
though n ot so bold a flight as t hat of the Express,
was 2 knots in advance of the other craft of the
time. She made seventeen preliminary and four
official trials, t he trouble experienced in getting her
through being chiefly due to the propellers. She
was finally accepted at half a knot short of the con tract speed. Her r ecord being, however, 31! knots,
places her at the head of all craft afloat, excepting
the Turbinia.
The failure of this vessel to come up t o her
des;gner's expectations is instructive. Remembering t he study Mr. Thornycroft an~ Mr. Barna~y
h ave given to the propeller questwn, and the1r
undoubted auth ority on the subject, it would see1n
t hat we have, with the 30 or 31-knot destroyer,
arrived at a parting of the ways in regard . to propellers, and that new elements must enter 1nto our
calculations. Those who have followed t he work
of the two gentlemen named, especially that
r eferring to cavitation, in their paper at the
Instit ution of Civil Engineers, or in Mr. Barnaby's
book, '' Marine Propellers," will ~ecognise t~e
suggestiveness of the statements In the . offiCial
re t urn point ing out how frequently the difficul ty
in r eaching speed was due to t he propellers.
T he V ulture built at Clydebank, made twenty
preliminary and t wo official trials; the Kestrel,
from the same yard, made eleven official and two
preliminary trials. The Lee, built at Sunderland,

[Nov. 29,

made ten preliminary and two official trials ; the

Lively, built at Birkenhead, made ten preliminary
and t wo official trials, but has not yet been delivered;
and, finally, the Thorn, built at Clydebank, has
made eleven p reliminary and six official trials.
We notice that some of the vessels in the list are
referred to as having b een '' vurchased whilst
building. " The practice is not to be commended,
al though doubtless, as in the case of war t hreatening, the Government is wise to secure all the vessels
it can. It is, however, son1ewhat unfair to builders
who have to undergo all t he rigours of Admiral ty
inspection, and have to comply with all t he expensive requirements of t he British Navy, that they
should be put in competition with those who have
a free hand, or are only s ubject to t he less exacting
yoke of the foreign Governments.
lt would be vastly instructive if the records of
destroyers built for foreign navies could be obtained,
and placed alongside those on the P arliamentary
paper. With a view to making some such comparison,
we have asked Messrs. Thornycroft and Co. and
Messrs. Yarr..>w and Co. to furnish us with
corresponding particul~rs of trials of the Japanese
destroyers which they h ave lately built. The
particulars we give in Tables I. and II., the former
I.-Torpedo-Boat Destroye-rs jo't' Japanese Navy,
Built b.l/ Messrs. J . I. T hornycr ojt and Co , Chiswick.











- ...



_ _::t_ _ ,_Ao

I -a:





- s..
Of-1 1
... _
Q,) liS

ao I

,D -

~o ~

N urakuwo

. . Thornyoroft, Ja.n. 16, Nov. 16,

Jan. 15, Dec. H,
Shiwowowe ..
Yugi ri
May 7, Jan. 26,

May 7, Mar. 14,

May 6, Aug. 23,
1\le.y 6, 1 Jan. 16,


.c ..






1 Dec. 24, 2
1 Feb. 1, uil
1 Mar. 10, ,
1 May 6, .,
1899 1
1 Nov. 14, ,
1899 1
1 Feb. 9,
1900 1

II. - TorpedoBoat Dtstroyt?'S for I mperial Japanese Navy, Built by Messrs. Yar1ow and Co., P oplar.

















a.rrow a nd Oo., Jan. 16, Nov. 15,

I kadsuohi . Y
Limit ed, Poplar
I nadsuma. .
Jan. 16, Jan. 28,
Apr. 30, Apr. 25,

Apr. 30, July 8,
s azan1m1 ..
July 1, Oct. 5,

July 1, Deo. 16,
Nij i ..





c.. .~

o __

s.. -

Q,) ...


-z o

! j -







~ Q)


.O Q


.. 0



3 Feb. 23,
1 1899
1 Apr. 25.
1 July 3, 1
1 AU!!. 2c.
1 1899
1 Nov. 1,
1 J a.n, 1,


containing particulars of the boats built by the

Chiswick firm, and 'l'able 11. those of t he Ya.rrow
boat.s. We also d raw attention to the details, given
on another page, of the trial of the Japanese
destroyer .Akatsuki, built by Messrs. Yarrow and
Co. The contract for this vessel was signed on the
5~h November, 1900; she was launched in j ust under
a year ; she ran her preliminary trial the next day,
and a week later, on November 14, she r an her
official trial, making 31.3 knots on the measured
mile run, or 31.121 knots in the three hours.
Naturally, we ought not to compare t~e trials ~f
the present day with those of a past era, when experience was not so ripe ; but mak ing every allowance,
one cannot help wondering why it is that even under
the most favourable circumstances vessels for the
British Navy cannot be buil.t . so quicklr nor ~ak e
trials with the same exped1t10n that IS attamed
with the Japanese vessels. We r efer more especially to Japanese boats, .bec~use the Japanese
naval authorities are as stn ct tu all essential details, and are as well informed as those of any
other country, not excepting our own. It will ~e
seen that the Thornycroft boats made most of theu
official t rials without even running a preliminary,
and all obtained their guaranteed speed of 30 knots
- and at times exceeding it by half a knot- on the
first trial. Even in Uie first vessel one additional
preliminary trial was sufticient.
Messrs. Yarrow guaranteed 31 knots for their


craft, but only on the first of them was more than

one official trial made, and only on the first two
more than one preliminary trial. The details of
the r eturn and the Tables we have added are extremely instructive, and it is to be hoped their
publication will do good.


THE J oint Committee of the Houses of Parliament, which conducted an exhaustive inquiry into
this important subject during this year's session of
P&rliament., have exercised a pronounced influence
upon the schemes, of which notice has been given in
connection with the forthcoming P arliamentary
session . Several of the Bills which were carried over
from last session are to undergo modification with
the view primarily of meeting the great necessity of
interchange of traffic, so that, instead of being more
or less separate units, they will form integral
parts of a system which, while not perfect in
its arrangements, may enable passengers with
the minimum of changes to go in these high-speed
deep-tunnel rail ways from one par t of the Metropolis to the other. At the same time one cannot
help r ecognising the dominant spirit of a master
mind in nonnection with several of the schemes,
and the linking of them up with the Metropolitan
District R<1ilway. Thus, E"everal of the lines running
north and south will be extended across the Strand
to the Metropolitan District Line, running under the
Embankment and Cannon-street. In the case of
nearly all preliminary notices, too, an anxiety is displayed to make the terms sufficiently elastic to anticipate station communications between the different lines, to arrange for interchange of traffic,
and through bookings, to permit of financial assistance from other undertakings, and to r ender
possible the utilisation of r olling stock and electric
power from other lines. At the same time, there
a re several projects for t he same route, and obviously n o object can be served in authorising the
expendit ure of capital in such duplication.
As we pointed out on a recent; occasion (page 583
ante), over fifty miles of deep,-tunnel railways have
been built or authorised, and we are quite within
the mark in stating that this year's scheme very
largely exceeds this mileage. One of the most
important undertakings is that under which the
Central London Rail way will be made a continuous
circular, or rather elliptical, line. The proposed
southern half will commence at the Generating
Station at Wood-lane, Shepherd's Bush, and will
extend to Leadenhall- street, curving by Gracechurchstreet, Bishopsgate-street, and Old Broadstreet to the existing City terminus of the railway.
The route will be by l{nightsbridge, Piccadilly,
Coventry-street, and thence by the Strand and
Cannon-street. The work of construction will be
carried on from two stagings built on the river,
one at Waterloo Bridge and the other near Paul's
Stairs, and from both of these shafts will be sunk
and adits driven to the main line of route.
Piccadilly, as one of the great high ways, is
naturally coveted by quite a number of lines, some
of them with the same destinations, and more than
one has for objective the Hammersmith District.
The Brompton-Piccadilly line was authorised in
the 1897 Session of Parliament, and consistent
with the requirements laid down in connection
with the P arliamentary inquiry already r eferred
to, this line is to be extended in both directions, and will ult imately become one of the great
arteries from the north-east suburbs t hrough the
heart of the Metropolis to the west. One extension is
from Piccadilly-circus, through the Long Acre district,
with a junction near Holborn with the Great Northern and Strand line authorised in 1899 and extendina
as far north as Hornsey. A connection will also
be bored through to near t he Charing Cross Station,
while at the western extremity an extension to
Fulham to join the Metropolitan District R ailway
at W alham Green is proposed, powers being also
sought for the r ollbg stock to run on a~ far as
Putney Bridae. An underground subway 1s to be
formed aro;nd Piccadilly-circus, and additional
land is scheduled for a station at the St. J ames'sstreet corner of the Green Park, and at the corner
of J ermyn and Duke-streets, between Basil-street
and Brompton-road and close ?Y the. Gl?ucaste.r
road Station of t he Metropohta n D1str10t Rallway. This company is also to purchase the Earl's
Court and South l{ensington electric line of the
Metropolitan District Rail way, and the Great

Nov. 29, 1901.]

N or thern and Strand Rail way ; and in view of this

it is not surprising to note that t he name of the
company will be changed, presumably to one more
comprehensive. This Great Northern and Strand
Railway is to be extended from its authorised terminus at the Law Courts, across the Strand, down
to t~1e M~tropolitan _District Railway at Temple
Stat10n, ~Lth con~ect10ns for passengers between
the two hnes ; whtle towards the northern terminus
of the line a connection is to be formed with the
Great Northern Railway.
In the same locality there is the Great N or hhern
and City and the Great Northern Electric Railway
and these at one t im e, it was e xpected, would b~
operated more or less in harmony with each other ;
but lately there has been elements of discord which
are more or less reflected in the bulky pages of
t he L ondon Gazette. The Great N orthern tunnel,
which is to be of 16 ft. diameter to accommodate
ordinary rolling stock, was at one time to terminate
at Finsbury P ark ; but now the intention is to carry
the line further, so as to make a connection east wi~h
a line r unning from the Strand to Wood Green (the
Great Northern and Strand Railway). The Great
Northern and City R ail way, which was to terminate
at Finsb ury-pavement, is now to be extended to
the corner of Lothbury, and at this busy centre a
circular underground footway will be constructed.
The company, at the same time, is seeking running
power over the Great N orthorn line beyond Finsbury Station to Edgeware, High Barnet, Alexandra
P alaco, and Enfield, fl.nd proposes t o lay down on
the Great N orthern t rack all the necessary electric
equipment which will be energised from t he proposed station on the Regent's Canal at Shoreditch.
The company, too, propose to convey not only passengers, but all kinds of traffic.
In the same quar ter of the Metropolis, the City
and North-Eastern Suburban Railway, which was
suspended from last session, is to be considerably
modified, so as to secure more advantageous connections, not only in the east, but in the City. This
is one of tho cases where the determination to
electrify the Metropolitan and District Rail way has
had effect, as arrangements are proposed for connections, &c , wi th the existing Underground Railway in the eastern district. The original scheme
was for a line from Gracechurch-street, p1ssing
Liverpoolstroet, traversing Shoreditch, t hrough
Victoria Park, Hackney Marshes, and on to Walham,
and now it is p roposed to alter the City end of the
line. Beginning under Queen Victoria-street at
St. N icholas Church, the line will pass under the
City to \Vhitechapel High-street for 1! miles; while
from Abchurch-lane there is to be a line under
Rood-lane and Fenchurch-street to the same point,
the line being carried northward to join the railway proposed in the last session of Parliament. A
connection will also be made with the Whitechapel
and Bow extension of the Metropolitan District
Railway with a branch to Bethnal Green, through
t he parishes of Mile End Old Town and Whitechapel . The generating station is to be close
to the Great E astern R1il way at Temple Mills.
In connection with the Whitecbapel and Bow
line, powera are sough t for a road diversion at
Stayner's-road, Mile E nd Old Town; an extension
of t ime is sought and a financial and working
arrangement, either with the Tilbury or Metropolitan District Company, is suggested in the notice.
'f he N orth-East London Railway, which is also
carried over from last session, is to be extended at
both termini : at the north from Tottenham to
Edmonton and Southgate, and at the City end from
Cannon-street eastward to the centre of Fleetstreet, opposite to Salisbury-court .
Turning now to the City lines running south, a.
new project is em bodied in a line over seven miles
long to t he Crystal P alace. The City end is to be
formed at the junction of Queen-street and Cannon-street, and the route is almost due south,
tapping the import~nt centres of Southwark, Bermondsey, Ca.mberwell, and Lewisha1n, the P alace
end being near to the Penge entrance. The
generating station will be at Camberwell. The
}}ast L0ndon, City, and P eckham line extends
from P eckham Rye to Gracechurch-street, with an
extension eastwards to PJaistow, near to the .Barking Sewage Outfall Works, with a further length
as far as Prince R egent's-lane ; and for this line
t he electric stations are to be at the Surrey Canal
at Camberwell, and on the River L ea near to the
P oplar Gas Works. The Old J{ent-road is to be
the objective of a new line which proposes to
utilise the City and South London King Will;am-

E N G I N E E R I N G.

75 1

street Station for the City end, and for this at H ollybush-hill, with a power station alongside
purpose seek powers to widen that part of the the Midland Rail way at Hendon. Again, t he
existing tunnel under the River Thames ; the new J.Jondon United Electric Railways Company proline, beginning at the L ondon Bridge end of t he pose a line from Shepherd's Bush and HammerBorough High - street, extends almost due east smith and Charing Cross, as well as one from CJapto the well-known inn known as the Dun Co w, ham Junction to the Marble Arch, the generating
in the Old l{ent-road. I t will thus be seen that station being at Chelsea, near to the Grosthe re!-tion immediately north of Lond on Bridge, venor Canal. The line from the Victoria Station,
which is more or less the centre of the great com- Pimlico, partly along and under King's-road to Eelmercial traffic of the Metropolis, will have at least brook Common, Fulham, is to be extended under
eleven lines radiating from it, and embracing the river to High-street, Putney, and a circular suball the points of the compass ; for in addition way is p roposed at the Victoria-street end which will
to the City and South London, a further line connect the pavements of Buckingham Palace-road,
to the south-west is proposed from under Cannon- Victoria-street, &c., with all the stations in this
street, through Wandsworth, to Wimbledon. The busy rail way centre. From Victoria Station a line
route of this ne w project is across the Southwark was p roposed last year extending to beyond K enBridge-road, near its junction withMarshalsea-road, nington Oval, aad now it is proposed to carry this
by Kennington-lane, Lavender- hill. High- street rail way t hrough P eckham, Deptford, and Hatch am,
\Vandsworth, to a termination in Harttield-road, t0 Greenwich, with a generating station at CamWimbledon.
berwell. An agreement is anticipated with all
Similarly, Charing Cross, with Piccadilly-circus, the South London railways for the exchange
is made the hub of a series of lines to all parts. of traflic at the points where this tunnel, travelThe B~ker-street and Waterloo Company seek an ling east and west on the Surrey side of the
extension of t ime. The Charing Cross, Euston, Metropolis, intersects those existing lines. 'l'he
and Tiampstead Railway is to be extended south- company which secured powers in 1899 for the
ward from its terminus near St. Martin's Church construction "of a deep-tunnel line from the Marble
to the Charing Cross Station of the Metropolitan Arch to Cricklewood, under the line of thoroughRailway ; and, although there will be no rail- fares beginning with Edgware-road, now seek an
way connection, here, as elsewhere, passenger extension of time; and here it may be remarked
hoists, &c., will be provided, similar con- that the London County Council propose to conveniences being arranged for to the South-Eastern struct a 3!-mile tramway along the same line of
A slight deviation is proposed at thoroughfare up to Shoot-up Hill.
Hampstead Heath, and an extension of time for
And this brings us to the London County Couu
the completion of t he work is desired. The Picca- cil's proposal for a subway from Southampton-row
dilly and City Railway, which was promoted in to the Emb~nkment at Savoy-street, where the
the last session of P arliamen t , and is i n 1etentis, level is considerably below that of the Strand.
is to be modified, although it will still have to The greator length of the subway will be under
con1pete with the proposed St rand line of the the new street from Holborn to the Strand,
Great Central Railway. It is proposed this year so that it will be easy of construction. One
to make the Lowther Arcade t he starting point of of the advantages of the subway will be that
a n extension which, passing through Aire-street, the County Council will require all corn panies
at Piccadilly - circus, will extend along !{nights- supplying gas, water, electric energy, &c , to make
bridge, through Kensington Gore, on to Hammer- use of it for the reception of pipes and conductors,
smith, where the terminus will be in the Broadway just as the Metropolitan B pard of Works a rranged
there, close by King-street ' Vest. But a connection for similar subways in several new streets. There
will be made with the H ammersmith Station of the is this difference, however, in the present case : that
Metropolitan District .Railway. A subway is pro- the County Council propose to lay electric tramposed for foot passengers at Hyde P ark Corner, ways through this latest subway, with stairways,
and a station site at the new street from the Strand &c., at various points for the ingress and egress of
to H olborn is coveted ; while property on the passengers. It will be remembered that the Great
river side of Hammersmith, with wharfage, is Northern and City deep-tunnel railway traverses
under the new street, and the County Council seek
scheduled for a generating station.
Another line, continued from last year and largely powers to repeal or alter any part of the provision
in opposition to the project we have just described, and powers of that company's Act passed in 1899
goes under the title of t he Charing Cross, Hammer- which may be inconsistent with the carrying out of
smith, and District Railway ; but their route is to their proposal for the subway.
be slightly changed. The beginning of the line
While writing on the subject of communication
is to be at the corner of Adam-street, in the within the Metropolis, it may be said that the
Strand, an arrangement which will enable opera- L ondon County Council are applying for powers
tions to be carried on from staging in the river, to construct something like 29 miles of street
with a shaft and tunnel up to th~ main driving. electric railway within t he Metropolitan area, and
The line will pass on by P all Mall to Hyde P ark several of these are of considerable importance.
Corner, a station being formed at Cha.ring Cross, A 7-mile line will be laid from Chelsea to Woolwich
with a subway uniting footpaths at the Grand Hotel, Arsenal, with several branches, including one to
Trafalgar-square. &c. Fron1 Hyde Park Corner the Eltham High-street-partly through a new road
line goes along K ensington-road to near the river at to be made by the County Council at that southHammersmith, with a subway to Barnes, where the eastern suburb. A 5!-mile t.ramway, commencing
generating station is to be situated. The Metro- at Putney, at the eastern boundary of the county,
politan District Company do not propose any exten- will extend to Clapham Common, and there join the
sion of their permanent way, but an imp.ortant clause main line to Tooting. The route of this tramway
is introduced into their Parliamentary notice which will be through West Hill, High-street, Wandsmay have far-reaching effects. They seek powers to worth, East Htll, the north side of Wandsworth
electrify several lines connected with their system, Common, along Battersea Rise and across Clapham
as, for instance, that from Turnham Green to Rich- Oon1mon. A 2i -mile extension will connect the
mond, and from Fulham to Wimbledon on t he London existing Camberwellline through Denmark Hill to
and South-Western Railway; the East London line L ordship-lane. A 3~-mile line will extend from
and the Hounslow and Metropolitan Railway. At the county boundary at Shoot-up Hill, down Edget he same time they seek running powers over the ware-road, to near the Marble Arch. There will be
Whitechapel and Bow line of the Tilbury Company. a 2-mile line from H ammersmith, along Queen'sThey are arranging to supply many of t he proposed road, to Fulham, over the Putney Bridge, and thence
lines with electric current ; but it is scarcely neces- to the Lower Richmond-road. A 1!-nlile t ramway
sary to specify them all here. The area of land to is to be laid along the river side at Grosvenorbe compulsorily bought at Chelsea for the power road from Chelsea Suspension Bridge to the
station has been considerably increased. The Vauxhall Bridge, and a line of similar length is
Earl's Court and South Kensington line, as has threatened along the Victoria Embankment from
been already stated, is to be transferred to the Westminster t o Blackfriars Bridge. New short
lines at Stoke N ewington will connect t wo existBrompton and Piccadilly Company.
There are several lines in the west and north- ing lines, and the Hampstead-road Tramway is to
west of London which, although they have no be extended down Tottenham Court- road, pract idirect connection either with Charing Cross or the cally to Oxford- street. The Streatham line is to be
City, will never theless, through other lines, bring carried 1i miles to the county boundary, and the
several of the outlying suburbs within a short New Cross Tram way to Lewisham ; while t he
journey of these centxes. Thus, a new line is pro- Blackwall Tunnel will be connected with the system
posed from Edgeware through H endon to joi? the east of London Bridge by a line 1! miles long. In
Charing Cross, Euston, and Hl\mpstelld Ra1lway the sam'3 Bill the County Council intend to legalise



E N G I N E E R I N G.

their half-penny 'bus us ed over the vario us bridges,

and several str eet-widening sch e m es h ave been
made essential as a res ult of the tramway- extens ion ; generating stations a re to be constructed a t
Greenwich, New Cross Gate, and Clapham Parkr oad.


AN industrial exhibition is to be held in the City

of D\Lsseldorf n ext yea r. The site chosen is on
the b a nk of the Rhine, and is of 150 acre s area.
By t h e wis h o f t he German Emperor, t h e Crown
Prince h as undertaken the office of patron, while
the Ministers of Finance, of Education, and Comm er ce, a re h on orary presidents. On the ex ecut ive
com m ittee t h er e a r e the most eminent r epr esentatives of Rhenish -Westphalia n industry. The buildings will be o f l arge size and of ornate a ppearance.
Frederick Krupp will have an exh ibition palace
405 ft. in l en gth, filled exclus ively with t h e products
of h is own works. N ear to i t will be the pavilion of
the H order V erein ; opposite to t his will b e a new and
p e rmanent art gallery, a nd n ear by . will be the
g reat machinery h all. This will b e 840 ft. l on g by
156 fli. wide, and with annexes will cover 5 acres.
The G uteh offnungsh ii.tte and the Deutzer Gasmot.or enfabrik will exhibit in adjacen t buildings .
Next to them will be the building of the Society of
Mining Interests, co\ering an area of 1-! acres.
Sev eral structures will b e put up by t he German
Beton Company to illustra te their met hod o f construction . S eparate buildings will contain the exhibits of t h e B ochumer Verein, and the Rhenish
Machine a nd M etal Factory. The great industrial
h all, with i ts d ependent buildings , will cover
7! acres, t he l en gth being 1275 ft., a nd the witJth
225 ft. The entire Exhibit ion will contain 110
differen t edifices and p avilion s , and will show the
products of 2300 exhibitor s . Of course t here will
be a lar ge number of congresses held during the
time t he Exhibition is open, a nd a mong them
the Iron a nd Steel Institute will hold its autumn
meeting, while the Instit u tion of Naval Architects
will participate officially in the Congress of the
German Shipbuilding S ociet y.
The industrial
exhibit ion will include the follo wing groups :
I. Mioing.
Group XIV. Leather, iodiaGroup
11. Fouod ry.
ru bbe r, and
Ill. Metal iodustry.
asbestos wares.
X V. P~p er industry.
IV. and V. Maohioery
and eleotricity.
X VI. Polygra.phic
VI . Means of trans,
XVII. Scientific instru
YI r. Chemical industry.
X VIII. Musical
instruVlll. Food.
I X. Stone, clay, china,
X IX. Buildingand eno e m e n t, a n d

X X. Schools.
X. Wood and furni,
XXI. Saoitary nod social
X I. Fancy goods and
X XII. Sport.
XX III. Horticulture.
:xrr. Textile industry.
, XX IV. Agdculture.
x nr. Clothing.
, XX V. Arts aod craft.
I c is intended to make t h e &h ow worthy of t he indust ry of Rhineland, Westphalia, and t~e n eighbouring districts, and also of German ~atwnal a rt,
and it is quite certain t h at t~~re w1ll be much
there which it is desirable BritiSh engineers and
m a nufacturers should s ee.



L ast Tuesd a y t h e r e was a demonstration a_t. t_he
L ond on Sporting Par k, H endon, of the capabilities
o f t h e " Mars" a u tomatic pistol. As m ost people
are aware t h e automatic pistol acts on t h e principle of tl;e Maxim g un, in s o f~r that af~er each
sh ot it extracts t h e empty cartridge-case, Inser ts a
new cartridge, closes the breech, and cocks t h e
hammer without any effort on t h e part of t h e marksroan. A ll t h at he h as to do is t o take ~im a n_d pull
the trigge r, until t h e eigh t or ten cartnd ges In t~e
ma gazine are expend e~. He m ust t h en r.e -cha r ge his
magazine, or exchange It for anotherprevwusly fil~ed,
wh en he is r eady for another su~cesswn ?f sho~s wit~
out lowerin cr his p istol, and wi t h o u t dis t urbmg h 1s
aim by the :ffort r equired to rotate th~ b~rrels ? f
a revolver. There a re s ever al a u tomatic _pistols In
t h e market, and i t is q uite certai~ tha t this t ype of
weapon will replace the revolver In the n ear future.
Many of these pis tols, however, s uffer from the
defect t hat they fire s mall b?llets: Now, on e ~f
the chief requirements of a piStol 1s that when It
hits a man it shall disable him, a nd a s mall bullet
canno t be relied upon to d o this . The present war
h as provided hundreds of examples of men cont in uing to ~ght for a consider abl e t ime a fter re-


cei ving d angerous wounds ; and if they had been

rushing upon the e nemy at sh or t range, they
would probably h ave d on e very effectual w ork
wit h the bayonet b efore they had fallen fr om
l oss o f blood or other cause.
A pistol is
essentially a weapon for an e me rg ency.
en e my is upon you when you us e it, and
wit hin a few seconds you or he will be lying incapable of further action. If y ou a re to escape,
you mus t disa ble him so completely t h at he cannot
cr oss the 30 or 40 y ards which separate y ou, and
y ou n eed to b e b oth skilful and fortunate if y ou
are to do t his with a 7 -millimetre bullet. If h e is
a black man, the thing is almost impossible, for
in Ind ia m en of the hill tribes have been known
to fi ght on after r eceiving half-a-dozen L ee-Metford bullets . I t was this experience t hat led to
the production of t he Dum-dum, or expanding
That, h owever, is now for b idde n by
inte rnational agreement; and the only way t hat
remain s, when figh ting at close q uarter s, is to
use a large bulle t, which will produce what t he
s urgeons call "shock:" t hat sudden collapse of t h e
ner vous system which stretch es a man at full len gth
fo r a time at l east, a nd which is seen in a m ore or
less modified form after t h e "knock-ou t" blow of the
I t is in the capacity to d eliver a big
bulle t at a hig h velocity t hat t he '' M ars " pistol
excels. This arises from the construct ion of t h e
breech m echanism. The b arrel is m ounted on a slide,
like a quick-firing g un, and when t h e ch a rge explodes, it m oves b ackward against t h e pressure of
As lon g as this pressure con tinuesthat is, until t he bullet h as left the muzzlethe breech - block r e mains in its place, and
there can be no es cape of gas a t t h e breech.
H ence it is possible to employ a h eavy charge
of cordite- so h eavy, indeed, as to give a velocity of 1750 foot-s econds with an 8. 5-millimetre
bullet of 140 g rains, and 1250 foot-seconds with a
.450-in. bullet of 220 grains . With s uch velocities
the pistol can command r a n ges t h at are comparable with that of a rifle, while t.he effect of the
bullet is en ormous, for velocit y is an important
element in d estructive action, as well as diameter.
When the pressure dissipates, the b a rrel moves
back again, l eaving t he breech-block behind; the
cartridge is extracted, a cartridge carrier brings u p
a new cartridge, pushing the point of it into t h e
barrel ; and then all the m ech a nis m comes to r est as
lon g as t he marksman keeps the trigger drawn
b ack. Immediately the trigger is r eleased, t he
breech block is moved by a spring into it s p l ace
a n d locked , ready for the trigger to be pulled again,
a nd another cartridge fired, and so on. So q uick
is the action t h at i t is p ossible to fire all eigh t ca rt ridges in t hree secon ds . The cartridges are contained in the handle of t he pistol, which lies well
under the barrel so as to g ive a g ood b al a nce. The
barrel is lon ger t han in any othe r pistol of this
class, a nd h en ce a large ch a rge ca n be usefully employed. The '' M ars " pistol is the invention of
Mr. H. W. Gabb ett-Fairfax, of 29, W hit eh ousestr eet, As ton, Birmingham.
SrR -You have recently published a number of letters
on the question of the gyroscopic actions which may,
according to certain arguments p ut forward, h ave played
a p arb in the loss of the Cobra. The greater . part of
your correspondents who e ndeavoured to e?Cplam these
ac tions have avoided the use of mathematiCs, most of
them under the pretext thab the calcu~at~ons were too
complicated. I believe, however, that 1 t 18 <;mly by em
playing the fundament~! ~beor~ms of mechamcs t hat on.e
can obtain a thorough mstgbt I_nto the so~ewhab C<?mphcated action of bhe forces which come m to play m the
problem under consideration; and if your corr!3Spondenbs
have arrived at conflicting results, the reason 18 probably
f th
to be found in the fact t ab one or. ot er o
e'?l ~s
omitted to take some of the forces mto account m hiS

rei~~~~~~e to show, moreover, that. the fears regarding

the complicated natu re of the cal.c ulat1ons are ~xagg~rated,
and that ibis possible to deal wt~h the guest 10n w1th the
help of a few theorems on rela.tnve mot10n, and the rotation of a body about a fi ~ed a.xts.
Considering the quest10n from the st~ndpo~nt of analytical mecbanic3, the problem resolves Itself m to ~he fol!owing: A body (~be r~tat.in~ part of tbA turbme) revolves about an axts wb10h ts 1bself connected t? a sys~em
(the vessel) undergoing certain ~ovemen~. It 1s requtr~d
to deter~ine the pressures wbwh the a.xts e:cer ts on t bs
fi d
what comes to the same tbmg, the rea~hlo!s0~f t6e~:'points on t~e axis. .
Let us consider the relattv~ motiOn of. an element of ~
mass m acted upon by certain foro~ w_1th regard to a
aystem of invariable shape S bavmg I.tself a known

29, 1901.

motion. The tlt m :n t p ossesses at every instant an abso

l ute velocity t 'a and a. relati ve velocity v r Leb Ve be t he
speed of the poi nt ab S, which ab the partico}a,r moment
under consideration coincides with m. The rell\.tion
b_etwen these quanti ties is gi ven by the geometric equ~
(v.t ) = (vr) + {ro ).
F or the n c~elerations we have an an 1.logou3 equation,
containin g, however, one term m')re. We get
(l'ct ) = (r )r + (Tc ) + (Tl ),
in wh ich T u stands for the absolute acceleration, T ,. fvr
the relative acceleration, Ta for the acceleration of the
point of system, whi ch coi ocides with 1n and T l, a certain
quantity whiob we na ms the complementary accelerat ion.
The value of T 1 is given by the expres~ion
T 1 = 2 'l'1 w sin a,
where Vr i.i the relativd velocity, w the angular ~peed
of the system S about i ts momentary axis of rotation,
and a the angle between the direction of 'l'r and this ax iP.
The resul banb F of the forces acting on the elemen t m
is obviously equal bo the absolute acceleration Ta. mnlti
plied by the mas3 m ; therefore we get
F = m (T r ) + rn (1'0 ) + m (1'1),

m, (Tr ) = F - m (To ) - m (I l).

L et us consider a sysbem of coordinate axes rigidly
fixed to the sys te m S, and let x , y , z be the (lOordinates
of the element m. The compone nts of the relative acce2
leration Tr in the direction of these axeJ are ~ _:;, ~ Y,
d2 ~

dt~ respec-~1vely.


d t'-

LetFx , Fu ,Fz , (Te )x , ( r e )u ,(Teh ,

T 1x , T 1u , T 1z be the componen ts cf F, To , and T 1 ; then

we can replace tlle above equation by the three following
ones ;
cl~ x
rn (f c )x - rn T 1x ,
d t,'l
d 'J y
rn d t 'J.

= Fu -


(To )u - m T I u ,

: = F ,. - rn (Te ).: - m T 1l

Up to now we have considered only one t:lement ; but

if we consider the relative motion of a system 8 1 with
rega rd to S, we get for each element three similar equat ions. Ad ding these, we obtain the following :
d2 x
> = l F X l 1}1, ( r c )x - .l m T I X ,
l m

d Ld 2 lf



=lF!/ -l m{Te )y -.l n~ 1 1 u ,

l n" cl Y = .l Fz - .l m ( To).: - .l m T 'z .

d t 'l.

These equations show that we a re justi fied in t reating

the motions of a system S 1 with regard to the moving eo
ordinate axes j ustJ as if these axes were fixed, provided
that we add to the external forces acting on the elements
two other forces, - m. T e and - m T 1, called respectively
the cent rifugal forcs and the complementary centrifugal
T aking the special case of the turbine, we can therefore
study the motion of the revolving part on condition that
we add to the externa11y a pplied forces, the force3-m Te
and - m Tl due to the movemen t of the vesrel (pitchin g,
rolling, &c.)
We will take a co-ordin ate system with a z n.xis which
coincides witJh the axis of the turbine shaft and having
the x axis horizontal and the y axis vertical (the p ositive
sense being from bottom to top).
L ~ b us suppose the turbine shaft ~oppJr ted a t two
poin ts 0 and 0 1, the distance between which is h. T ake 0 as
the origin. A s the ;.; axis p3.sses through the centre of
gra vity of the revolving parb, and ie, moreovor, one of the
principal a.xes of i nertia., the components Gx . Gy , Gz ,
and Gt x , G l!l , G 1: of the reactions, G and G' of the
two bearings 0 and 01 are given by the expres~ions :
"l X+ Gx + G 1.c = 0; ~y +Gu +Gy 1 = 0;

Z +G..: + G 1: = 0 ;
l (y Z - z Y) - h G1!/ = 0;
l (z X - x Z) - h G 1.x = o,
in which X , Y, Z are the external forces a::ting on the
elements of the body. In the presen t case these forces
f b
1. The action of gravity on the rotatmg part o t e
t urbine.
2. The action of the steam on the blades.
3. The resisbances offered by the prop~ller screws 17ltts
the internal resistance of the t urbme.
4. The additional forces - m T ., and - m, TI referred to
S upposing that the couple t ending to produce motion
be just equal to the couple resisting motion! then tb~e
forces annul each obber, and there only remam the actton
of 12ravity and the ~dditional forces - m Te and :- m T 1
The above equations can therefore now be wnoten as
- ~ n1. (Tc ).c - l 1n T lx + G;~; + G 1x = 0,
- l 1n (T o )tJ - l m T'!l - p + Gu + G't' = 0,
- l rn (T 11 ) .: - .l 1n 'fl.: + G. + 0 1.: = 0,
- ~ [.'' rn (To ).: - '= rn (r o )!, l - "l LY m T J.: - 7 m,T lu J +
"1 P - h G 'u = 0,
- l [z m, (To ):c - x m, (Te )z ] - l [z m T 1.:
h G' _
x - 0,

xm T 1:

] -

E N G I N E E R I N G.

1\Jov. 29, 1901.]

where P s ta.nds for the weight of the rota.ting pa.rt a.nd
1J for the co-ordinate of the centre of gra.vity.
These enable us to determine the exa.ot va.lues of the
x and !I components of G and G'; but we can only
oalcula.te th~ su.m. of the : o:>mponents. In order to oaloul~to the mdtvtdnal values of the la.tter it would be
necessary to take into account the elastic pr~perbies of the
body. 1'he same method would be necessa.ry if the revolv~ng J?art of the turbine were supported by severa.l
bearmgs tostead of by two, as assumed a.bove.
In any cas~, the equations show that as soon u.CJ the
vessf l moves m such a manner that the forces - m, T 0 and
-m. T 1 are no longer nil or do not cancel one another the
abaft of the turbine will transmit to the frame and 'consequently to the hull of the ship, pressures depending on
these movements.
If the vessel be fi tt ed with two turbines with parallel
sha ft~, the same oalculations can be made for eaoh turbine, and ib is easy to recognise that the actions of the
turbine shafts on the frame will usually nob coun terbalance one an~ther. In. fact, this only occurs in the case
of w~ll-dete~mmed mottons of the sh1~. It is therefore
certa!n thab tn a rough sea the hull w11l be subjected to
certam stre~ses due t o the rota.tion of the turbines.
\Vhether these forces can b c~me a source of danger to
th~ ship or no.b, is a question I will not enter u~on. lVIy
obJeC~ was eHnply to demonstrate the posstbility d
d~aling with t.he matter in a thoroughly exact manner
wtll~oub resort10g to the use of very comp1icatE.d mathemattcs.
H oping that the above will prove of interest to your
I remain, yours faithfulJy,
297, Ba.ddbrasse, Baden, Switzerland,
N ovember 12, 1901.
SIR,-As your correspondent Mr. 1\Iabthey has intro
duced the term "precession , into this discu~sion, ib is
expedient!, in order to avoid the risk of being ab cross
purposeP, to point out that there is nofl, either in the
phenomena of the spinning top or those of the gyroscope, any counterpart to the earth's motion of precession. The gyroscopic motioiiS to which the terms '' precession ,, and "nutation , are applied are combined in the
earth'd orbital motion; the former being the component
of that motion in longitude and the latter in latitude in
relation to the su rface of the suv. There is not in the
gyroscope any rea'3on for eit her precession or nutation in
tbe a~ tronomioal sense of those terms, and their use in
our present diecussion tends to create confusion by leading any general rE>ader to imagine phenomena to be under
discussion which really do not exist.
!\fr. Matthey'tl criticism of my views is, to a greab extent,
meb in my letter which you have published in the next
col umn to his. There is, however, a stra nge mistake in
Mr. 1Iatthey's s~atemenb that gyroscopic effect ' 'is not
due to gravity, as Jlb. J o1da;n i1wrgines, but to inertia."
In my letter which Mr. 1\Iatthey had before him I have
ex pressly said that gyroscopic resistances are due to
tJis inertia, whi ch is Newton's term for what is now
often abbreviated to inertia; s:> that, instead of being
ab variance, aCJ supposed by Mr. Matthey, we are
in agreemen t on tha.t poinll. G ravity has become a
technical term f,>r t\ fra~msnta.ry action of universal
gravitation, and I have in my lasb letter rererred t o it as
acting on a body pro~re3Sing with a. vertical rotation and
nob on one progressmg with a. horiz1ntal rotation; and
we are tht:refore also in agreement on that poinb, as Mr.
~Id.ttbey s~ys thab "gnwity merely eupplies-in some
c:J.Se.o, bub not io all- the couple which causes, the revolviog molion of the gyroscope.
A p oint on which we are, however, a t variance is that
I am nob able to join in im<l-gining "a. uoi verse iu whioh
inertia was p :>ssesso:i by b odies, bub not mutual attraction." Such a condition seem~ to me as impossible as the
existence of grav ity without weight.
I am. Sir, your obedient servc~.nb,
Novemb3r 23, 1901.





SIR, -I hope you do nob include me among those
Mchitects who do nob know why the lower member of the
Forth Bridge cantilever is not built in a. continuous curve.
I, like others, think it looks ba{), bub I have always told
those who complained of ib that it could nob practically
have been built oth~r wise. Nor am I quite so dense a~
you seem to imagine in regard to the construction of the
Vauxhall Bridge. I a.m quite aware that the principle
of its structure is not the same as the cantilever; call ib a
system of linked brackets if you like : bub if engineers
employ the word "arch " indiscriminately for that and for
a builb voussoir arch, I say they are using the same word
for two different thing~.
You seem to regnrd my remark thab a masonry arched
bridge co uld or would not be builb wibh eo fi at an arch
on so large a e,pan, as absurd. All I can say is tha.b
when the Institute of Architects urged that a granite
bridge should be built ab Vauxhall, the principal reason
ag.1in~t ib given by the County Council engineer was thab
the official demands in regard to gradient, headway, and
width between piers were such as to make a steel bridge
a necessity for the situation. The concrete bridge faced
with granite was subsequently selected as a means of
meeting our views; but we were distinctly told, on the
authority of the engineer, that under the conditions a
granibe-builb bridge was oub of the question.
I did not put on one side the questions of public convenience in favour of resthetic ; I am the last person to do

so. \Vhat I said was thab I believed one more pier migh t
have been allowed, and the width of bhe arches diminished
proportionally, t~ithout any real inconvenience to the
river traffic, while the appearance of the bridge would
have been greatly improved thereby. 1'he Thames Conservancy, who tequired the minimum of pier~, are not
infallible, and look at only one side of the question.
You have misunderstood the motif of my design. It
might have been said, and was urged in some quarters,
thab a bridge which was really a concrete bridge should
be lefb obviously as such. On the obher hand, it was
replied thab concrete was a bare and raw-looking material
for a monumental bridge. The granite therefore was an
ornamental facing to conceal the concrete. My sugges.
tion is- in that case, give it a fl ab treatmenb like an ornamental casing. The escutcheons and wreaths which
seem to hurb your feelings are merely an ornamental
detail to relieve what would otherwise be a bare expanse
of stonework, in a manner familiar to all who are ac
quainted with Renaissance architecture.
Bub when you declare that Sir A. Binnib's design is
far more logical than mine, pray, what is to be sA.id of his
monstrous column with nothing to supporb bub a lamp
standard? The projection of the pier of a bridge is a
buttress, not a colunm to support vertical weight which
d oes not exist; in the days when medire val bridges were
built with frank and simple construction, the projection
was alwayd treateri as a buttress. Ibis the modern engi.
neers who have introduced the absurd notion th at it is a
place to plant immense columns on, whioh carry nothing,
like those ridiculous things ab Blackfriars Bridge, which
are the la.ughing.sbock of every artist.
As to the coar~eness of the mouldings and other details,
in the County Council's engineer's design, it would be
useless for me to say anything, because those are points
bo which engim-ers never give any consideration, nor do
they yeb appear to have recognised thab there is any such
thing as propo1tion and scale in mouldingt~, or t hat architecbural detail is a thing which requires special sbndy to
handle it properly; and until they have recognised thab,
they will ( unles~ they confine themselves strictly to pure
construction) continue to produce work which will mova
bhe laughter of artists.
Yours faithfully,
[\Ve certainly shall not exercise the option Mr.
Statham gives us of calling a. three-hinged arch a pair of
linked brackets, as it is nothiug of the kind. Statically
con&idered, the three - hinged arch is nob essentially
different from the builtUP ma'!onry arch; a.nd, indeed,
in Germany voussoir arches have been constructed
with three vertical binges, strips of lead being inserted a~ the crown and springing joints to this end .
With respect to the Forth Bridge, we fear we cannot
a.cquib Mr. Sbabham of lackin g mechanical instinct,
as the following quotation from his article in the
E-nginec?'ing 1l1agazine for October, 1807, will show: "It
is characQteristic, too, of the spiri t of modern engineeri ng
that the curved member, to sa ve trouble in .fitting, was not
made to a true curve., The words in italics show that
t heir a.ubhor was of opinion that the matter was solely
one of expense, whereas in truth such a construction
would have been hopelessly wrong from a statical point
of view, and therefore most painful to an educated
eye. With respect to the Vauxhall Bridge, the outcome has shown that there can have been no practical difficulties in constructing it entirely of granite,
since this material being much stronger and bub little
heavier than concrete, the limit ing span is necessarily
g reater. To us, however, ib seems a perfectly legitimate
construction, either in the case of a pier or an arch, to construct the general ma~s of c:>ncrete and to face the latter
with a better weathering material, such as granite. S uch
a. facing, it is necessary to add, is in no sense a. facing
merely ; but carries ab least its fair share of the load.
Indeed, sinca its elastic modulus is greater than thab of
concrete, ib will probably carry somewhat more than is
proportionately its due. We should really like to find
some common ground of agreement with 1\~Ir. Statham;
but, a.s mattera stand, architects conceive that they know
proportionately more of engineering than the engi neer
does of architecture, whilst the engineer's opinion is
exactly the opposite.-E o . E .]


Sm, - I was glad to see this test in your is1ue of
November 15, but on examination I find several misprints
or slips which should be corrected.
In lines numbered 9, 10, and 11 there is no decimal point
for the lb. of anthracite used in the producer. Ib reade,
87 lb. per brakA horse-power p er hour "!
In a. ~as engine test ib is usual to give the quantity of
gas per brake horse-power per hour as we)) as its beating
value. Surely ib should be statEd whether the quantity
was mea~ured or nob.
J n line numbered 24 " a,, thermal efficiency is mentioned.
The thermal efficiency of wh at '! The gas engine or the
producer, or both together '? This should be clearly given.
[The account we published of the test of this ga.s engine
on pa~e 692 ante was a translation of a report by M.
!Iathot, and followed the original mosb closely. Owing
to the inefficient working of a printing machme, a part
of the copies appeared with the decimal points missing in
lines 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 17, 21, and 22 of the summary of
results. The types were actually in po3itiou, as is shown
by the spacing, bub they were not inked, and hence the
decimal points do not show. The thermal efficiency

mentioned in line 24 is presumably that of the gas enginP.
In lines 16 and 17 "lb." should b3 "lb. per equa.ra inch."
- Eo. E. ]

~IR,- \Vibh reference to P rofessor Dalby's lecture on
b!Llancing locomotives, and the discussion thereon in your
issue of the 22od insb., one or bwo points occur to me
which may possibly be of interest.
1. With regard to the amount of reciprocating weight
bo be balanced. Thie, if wholly balanced, makes the
engine all right in a foreand-a.ft direction, but clearly
has a disturbing effect in a vertical direction, the obvious
compromise, therefore, is to balance only half the reciprocating weight, and this should be equally distributed between the wheels.
2. As to balancing a. six-wheel coupled inside cylinder
engine, with the outside cranks placed opposite to those
inside, say, firstly, that the revolving weights are
balanced, and these balance weights are placed on the
middle or driving wheel (at the proper angle) on the ea.me
side of the centre as the outside cranks, but on the leading and trailing wheels opposite to the outside cra.nks .
Secondly, divide the part of the reciprocating weight to
be balanced, equally between the wheels, and this, of
?Ou.rse, most be placed on all the wheels opposite to the
mstde crank; consequently, on the leading trailing wheels
the revolving and reciprocating balance weights are
opposed to, and neutralise, each other, and the former
should be reduced accordingly, or, if they are equal, the
balance weights vanish.
. This reduces very considerably the weight on the dri vmg, or middle, wheel from what ib would be if the whole
of the reciprocating balance weight were placed upon it
and the engine, as a whole, is equally well balanced.
Yours truly,
November 27, 1901.

SIR,-Textbooks appear to disagree on the question of
moment of resistance of beams, girder~, &c. In some
oases text. books give the following equation:

= R = k I.

lVI = Lending moment.

R = momeno of resistance.
I = mow~nb of inertia.
k = strE'ss on extreme fibret3.
e = distance between neutral ax is and extreme fibres.
'\-Vher~as in other works :

= ...! ,

consequently M ia nob equal toR.

Surely the first case is the correcb one.

Bending moment is the pr?duct of weight by lineal
measurement. Moment of res1stance ought to be in same
terms, and equal to M.
I am raising this point as on several occa.sions this
question has t;>een put to me, especially by junior members
of the professton, who are n un. plussed by these different
statements of this particular formula.
DIOGO A. SYMONS, Assoc. M. Inst. C.E.
Palace Chamber~, 9, Bridge.sbreet, Westminster
November 26, 190l.
[Our correspondent is, of course, quite right, the moment
of resistance of a beam being given by ohe first of the
formulas quoted. The second formula we have no recollection of having previously seen, but, as every one knowe
there are still a number of text books in existence i~
which precedents could be found for almost a ny fallacy
in physics or mechanic~. - En. Jj. ]


SIR,-You have very kindly opened _your columns to
many well-grounded complaints of the Royal E ngineers.
I now invite your opinion upon what is taking place, or
a.bou t to take place, ab Salis'?u-r:y Plain.. The original
plan was to erect permanent butldmgs for etght battalions
the approximate estimate 850,000t. The tenders hav~
L3en called, "but few cho!en," and, a las !-so much for
Royal Engineer estimates- the lowest tender is said
to be 1,179,000t. 11 his all comes about by having a
"picked ". lisb of firms to bender, well-known competitive
firms hav10g been passed over and refused permission to
lb is open to very grave dou bb as to whebher there has
been any competition ab all, in bhe proper acceptation of
the word. Tha.t there is something seriously wrong somewhere there can be no doub b, especially when it is remembered thab when the approximate estimate was
originally made, prices were from 20 to 35 per cent.
higher for much of the material than now. I believe I
am right in saying bhab facts of considerable imporbance
are being collected thab willlif b bhe veil a li ttle bib over
this stupendous deal.
I am, Sir, yours faithfully,
November 5, 1900.

R ussu.


GERM.\.NY.-The Russian South-Western

Railway has established a direct passenger service
between Odessa and the principal German cities-viz.,
Breslau, Berlin, L eipzig. and Ha.mburg-. Carriages have,
however, to be changed a.t W olotchtsk, as the Russian
railwa ys a re on a broader gauge than their neighbours.


E N G I N E E R I N G.

The monthly circular of the Durham Miners'

Association contains the decision of Mr. Judge
O'Connor, ~n the Durham County Court, upon a case of
compensatiOn under the Workmen's Compensation
Act. The .council of the union made a claim u pon the
employers m the case of a miner who wa~ injured.
The e mployers admitted the injury, but said that it
was caused by a strain, and, ther efore, as decisions
had been given on the point, refused to admit liability.
Theoase came before the Compensation Committee, when
it was agreed to submit the case to the County Court
Judge. Bo ~~h parties agreed to the sta.tement of
facts. The Judge decided in favour of the applicants.
If the Act could be worked on such friendly lines,
there would be fewer cases of litigation, and fewer
complaints as to the operation of the Act. It wa.s
a lmost in the nature of an arbitration, without the
animus th~t ari~es where _there are contentious pleas.
The Compensatwn Committee settled nine fatal and
seven non-fatal cases; in all instances litigation was
avoided. The dispute between the ~finers' N a.tional
Federation and the Durham 1\finers' Associationwhich also applies to the N orthumberland Miners'
Association as well- is dealt with in the circular . The
threat appears to have been made at the recent conference of the Federation that either those two
counties must come into the F ederation, or t he
members of the two associations would be taken into
the F~deration by parcals ; failing in the first, the
latter method is severely condemned. The unions
have refused over and over again t o join t he Federation; and if discord be so wn, the resuH will not
be to the advantage ef either body.

[Nov. ~9,


tion, it will be useful; if, on the contrary, it promotes

litigation, the results may be mischievous.

THE Annual Report on Tracle Unions just issued

by the L'l.bour Depattment of the Board of Trade
In the Wolverhampton district the current demand
~how~ h.ow earnestly that department desires to fulfil
for bars, sheets, tube-str ip, hoop and angle iron ha'J
Its mtsston by the com~let~ne~s of its r eports. Every
been fairly good, and prices firm all round. Business,
now and t he n we find 1ndJCa!.10ns of retrospective rehowever, is still limited to small lots, as merchants
searches, as, for example, in t he list of Trade Union
and consumers seem t'> be holdin~ over contracts for
Congresses, wi~h facts and figures pertaining to those
next year, until after the turn of the quarter. The
annual gathermgs. In the r eport before us it is
output of pig iron is said to be inadequate to meet
stated that there was an aggregate increase of
deman_ds, and c.onseq~ently prices keep up, so th!l.t
members last year, over t he previous year, of 10!,2! 7,
the prices of fimshed Iron are scarcely likely to fall to
or 5 8 per cent. The total membership at d ate was
any extent. Sheets appear to have declined some1?905,116- a vas.t industrial army-all claiming the
what, and cutting prices are said to have been accepted
ngh~ of collective bargaining, as trade unionists.
in order to keep the mills in steady operation. S teel
Takmg the. a\erage increase of the last nine years,
is in fair demand, and prices have slightly improved.
~he proportt~n was greater in 1900. But the chief
Employment a mong the s teel smelters has improved.
m cr ease was m the unions of coal-miners.
In the mills and forges of the iron sections it is good,
The r ep.ort accounts .for a total of 1272 unions, only
but in the steel section quiet. In the Shropshire dis60~ of wh tch were regtstered, many ignoring the legistricts ironworkers at the mills and forges are slack,
Jatton p1.ssed expressly for their benefit. Neverthebut the steelworkers are busy. In the engineering
less, those 609 societies contained an aggregate of
and allied trades reports vary, but on the whole are
1,498,582 members, or 79 per cent. of the total. Some
encouraging. Electrical engineers continue busy.
l~rge unions still remain outside the pale of registraOther engineers, boilermakers, bridge and girder
twn. In the aggregate membership of 1,905,116, the
constructors, tank and gasholder makers, smiths
female members numbered 122,047, or about 6! per
and strikers, and workers gener ally on railway work
cent. of the total. Females belong to 138 unions, out
are fairly well employed. Ironfounders complain
of the total of 1272. They are confined to industries
that employment is declining, cycle and motor makers
mai~ly in which female ~abour has attained large prothat t rade is dull ; at Madeley and Coalbrookdale, and
portions. The cotton mdustries a lone account for
with the malleable ironworkers at Wa.lsall, work is
95,975, or 79 per cent. of the whole, leaving only 21 per
slack. In the hard wa re industries employment is
cent. for all other trades in which women are largely
reported to be good in 23 branches, some of them
large industries. In three branches at 'Vednesbury,
One hundred of the principal unions are selected
connected with locomotion, trade is good, with one
for comparison as regards income, expenditure, and
branch moderate. The iron-plate trade is fairly good
Th9 monthly report of the Aseociated Blacksmiths in the th ree districts where chiefly carried on. In
accumulated fund s. In thoEe the aggrega.te membership rose from 904,399 in 1892 to 1,158,909 at the s~ate~ t hat " trade s~ill k eeps fairly good. " In one nine sections employment is reported to be moderate ;
clo3e of 1900. The total income of those unions rose distnct, where a considerable amount of work is on and also in four other sections in outlying districts ;
from l,473,086l. in 1892 to 1,974,6lll. in 1900. The hand, owing t o a hitch in the settlement of the con- in ten ot her industries trade is from quiet to slack.
increase in the year was lOO,OOOl. over the income of tracts, work in respect of them was for a time sus. On the whole the position is not unfavourable.
1899. The total expenditure in 1892 amounted to pe.nded, r esulting in the discharge, temporarily, of a
In the Birmingham district business is reported to
1,431,70ll. ; in 1900 it was 1,490,582l. The yearly nu mher of members of the union. In another district,
expenditure from 1892 to 1900 inclusive did not vary which for a long period "has had a splendid run of be slack in the iron and steel trades. Both producers
as much as one might have supposed. In 1893, and work," one firm has intimated that a few men may and buyers appear to be very cautious in their operaagain in 1897, the expenditure went up between haYe to be suspended . But, it is said, there is tions. The one significant E-ign is that t here is an
400,000l. and 500,000l. a bove the average; but the still a large amount of uncompleted work in the hands upward tendency in prices. Marked bar makers con
coa.l strike in 1893, and the engineering dispute in of that firm. The supposition is that lower freights tinue fairly well employed, but unmarked makers
1897, were accountable for much of the excess over are causing anxiety, and that there is now less pres- complain of keen competition by Belgian makers,
the average. The average income per member varied sure for the completion of contracts. In spite of whose prices are at least 2P. 6d. per ton below local
in the eight years from 32s. 7d. to 37s. 3d.; the complaints as to a falling off in work, there has been a makers. In the sheet trade prices are said to be
average expenditure from 22s. 1ld. to 4ls. ld.; but decrease in the number of unemployed union members. declining by about 2s. 6d. per ton. In the general
the contributions per member in the various unions Nevertheless, it is obvious that new work is not run of trade employment has declined a little, but not
vary very much more than is apparent from the coming forward briskly, and members are cautioned materially. In t rade union branches, with an aggre
aga inst losing time, and recommended to make provi- gate of 18,227 members, 664, or 3.6 per cent., were
averages g1ven.

The balances in band at the end of 1892 amounted sion for the future when they can. Rderence is made reported t o be unemployed, as compared with 3.5 per
to 1,619,689l.; in 1900 they amounted to 3,766,625l., to the Barrow dispute, which led to the expulsion of the cent. in the previous month; the record therefore is
or from 35s. lOd. to 65s. per member. From 1893 to union from the Trades Congress ; the secretary of the nearly level. In the engineering branches, one reports
1900 inclusive the increase has been continuous, and union declares that the Parliamentary Committee kept trade as bad, one as good, and ten as moderate;
in 1899 and 1900 especially very large. These large the union officials ignorant of the charges made against toolmakers, patternmakers, ironfounders, smiths and
balances must not be regarded wholly as a war-chest, its members, and never called upon them for an ex- strikers as moderate; boilermakers as good. Emavailable for labour disputes. Many of the larger planation. v\Tith fewer members on unemployed ployment generally at West Bromwich is good ; at
unions, providing important provident Lenefits, have benefit, the finances of the union continue prosperous, Covent ry and R edditch moderate : in the cycle and
in recent years set apart large sums as a special and the balance in hand has increased. The council motor industries it is quiet. Electrical workers
guarantee for the payment of superannuation benefit, have been able to invest a further sum of 3000l. The of all grades are well employed. The brass and
so as to ensure to aged members the amounts due; total balance at date was 18,557t. 18s. 2d. The union copper trades are fairly employed. In the lighter
but apart from that provision, provident funds are paid lOOl. as accident benefit in the month, and a metal trades employment is from good to fair in
like amount last month, in addition to sick, funeral, all sections. In the other iron, steel, and metal
safely guarded.

trades employment is good in ten branches of in

The expenditure of trade unions is divided into two and superannuation benefits.

dustry , in fourteen moderate ; in two at Redditch,

main groups- namely, dispute pay and provident
benefits. The cost of management is general, covering
The T 'rades and L abour Gazette, representing the one is good, one moderate; at West Bromwich two
both. During t he nine years for which figures are Trades Council of London and other trades and labour are good, two fair, and one moderate. Other local
given, the hundred selected unions spent an agg regate councils, furnishes a good deal of r ecent informa- t rades are generally fair to moderate. In the buildof about 13,500,000l. Of that amount, 8,000,000l., or tion as to the proceedings of those bodies, and as to ing trades business is quiet; in the glass t rad es one
60. 3 per cent., was expended in provident benefits ; labour generally, at home and abroad. Among other branch fairly good, one bad, two slack, and one in an
2 750,000l. , or 20.2 per cent., in dispute pay; and the items it reports briefly t he meeting of "The Inter- outlying district fair. Generally, the position is
r~mainder, or 19. 5 per cent. , in working expenses. national Association for Labour Legielation," held reported to be fairly good, and the outlook is not
The average annual cost of disputes in the nine years recently at Basel. It proposes to wat ch over all such discoura ging.
was 303,276l. , or 20.2 per cent. ; the combined cost of legislation, and form a bond of union bet ween various
The position of the engineering industries through
unemployed, sick, euperannuation, funerals, and countries favouring protective labour legislation. It
other benefits was a n average of 906,948l., or 60.3 per proposes to collect information, and publish it in out Lancashire is described as steadily slackening
cen t . ; the cost of management., 293,296l., or 19.5 per English, German, and French, with notes upon all down, except in one or two branches. There is a decent., yearly. Last year o~ly 10.1. per cent. went in laws, ordinances, and regulations in various countries, creasing weight of work coming forward, and the list
dispute pay, 64.9 p er cent . In prov1dent benefits, and especially as r egar ds the labour of females and children, of out-of-work members shows a considerable incr ease.
25 per cent. in management expense~. The latter has hours of labour, Sunday rest, and trades dangerous t o Locomotive and r ailway-wagon builders are, however,
been growing of late years, and I S 12.2 per cent. health. The tailoring trades of Germany have for- full of work, with a fair amount of new work offering,
mulated a series of r eforms which the workers desire but which the firms are not able to accept if the condi
higher than in 1893.
Unemployed benefit was high in the building trades to see embodied in legislation. The printing trades tion be early delivery. Most of the firms have enough
in 1900- 46 355l. ; low in the mining industries- only have ananged a tariff, or log, wit h the employers, work in hand to carry them well over next year, while
4419l. la~ in the engineering group of t rades- which is to take effect on and from January 1 next, a good deal of work which cannot be held back is
92, 1:-Ht. : in 1894 it was 258,620l. High in the textile and to continue in operation for five years. The going to America and elsewhere. American firmR have,
trades- 59 084l. ; in t he other groups, not much above furriers in France are fighting for an eight-hours it is said, secured considerable orders which English
the averag~. The proportion in the hundred unions day. The operatives are out in 58 firms, but in one firms have been unable to undertake.
was about 2.9 per cent. of unemployed. S ick benefit of t he largest the workers have continued at work. branches of engineering are also kept fully engaged,
amounted to 323,23ll. in 1900, n_early . 2000l. ?f which The trade unions of S tutligart, Wurtemberg, have and those closely aesociated with them. The iron
went in gr ants to hospitals. Th1rty-e1ght umons pay erected offices a nd a large hall at a cost of 32,000l. trade is not regarded as satisfactory, business generally
superanm: ation allowance.
In these are 558,329 I t provides sleeping accommodation for lOO persons. being very restricted. There is a tendency to ease
members of these 9936 were in receipt of benefit , or The Workers' Legal Ad vice Committee propose to down prices in the finished branches. A slight de1. 8 per c~nt. of the total. The amount so paid in give ad vice on all matters pertaining to labour to any cline is apparent in t he s teel trade also. Reports from
1900 was 188,447l. Funeral benefit c~st 93,682l. in the bond-fide members of a trade union, upon the produc- local centres confirm the general view of diminishing
year 89 unions out of the lOO prov1de such benefit. tion of a letter from the secretary of the union to work. In the Manchester and Salford districts, in
It wih be Eeen from the figures given that the ~e~ter which he belongs. Questions of non-union members branches of unions with an aggregate of 24,765
class of trade unions are really great benefit soCieties, will not be a nswered. The charge is only ls. If members, ll24r or 4.5 per cent., were unemployed, as
referred, 5s. If the advice giYen help to avoid litiga- compared with 3.6 per cent. in the previous month.
many of them of a very superior char acter.

E N G I N E E R I N G.

Nov. 29, 1901.]

Some sections of the engineering trades r eport trade as
moderate, two as good, and one as bad. In the Oldha.m
district all sections r eport trade as slack or declining,
except boilermakers and gas-meter makers. In the
Bolton district, the r eports are from good to moderate,
br quiet. The same a pplies to Bury, Ohorley, Heywood, and Wigan. At Blackburn, Burnley, and district, the reports are slack, declining, or bad. In the
Liverpool a nd Birkenhead district, one branch reports
trade as good , one fair, ten as moderate, one dull, and
one affected by a dispute. The p osition is not favoura ble , nor are the prospects encouraging.
The position of affairs in the Welsh coal t rade is,
to say the l east, curious. The men had an other stopday, after t he policy was supposed to have ended. At
Aberdare a batch of fifteen miners w ere summoned,
damages being laid at ll. each. Legal points were raised,
but 14s. 6d. each w as order ed to be paid. The case
is to be taken to a higher court. At Tredegar twentyfive were summoned, the claim being for 10s. each.
The company 's solicitor in this case ask ed for an
ad journment, which was granted.
Over 600 summonses were issued by the Ponterdaw Police Court;
all the me n appeared, though the Court only h eld
about fift y. After a private con sultat ion, the summonses were withdrawn. E ither the men have broken
t heir contracts, or they have not. If employers and
employed force up prices by restricting output, t h e
community will have a poor chan ce.
T he position of affairs in France is also curious.
The miners proclaim a general str ike ; some come out,
some do not. The time is then extended; then it
would appear that the policy is to be abandone d, but
more strikes follow, and in some instances disorder
ensues because some will not strike. There are rumours
of marching on to Paris, but steps have been ta.ken
to avert this. It is difficult to say whether t he movement is industrial or political- the la tter is probable.


i.e., the vertical component of the centrifugal force due 60 miles per hour ; then from equation 6 of the previous
to m.
a be the instantaneous value of t he angle between
the line of stroke and the radius of the balance
weight qr~.
r the crank radius in feet.
w the angular velocity of the wheel in radians per
. a. lb!:!. wetg
. ht
w = m gw 2 r sm

If V represents the speed of the train in miles ~er hour,



When the balance weight is at the top and bottom sin a is

a maximum=+ 1 and - 1 respectively. The pr~ure on
the rail is decreased in the first case by 4 tons, and mcreased
in the second case by 4 tons. Supposing the load on the
axle to be 15 tons- i.e., 7i tons per wheel-at every revolution the pr.essore is alternately decreased and increased
by about 54 per cen t. If two-thirds of M be balance.d,
the percentage variation is reduced to two-thirds of thts,
or 66 p er cent. F ig. 11 shows the variation of rail pres-


= 4 sin a. tons weight nearly.


CRANK-UFORr (rt?;pl.o~ from\

8 ~--~----1----+--+~ ~--f.----~--4---~

GO:l!PH. 'J fiwluuw.

- --- ---- - 1~0~ .-- - - --- ---- - - - --


7 FEEr,







/7fl4. H)

Pie.1Z AlL revobti.n.e 1TtfLSS wui.J Oo-tlti.rd.s

reciprocali..n[] 1'1'1.a8S i.Jl~ Driving Wheel!.





The dock strike at Whitehaven ended last week by

the concession of higher wages to t he cranemen ; the
latter on their p ar t agreed t ha t non-union men, about
whom t here was a dispute, ehould be allowed to
resume work wit hout molestation.


k(7ii4:Fj________________2 1(--- -------- --- -- ------ -~

Fig.13. TotaL [.H.P. 548. Boiler Press.160 lbs.

Oub-off 20lo.. Speed/ 65 T}1iles per hr.
Rev! 251p~ !TliAJ. Sprin.y 200. I.HP.274.


~ 60



Curve N~/. , , , 11 I


PISTON (plofteiL fi'OIIuFis.13)





~ 4 1--+-





L .& Y. RY CYL-! 18'k 26: RECIP. MASSES 551 L.BS. PER C YL.~

Then, if M is the maas of the recit>rocating parts per and D the diameter of the driving wheel in feet, concrank-pin, and q the fraction of this wh1ch is to be balanced,
5280 X 2
ta10mg t e a nee weig b, w = D
ubs tit u t mg
the magnitude of the balance weight m is given by
q NI 1 ~~
this in 4, and dividing by 22!0 to obtain w in tons (m is in
+ j2 pounds. . (3) pounds),
0. 00012 mr V2 .
Knowing the three dimensions i, j , k ; m may ab once
10 =

SlD a.
be calculated for any given value of q and M. The
numerical value of the an~le of di rection is given by

ARTIOLE 11.-0onsider thab Example 1 (page 727 ante)

tan fJ = .

represents a 7-ft. inside cylinder single engine. The value

of equation 2 of the preVIous article is 0. 76 ; therefore the
Le~ 'W be the variation of rail pressure in lbs. weight- magnitude of the balance weight required is 0. 76 M q
pounds. If the whole of the reciprocating parts are
* Paper read before the Institution of Mechanical balanced, q = 1 and M = 65llb., and therefore m = 0.76
x 551 = 419 lb. : the crank radius is 1.08 fb. Let V =





By Profess~r W. E. DALBY (Member), of London.

( Oonoludeil fr001; page 728.)
ARTIOLE 10.- Va'riation of Rail Presstvre. HannmerBlow.-The variation of the pressure between tQ.e wheel
and the rail, ca.uEed by the vertical component of the
centrifugal force due to the parb of the balance weight
concerned in balancing the reciprocating masses, is called
the "hammer-blow." 'i'his description of the effect does
not. d~cribe what takes place very well, beca.~se the
va.rl&tllon of the pr~sure 1s nob sudden, but contmuous,
except in the extreme case where the maximum value of
the variation is greater b~an the weig-ht on the wheel, . in
which case the wheel lift3 for an mstanb, and, commg
down again, gives the rail a true blow.
To esnimate the variation of pressure on one rail in a.
given case, the balance weight concerned in balancing
the reoiprocating.parts alone m~st be separated fr<;>m. t he
main balance weight. The qutckest way to do thts 18 to
find the balance weight for the proportion of the reciprocating masses balanced, neglecting altogether revolving
ma.sset~, which are presumably completely balanced and
therefore affect neither the pull on the train nor the rail
pressure. The schedule for the problem would be similar
to Schedule 1 (page 727 a-nte), replacing the mass ab each
crank pin by tlie proportion of the reciprocating mass to
be balanced. A more convenient way is bo consider that
the crank-pin mass is unity. Then in the couple polygon
of Fi~. 5 (page 727 ~te}. A B would reprsenb the dimension J, B 0 the dimension i . The closure, therefore, can
be computed from
C A = ~~v1 i2 + j2

and the magnitude of the balance weight for unity mass
CA 1 1 2
~- = - """' + )~

~ 41-+--+----f.- -1---+

A gas strike of con sidera ble dimensions is r eported

to have taken place in Italy.
It began at Milan, but
the men in other towns followed. The works are
owned by a Freuch company, with office3 in Paris,
and the company refuse the demands.



WHLS 4 ; 8- DIAM.

sure for ene rev~lution of the driving-wheel (Curve No. 1),

on the assumpt10n that the whole of the reciJ>rooa.ting
parts are balanced ; No. 2, two-thirds of them. Line P Q
represents 7l tons, the static load on the wheel. The
width of the shaded figure therefore represents the rail
pressure when the speed is 60 miles per hour, giving
adhesion, supposing two-thirds of the reciprocating parts
to be balanced. The variation of rail ~,>ressure due to the
obliquity of the connecting rod is relatri vely negligible.
ARTIOLE 12.-Speed at which a Wheel Lijts.-When
s~all wheels .are used, as in. coupled goods engins, the
piSton speed mcrea.ses for a given speed of travellin~, and
the rail pressure variation must be carefully considered
in the balancing, or the wheels may leave the rail
altogether at every revolution, a mistake in design not
entirely unknown in practice. The formula (Eq. 6
A rt. 10) may eaaily be adj usted to find the ~peed at
which this takes place for a given case. Let W be the
weight on the wheel ; t hen the pressure ab the rail is given
at any instant by W- 'W.
If 1v = W this becomes 0 for the top position of the
weight, and. 2 W for .the bott~m positi9n. Hence putting
W for w m Equation 6, ame a. bemg 1, and solving
for V-

E N G I N E E R I N G.

assumed to be the sa.me. Ib is drawn in for a phase


difference of 90 deg. The two are then added to get

V 0.00012mr
cu rve No. 1 (Fig. 12), giving the total turning effort on
V o being the Sped in miles per hour ab which the rail tb.s crank in terms of the crank angle.
pressure becomes instantaneously nothing every time
(d) The weight on the driving wheels is 16i tons; and
the b1.lance weight passes through its highest position. they are 7 fb. in diameter. The resisting couple due to
Take the data of example 3. where W = 7.5 tons and
1 5
m= 419lb.; for full balance, V o = 82 miles per hour approximately. If two-thirds of the reciprocating masses x 3.5 = 11.55 foot-tons. The mass of the reciprocating
are balanced, m = 280 lb. approximately and Vo =. 100 parts per cylinder is 551 lb., two-thirds of which is
miles per hour approximately. These two calculations balanced. Referring to Art. 14, Eq. 2, M= 551 q = ~
show that two thirds is about the greateab proportion of Therefore the magnitude of the resultant mass is 620 lb,
the reciprocating mass which should be balanced in a acting as shown in Fig. 16. Ab the time the diagrams
single engine. 1'he en_gine may nob slip because the other were taken the crank axle wa~ making 251 revolutions
wheel may provide sufficient adhesion at the instant. To per minute= 4.2 revolutions per seoond, and r = 1.08 fb.
detect if slipping is about to take place, the burning effort Therefore OJ2 r = 4 1r2 n 2 r
760. The maximum value of
on the crank axle must be compared with the couple resist- the force due to this, found from Eq. 3, Art. 14, expressed
ing slipping; this latter couple depends upon the sum of in tons, is 5.4. The wheels a.re 7 fb. in diameter. The
the rail pressures.
value of the corresponding resisting couple, allowing oneARTICLE 13. Slippi-ng. - The driving wheels tend to slip
= 3.78 foot-tons. The exwhen the turning effort on the crank-axle is equal to the
couple resisting slipping. The forces of this latter couple pression for the value of the resisting couple in terms of
are the fri ctional resistance a.t the rail, a.nd the equal
the angle a is then 11.55 - 3. 78 sin a (this is the value of
parallel, and opposite tractive force. at the driving Eq. 4, Art. 14; the + sign is used here, however, becau3e
horns; the arm of the couple is the radius of the driving the angle is measured counterclookwise, but downwards
wheel. The forces of this couple vary directly as the from an initial line to the left- see Fig. 16), the sign of
pressure between the wheel and the rail. If wl is the the second term being determined by the sign of its
load on the two wheels, w1 the resultant variation of rail trigonometrical factor. To plot this quickly, draw the
pressurP, the greatest value of the frictional resistance is line A B (Fig. 12, page 755) to represent the resisting
about \Vt - 101 Therefore, if the turning effort on the couple due to the weight on the wheels alone ; that is,
11. 55 foot-tons, and on it as ba~e construct a sine curve
crank~laft is greater than the couple
whose maximum ordinate is 3. 78, allowing for the phase
difference between the radius of this resultant mass and
5- ~) R

the cranks.
ARTICLE 16. Distribution of the ReoiJJ'rooating M ass
R being the radius of the driving wheel, slipping will Bettveen the Cowpled Wheels.-A way of decreasing the
vd.riation of rail pressure in coupled engines is to divide
ARTICLE 14.-Value of w1 the Resultant Variation.-The the balance weight used to balance the reciprocating
resultant of the two balancing masses is equal t o a single parts between the coupled wheels. The effects of these
mass placed on the prolongation of the line bisecting the separate weights on the engine frame add up to the
angle between the two cranks (Fig. 16, page 755), and same horizontal effect as that dne to the single balance
equal in magnitude to the square roob of twice the square weight m, in the driving wheel. The variation of rail
of the part of the reciprocating masses balanced. If M is pressure is reduced a.t the driving wheel; a proportional
the mass of the reci{>roca.ting parts per cylinder, and variation, however, being introduced a.b the coupled
the fraction q of this 18 balanced, the magnitude of the wheels to which part of the balance-weight is transmass which is the resultant of the R. and L. balancing ferred. There is also a redistribution of pressure a.b the
masses for the reciprocating parts is
To illustrate this, consider Example 2 (page 728 ante)
1.41 M q pounds

again. Fig. 17 shows the crank circles drawn out, with the
acting at 135 deg. with the direction both of the L. and R. balancing masses, shown in black, already found for the
cranks. The maximum value of the force due t o this is
completebalanceof the revolving parts and two- thirds of the
reciprocating parts. To find what part of the driving wneel
w1 = l.4l M q x w rlb. weight=0.00077 qMn2r tons weight(3) balance weight balances the two-thirds of the reciprocating
parts use formuJ re 2 and 3, Article 10. The value of equawhere n is the revolutions per second, g being introduced tion 2 is 0. 76 for the example in question. The mass of the
to give the force in pounds weight or tons weight, as the reciprocating parts is 551 lb. The value of m for q = j is
case may be. The value in terms of the angle a., a being
0.76 X 551 X 2
= 279 lb. placed m the L.
the angle between the line of stroke and the radius of the therefo.re
resultant m~s, is w1 sin a.. This will be + or - accord18
ing to the sign of sine a. The couple resisting slipping is wheel at an angle such that tan 8 = '41' Therefore 8 =
(23 de g. + 180 deg.) measured from the L. crank direcR{ W 1 - 6..:0~07; Mn~ si~
tion. This angular position is shown by the line 0 Q in
the driving wheel (Fig. 17). The parb required for the
in terms of the variable ar.gle a. The maximum value of revolving
parts on the driving axle is 2-!8lb., placed as
this expression occurs when a = 270 deg., and the mini- shown by the dotted circle. Draw lines 0 Qh 02 Q 2, in
mum when a = 90 deg. It being understood tha.t the the leading and trailing wheels respectively,
parallel to
a ngle a is measured counter-clockwise, shrting from an the radius 0 Q in the driving wheel, and place onethird
initial line to the right.
of the 279 lb.-i.e., 93 lb._:.ab each wheel, remembering
that it is at 13.in. radius. Reduced to 10-in. radius-the
ExA :\fPLE 4.
radius of the balance weights already found for the reARTICLE 15.-To further illustrate this p oint the actual volving parts in the leading and trailing wheels-it bedriving effort is compared with the couple reaistin~ slip- comes 120 lb. Considering the leading wheel, the 120 lb.
ping for a complete revolution (Fi~. 12. page 765) m the due t o the transferred ma~s combines with the
case of a. Lancashire a.nd Y orkshue four-coupled bogie 317 lb. already found to form a. resultant balance
express passenger engine, running at 65 miles per hour, weight of 218 lb. ab 10-in. radiuEJ, placed as shown
two-thirds of the reciprocating parts being balanced. in Fig-. 18. Considering the driving wheel, the 218-lb.
Cylinders 18 in. by 26 in. ; wheels 7 ft. diameter. The required for the balance of the revolving parts combine
ordinates of curve No. 1 (Fig. 12) show the value of the with the 93 lb. lefb for the reciprocating parts to form a
driving effort, or torque, on the dri ving axle; those of resultant balance weight of 324 lb. placed as shown in
curve No. 2 the couple resisting slipping. Ib will be Fig. 18. The trailing wheel masses combine similarly
noticed bow nearly the two values approach for crank posi- to the leading wheel masses. Thus Fig. 18, page 755,
tion 1. If this bad been a single engine. a little more shows bhe balance weights assuming two-thirds of the
steam, and curve No. 1 would have cut No. 2, slipping reciprocating parts to be balanced by ma~ses equally disbeing the inevitable result. In the case in question, the tributed between the coupled wheels. Similarly, Fig. 19
shows the balance weights, supposing the whole of the
coupled wheels would come into play and prevent i~.
reciprocating parts to be balanced. In this case m =
The method of drawing the curves is as follows:
(a) Find the neb driving pressure on the piston from 419 lb., the part in each wheel to be combined with the
the indicator cards by taking the intercepts between the revel ving weight is 140 lb. at 1:3 in. radius = 182 lb.
steam line of one diagram and the exhaust line of its ab 10 in. radius. These weights balance the whole of the
fellow. The shaded parts of the diagram (Fig. 13, page reciprocating masses, and at the same time the maximum
755) show the width to be taken for the left end . These variation in the rail pressure is reduced from 7.8 tons to
are plotted in Fig. 14, curve No. 1 for both ends. 2.6 tons. This is unquestionably the best way to deal
The diagram i~ ca.librate.d to give .the. tote.~ pressure ac t- with whatever proportion of the reciprocating masses is
ing on the p1st1on. (P1ston 18 m. m dtameter.) The balanced, w far as the permanent wa7 is concerned; and
numbera on the horizontal axis are those corresponding to with regard to the variation of bract1ve effort, the whole
of the reciprocating masses may be balanced without
the numbers on the crank circle (Fig. 16).
(b) These pressures are modi6.ed by the forces req~ired introducing too great a. variation of rail pressure.
In the case of a sixcoupled engine, in which there is no
to accelerate the motion of the p18ton. These are qu1okly
found by using Klein's construction. The curve repre- separate small leading wheel or bogie, the division might
senting them (No. 2, Fig. 14) is plott.ed to the same sca~e be made in a different proP.ortion, giving three-eighths
as the n et driving pressure o~ the p1ston. The effec~ JS each to the driving and trailing wheels, and the remainto decrease the pressure actmg to turn. the cran.k dur!ng ing quarter to the leading wheel if the leading wheel were
the first part of the stroke, and to mcrease 1b durmg lightly loaded.
If this method of distributing the reciprocating masses
the second part 'fhe widths of the shad~d figures therefore give the value of the force operating to turn the is adopted, ib is only necessary to include in the schedule
crank for any given ora nk angle. These ha. v~ been r~ of the leading wheels the one-third of the reciprocating
plotted in Fig. 15. Notice how much. more umform thlS mass assigned to them, acting at two imaginary cranks,
parallel, and the same distance from, the reference plane
force is made by the effect of acceleratiOn.
(c) The crank effort diagram is constructed in the as the crank from which the mass has been transferred.
usual way. The curve marked L. in Fig. 12 is the For example: Schedule 4 would contain two more planes
crank ffforb curve corresponding t o the E_ressures of 18 in. and 43 in. from the reference plane, the correspondFig. 15. The curve correspondiog to the R. crank i~ ing maeses being 140 lb., the masses 1011 in Sohedule 1

V0 -

D2 W


being each re{>laced by bho revolving mass plus one-third

the reciprocatmg-i.e., 644 + 140 = 784lb.
ARTIOLE 17.-American Praotice.-Mr. HenEzey, of the
Ba.ldwin Locomotive " ' orks, has kindly furnished the
following details of their practice :

All the revolving parts and bwo-thirds of the reciprocating parts are balanced on singleexpansion engines of the
ordinary type. All the revolving parts and threequarters of the reciprocating parts are balanced on the
V a.uclain compounds. The weights balancing the reciprocating parts are distributed equally between the
coupled wheels. One-third of the connecting-rod is included with bhe reciprocating masses and the remainder
with revolving parts. The mass of the coupling rod is
distributed between the crank-pins in the proportion
which they respectively support of its weight. The parts
are balanced as though the1r respective mass centres re.
vol ved in the same plane.
ARTICLE lB.-Eight-Coupled Engine, Class E, Baldwin
Company.- Fig. 20 (page 765) shows the arrangement of
the wheels.
The ma-ss of the reciprocating parbs. including one
third of the connecting-rod, is 1170 lb. Of this two-thirds
is balanced, which, distributed equally between the
coupled wheels, gives 195 lb. per wheel,
The mass to be balanced in each wheel is made up as
Wheel Numbers.


_a} . . (

29, 1901.

No. 3.

No. 4.

No. 6.

No. 6.












20 l





53 l


1267 !


Reciprocating parts equally


Revolving parts :
Two-thirds conneotingrod
Coupling-rod ..



At 14 in. radius

At 16t in., the radius of the

mass centres of the balance
weights thus become



- I

ARTICLE 19. -Fo'U/1'-Cylinder Locmnotives.-The reciprocating masses in four-cylinder locomotives may be

arranged to balance amongst themselves without using
balance weights at all. U nder these circumstanc~. assuming the revolvine- masses to be balanced, there will be
no variation either m 'rail pressure or tractive force, and
no swaying couple. The engine will, in fact, be perfectly
balanced, neglecting the errors which arise from the
obliquity of the conneoting.rod and the valve gear. The
crank angles involved in balancing four reciprocating
masses amongst themselves in general involve the employment of a separate set of valve gear p er cylinder.
Considerable mechanical simplicity ma.y be obtained
by arranging the cranks in two pairs, the two cranks
in each pair being at 1~0 deg. with each other, the
pairs themselves being ab 90 deg. With this arrangemen~, assuming tha.t each of the four sets of reciprocating masses are equal in magnitude. there will be
no variation of tractive force exerted by the engine and
no variation of rail pressure ; there will be left, however,
a swaying couple, which will in general neceesita.te the
addition of balance weights to minimise its effect at high
speeds. The revolving weights added to do this introduce
a variation of rail pressure-, but do not affect the tractive
If four sets of valve gear are employed, the crank angles
may be arranged for balance in a variety of wa.ys, though
complete balance cannot be effected by any arrangement
of four cranks mutually at right angles. If a set of
crank angles and masses for complete balance amongst
the reciprocating masses are found, and decided upon,
then, if the revolving masses are made in the same proportion amongst themselves that the reciprocating masses
are, no balance weights will be required for the revolving
masses a.t the crank-axle. That is, if the reciprocating
mas~es are in the proportion,
a : b : : c : d,
the revolving masses must be in the same proportion if
they are to be in balance among_st themselves without the
addition of balance weights. Thus ib is possible to construct a locomotive in complete balance (neglecting the
obliquity of the connecting-rod) without t he addition of
balance weights of any kind, by properly proportioning
the masses and crank angles, but whether such an engine
would be satisfactory in a.ll of the many other exacting
conditions it has to fulfil is a. matter which can only be
decided by experiment.
In conclusion, the author wishes to thank Mr. Aspinall
for the practical data he has placed at his disposal, and
also Nir. Henszey for particulars of the practice of the
Bald win Company.
WATRR AT MANCORSTRR.-The Water Works Committee of the Manchester Ciny Council decided on Thursday to remove all restrictions upon the water supply
under its control, all danger of a water famine being now
happily at an end. The heavy rainfall of the past few
days has had a. wonderful effect in replenishing the stook
in the Longdendale reservoina, which now contain
2,444,000,000 gallons, equal to 65 days' supply. The
stock in hand was a.t its lowest point on November 9,
when it stood a.t 552,000,000 gallons. It is four months
since the committee first curtailed the supply. The committee decided also on Thursday to take immediate steps
to commence laying a second pipe from Thirlmere,

Nov. 29, 1901.]

E N G I N E E R I N G.


train of prisms. The collimator and obser ving telescope of sulphur may be attributed to t he uncertainty in the
are fixed, and adj ustment is made by a double tangent values assumed for the expansion of porcelain. In the
AT the meeting of the Physical Society, held on N ovem- screw which moves both the prism~. Two other types, present paper the a ubho.r examines .the way .i n which
ber 8, Mr. T. H. Bla.kesley, Vice-President, in the chair, constructed on a. similar principle, were described, of t heir re~ults would be modtfied by the mtroduct1on of the
a. paper on '' A Voltam,ete-r for S'UJ,ll Ctllr'rents " was read which one had one prism and t wo speculum mirrors, and dilatation deduced from the experiments of Messrs.
by Dr. R . A. Lehfeldt. The instrument consists of a. the other had two refracting prisms and a reflecting ri gh t- H olborn and Day. It follows from t he introduotion of
capillary tube about 2o centimetres long, completely angled prism. The adjustments of these instruments are the new values that the boiling point of sulphur d educed
filled with mercury, with the exception of a. buoble of simple and their power great. By a small movement of from experiments with a porcelain reservoir. thermometer
merourous nit rate solution about 1 centimetre long placed an adjusting screw the observer can produce great changes would be lowered from 445.2 deg. to 444.7 deg., a
n ear the middle of the tube. Connection with the two of dispersion by passing from one to another of the series number very close to that obtained by Callendar a.n.d
Griffiths. In a. second pa.rb of the paper, Dr. Obappws
mercury columns is made by means of platinum wires of spectra which are produced.
passing through t he side of the tube. T o use the inst ruP rofessor J . Perry asked if the third form of spectra has recalculated the divergencies between the uncorrected
ment, it is placed in a. vertical position, t he anode being scope, in which there is total internal reflection, had been nitrogen scale and the theoretical scale, and find~ that! the
a.t the top, and the quantity of electricity which pa.~ses tried experimentally. The amount of light lost ab total difference between these values and those gtven prethrough is mea<Jured by the change in volume of either internal reflection is muoh less than at reflection from viously is too small to be of any practical im~ortanoe.
The Secretary read a letter from Mr. A . E . Tutton, in
electrode. In a test experiment the change in volume mirrors, and he bad found that the chief difficulty in
was measured by means of a micrometer, and agreed using mulbiple reflections from mirrora was t he great which he said that he was working ab the expansion of
within 0.6 per cent. with the amount deduced from the absorption of lighb.
porcelain, and hoped to present a communicatton to the
known value of the current. It is necessary that the
~Ir. T. H. Blakesley asked if there was any confusion ~ucieby shortly.
currents should be smalJ, so as to avoid complications due due to overlapping of the spectra.
P rofessor H . L. Ca.llendar said that he was highly
to _polarisation.
Mr. R. T. Glazebrook said be would like to know gratified to see that the application of the correction
The Chairman pointed out that t he presence of air in whether the author had any measure of the relative for the expansion of the bulb of Dr. Chappuis' gas
the tube would render the readings inaccurate, and asked brightness of the first and last spectra.
thermometer, deduced from Holborn and Day's results,
if it was necessary to apply any temperature correction.
Mr. W. F. Stanley said that by using three prisms gave a value, 444.7 deg., for the boiling point
Dr. L ehfeldt said that it was quite easy to seal the tube instead of two, it would be possible to substitute in the of sulphur in such close agreement wit h the value
withou t admitting air, and the temperature correction first form of speobroscop~ total internal reflection for 444.5 deg. deduced by Mr. Gr1ffiths and himself in 1890.
wa-s negligible. A note on a paper by Professor ~,laming normal reflection ab a silvered surface.
The agreement wa.s really much closer than appeared at
and M r. Ash ton, entitled " On a ModeL 'Which I mitates the
The Chairman suggested a possible way of improving first sight, because the remaining difference of nwo- tenbhs
Behaviowr of Dielectrics,,, by Dr. J . B uohanan, was read the third arrangement by using two prisms with their of a degree in the results was almost exactly accounted
by the Secretary. The action of this model d ep ends on apices outwards, refracting at both faces, but not in the for by the scale difference of the constant pressure and
the viscosity of a liquid, and the diagrams derived from position of minimum deviation. Twen ty-five years ago constant volume thermometers according to the theory of
it show by their form that the motion of the pencil which the present Astronomer Royal suggested the use of half- Joule and Thomson. It was also interesting to remark
traced them approximated closely to what may be ex- prism spectroscope~, and although they are often described that the corrected result found by Dr. Chappuis was in
pressed by the term "motion of a viscous fluid by dif- in books, they are seldom actually used. The advantage very close agreement with that deduced from their own
fusion." In other word@, th-:> displacement curves ob- of using total internal reflectionJ is well known, and is observations by Messre. H olborn and Day. Dr. Chappuis
tained from the model, and their derived velocity curves, exemplified in binooular3, in some of which there are eight had nob referred in the J>resenb note to the work of Bedford
are of the same form as the graphs of certain solutions reflections from the object -glass to the eye-piece. He on the expansion of Bayeux porcelain, which he had
congratulated the author upon the mechanical arrange- criticised in a previous paper. A comparison of results
of F ourier's well-known equation ~ = K d'J v . L ord ments used in his st:ectroscopes.
would show that Bedford's results agreed very fairly,
d X~
Professor Cassia said that there was no confusion of allowing for the difference of material, with Holborn and
Kelvin has shown that the p otential and the current at any spectra due to overlapping.
Day's from 200 deg. to 600 deg. Cent; and that both
point in the wire of a cable can be expressed by approWith an ordinary Bunsen-burner sodium flame a series differed from thoso of D r. Chappuis between 0 deg.
priate solutions of this equation; and in t he s!.l.me manner of about five spectra are easily observed with dispersion and 80 deg. when extrapolated in a precisely similar
by the use of solutions of this equation, the diffusion of ~quivalent to direct transmission through ten full-sized manner. It was quite possible, ss he (Professor Calelectricity into or out of the dielectric of a condenser prisms. The loss of light ab the reflections limits lenda.r) had p reviously suggested, that the expansion
can be treated. Ib :>.ppeara therefore that the motion of the number of t ransmissions that can be used ; but he of porcelain between 0 deg. and lOO deg. wag anomalous.
the model, and the diffusion of electricity in a dielectric, believed that no other spectroscope with only two prisms It appeared certain t hat some anomaly in the expansion
are subject to one and the same mathematical law. The would give dispersing power and resolving power in any a.b 800 deg. was indicated both in the experiments of
author suggests that the inventors should obtain hysteresis way approaching the instrument described.
Bedford and also in those of Holborn and Day. It was
diagrams by cyclical loading of the springs.
also clear that Dr. Cha.ppuis' results for Bayeux porcelain,
P rofessor J. A. Flaming said that he was glad thab Dr. swement of Young 1s ModultM." The apparatus described when extrapolated, would agree with Bedford's ab a temBuoba.na.n had drawn attention again to the model, be- consisted of a horizontal needle (a. bar of large moment perature a little above 100 deg. Cent., or very nearly ab
cause there were p oints about ib which might be a m- of inertia) supported by a bifilar suE-pension made of the t he same point ab which his results for Berlin porcelain
plified with advantage. A fter giving a shor t description wire of which the stretch modulus is to be measured. agreed with those of Holborn and Day.
of the apparat us, he said that Dr. B uchanan had shown The periods of the pitching, rolling, and bifilar oscillaMr. R. T. Glazebrook said he had felt for some time
t hat mathematically the theory of the model was the same tions of this system are observed, and an expression for that ib was of importance that the difference between the
a~ that of diffusion in a cable, and he suggested that the stretch modulus is obtained, which involves no results of Callendar-Griffi the and of Chappuis and
there might be something more than mathematical me~urements except the weight of the needle and the Barker should be explained, and he was glad that the
analogy. Professor Flaming referred to the discussion periods of the oscillations. l'he necessary adjustments agreement was now so satisfactory.
on the original paper, in which Prof&sor Ayrton asked and the means of eliminating residual errors of adj ust
The Society then adj ourned until December 13.
in wha.b resp ect the model served its purpose better than ment were described for two forms of the apparatus.
a twisted wire. A twisted wire cannot represent the One form also affords a simple means of statical measureproperties of a dielectric, because if twisted beyond the ment by hanging a small weight on the needle at measured
elastic limits there is a permanent set. There is n o per- distances from the centre, calculating the difference of
TR~ opening meeting of this Society for t he session was
manent set in the present model. He should like to know tension produced in the wires, and observing with a
held on Wednesday evening, the 20th inst., at the Instiif a. dielecbric Las a true conductivity, and suggested that mirror and scale the consequent dip of the needle.
tution of Civil Engineers, 1\IIr. W. H. Di nes, B.A., Preexperiments should be made by subjecting a dielectric to
Dr. Chree said that it would be possible to get a check
constant elecbric pressure at constant temperature, for on the theory by placing t he movable weights at various sident, in the chair.
A paper by M r. A. Lawrence Rotch, on " The Explorayears if necessary, and observing whether the curve of positions on the needle, a.nd observing the times of swing
current becomes asymptotic to the zero line or to a line for pitching and bifilar vibrations. The ratio of the tion of the Atmosphere at Sea &y Mea;ns of Kites," was
parallel to ib. The model could be made to represent a squares of these times should remain constant. It was read by t he Secretary. The a uthor has for some years
conduction as well as a displacement current by so ar- difficult to say exactly what the appa.ratus measured, and past devoted his attention to the use of kites to obtain
ranging the bottom piston that it could descend, but nob he would like to see numerical results before expressing meteorological observations ab the Blue Hill Observatory,
1\IIass., U .S. A., and he has successfully carried on the
return. The fact that the movements of the model were an opinion upon it.
work of exploring the air there to a height of three miles
similar to the diffusion of current in a cable sug~ested
Professor J. Perry said it would have been interesting by several hundred kite flights, executed in varied weather
thab the process of conduction in a metal was aimtlar to
to have had results from the apparatus so that they could conditions, whenever the velooi by of the wind exceeded
that of displacement in a dielec~ric .
M r. J. Macfarlane Gray read a. "Note on the N wmerical be compared with those obtained by other methods. In 12 miles an hour. Certain types of weather, however,
Value of the' Characteri3tic ' of Wate1." The author re- the bifilar vibration there was a small twist in the wires, such as anti-cyclones, accompanied by light winds, can
ferred to a paper on thermodynamics which he published on account of which the torsional rigidity of the material rarely be studied. l\llr. Rotcli now proposes the employtwenty years ago, and in which he supported the theory affected the time of swing. He drew atten tion to the ment of kites carrying meteorograpbs on steamships,
especially on vessels cruising in tropical oceans. He has
of a gra.nular ether under enormous pressure. This necessity of having the tensions in the two wires equal.
Mr. R. T. G laze brook, referring to the arrangement for himself demonstrated the practicability of this scheme,
theory explains the properties of bodies. There is a
numerical characteristic for every substance in the state clamping the bifilar at the top, pointed out that a small as on A ugust 22 last he ratsed a kite to an elevation of
of vapour. This characteristic can be deduced from an slip would modify the whole of the theory. An advan- half a mile from a tow-boat in l\Iassacbusetts Bay, when
analytical expression in volving certain physical data tage of the apparatus lay in the fact that the wires used the velocity of the wind ab sea-level varied between 6 and
which must be experim~ntally determined. His original were shorter than those necessary in other me thods. It 10 miles an hour. Ab the end of the same month, when
number for water was 25.33776, hub later experiments by was an interesting and ingenious application of theory to crossing th e North Atlantic from Boston to Liverpool on
the steamship Commonwealth, be was able to raise kites
Lord R~yleigh on t he weight of hydrogen have altered the methods of measuring Young's modulus.
M r. Whipple asked bow the rolling and bifilar vibra- carrying a meteorograph to an altitude of 1800 fb., on
this num ber to 25.306!)3. The author's value for Ranfive days out of the eight. The chief feature of these
kine's absolu~e specific hea.b of water was 42!,960 "mms. tions were e~perimentally sepa.rated.
:Mr. A. Campbell suggested that the difficulby of records was the rapid change of temperature with height.
lifb at Paris." The recent experiments of Callendar
A paper by Professor J. ~lilne, F.R.S., on "Meteorogive 426,230 for the specific heat of water at 60 de~. Cent. equality of tensions in the wires could be reduced by
logical Pherwmena in Relation to Chalnges in the Vertical,"
According to the au thor'tt t heory, water commences to using longer wires a greater distance apart.
Professor H. L. Callendar said he had found that the tor- waa also read by the Secretary. When resident in Japan
freeze ab 95 deg. Fahr., and the abnormal variation of
the specific heat of water at low temperatures is due to sional effect in a bifilar vibration was negligible, and that some years ago, t he author carried on numerous observat he latent heat of ice molecules. The formation of ice the fl.exure effect was not important. The aosolute rigidity tions by seismographs for ascertaining changes in the
vertical, and foun d that the more important displacemolecules also explains the peculiar changes in volume of of the fastening ab the top was the greatest diffi culty.
P rofessor Cassia said his object bad been rather to menta of the horizontal pendulums are of three typeswater aa ib cools to the freezing point.
The Chairman asked if this theory was consistent with describe and exhibit the apparatus than give numerical viz., "intermediate," "long," and " short" period wanthe f~ob that water can remain liquid below 32 deg. Fa.hr. results, although he had obtamed numbers agreeing with derings. During the last five years P rofessor Milne has
those got by other methods. The mirrors for observing had continuous photographic records of a horizontal pen1iir. Macfarlane Gray said it was.
the vibrations were so placed upon the apparatus that dulum at his residence at Shide, I sle of Wight, and he now
The Society then adjourned until N ovember 22.
eaoh one was affected only by the particular vibration makes a comp arison of these records wit h the weather conditions prevailing during the first six months of 1901. He
which it was designed to measure.
AT the meeting of the Physical Society, held on NovemA paper entitled " Notes on Gas-T he11nometry : Part eays that, assuming that a locality can be chosen where the
ber 22, ProfessorS. P. Thompson, P resident, in the chair, II.," by Dr. P. Chappuis, was read by Dr. Harker.
diurnal wa.ve and effects due bo rain and desiccation are
Messrs. Holborn and Day have published recently in a small, which his observations indicate a-s p ossible, records
Professor W. Oassie read a paper on "Multiple Tra;nsmission Fixed ANn Spectroscopes."
research on the air thermometer the results of a new of whab appear to be the effects due to barometrical
The simplest form of spectroscope shown consisted of two determination of the expansion of Berlin porcelain gradients may be obtained. When t hese are large and
half prisms silvered on the back, between which a. beam between 0 deg. and 1000 deg. The author has already appear suddenly, the movements of the pendulum may
of light goes backwards and forwards with a slight up drawn attention in a former note to the fact that part of be marked. At Shide, the westerly displacement of a
ward inclination. The result in dispersing and resolving the divergence found between the results of Callendar and pendulum has for several years past been regarded as
power is equivalent to direct transmission through a long Griffitbs and of Harker and himself for the boiling point mdioating the approach of bad weather.

E N G I N E E R I N G.

AT the ordinary meeting of the Institution of Civil

Engineera, held on Tuesday, November 12, 1901, Mr.
Oharles Hawksley, President, in the Chair, the {>&per
read was "The Discharge of Sewage into a Tidal
Estuary," by Mr. W. K . Parry, NI.A., B.A.I., M. Inst.
C E ., and Mr. W. E. Adeney, D.Sc.
It was stated that the River Liffey, together with the
tidal estuary, to which this paper referred, received the
sewage discharged not only from the City of Dublin, but
from all the suburban townships immediately adjacent
thereto. The investigations described in the paper were
intended particularly to ascerbain the effect of the discharge of the sewage of two townships-namely, Rathmines and Pembroke-into the tidal estuary.
The method of chemical analysis employed in examining the estuary waters . was based upon the bacteriochemical study of sewage. Ib was well known that unpolluted water, when kept out of contact with air, remained saturated with atmospheric oxygen, but when
polluted to a moderate extent it lost oxygen in proportion
to the degree of pollution. This loss of oxygen was due
to bacterial fermentation. In the presence of a sufficient
volume of oxygen this fermentation was of an aerobic
The dissolved nitrogen suffered no ap
preciable change, and therefore gave the datum for
calculating the degree of original pollution. Carbon
dioxide was also formed during fermentation, in
direct proportion to the quantity of organic matter
pre3ent, and therefore, by calculating the volumes of
these gases before and after keeping the samples, the
extent of the ori~inal pollution could be accurately ascertained. In m~klDg the observations which formed the
subjecb'of the paper, care had been taken to collect samples
at all states of the tide and under all atmospheric conditions.
For purposes of comparison, samples of sea
water from Dublin Bay and samples of river water above
the City of Dublin bad been also collected, and the
volumes of the dissolved gases and other characteristic
constituents bad been accurately determined.
The eewage from the townships of Rathmines and
Pembroke was discharged from a tank sewer during the
first five hours of ea-ch ebb tide, ab a point a little more
than a mile above the ends of the training walls which
enclosed that portion of the estuary known as Dublin
Harbour. In order to determine how far the condition
of the estuary was affected by this discharge, as compared with the effect produced by the city sewage
which passed into the river itself above Dublin Harbour, it had been necessary not only to examine the
watH at all states of the tide below the Rathmines and
Pembroke outfall, but also to take a similar series of
observations above the outfall. The results of the lastnamed observations showed that at high water of average
tides the extent of the pollution of the river water above
the outfa.ll was very slight indeed. This was obviously
accounted for by the large volume of pure sea. water
present in the harbour at high tide. Corresponding
examinations of the surface water at low spring tides
showed that under these conditions the surface water was
distinctly more polluted. But the bottom samples collected at the same places and at the same times still
remained comparatively pure.
For the purpose of ascertaining the relative proportions
of sea and river water in the several samples collected,
the total e~olids contained in each sample had been estimated. Knowing the total solids in pure sea water a!ld
in river water, the relative proportions could be readtly
ascertained after the total solids in the sample bad been
estimated. In this way it was proved that at low water
of spring tides the bottom waters of the deep-water
channel from the Pigeon House Fort downwards,
consisted of a. mixture ef five or six parts sea. water
and one part river water, whereas the surface samples
taken at the same time consisted of from one part
sea. water and three parts river water, at the Pis:eon
House Fort to 2.4 parts sea water and one part. nyer
water 1870 yards lower down. _The results of Simtlar
observations made at the same pomts at low water ?f neap
tides were also given in the paper. Correspondmg examinations had been made o~ the surface and bot~om
waters at low water of neap ttdes below the Rathmmes
and Pembroke outfall, both within the harbour and outaide it. This bad been done because it had been alleged
that ab low water of neap tides t~e estuary waters were
seriously affected by the tank d1scharse and that the
polluted water was carried back again IDto the harbour
when the tide began to flow.
A number of Tables were given in the paper with the
full analytical results, and all these figur~ went to show
that the loss of dissolved oxygen, ~ven ID the surface
samples in the deep-water channel, ID no case exceeded
23 per cent. The state of ~he estuar:y at low water of
average tides was then described, and tt was shown that
the figures fully confirmed those f?und for low water. of
neaps. For the purpose o~ sb~wmg that the pollutmg
matters were nob accumulatmg m the estuary waters the
analyses of samples collected at the same place and at
the same state of the tide at intervals of on.e ~ear. were
given and compared, and the remarkable stmtlanty of
the analytical results was commented UJ?On. The next
stage in the investigations .~as to ascerta.m the effect of
gales of wind upon the condition of the estuary water, and
for this purpose analyses had been me.de of samples collected during strong westerly gales.
The Rathmines and Pembroke outfall was then described, and it was pointed out that, although the s~wage
of some fifty or sixty thousand persons bad be~n deh vered
untreated into the deep-water channel of the tt~al est~ary
for 18 years, no permanent deposits of any kmd e~nsted
either near or below the outfall. In order to Rscerta.m the

relative volumes of sewage and clean water in the

tidal estuary, the discharges from the Rathmines and Pembroke outfa.ll were observed and computed both a.b spring
and at neap tides. The liquid which was then discharged
consisted of sewage from which the liea.vier solids bad
lseen previously removed, together with considerable
volumes of subsoil water. These calculations were corroborated in a. remarkable way by the analyses. To determine with accuracy the solids removed from the sewage,
a series of observations bad been made, from which
it appeared that the quantity of dry solids removed
might be taken as about 1 ton per day. The immediate
and ultimate effects of this discharge of sewage at all
states of the tide, and under varying atmospheric condi
tions, were fully explained and commented upon; and it
was pointed out that whereas the immediate effect of the
discharge was to increase very greatly the dilution, and
thus to facilitate the dispersal and oxidation, of the
organic matter, the extent of the dilu~ion did nob progress with proportionate rapidity. The preceding observations and analyses afforded an explanation of the way
in which the sewa~e was disposed of when it was delivered
into the sea and nver water.
It was also pointed oub that although the great dilution
contributed materially towards disposing of the sewage
by dispersing the organic matter, the resolution of this
matter into harmless inorganic substances and gases by
bacterial fermentation and otber agencies did nob take
place to any large extent in the estuary itself, but was
slowly effected after the liquid reached open water.
The paper concluded by epitomising the lessons which
might be learnt from the observations and researches
described and recorded, and also the ~eneral conclusion<;
which might be drawn as to the conditions under which
untreated sewage might be safely discharged into a tidal
estuary similar to that of the River Liffey.


[Nov. 29,


On Saturday, the 16th inst., there was launched successfully from the yard of the Londonderry Shipbuilding
and Engineering Company, Londonderry, a cargo steamer
named the Neritea., built to the order of Mr. G. L. Premuda, of Trieste. The steamer is 365 ft. in length by
46 !t. 10~ in. breadth by 28 ft. depth moulded, and IS
destgned to carry over 6200 tons dead weight on a light
draught. The steamer is to be towed round to the Tyne
to receive her machinery, which has been constructed by
the North-Eastern Marine Engineering Company, and
ha~ cylinders 24! in., 4~ in., and .57 in. in diameter by
45 m . stroke. Steam will be aupphed by two large sin~le
ended boilers worked under forced draught ab a. workmg
pressure of 180 lb.
The s.s. Foxton Hall was launched on Wednesday. the
2~th. inst., by Messrs. Joseph L. Thompson and Sons
Limtted, of the :tforth Sands Shipbuilding Yard, Sunder~
land. She has been built to the order of Messrs. C. G.
Dunn and Oo., of Liverpool, and is the third vessel built
by this firm for these owners. The principal dimensions
of the vessel are: Lengbh over all, 381 ft. 6 in. ; breadth
extreme, 49 ft. 6 in. ; and depth moulded, 29 ft. 6~ in.
The engines and boilers have been constructed by the
North-Eastern Marine Engineering Company, Limited, of
Sunderland, the sizes of the cylinders being 26 in., 44 in.,
and 72 in., by 48 in. stroke, supplied wibb steam by three
large multibubular boilers working at 180 lb. pressure.
Recently there was launched from the yard of Messrs.
Allsup and Co., Limited, Preston, the steamer Holland,
the second of two powerful twin-screw tugs built for the
London and India Docks Company, the first being the
steamer Scotb, which was launched some five or six weeks
a.~o, from the same yard. The following are the chief
dimensions: Length between perpendiculars, 90 fb. ;
breadth moulded, 21 fb.; depth moulded, 12 fb. The
vessel will be fitted with water-tube boilers of modern
type, working at 200 lb. pressure, and two sets of com
pound surface condensing engines, with cylinders 19 in.
and 40 in. in diameter by 24 in. stroke, working ab 120 lb.
pressure, and capable of developing 1000 indicated horsepower.. The a.~r, circulating, an? feed pumps are separate
and driven by mdependent engmes. The vessel will also
be fitted with powerful fire pumps. The launching oere
mony was gracefully performed by Miss Allsup.

ON Tuesday, the 19bh inst., the single-deck steamer

Eda.le, built by Messrs. R. Craggs and Sons, of Tees
Dockyard, Middlesbrough, for the Dale Steamship Com
pany, Limited, of Bristol, and having a capacity of about
5200 tons deadweight on a moderate draught, proceeded
to sea. for her official trialf!. The results were pronounced
entirely satisfactory to all concerned, the vessel registering
a speed of about 11 kno~. The machinery has been supplied by Messrs. Richardsons, Westgarth, and Co.,
PROTECTION 01!' LEEDS W ATRR. -The Water Works
Limited, of Hartlepool, having cylinders 24 in., 38 in.,
and 64 in. in diameter by 42 in. stroke, steam being sup- Committee of the Leeds City Council have decided to
plied by two large single-ended boilers 15 fb. 9 in. in dia- purchase the agricultural portion of Lord \Valsingham's
estate ab Blubberhous&~, in the upper reauhes of the
meter, working at a pressure of 160 lb. per eq ua.re inch.
Wa.ahburn Valley. This will enable the Committee to
On Monday, the 11th inst. Messre. Wigham-Richard- remove some sources of pollution to the city's water
son and Co., Limited, launched a steel screw steamer, supply.
named the Balaton, which is being constructed to the
order of the Royal Hungarian Steam Navigation Com
T HE E LECTRIC LIGHT AT LouTH.-A special meeting
pany "Adria.," Limited, of Budapest and Fiume. The of the Louth '!'own Council was held last week, when
vessel is 325 ft. in length by 42 fb. beam. Her engines it was decided to apply for a provisional order to enable
and boilers are also being constructed by Messrs. Wigham- the council to supply electrimty for lighting and other
Ricbardaon and Co., Limited, the former being of the purposes throughout the borouR"h. Mr. Alderman Simpthree-crank tripleexpansion type, and they are intended ~on said the sum required would be about 10,000l. The
to drive the steamer ab a good speed.
counoil was a.t present paying about 700l. per annum for
gas. The town clerk was instructed to take the necesOn Saturday, the 9bh inst.,~ the Flensburger Schiffsbau sary steps to procure the contemplated crder.
Gesellschafb launched the nrsb half of a floating dock,
l;milding for Messrs. H. C. Stlilcken Sohn, Hamburg.
The remaining half will be laid down immediately. The
dock, when completed, will consist of two similar port.ions and Eastern Steel Works Forges Company realised a concapable together of lifting a vessel of 3400 tons dead- siderable profit in 1899-1900, the results of the company's
weight, but each portion is so constructed as to form a financial year 1900-1 were much less favourable. The
complete dock in 1tself to lift vessels of up to 1700 tons profits still amounted to 121,706l., but this total showed
dead weight, and this first part will be immediately towed a falling off of 58,561l. as compared with 1899-1900. The
through the Kai ser Wilhelm Canal for use in Hamburg. decline in this year's profits wa'3 due to the sensible
The dimensions of each section are 146 fb. long by slackening in French mechanical industry at the close of
80 ft. 6 in. broad; pontoon, 9 fb. 6 in. deep ; total height of 1900. The company's turnover in 1900-1 amounted to
side walls, 33 ft. The pontoons are divided into nine 724, 734l., showing a. reduction of 15. 66 per cent. as com
watertight compartments, seven of which are for water pared with 1899-1900. The balance brought forward
ballast, and the remaining two serving as air tanks. The from 1899-1900 was 35,231l., so that the final balance
former can be pumped out or shut off separately. The of profit for 1900-1 was 156, 938l. This sum was applied
water will be pumped out of the whole dock by means of as follows: Dividend, 76,800l.; share of the directors
four centrifugal pumps, two in each seotion, and steam in the profits, 6839l.; reserve for the reconstruction of
for driving same is generated in boiler situated in the side works, 20,000l. ; redemption of the Pienne Concesof the dock. Mechanical shoring gear is provided in the aide sion, 12, OOOl. ; donation to the succour fund formed
walls, and also mechanical bilge shores in the pontoons, for the benefit of the staff, 2000l. ; supplementary donaby means of which a vessel can be immediately centred tions, lOOOl. ; balance carried to 1901-2, 38,302l. The
on the keel blocks, and with the pumps as above the 36,800l. set apart for the dividend of 1900-1 represents a.
whole process of docking is accomplished in little over an distribution of 3l. 4s. per share, or Ss. per share less than
hour. The dock is built to the designs of Messrs. Olark the corresponding distribution for 1899-1900. Notwithand Standfield, Westminster, under the superintendence standing the reduction in this year's dividend, the
amount carried to contingencies for 1900-1 was only
of their representative.
12,000l., as compared with 40,000l. in 1899-1900. On the
On Wednesday, the 13th insb., the 31-knot torpedo-boat other hand, the ba.lance carried forward to the new year
destroyer Akatsuki ("Dawn "), built to the order of the is larger. The reserve stands a.t 48,000l., or one-tenth the
Imperial Japanese Government, was successfully launched share capital. The company has also a. contingency fund
from Messrs. Yarrow's new works at Poplar. This vessel of 120,000l., and other reserve funds have also been
is similar to the six destroyers previously constructed by formed with various objects to the extent of 49, 762l. As
the same firm, all of which navigated to Japan under regards the current working operations of the company, it
should be observed that the extraction of minerals effected
their own steam.
in its Chavigny-Vandreuvre concession showed a falling off
On Wednesday, the 13th inst., there was launched of 12 per cent. last year, as compared with 1899-1900. The
by 1Yiessrs. Ramage and Ferguson, Limited, Leith, a. company had three blast furnaces in activity last year;
modelled screw steam yacht of about 600 tons ya.chb the production of pig iron of various kinds showed a fallmeasurement, built to the order of Mr. Theodore Pim, ing-off of 13! _per cen~., as compared with 1899-1900. Two
Marbin's-grove, Crayford, Kent, from designs by Messrs. new Martin-Siemens furnaces have been brought into
Cox and King, London. The dining-room, drawing- operation, and have worked regularly and economically.
room, and smoke-room are on the main deck, with a long The company continued last year soundings for coal,
shade deck above, on which are the boats, chart-house, which it had commenced in the Pas de Calais basin. The
&c., while on main deck, before and abaft the machinery capital invested by the company in premist*l, engines,
space are a number of handsomely fitted sleeping-cabins. plant, tools, &c., stood at the close of the last financial
The yacht was named Rosabelle. Triple-expansion en- year a.t 762, 068l., but this amounb was reduced to 230,828l.
gines to give a high rate of speed will be fitted by the by capital having been written off out of revenue from
time to time to tbe extent of 531,240l.

Nov. 29, 1901.]

E N G I N E E R 1 N G.




20,576. J. A. Fleming and Marconi's Wireless Tele cooduclied, perhap~, in from two t o four " s tages," a portion of
graph Company, London. [1 Fig.) November 14, 1000. the compressed air passing through the eyetem being blown off at

- In H.er tz wave telegraphy and when employing powerful t he termination of each cc stage., In the four-stage cooler described
alternat10g currents operat ing through the medium of a serlee of
Testa coil a nd discharger sets, in order to avoid interrupt ing t he
first circuit a t t he completion of eaob signal, the apparatus Is
BBI.J<JrED ABBTRAOTB OF REOENT PUBLISHED BPEOIFIOATIONB organised in such manner tha t an a rc (instead of a stream of

UNDER THE AOTB OF 1883-1888.

T~ number oj views given in the Speci.ftcation Dratui:ngs i8 stated
m e_aoh case ; where noM are mentioned the Speci.ftcation -u
not tllmtrated.
Where inventio-ns are communicated from abroad tM Names
d:~. of the C~mm~micators are given in italiCB.
Copt.e.B of Specijicattom may be obtained at the Patent 0./fice Sale
Branch, S6, Southa1npton Buildilngs Chancery-lane W.C at
tM uniform price of Bd.

The d~te of. th~ ~vertisement of the acceptance of a Complete
Sf)ectficatwn tB, 't1J. each case, given ajter the abstract, unless the
Patent haB bun sealed, when the date of sealin.g i8 given.
.Any person ~nav, at any time within two months {r01n the date of
t~e adv~tuement of the acceptance of a Complete Specificati01l,
gt.ve nottu at the Patent Ofllu of opposition to the grant of a
Patet1.t on any of the grounds mentioned in the A cts.

17,636. J. E;. Ransome, Ipswich. Haymaking


(3 F Lgs. ] October 4, 1900.-This invention r elates

to machmes of the class in whiob t he implements acting on the
swath are r~tated in a pla'?e nt right angles to the line of ndvaoce
of the macbme, and accordmg t hereto implements such as t he forks




: :

" ~


.. ~



sparks) is nor maJly produced at the firat spa rk gap, and means
a!e pro~ided uy which the arc discharg cl may be ohaol(ed into t he
~1 sru pt1ve or spn}k discharge when a signalling series of impulses
IS desired. An au blast may be used for this purpose, and the
first ~l~im ie l! mite~ to this means. of cbao~ ing the discharge, the
r_emam10g clat~ bemg for. "The Improved apparatus for signal
hog by electl'lo wave w1reless telegraphy substantially as de
scribed." (A ccepted Septembe1 25, 1901. )

15,522. V. I. Feeny. London. (Allgetneine Elektrioitats

GeseUschajt, Berlin.) Wireless Telegraphy. [5 F igs.)

July 31, 1901. - This invention relates to wireless telegraph apparatus of the kind in which t he receiver comprises a microphon e
throu~th which current from a local battery passes to a telephtme,
tbe microphone being also included in a connection from an aerial

r eceiver of Hertz waves to ear th. Wit h this disposition of apparatus during t he time t hat Hertz waves pass through the micro- liquids ar e used In bbe intercha nge of hmt, Lbe liquid in the coil
phone, its resistance becomes slightly less to t he local battery t u be box for t he last "stage , being t hat of t he gas in treatment
under smlll compre88ioo. (Accepted Oc:tober 9, 1901.)

17,993. w. J. Crossley, Manchester, and J. Atktu.

son, Marple, Cheshire. Purifying Beating Gas.


Fig. 2 .

"' ..... ""


Fig ..3.




[2 Figs.] October 5, 1900.- In order to remove tar and dust from

crud e gas to be used in explosion eogioee, the gas ie whirled
within a casi ng after being passed t hrough water. The water
carried by the gas, together with the tar and duet, are t hrown
by the centrifugal action into a gutter-shaped conduit on the



or blades whioh have hitherto been propo:ed are replaced hy n

serrated diso or discs fixed to longitudinal shafts driven from the
road wheels. It is stated that the discs act on t he swat h in such
a manner as to lift and turn it over so as to expose the wet or
under side without unnecessar ily disturbing it. ( Accepted Oc
tober 9, 1901.)

9852. J . Gillies, Prestonpans, Baddtngton. Agri

cultural DriWng Machine. [6 F igs.] ltlay 13, 1901. -A

drilling machine designed to supersede dibbling, which may be

used as a seed drill, and t hat can be attached to an ordinary
single-wheel d rill gr ubber frome, is according to t his invention
const ructed as follows : Triangula r teeth are tLxed upon spindles
secured movably in or on a bar a ttached to t.he frame, a crank or
link passing from eaob of t hese spindles to t hose of anot her series
fixed movably in or on a second movable bar, which ie worked by
a lever pivoted on the fixed bar and secured at its end to the
movable bar by means of a pin or spindle. The le\er, which ono
be locked in a notched g uard, ie used for the purpose of shifting

current, which is therefore subject to v.uiatiom which serve to

p roduce in the telephone sounds correapondiog in duration to
t he spark signals emitted a t the sending station. A microphone for
use with sucb appa ratus comprises hollow cylinders of aluminium
having a steel ball between t hem, such a receiver , it is stated,
not beiog over sensitive to slight mechanical shocks . Means for
increasing the quantity of the received currents are described, as
well as dispositions of t he receiving circuits by which tuning a.nd
an elimination of aerial disturbance effects are, it Is stated, obtained. (Accepted September 26, 1901.)


periphery of t he casing, from whence th ey ar e led away. The
returns to t he a xis of t he fan along blades parallel to those
19,848. A. Kttson, London. Incandescence Light gas
which produce its rotation, the division between t he blade eete

lng. [3 Figs.) November 6, 1900.- According to this invention

oil-vaporising apparatus (for incandescence lighting) comprises a

horizontal tubula r vaporising vessel preferably c harged wtth coke
or ot her por ous material, a nd which must be fed with oil and
water from chambers under equal pressur e, a nd through a perforated tube of floe bore extending within the vaporising veeeel.
There are two claims, t he first of which is as follows : cc In oil


-- - -----

- ,-



. 4.

t he movable bar in order to t urn the d rill teeth into t he desired

position. 'When t he teeth are kept in t he cent ral position, they
turn up an ordiJ?ary V-shaped furrow ; but when t hey a re par tia.lly
rotated by moVlng the movable bar , t hey turn up a furrow w1tb
one vertical aide and one inclined side. As 8C\On as the d rilling
machine reaches the end of the field it ie t urned round and the
movable bar is shifted so a.s to rotate t he k nhes sufficien tly to
cause t hem, on t he reverse t ravel of t he machine, to throw up
simila r furrows to those previously made. In this manner t he
machine can be made to throw ou t furrows all in one direction,
even t hough the direction of progr ession of t he implement mn.y
be reversed. (Accepted October 9, 1901.)

13.300. A. Nodon, Parts. Storage Batteries. June
26, 1901. (Convention date, December 1, 1900.)-According to t bie
Invention oxide paste for storage battery spongy lead or peroxide
plates le in part converted in to lead silicate, which t reatment, it
Is stated, r enders the for med active matter hard, porous, and
elastic. Twenty grammes of alkaline silicate in solut ion is made
into a paste with each kilogramme ot lead oxide, a nd t he g rids,
when pasted wit h the mixture, a re exposed to t he air for a day
and t hen immersed in a solution of alkaline silicate, and after
wards are again dried, then bei n~ su bmitted to the action of
weak dilute sulphuric acid, after which t hey are "formed" in the
usual way. It is stated t hat plates made according to t he loven
tion do not readily disintegrate under conditions of mechanical!
ebol'k, or heoause of high rates of c harge and discharge. (A ccepted Octvber 9, LOO'.)


I .....

being preferably of double-conical shape. The object of causing

the gae to return to t he fan axis is to make it give again to t he
fan par t of the energy spent in communicating rotation to it.
(Accepted Octobe1 9, 1901.)




11,933. B. S. Blackmore, Mount Vernon.. N. Y.1
U.S.A. Reduction of Metals and Production 01
Alloya. June 11, 1901.- Accordiog to this invention refractory

metallic oxides a re reduced by t he agency of a carbide while combined with a flux. In an example of the process it is stated that
aluminium may be reduced from its oxide when t he latter ie die
c: :
solved in a mh.t ure of fluid sodium-aluminium fluoride and
lithium fluoride at a temperature below the normal meltin~ point
of t he oxide, and by means of aluminium carbide. Oar b1des of
other metals may be used when alloys are desired, or oxides of
other metals may in such case be added to t he bath . (A cupted
October 2, 1901)
22,408. P. M. Justice, London. (B. Talbot, Pencoyd,
Pa., U.S.A .) Manufacture of Iron. December 8, 1900.According to this invention, and as providing a useful moditlca
tion of the process described in British Patent Specification
No. 3810 of 1898, there is used in the puddlin$' proce88 of refining
iron a primary furnace worked cont.inuously m eucb manner t hat
metal may be transferred in a more or less refined condition from
t he primary furnace to feed the puddliog furnace while still maintaimog a r eservoir of metal in t he primary turonce. Molten
cinder is re moved from t he puddling furnace to the primary fur-.
nace from time to time for t he purpose of reducing t he iron oxides
contained in eucb cinder, a nd a t t h e same t ime in order to allow
recovery of the phosphor ic acid present, in combination with
-calcium derived from lime, which is added to t he molten cinder or
slag when it is t raosfHred to t he p rimary furn ace. The metal
th e primary furn ace may be allowed to cool before it is
vaporising apparatus t he combination of an ext ernally-heated from
horizontal or approximately h ori?.ootal tube, which is preferably added to the puddliog furn ace. (A ccepted Octo!Jer 9, 1901.)
11,832. R. Dletrich, GeisweidonSieg, Germany.
charged with coke or the like, and in which oil is vaporised, a perforated tube of floe bore arran'ted in t he said externaUy-heated Producing BtghlyCarburtsed Steel. October 5, 1901.
tube and chambers con taining respectively water and oil, which - Steel whfch, it is stated, is suitable for being made into
are forced under equal pressures into the said externally-heated tools or which can be used in c rucible steel manufacture ie made
tube and t he said perforated tube r espectively, substantially as according to tbie invent ion by pourio~ small quantities of molten
iron into tar or other liquid hydrocar bon. I t is said that a de
described." (Accepted October 9, 1001.)
oxidiei.ng action takes place at t he same time as the carburieiog.
15,511. C. Joly and E. J. Richardson, London. Tbere 1s one claim, as follows : " A process for the production of
Liquefying Gases. [6 F 1'gs.] July 31, 1901. - Tbis epeoiflca steel blocks with large carbon contents from fluid iron, or from
tion appears to relate t o and to broadly claim the liquefaction of fluid steel of low carbon contents, consisting in pouring the fluid
gases under and by means of pressure less than t hat necessary or liquid metal into tar or other liquid substance, or substance
for direct liquefaction. The first claim ie in t he following l.erms : t hat becomes liquid in beating having a oarburieing aotion or
" The continuous liquefaction of air and other aeriform ftuide pouring together both the ftuid metal and the liquid oarburising
whose critical temp erature is below the ordinary temperature of substance, substantially as described.'' (.Accepted October 9, 1901.)
the atmosphere at comparatively low pressures, and any pressure
whioh does not exceed t hat which ie required for the coodeosaRAILWAYS AND TRAMWAYS.
tioo at t he critical temperature." The apparatus comprleee beat
~1,799. G. E. BeylDia, Warring ton, Lancs. Trolley
interchange devices by means of which a large quantity of air
moderately compre88ed is blown off in order to reduce a por tion Conductors. [6 Figs.) November 80, 1900.- Trolley con
of t he same to liquefying tE'mperature. The cooling operation ie ductorll, specially adapted for overhead usE', according t o thiJ

----- - - -


E N G I N E E R I N G.

invention comprise in one form a cr escent section strip of copper Dltrr olasl3, n.n outlet tap is fixed at the lowest part of the
clasped around a steel wire, or upon an extension of like section uptake or down-comer passage, and a stopper whtch may be
from or upon the edge of a flat, curved or girder-sh aped strip of lowered to close the upper opening o.f ~he sa.id passlge is provl~ed . To use ~b e apparl;'tus, when 1t 1s d estred to empty the
b01ler t he water 1s first dramed from t he drum and header t hrough
t he outlet, and t hen t he plate covering 'the manhole is removed
and the plug inserted by hand into t he drum and placed in the
upper end of the uptake passnge. The cover plate is then ra
Fig. 2 .

F's. -2.



Flg .4

! shaped. externally as a hotizontal cylinder with a verticallydependmg cylindrical part at it s centre has in thia part a close.
topped fi rebox, from which t he fi re ga~es pass through tubes to
covered spaces at t he ends of t he horizontal cylinder, and from
thence return through other tubes to a smoke box within the boiler




Fig. G.

space. Exhaust ~team from the eLgioe, in order that it may be

invisible wben thrown out from t he funnel, is heated from the fire
gases by being caused to pass t hrough the second sets or tubes,
in to which tubes it is discharged (in such manner as to induce
draught in them) from h eating spaces at t he ends of the horizon tal cylind er. (Accepted October 9, 1901.)

steel. Such a str ip of sttel may be provided with one two or t hree
crescent s~oti~n strips of copper. I t is stated th~t a c~nductor
of the etnp kmd more perfectly follows a curve t han does an
ordinary t rolley wire. (Accepted October 2, 1901.)

W. B o rnsby, D . Roberts, and c. James,

Grantham. Water-Tube Boners. [2 F igs.) December
10, 1900.-In water-tube boilers of t he kind having a shck of tubes
arranged over a furn ace and conneoted at the ends to steam and
water drumt~, in order to improve the circulation, to insure free
expansion for t he bottom rows of t ubes, and to provide tor the
better separation of mud, according to this invention two or mor e
back headers arranged one above the other are used, and t o the
lower of these the bottom tubes of the boiler are connected .



151647. A. Kelly and C. D. Bansen, Glasgow. Cap
stans. or Ca)?l~ W~eels. [4 Figs.] August 2, 1901.-


Aocordmg to t h1s m ventton the cable wheel is suppor ted by a

baseplate, and the brake mechanism is located above the cable
wheel. The baseplate is so shaped t hat it forms a guard to t he
lower part of the cable wheel, in order that, should the cable slip

placed a.nd. steam or other gaseous medium under pressure is

tn t roduced mto the drum, the said steam passing down thr ough
a compartment and through t h e inner circulating tubes, d riving
t he water contained t her ein before it, and forcing the liquid out
through the rear end of the tubes and back through the space
between th e inner and outer t ubes into the uptake compartment,
which is closed at its upper end, and so ser ves only as a path
tor the water to ftow away through the out let. (.Accepted Oc
tober 9, 1901.)


W. Schmtdt, WUhelmshohe.

Superheater f o r Fire Tube B o ners. [6 Figs. ) November 12, 1900.-A compact form of locomotive boiler with super -

t t



Upper and lower mud-drums are provided, and in conjunction

ther ewith are two sets of long flexible connecting nipples from the
steam and water d rums. One set of the nipples is connected to
the upper mud and water drum, which 18 attached by short
nipples to the header immediately above t he bottom mud -drum,
and the other set of nipples is connected to the lower mud-drum,
which js attached by abort nipples to t he lower back-header, no
connection being made between the two headers or between the
upper and lower mud-drums. (.Accepted October 9, 1901. )
22,479. W. Bornsby and D . Roberts, Grantham.
Water-Tube Steam Boilers. L2 F igs.) December 10,
1900.-A simple form of large water-tube boiler, and su ch aiS is
shown in the drnwing, according to this innnt ion comprlEes



Jl ~:.ns.
heater according to this invention comprises t he boiler wi th
some large fire-tubes, into which project from one end turned
out, it may be guided back in to the working posi tion. The superheater tubes, fastened at their ends to a removable attachbrake strap mechanism is fitted at t he upper part of the cable ment on the s mokebox interior. (A cceptefL October 9, 1901.)
wheel, and comprises two straps connected to a'different ia.llever,
20.468. D. B. Morlson, Hartlepoo l, Durham.
which may Le tightened either on the right hand or on th e left ,
Boner-Feed. [4 F igs.] November 13, 1900. - In order
and is operated through a bevel rack and wheel or a worm rar.k Steam
and worm, and is controlled by a band-wheel th1ough a worm and to deaerate and cleanse from oil feed-\\'ate1 for boilers, appa.ratus
according to this invention comprises a separat ing vessel of in cog-wheel. ( Accepted September 25, 1901.)
verted cone shape at it s upper par t, the discharge orifice for nir n.nd
oil being situated at the apex ther eof. The shape of t his vessel
STEAM ENGINES, BOIIERS, EVAPORATORS, &c. allows accumulated air and .oil to be discbar~ed from time to
time with but little w:1ste of water, and at the same time its shape
19,845. B. Jewson, East Dereham~ Norfo~. T~r
blnes. [2 Pigs.l No\'em ber 5, 1900.-Accordmg to th1e mven~1on
a steam turbine is actuated hy the impaot of a small jet of b1gh-

a firegrate of large size, and means to allow of stoking the same
on two or more sides. The grate-bars extend from the baok or
dead wall of the furnace in the direction of the fi re-doors through
which they are stoked. Fireclay tiles supported by t he tu bes are
used as baffles. (Accepted October 9, 1901.)



17 759. T. Lehner, Zurich. Artificial Horse Hatr.

p ressure steam carry ing wit h it an ind~ced current of. gas,

' 'apour, or exh aust stearn. A t~rbin~ is 1Uuetr~ted in wb1cb a.
Ventur i or injector-like draught-mducmg device lS shown. (Accepted October 9, 1901.)
16,727, B. B. Lake, London. (The S terling Compa1~y,
Chicago, Ill.. U.S. .A.) Water-Tube Boilers. l.l F tg.J
August 20, 1901.- ln order to provide means for ef!lptymg contain ed watu from water -tube boilers of the N tcli\Usse and

October 6, 1900.- Twisted thread of cellulose or nitro-cellulose

fibres is drawn t hrough a solven,t of cellulose, and after partial
solution in t he solven t t aken up is then freed from the same by
drying or washing. The solvent may be a solution of ammoniated
oxide of copper, or of chloride of zinc, or ether, or alcohol. The
t reatment of the t hread may be completed after dyeing, if colour is
required, by drawing it t hrough a collodion or other t ranspar ent
varnish. It is proposed to impregnate such thr eads at some stage
of the process with incandescence salts or oxides in order that
permits even a small amount of accumulated ai~ to a<:t as a buffer t he thr eads may be used in the manufacture of incandescence
to sufficiently reduce shook due to the spaemodtc act1on of feed gas mantles. (Accepted October 2, 1901.)
pumps The feed-water is discharged towards th e surface of the
liquid in t he separator at some velooity, so th.a t t he oil ar.d wat~r
are brought to its actual surface, wh ere the 011 ftoa.ts and the a1r UNITED STATES PATENTS AND PATENT PRAOTIOE.
is g iven off. The drawing shows a. fe ed-water cleaner and dea.erator
Descriptions wit h illustrations of inventions patented in the
according to t he inven tion, combined wit h a surface feed-heater. United States of America from 1847 to the presen t time, and
reports of trials of patent law cases in the United States, mny be
(Accepted October 9, 1901.)
consulted, gratis, at the offices of ENOJ.NEER1NO, 85 and 36, Dedford
21.608. G. B. Mann and J. Clayton. L.eebd~:J Tubb~lha.'! street, Stl'and.
Boilers. [2 Figs.] NoYember 20, 1900. - Ths 01 er, w tc 1s