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HSE

Health & Safety


Executive

Completion component reliability


Failure mode identification

Prepared by IDM Engineering


for the Health and Safety Executive

OFFSHORE TECHNOLOGY REPORT

2001/061

HSE

Health & Safety


Executive

Completion component reliability


Failure mode identification

IDM Engineering
Torridon House
73-75 Regent Quay
Aberdeen
AB11 5AR
United Kingdom

HSE BOOKS

Crown copyright 2002


Applications for reproduction should be made in writing to:
Copyright Unit, Her Majestys Stationery Office,
St Clements House, 2-16 Colegate, Norwich NR3 1BQ
First published 2002
ISBN 0 7176 2244 4
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted
in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise) without the prior
written permission of the copyright owner.

This report is made available by the Health and Safety


Executive as part of a series of reports of work which has
been supported by funds provided by the Executive.
Neither the Executive, nor the contractors concerned
assume any liability for the reports nor do they
necessarily reflect the views or policy of the Executive.

ii

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
A study has been undertaken on behalf of the HSE by IDM Engineering Ltd, to determine the
credible failure modes and their direct effects as associated with typical single and dual
completion gas lift designs as utilised in the UK North Sea. The study has been undertaken with
the understanding that both wellhead configurations would be analysed under normal operating
conditions. No consideration was given for any installation, workover or abandonment activities
in connection with the wells.
To ensure that a typical wellhead and tree arrangement was modelled, vendor information in the
form of general arrangement drawings and associated information was reviewed from various
manufacturers. A representative single and dual completion model was generated from this
information in conjunction with the expertise associated within the project team.
In order to identify the key components and seal arrangements that required consideration
during the FMECA, the primary gas path was charted for both representative models. Each
model was then broken up into zones to help facilitate the FMECA. Primary, secondary and
tertiary barriers (where appropriate) were then identified.
With the aid of zone specific drawings the FMECA was carried out for each representative
model. The FMECA was carried out up to the side pocket mandrels in the production tubing for
completeness, however, the main focus of the study was above the dual bore upper packer
separating the upper and lower A annulus.
The results of the FMECA for the single and dual completion model are detailed in Appendix F
& E respectively.
Both FMECAs highlighted failure modes with the potential to leak injection gas to the
atmosphere. Further leak sources were identified arising from component/sealing arrangement
failures. These failures could in turn, cause injection gas to leak into the B annulus and C
annulus (single completion only).

iii

iv

CONTENTS
1.

OBJECTIVE .............................................................................................................. 1

2.

INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................... 2
2.1.
BACKGROUND ................................................................................................2
2.2.
GAS LIFT ..........................................................................................................2
2.3.
SINGLE AND DUAL COMPLETION GAS LIFT MODELS ..............................3

3.

REPRESENTATIVE MODELS................................................................................. 5
3.1.
MODEL DESCRIPTION ...................................................................................5
3.2.
OPERATING PARAMETERS ..........................................................................6
3.3.
MODEL BOUNDARIES ....................................................................................6

3.3.1.
3.3.2.
3.3.3.
4.

Dual Completion Model Boundaries ...................................................6


Single Completion Model Boundaries.................................................7
General Model Boundaries...................................................................7

METHODOLOGY ..................................................................................................... 8
4.1.
ASSUMPTIONS ................................................................................................8
4.2.
APPROACH......................................................................................................8

4.2.1.
4.2.2.

Representative Model Identification....................................................8


FMECA ....................................................................................................9

5.

RESULTS ............................................................................................................... 12
5.1.
DUAL COMPLETION FMECA .......................................................................12
5.2.
SINGLE COMPLETION FMECA ....................................................................12

6.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS....................................................................................... 13

7.

REFERENCE LIST................................................................................................. 14

8.

BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................................................................................... 16

9.

GLOSSARY OF TERMS ........................................................................................ 18

10. FIGURES ................................................................................................................ 19


APPENDIX A - PRIMARY GAS PATHS, WETTED CONTAINMENT ZONES,
PRIMARY AND SECONDARY BARRIERS DUAL COMPLETION. .............................. 23
APPENDIX B - PRIMARY GAS PATHS, WETTED CONTAINMENT ZONES,
PRIMARY AND SECONDARY BARRIERS SINGLE COMPLETION. .......................... 30
APPENDIX C - SEAL DESCRIPTIONS DUAL COMPLETION..................................... 35
APPENDIX D - SEAL DESCRIPTIONS SINGLE COMPLETION ................................. 48
APPENDIX E - DUAL COMPLETION FMECA RESULTS ............................................ 58

APPENDIX F - SINGLE COMPLETION FMECA RESULTS....................................... 146


APPENDIX G - DUAL COMPLETION MODEL DRAWINGS ...................................... 217
APPENDIX H - SINGLE COMPLETION MO DEL DRAWINGS ................................... 239

vi

1. OBJECTIVE
The objective of this study is to identify the failure modes that can lead to leakage of gas from
representative single and dual completion gas lift wells.

2. INTRODUCTION
2.1.

BACKGROUND

As part of normal offshore oil and gas operations gas can be injected into the production tubing
of a well to assist in the recovery of the hydrocarbon fluids. A normal feature of this process is
the mass of pressurised hydrocarbon gas that resides in the well annulus. The well annulus
differs from typical topside process plant in that it does not have a means to vent or blowdown
its inventory of gas in an emergency, only to contain the gas within the annulus its self. The
mass of pressurised gas is typically in the range of 0.5 to 12 metric tonnes. The gas represents a
considerable hazard to platform personnel through fire and explosion. Of ultimate interest is the
magnitude of this risk. It must be noted that the hazard is created as a function of injecting gas
into the well annulus. The hazard does not originate directly from the reservoir. Many
continuous gas lift wells, will cease to flow if the supply of compressed gas from topside
compression is lost.
This study has been commissioned to identify typical failure modes associated with typical gas
lift configurations. Ultimately a representative frequency of gas leakage from a typical gas lift
well can be established.
The purpose of this study is to develop a representative single and dual completion gas lift well
and to identify typical failure modes associated with the equipment that is used in the well
configuration.
Results from this report will be used in future studies to identify failure and/or leakage rates for
equipment used in these types of wells.

2.2.

GAS LIFT

Artificial lift is a commonly used methodology for enhancing reservoir recovery rates, gas lift
being by far the most utilised technique. The principle of gas lift is to simply supplement the
natural flow process of hydrocarbon fluids by adding additional gas into the produced fluid to
reduce the hydrostatic head component and hence, the back pressure on the formation.
There are essentially two different methods of gas lift, which are utilised offshore to enhance or
stimulate wells to ensure recover well fluids:

Continuous Gas Lift


Intermittent Gas Lift

Continuous gas lift is essential for wells, which under normal operating conditions would not
flow. This is due to an ageing well which is off plateau, as a result the reservoir pressure having
dropped considerably and/or increased viscosity of the hydrocarbon fluids.
The injection gas is normally supplied in a closed loop system, the gas is fed from the gas
separation, compression and drying (if necessary) process facilities to the well as required.

The lift gas is normally injected down the annulus and into the production tubing through the
side pocket mandrels. In certain circumstances, the gas is supplied via annulus tubing into the
lower well annulus and injected into the production tubing string as before.
The other less common concept is the intermittent gas lift system. This is used to produce low
volumes of liquid (<350 stb/d) from wells with low Bottom Hole Flow Pressure (BHFP) (<0.1
psi/ft). In this case, the liquid is produced in slugs by periodically opening a motorized flowline
valve and allowing the gas accumulated in the annulus to suddenly expand through the side
pocket mandrels to surface, bringing the accumulated liquids with it. A standing valve is often
used to prevent the gas from flowing into the formation.
2.3.

SINGLE AND DUAL COMPLETION GAS LIFT MODELS

The models used in this study will assume that continuous gas lift is required to maintain the
flow of hydrocarbons under normal operating conditions.
There are four basic configurations of gas lift well used in the UK sector of the North Sea,
principally:

Single Completion
Dual Completion
Single Tree Dual-String Completion
Concentric Completion

In the first, and simpler configuration (Figure 1), gas is routed through a wellhead annular valve
and into the A annulus. The gas passes through the annulus downhole safety valve (DHSV)
located in the dual bore upper packer. The lower packer prevents gas from flowing further down
the annulus. Gas is injected into the production tubing at various depths between upper and
lower packers via the side packer mandrels. In this configuration the A annulus is completely
filled with gas from the tubing hanger to the lower side pocket mandrel. There is a facility for
isolating the upper and lower A annulus by closing the annulus DHSV.
The more complex dual completion (Figure 2) routes the gas through an annulus wing valve
mounted on the Christmas tree, down through the upper and lower master valves, and into the
annulus pipe work via an in line DHSV, to a point directly below the dual bore upper packer.
Gas is injected into the production tubing at various depths between upper and lower packers
via the side pocket mandrels. In this configuration and, under normal operation only the lower
A annulus space between the upper and lower packers is filled with gas. The upper A
annulus contains completion fluid.
(1)

The single tree dual-string completion is essentially a hybrid between the single and dual
completion designs. Similarly to the dual completion, annulus tubing is utilised to inject the gas
into the lower well annulus below the dual bore upper packer. This removes the inventory of gas
that would normally reside under the tubing hanger in a typical single completion design. The
gas itself would still be injected via the A annulus.
(1)(2)

The concentric design, which also uses a single tress essentially, is a modified single
completion design. Lift gas is injected through the tubing spool and down the annulus created
by the addit ional casing string within the production casing.

In order to represent the most onerous circumstances offshore, the single and dual completions
models are considered further in this study.

3. REPRESENTATIVE MODELS
3.1.

MODEL DESCRIPTION

(7)

It is recognised that there are no standard representations of single or dual completion gas lift
wells. As a consequence there are many configurations in terms of well layout and equipment
design. Despite this, the general function of using gas to reduce the hydrostatic head on the
production tubing and promote a flow of well fluids remains the same. The variations in
configuration and design originate from three key areas.
1. Variability in basic design between the equipment manufacturers.
2. Variability of manufacturers design due to specification by operators.
3. Variability due to combining manufacturers equipment for the completion.
(4)

It is not the intent of this study to represent all permutations of well equipment and layout. It is
the intent to establish the associated failure modes with typical equipment configurations,
layouts and operating conditions.
To establish a representative model an industry-recognised standard has been applied to provide
a common guideline. We consider that the same standard would be applied to the majority of
completions found offshore. This results in a consistent link between a specific North Sea gas
lift well and the representative model of one.
The representative models for the single and dual completion models were developed from the
review of a variety of general arrangement drawings, taking into account the various
considerations discussed above.
Figure 1 represents a schematic of the single completion considered for this study, the following
features were considered:

Gas is injected through the connection to one of the A annulus valves.


The annular valve adjacent to the gas injection point is automated (fail closed), and
linked accordingly to the ESD system.
A none active-wing valve on the tree have been included for the annulus.
A compact wellhead design was considered as opposed to separate tubing spools.
9 5/8 casing is utilised for the production casing with a 7 liner downhole.
The production wing valve and upper master valve are automated (fail closed), and
linked accordingly to the ESD system.
Tie down bolts have been utilised for the tubing hanger to tubing spool.
A dual bore upper packer is utlised to separate the upper and lower annulus, with the
annulus DHSV installed within the packer body.

Figure 2 represents a schematic of the dual completion considered for this study, the following
features were considered:

None active-wing valves on the tree have been included for both annulus and
production.
A compact wellhead design was considered as opposed to separate tubing spools.
9 5/8 casing is utilised for the production casing with a 7 liner downhole.
A VR plug was modelled in the A annulus to model a particular case where there is
maintenance of an annular valve.

Both the annulus and production wing valves and upper master valves are automated
(fail closed), and linked accordingly to the ESD system.
Tie down bolts have been utilised for the tubing hanger to tubing spool.
A dual bore upper packer is utlised to separate the upper and lower annulus.

API standard 6A (seventeenth edition) has been used as the basis in the development of the
representative models.
The primary gas paths for the dual completion and single completion were then determined, key
items providing boundaries for each zone were described using consistent terminology.
(8) to (13)

In order to facilitate the FMECA, the schematic drawings were split down into general
area zones (see glossary) were described by linking these items in pairs (Appendix A & B).
Drawings were then generated for each zone for the dual completion detailing all major
components identified in Appendix A to facilitate the FMECA (Appendix G). Only the
drawings of the major differences between the dual and single models were generated for the
single completion arrangement as a result of duplication of similar components (Appendix H).
In order to distinguish between the different types of polymeric/elastomeric sealing
arrangements, for each zone the seals were colour coded according to the following regime.

Red Primary Active Seal


Blue Secondary Active Seal
Black Passive Seal

It should be noted that all metal to metal, threaded connections and components were
considered but not highlighted on the drawings in the same way as the sealing arrangements
above.
3.2.

OPERATING PAR AMETERS

The model considers dry gas composed of 95% Methane and the balance being a combination
of Ethane and Propane. Gas well entry temperature is assumed circa 82C with an entry
pressure of 1500 psi.
The model represents the normal continuous producing condition. Well intervention, work-over,
inspection, test, maintenance operations, and any non-normal well conditions, including
initiating events that do not originate from the well model, do not form part of this study.
3.3.
3.3.1.

MODEL BOUNDARIES
Dual Completion Model Boundaries

The boundaries of the dual completion model are defined by:

The gas line check valve.


Tree assembly including all major valves up to secondary (and where applicable
tertiary) seal barriers.
Well head up to the secondary seal barriers.

3.3.2.

Annulus assembly up to the side pocket mandrels.


Secondary seal barriers.
Production tubing up to the production wing valve.
Single Completion Model Boundaries

The boundaries of the single completion model are defined by:

3.3.3.

The gas line check valve.


Well head up to the secondary seal barriers.
Annulus assembly up to the side pocket mandrels.
Secondary seal barriers.
Production tubing up to the production wing valve.
General Model Boundaries

The boundaries include some downhole components. This was because all secondary and
tertiary barriers were considered. Failure of some primary barriers downhole, result in annulus
spaces around the wellhead becoming wetted by gas. Subsequent barrier failure can then result
in loss of containment topsides.

4. METHODOLOGY
4.1.

ASSUMPTIONS

The model assumes the following points:

The production/operations group is responsible for well integrity under normal


operating conditions.

The individuals working on or around wellhead equipment are competent to do so.

The operator ensures suitable training and supervision (as appropriate) to all individuals
operating on or around the wellhead.

A permit to work system is in place, applied and operating satisfactorily.

The inspection function is effective in identifying non-normal events or situations.

Maintenance brings the equipment into the As Good As New (AGAN) condition.

The requirements of DCR Well examination Legislation are being effectively applied.

The initial suitability of the equipment is correct in terms of its design limits, and
capability to withstand any reasonably foreseeable non-normal events.

The well is performing within its specified operational parameters.

All seals and containment components are suitable for typical gas lift tree ratings ie
(3,000, 5,000, 6000 psi etc).

Lockdown bolts are used rather than a lockdown ring for the tubing hanger on both
models.

Gas lift is utilised to maintain continuous production.

Equipment is compatible with the well fluids.

Major accident events, misuse or negligence are not considered.

(6)

4.2.

4.2.1.

The downhole safety valves utilised in the single and dual completions are considered
to be tubing retrievable and not wireline retrievable.
APPROACH

Representative Model Identification

Initially the primary gas routing was established, from the point at which the gas enters the tree,
to a point where the gas and the well fluids leaves the tree.

The primary gas paths for the dual completion and single completion were then determined, key
items was described using a consistent terminology (Section 3).
General area zones were described by linking these items into pairs. In order to ensure that the
FMECA remains focused consideration has to be given to all sources of leakage; therefore there
was a degree of overlap when looking at each zone in turn. This is highlighted in the FMECA
results (Appendix E & F) in italics and ensures that there are no working joints (see glossary).
(14) to (18

Further examination of drawings was then undertaken to describe the primary, secondary
and tertiary barriers (see glossary) as described in Appendix A & B. Once the location of the
key mechanical joints and seals was complete, a description of each joint configuration and type
was made.

(3)(5)

Seal descriptions and details of the following segments are described in Appendix C & D
inclusive.

Primary gas paths.


Components.
Wetted containment zones.
Primary, Secondary and where applicable tertiary barriers.
Mechanical joints.
Seal configurations.

All elastomeric/polymeric seals were categorised into the following types as a result of sealing
arrangements being very different between manufacturers, even though the type of seal is
similar.

Compression
Parallel
Face

The preparation work was complete and the FMECA could commence.
4.2.2.

FMECA

(19)

The FMECA was conducted in general accordance with BS 5760 part 5 (1991). Taking each
zone in turn, the mechanical joints forming the barriers between the well fluids and atmosphere,
(primary, secondary and tertiary) were examined in terms of their configuration, components
and function. Using engineering knowledge and experience, the credible failure modes, their
causes and their effect where discussed and recorded as appropriate.

4.2.2.1. Description Of FMECA Structure


A sample FMECA worksheet is detailed in Figure 3. The worksheet is made up of several
columns holding all the pertinent information discussed during the FMECA, a description of
each column is detailed below.
System This is a defined set of components or an assembly that forms part of the overall gas
lift well. The systems have been broken down and referenced as zones.

Sub system - The sub systems are the major component assemblies associated with each
zone. It is the sub systems that are subjected to the FMECA.
Function The function of each sub system is described in terms of its primary or foremost
role. There can be more than one function for each sub system.
Failure This provides an outline as to where the credible failures are likely to occur within
the sub system. This FMECA has focused on the mechanical joints and seal assemblies of the
sub systems. For example bonnet seal failure leads to one consideration as to the ways in
which the seal can fail.
Cause This outlines the most likely reasons leading to failure. There can be several effects
originating from a single cause. In the example of the bonnet seal then as one example, the
bolts may be incorrectly installed.
Effect Provides a description as to what is likely to occur to the mechanical joints and seal
assemblies if the cause manifests itself. In the example of bolts being incorrectly installed, there
may be several effects, depending upon either over tightening or under tightening the bolts.
Symptoms What evidence of the effect will exist? Would the symptom reveal the failure
immediately or over a period of time? Would it be visible or audible to an operator? Or would
the failure remain unrevealed perhaps for many years?
For example where a joint has been incorrectly made perhaps using wrong materia ls or
techniques, then it may remain undetected. The integrity of the joint is not to the design intent
and it may remain as a weak point that we are not aware of until failure occurs (if it occurs at
all).
Mitigation Prior to ranking the probability of occurrence, the normal or usual practices of
design, construction, installation, commissioning and operations need to be considered. Only the
primary mitigating factors are recorded. For example the use of ISO 9001 as a quality assurance
standard requires that many aspects of design, manufacture, inspection and test are considered
and formally managed. This does not guarantee that failures will not occur, but does provide
confidence that the probability of occurrence should be reduced. The integrity and effectiveness
of such standards, systems and procedures has not been considered.
4.2.2.2. Criticality Analysis
Using a qualitative approach, each failure consequence was ranked in terms of its local effect.
A single barrier primary seal failure that would result in a direct loss of containment is ranked as
a high criticality. Conversely, failure of a primary barrier that results in a secondary barrier
becoming wetted is considered to be less critical. The consequence is ranked at one of five
levels.
5 Full cross sectional area failure of a major barrier (seals or components) leading directly to
loss of containment.
4 Full cross sectional area failure of a minor barrier (seals or components) leading directly to
loss of containment.
3 Major seal failure, leading to loss of primary containment that should be detectable by an
operator or the F&G systems if a subsequent seal fails and containment is lost.

10

2 Part seal failure, leading to a loss of primary containment that is unlikely to be detectable by
an operator or the F&G systems if subsequent seals fail.
1 Minor Seal failure, (perished, weeping) leading to a loss of primary containment that would
wet the secondary barriers or cause a fugitive emission to atmosphere.
Using a qualitative approach, each failure was ranked in terms of its probability of occurrence,
when considering all assumptions of the model. The probability is ranked at one of five levels.
1 Highly improbable, not considered to be realistic.
2 Improbable, a rare one off event.
3 Possible, known to have occurred previously.
4 Probable, has been experienced on more than one occasion.
5 Frequent, is a normal or regular occurrence for the situation.
The criticality of each failure mode and effect was then detailed in the criticality section of
Figure 3 in the format consequence.probability. This enables the screening of the less critical
events and sets the seen for any future leak frequency analysis.

11

5. RESULTS
5.1.

DUAL COMPLETION FMECA

The results of the FMECA for the dual completion model are detailed in Appendix E.
It can be noted that even though the dual completion zone drawings (Appendix G) cover zones
1 to 20, the FMECA only covered down to the side pocket mandrels in the production tubing.
This was carried out for completeness, the study was only concerned with any leakage in above
the dual bore upper packer. The results dictated that even though the original focus was purely
on the leakage of injection gas below the tubing hanger in the upper A annulus. There were
some expected failure modes leading to potential leaks to atmosphere from the xmas tree and
the wellhead configuration. Certain failure modes dictated leakage of injection gas into the B
annulus providing additional potential leak sources to atmosphere.
5.2.

SINGLE COMPLETION FMECA

The results of the FMECA for the single completion model are detailed in Appendix F.
It was noted that even though the equipment was simpler in construction than that of the dual
completion, there were obvious similarities in the designs. As a result of this only the zones,
which were significantly different between the two completion designs, were completed
(Appendix H). Similarly to the dual completion the FMECA only covered down to the side
pocket mandrels in the production tubing, again for completeness. The single completion
pressurises both the upper and lower annulus as a result of injecting directly into the A annulus
under normal operating conditions. The results highlighted that certain components/sealing
arrangements in the dual completion model were secondary barriers, in the single completion
model the same items became primary barriers. The same as the dual completion, there were
some expected failure modes leading to potential leaks to atmosphere from the xmas tree and
the wellhead configuration. Certain failure modes dictated that injection gas could not only leak
into the B annulus but also the C annulus providing additional potential leak sources to
atmosphere.

12

6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors would like to acknowledge the individuals who contributed to this study:
Dr M Croft of The Robert Gordon University, Mr. J Da Costa of Hancoss Ltd. and
Mr H Hopper of Subsea Well Technology Ltd.

13

7. REFERENCE LIST
1. BLOWOUT RISK ANALYSIS OF GAS-LIFT COMPLETIONS
Society of Petroleum Engineers Paper
Report no.: SPE 20916, D D Grassick, P S Kallos, S Dean and S D J King, May 1992
2. DOWN HOLE SAFETY VALVE FOR CONCENTRIC COMPLETION
Society of Petroleum Engineers Paper
Report No,: SPE 16536/1, J L Geyelin., 1987
3. THE IMPORTANCE OF CORRECT RUNNING AND HANDLING PROCEDURES FOR
PREMIUM TUBULAR GOODS
Society of Petroleum Engineers Paper
Report No,: SPE 16107, D E Walstad and D W Crawford, March 1987
4. PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES OF DUAL-COMPLETION DESIGN IN ABU DHABI
Society of Petroleum En gineers Paper
Report No,: SPE 17983, R F Gabort & G J Ghnelm, February 1997
5. EVALUATION OF PREMIUM TAPERED THREADED CONNECTIONS USING
FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS AND FULL-SCALE TESTING
Society of Petroleum Engineers Paper
Report No,: SPE 23904, A Hilbert & I A Kalli, February 1992
6. RADICAL SOLUTIONS REQUIRED: COMPLETIONS WITHOUT PACKERS AND
DOWNHOLE SAFETY VALVES CAN BE SAFE
Society of Petroleum Engineers Paper
Report No,: SPE 56934, C J Durham & C A Oaveley, September 1999
7. RISK ANALYSIS OF SINGLE AND DUAL-STRING GAS-LIFT COMPLETIONS
Society of Petroleum Engineers Paper
Report No,: SPE 19281, D Grassick, P S Kallos, I J A Jardine & F J Doogan, 1990
8. Y BLOCK XMAS TREE & WELLHEAD LAYOUT, GAS LIFT SYSTEM
FMC
Drawing No.: SD-4333-65
9. XMAS TREE & WELLHEAD LAYOUT, GAS LIFT SYSTEM
FMC
Drawing No.: SD-4333-70
10. SECTIONAL LAYOUT PLATFORM, WELLHEAD AND TREE ASSEMBLY
FMC
Drawing No.: DL-0931
11. WELLHEAD DUAL COMPLETION
FMC
Drawing No.: SK-1587

14

12. WELLHEAD AND XMAS TREE, STANDARD COMPLETION


Cooper Cameron
Drawing No.: SK-177568-01
13. PLATFORM DRILLED PRODUCTION WELLHEAD ASSEMBLY DRAWING
Cooper Cameron
Drawing No.: LO-021811-01
14. CAMERON API GATE VALVES
Cooper Cameron
1997
15. 1999-2000 CAMERON CATELOG
Cooper Cameron
1999
16. CAMERON MBO ULTIBOWL WELLHEAD SYSTEM
Cooper Cameron
1998
17. SSMC WELLHEAD SYSTEM
Cooper Cameron
1998
18. CAMERON CONVENTIONAL SURFACE WELLHEADS
Cooper Cameron
1998
19. RELIABILITY OF SYSTEMS, EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS. GUIDE TO
FAILURE MODES, EFFECTS AND CRITICALITY ANALYSIS (FMEA AND FMECA)
British Standards Institue
Document No.: BS 5760 part 5, 1991.

15

8. BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. COMPLETION DESIGN MANUAL
BP Exploration
Vol 1, & 2
2. BP Exploration, Forties Artificial Lift Project, Shallow Gas Lift Course, 1989.
3. IN SITU MACHINING AND REPAIR OF CAMERON FC STYLE XMAS TREES
Society of Petroleum Engineers
Drawing No.: SPE 19274/1, Bryne D, Terry Dr P
4. SHORT COURSE ON GAS LIFT PRINCIPLES AND EQUIPMENT.
Camco Training Department
Study Guide, 1991
5. COMPLETION PRODUCTS
Halliburton
Second Edition.
6. MSC DRILLING ENGINEERING, MODULE 9, COMPLETION TECHNOLOGY.
The Robert Gordon University
7. WELL ENGINEERING DISTANCE LEARNING PACKAGE WELLHEADS
Shell Expro
Version 1.00
8. WELL ENGINEERING DISTANCE LEARNING PACKAGE COMPLETIONS
Shell Expro
Version 1.00
9. WELL SERVICES CO-ORDINATOR COMPETENCE COURSE, MODULE 1
Shell Expro
Version 3, Jan 1996
10. PRODUCTION OPERATIONS WELL SERVICES GUIDE, ASPECTS OF WELL
COMPLETION DESIGN,
Shell International Exploration and Production B.V
Document No.: EP 95-1811, Vol 2, Nov 1995.
11. SPECIFICATION FOR WELLHEAD AND CHRISTMAS TREE EQUIPMENT
American Petroleum Institute
Document No.: API 6A 17th Ed , Nov 1999.
12. VAM CATALOG
Sumitomo Metals
No. 940
13. SUMITOMO PRODUCTS FOR THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRIES.
Sumitomo Metals

16

14. HIGH ALLOY OCTG, NEW SM SERIES


Sumitomo Metals
15. TUBULAR CONNECTION DATA BOOK
Weatherford
1992

17

9. GLOSSARY OF TERMS
Term
Primary Barrier

Secondary Barrier
Tertiary Barrier

Zone
Working Joint

Description
Equipment or sealing arrangement providing
containment, which is in direct contact with either gas
or hydrocarbon fluids, under normal operating
conditions.
Equipment or sealing arrangement providing
containment, in the event of a primary barrier failure
under normal operating conditions.
Equipment or sealing arrangement providing
containment, in the event of a primary and secondary
barrie r failure under normal operating conditions.
Each model is broken down into discrete manageable
areas (zones) so that a detailed FMECA can be carried
out.
A joint or section, which defines the boundary of a
zone. If the joint or section is not included within the
adjacent zone, the FMECA would have not considered
all permutations.

18

10.

FIGURES

CONTENTS
Page
Figure 1 Single Completion Gas Lift Well Schematic .......................................................... 20
Figure 2 Dual Completion Gas Lift Well Schematic ............................................................ 21
Figure 3 Sample FMECA Worksheet.................................................................................. 22

19

Figure 1 Single Completion Gas Lift Well Schematic

20

Figure 2 Dual Completion Gas Lift Well Schematic

21

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

Figure 3 Sample FMECA Worksheet

22

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

APPENDIX A
PRIMARY GAS PATHS, WETTED CONTAINMENT ZONES,
PRIMARY AND SECONDARY BARRIERS DUAL COMPLETION

23

MAJOR COMPONENTS OF THE DUAL COMPLETION MODEL USING A DUAL


BLOCK TREE ARRANGEMENT.

Primary gas path


1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.10
1.11
1.12
1.13
1.14
1.15
1.16
1.17
1.18
1.19
1.20

Gas line check valve


Annulus wing valve
Annulus upper master valve
Annulus lower master valve
Annulus bore tubing hanger
Annulus tubing & annulus tubing nipples
Annulus downhole safety valve
Annulus tubing
Annulus bore dual bore upper packer
Lower well annulus
Side Pocket Mandrels
Production tubing
Production bore dual bore upper packer
Production tubing
Production downhole safety valve
Production tubing and nipples
Production bore tubing hanger
Production lower master valve
Production upper master valve
Production wing valve

HYDROCARBON (WETTED) CONTAINMENT ZONES (WELL IN PRODUCTION)


Zone 1.1 1.2
Primary barrier components:

Gas check valve


Connecting pipework
Annulus wing valve

Secondary barrier components None


Zone 1.2 1.3
Primary barrier components:

Annulus wing valve


Annulus non-active wing valve,
Annulus bore,
Annulus upper master valve,
Annulus swab valve,
Chemical injection valve.

24

Secondary barrier components:

Tree cap

Zone 1.3 1.4


Primary barrier components:

Annulus upper master valve


Annulus bore
Annulus lower master valve

Secondary barrier components None


Zone 1.4 1.5
Primary barrier components:

Annulus lower master valve,


Annulus bore,
Annulus bore tubing hanger

Secondary barrier components:

Tubing spool to tree outer flange seal,


Tubing spool downhole chemical injection line,
Tubing spool downhole chemical injection point packing gland & tertiary outer block
assembly,
Tubing hanger tie down bolts and seals,
Tubing spool downhole safety valve control packing gland & tertiary outlet block
assembly,
Tubing spool to tubing hanger seal,
Tubing hanger downhole safety valve control upper packing gland,
Tubing hanger downhole chemical injection point upper packing gland.
Tubing spool downhole safety valve control line.

Zone 1.5 1.6


Primary barrier components:

Annulus bore Tubing hanger,


Annulus tubing & annulus tubing nipples

Secondary barrier components

Production casing,
Production casing hanger seal to tubing spool,
Upper annulus tubing spool inner valve,
Upper annulus tubing spool outer valve,
Upper annulus tubing spool monitor and vent assembly,

25

VR plug & tertiary valve(s),


Tubing hanger seal to tubing spool,
Tubing spool downhole chemical injection line,
Tubing spool downhole safety valve control line,
Tubing hanger downhole safety valve control line lower packing gland,
Tubing hanger downhole chemical injection line lower packing gland,
(Possible connection between tubing spool and casing spool.)

B and C casing spool valves and associated equipment form tertiary barriers, and require
primary and secondary failures before being subjected to gas. This would require a triple
jeopardy event to realise a leak to the wellhead areas. These barriers are not considered
further.
Zone 1.6 1.7
Primary barrier components:

Annulus tubing & annulus tubing nipples


Annulus downhole safety valve.

Secondary Barrier Components - As per details for zone 1.5 1.6


Zone 1.7 1.8
Primary barrier components:

Annulus downhole safety valve


Annulus tubing.

Secondary Barrier Components - As per details for zone 1.5 1.6


Zone 1.8 1.9
Primary barrier components:

Annulus tubing
Annulus bore dual bore upper packer.

Secondary Barrier Components - As per details for zone 1.5 1.6


Zone 1.9 1.11
Primary barrier components:

Annulus bore dual bore upper packer


Lower well annulus - 9 5/8 Casing
Side Pocket Mandrels
Chemical Injection line

Secondary barrier components

B annulus (bore of intermediate casing)


Intermediate casing hanger to casing spool seal

26

Production casing hanger seal to the casing spool


B annulus valve & upper annulus spool monitor and vent assembly
VR plug

Tertiary Barrier Components:

C annulus
Tertiary valve(s)

Zone 1.11 1.12


Primary barrier components:

Side Pocket Mandrels


Production tubing

Secondary barrier components Not applicable gas already in annulus as function of gas lift.
Zone 1.12 1.13
Primary barrier components:

Production tubing,
Production bore dual bore upper packer

Secondary barrier components Not applicable gas already in annulus as function of gas lift.
Zone 1.13 1.14
Primary barrier components:

Production bore dual bore upper packer,


Production tubing.

Secondary barrier components As per details for zone 1.5 1.6


Zone 1.14 1.15

Production tubing,
Production downhole safety valve

Secondary barrier components As per details for zone 1.5 1.6


Zone 1.15 1.16
Primary barrier components:

Production downhole safety valve,


Production tubing and nipples.

Secondary barrier components As per details for zone 1.5 1.6

27

Zone 1.16 1.17


Primary barrier components:

Production tubing and nipples,


Production bore tubing hanger.

Secondary barrier components As per details for zone 1.5 1.6


Zone 1.17 1.18
Primary barrier components:

Production bore tubing hanger,


Production bore,
Production lower master valve.

Secondary barrier components:

Tubing spool to tree outer flange seal,


Tubing spool downhole chemical injection line,
Tubing spool downhole chemical injection line packing gland & tertiary outer block
assembly,
Tubing hanger tie down bolts and seals,
Tubing spool downhole safety valve control packing gland & tertiary outlet block
assembly,
Tubing spool to tubing hanger seal,
Tubing hanger downhole safety valve control packing gland,
Tubing hanger downhole chemical injection point packing gland,
Tubing spool downhole safety valve control line.

Zone 1.18 1.19


Primary barrier components:

Production lower master valve,


Production bore,
Production upper master valve.

Secondary barrier components None


Zone 1.19 1.20
Primary barrier components:

Production upper master valve,


Production bore,
SWAB valve,
Chemical injection valve,
Production wing valve,
Production non-active wing valve.

28

Secondary barrier components:

Tree cap

29

APPENDIX B
PRIMARY GAS PATHS, WETTED CONTAINMENT ZONES,
PRIMARY AND SECONDARY BARRIERS SINGLE
COMPLETION

30

MAJOR COMPONENTS OF THE SINGLE COMPLETION MODEL USING A SINGLE


BLOCK TREE ARRANGEMENT
Primary gas path
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12
2.13
2.14
2.15

Gas line check valve


Tubing spool side valve
Upper well annulus
Annulus downhole safety valve in the dual bore packer
Lower well annulus
Side Pocket Mandrels
Lower production tubing
Production bore dual bore upper packer
Upper production tubing
Production downhole safety valve
Production tubing and nipples
Production bore tubing hanger
Production lower master valve
Production upper master valve
Production wing valve

HYDROCARBON (WETTED) CONTAINMENT ZONES (WELL IN PRODUCTION)


Zone 2.1 2.2
Primary barrier components:

Gas check valve,


Connecting pipework,
Tubing spool side valve.

Secondary barrier components None


Zone 2.2 2.3
Primary barrier components:

Tubing spool side valve,


Tubing spool to tubing hanger seal,
Tubing spool to casing hanger seal,
Production tubing to tubing hanger seal,
Upper well annulus,
Tubing hanger body,
Tubing hanger downhole safety valve control line lower packing gland,
Tubing hanger downhole chemical injection line lower packing gland,
Tubing spool downhole chemical injection line,
Tubing spool downhole safety valve control line,
Production tubing,
Tubing spool side valve,
Upper annulus tubing spool and monitoring assembly.

31

Secondary barrier components:

Tubing hanger tie down bolts,


Tubing hanger down hole safety valve control line upper packing gland,
Tubing hanger down hole chemical injection line upper packing gland,
Tubing spool to tree outer flange seal,
Tubing hanger downhole safety valve control packing gland & tertiary block assembly,
Tubing hanger downhole chemical injection packing gland & tertiary block assembly,
Tubing spool downhole chemical injection line,
Tubing spool downhole safety valve control line.

Zone 2.3 2.4


Primary barrier components:

Upper well annulus,


Annulus downhole safety valve,
Production tubing,

Secondary barrier components

B Annulus Casing,
B Annulus Tubing Spool Valves,
Upper annulus tubing spool monitor and vent assembly,
B annulus tubing spool to casing hanger seal.

Zone 2.4 2.6


Primary barrier components:

Annulus downhole safety valve,


Dual bore upper packer,
Lower well annulus (9 5/8"),
Side Pocket Mandrels (SPM),
Chemical Injection Line.

Secondary barrier components

B annulus (bore of intermediate casing),


Intermediate casing hanger to casing spool seal,
Tertiary seal is the C annulus,
Production casing hanger seal to the casing spool,
B annulus valve & upper annulus spool monitor and vent assembly.

Zone 2.6 2.8


Primary barrier components:

Side packer mandrels,


Lower production tubing,
Production bore dual bore upper packer

32

Secondary barrier components

Not Applicable (gas already in annulus as a function of gas lift)

Zone 2.8 2.9


Primary barrier components:

Production bore dual bore upper packer,


Upper production tubing.

Secondary barrier components

Not Applicable (gas already in annulus as a function of gas lift)

Zone 2.9 2.10


Primary barrier components:

Upper production tubing,


Production downhole safety valve.

Secondary barrier components

Not Applicable (gas already in annulus as a function of gas lift)

Zone 2.10 2.11


Primary barrier components:

Production downhole safety valve,


Production tubing and nipples.

Secondary barrier components

Not Applicable (gas already in annulus as a function of gas lift)

Zone 2.11 2.12


Primary barrier components:

Production tubing and nipples,


Tubing hanger.

Secondary barrier components

Not Applicable (gas already in annulus as a function of gas lift)

33

Zone 2.12 2.13


Primary barrier components:

Tubing hanger,
Production bore,
Production lower master valve.

Secondary barrier components

Tubing spool to tree outer flange seal,


Tubing spool downhole chemical injection line,
Tubing spool downhole chemical injection point packing gland & tertiary outer block
assembly,
Tubing hanger tie down bolts and seals,
Tubing spool downhole safety valve control packing gland & tertiary outlet block
assembly,
Tubing spool to tubing hanger seal,
Tubing hanger downhole safety valve control packing gland,
Tubing hanger downhole chemical injection point packing gland.
Tubing spool downhole safety valve control line.

Zone 2.13 2.14


Primary barrier components:

Production lower master valve


Production bore,
Production upper master valve

Secondary barrier components None


Zone 2.14 2.15
Primary barrier components:

Production upper master valve


Production bore,
SWAB valve,
Chemical injection valve
Production wing valve
Production non-active wing valve.

Secondary barrier components

Tree Cap

34

APPENDIX C
SEAL DESCRIPTIONS DUAL COMPLETION

35

SEAL DESCRIPTIONS FOR EACH ZONE - DUAL COMPLETION


Zone 1.1 1.2
Primary barrier components: Gas check valve,
Connecting pipework,
Annulus wing valve.
1.0
1.1
1.2

Gas Check Valve (Fail Closed) - (open)


Bonnet Seal (compression, bolts)
Ring gasket (compression, bolts)

2.0
2.1

Connecting Pipework
Ring Gasket (compression, bolts)

3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3

Annulus Wing Valve (Fail Closed) Floating Gate (open)


Bonnet Seal (compression, bolts)
Stem Seal (parallel, screw cap)
Grease fitting (compression screw thread)

Secondary barrier components: None


Zone 1.2 1.3
Primary barrier components:

Annulus wing valve,


Annulus non-active wing valve,
Annulus bore,
Annulus upper master valve,
Annulus swab valve,
Chemical injection valve.

1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

Annulus Wing Valve (Fail Closed) Floating Gate (open)


Bonnet Seal (compression, bolts)
Stem Seal (parallel, screw cap)
Grease fitting (compression screw thread)
Ring Gasket (compression, bolts)

2.0
2.1

Annulus Bore
Tree Block

3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3

Annulus Upper Master Valve (Fail Closed) Floating Gate (open)


Bonnet Seal (compression, bolts)
Stem Seal (parallel, screw cap)
Grease fitting (compression screw thread)

4.0
4.1
4.2
4.3

Annulus SWAB Valve (Manual) Floating Gate (closed)


Gate Seal (face, pressure)
Seat Seal (face, pressure)
Bonnet Seal (compression, bolts)

36

4.4
4.5

Back Seat (face, pressure) - ineffective


Stem seal (grease fitting secondary barrier)

5.0
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4

Chemical Injection Valve (open)


Single Cartridge Dual Check Valve (metal to metal nose joint, threaded)
CI Valve - Bonnet Assembly (screw cap, threaded)
CI Valve - Stem packing
CI Valve - Ring Gasket (compression, bolts)

6.0
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5

Annulus non-active wing va lve (Manual) Floating Gate (closed)


Gate Seal (face, pressure)
Seat Seal (face, pressure)
Bonnet Seal (compression, bolts)
Back Seat (face, pressure) - ineffective
Stem seal (grease fitting secondary barrier)

Secondary barrier components: Tree cap


7.0
7.1
7.2

Tree Cap
Tree Cap (parallel, screw cap)
Test Port (compression, screw threads)

Zone 1.3 1.4


Primary barrier components:

Annulus upper master valve,


Annulus bore,
Annulus lower master valve.

1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3

Annulus Upper Master Valve (Fail Closed) Floating Gate (open)


Bonnet Seal (compression, bolts)
Stem Seal (parallel, screw cap)
Grease fitting (compression screw thread)

2.1
2.1

Annulus Bore
Tree Body

3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3

Annulus Lower Master Valve (Manual) Floating Gate (open)


Bonnet Seal (compression, bolts)
Stem Seal (parallel, screw cap)
Grease fitting (compression screw thread)

Secondary barrier components None


Zone 1.4 1.5
Primary barrier components:

Annulus lower master valve,


Annulus bore,
Annulus bore tubing hanger.

37

1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3

Annulus Lower Master Valve (Manual) Floating Gate (open)


Bonnet Seal (compression, bolts)
Stem Seal (parallel, screw cap)
Grease fitting (compression screw thread)

2.0
2.1
2.2

Annulus Bore
Tree Body
Bore Sleeve (parallel, main fixing bolts for tree)

3.0
3.1

Annulus bore tubing hanger


Hanger Body

Secondary barrier components:

Tubing spool to tree outer flange seal,


Tubing spool downhole chemical injection line,
Tubing spool downhole chemical injection point packing gland & tertiary outer block
assembly,
Tubing hanger tie down bolts and seals,
Tubing spool downhole safety valve control packing gland & tertiary outlet block
assembly,
Tubing spool to tubing hanger seal,
Tubing hanger downhole safety valve control upper packing gland,
Tubing hanger downhole chemical injection point upper packing gland,
Tubing spool downhole safety valve control line.

4.0
4.1

Tubing spool to tree outer flange seal


Ring Gasket (compression, main fixing bolts for tree)

5.0
5.1

Tubing spool downhole chemical injection line


Chemical Injection Line Integrity

6.0

6.2

Tubing spool downhole chemical injection point packing gland & tertiary outer block
assembly
Packing Gland (tertiary seal - outer block assembly seal (compression, bolts), Gland to
Line Seal)
Gland to Tubing Spool Seal

7.0
7.1

Tubing hanger tie down bolts and seals


Bolt Seals (Compression, screw)

8.0

8.2

Tubing spool downhole safety valve control packing gland & tertiary outlet block
assembly
Packing Gland (tertiary seal - outer block assembly seal (compression, bolts), Gland to
Line Seal)
Gland to Tubing Spool Seal

9.0
9.1

Tubing spool to tubing hanger seal


Tubing spool annulus Seal (parallel, lockdown)

10.0
10.1

Tubing hanger downhole safety valve control line upper packing gland
Tubing hanger downhole safety valve control line upper packing gland (compression,
screw)

6.1

8.1

38

11.0
11.1

Tubing hanger downhole chemical injection line upper packing gland


Tubing hanger downhole chemical injection point upper packing gland (compression,
screw)

12.0
12.1

Tubing spool downhole safety valve control line


Downhole safety valve control line Integrity

Zone 1.5 1.6


Primary barrier components:

Annulus bore - tubing hanger,


Annulus tubing & annulus tubing nipples.

1.0
1.1
1.2

Annulus bore tubing hanger


Tubing Hanger Body
Premium Tapered Tubing Connection

2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3

Annulus tubing & annulus tubing nipples


Tubing
Annulus Tubing Nipples
Premium Tapered Tubing Connection

Secondary barrier components

Production casing,
Production casing hanger seal to tubing spool,
Upper annulus tubing spool inner valve,
Upper annulus tubing spool outer valve,
Upper annulus tubing spool monitor and vent assembly,
VR plug & tertiary valve(s),
Tubing hanger seal to tubing spool,
Tubing spool downhole chemical injection line,
Tubing spool downhole safety valve control line,
Tubing hanger downhole safety valve control line lower packing gland,
Tubing hanger downhole chemical injection line lower packing gland,
(Possible connection between tubing spool and casing spool).

B and C casing spool valves and associated equipment form tertiary barriers, and require
primary and secondary failures before being subjected to gas. This would require a triple
jeopardy event to realise a leak to the wellhead areas. These barriers are not considered further.
3.0
3.1
3.2

Production casing
Production Pipe
Premium Casing Threads

4.0
4.1

Production casing hanger seal to tubing spool


Production casing hanger seal to casing spool (parallel, lockdown)

5.0

Upper annulus tubing spool inner valve (Manual) (open) well producing, open
valves to take a sample
Ring Gasket (compression, bolts)

5.1

39

5.2
5.3
5.4

Bonnet Seal (compression, bolts)


Stem Seal (parallel, screw cap)
Grease fitting (compression, screw thread)

6.0
6.1
6.2

Upper annulus tubing spool monitor and vent assembly


Ring Gasket (compression, bolts)
Needle Valve (compression, screw)

7.0
7.1

VR plug & tertiary valve(s)


VR Plug (parallel, screw) (tertiary seal manual gate valves)

8.0
8.1

Tubing hanger seal to tubing spool


Tubing spool annulus Seal (parallel, lockdown)

9.0
9.1

Tubing spool downhole chemical injection line


Chemical Injection Line Integrity

10.0
10.1

Tubing spool downhole safety valve control line


Downhole safety valve control line Integrity

11.0
11.1

Tubing hanger downhole safety valve control line lower packing gland
Tubing hanger downhole safety valve control line lower packing gland (compression,
screw)

12.0
12.1

Tubing hanger downhole chemical injection line lower packing gland


Tubing hanger downhole chemical injection point lower packing gland (compression,
screw)

Zone 1.6 1.7


Primary barrier components:

Annulus tubing & annulus tubing nipples,


Annulus downhole safety valve.

1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3

Annulus tubing & annulus tubing nipples


Annulus Tubing
Annulus Tubing Nipples
Premium Tapered Tubing Connection

2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3

Annulus downhole safety valve (ADHSV Fail Closed) - (open)


Premium tapered tubing connection
Valve body
Valve piston/control line seal

Secondary barrier components:- As per details for zone 1.5 1.6


Zone 1.7 1.8
Primary barrier components:

Annulus downhole safety valve,


Annulus tubing.

40

1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3

Annulus downhole safety valve (ADHSV Fail Closed) - (open)


Premium tapered tubing connection
Valve body
Valve piston/control line seal

2.0
2.1
2.2

Annulus Tubing
Annulus Tubing
Premium Tapered Tubing Connection

Secondary barrier components: - As per details for zone 1.5 1.6


Zone 1.8 1.9
Primary barrier components:

Annulus tubing,
Annulus bore dual bore upper packer,
Tubing spool downhole chemical injection line,
Dual bore upper packer chemical injection line upper packing gland.

1.0
1.1
1.2

Annulus Tubing
Annulus Tubing
Premium Tapered Tubin g Connection

2.0
2.1
2.2

Annulus bore dual bore upper packer


Packer body
Premium Tapered Tubing Connection

Secondary barrier components: - As per details for zone 1.5 1.6


3.0
3.1

Tubing spool downhole chemical injection line


Chemical Injection Line Integrity

4.0
4.1

Dual bore upper packer chemical injection line upper packing gland
Dual bore upper packer chemical injection point upper packing gland (compression,
screw)

Zone 1.9 1.11


Primary barrier components:

Annulus bore dual bore upper packer,


Chemical injection line,
Lower well annulus,
Side Pocket Mandrels.

1.0
1.1
1.2

Annulus bore dual bore upper packer


Packer body
Premium Tapered Tubing Connection

2.0
2.1

Lower well annulus 9 5/8 Casing


Annulus Tubing

41

2.2
2.3

Premium Tapered Tubing Connection


Production casing

3.0
3.1
3.2

Side Pocket Mandrels (SPM)


SPM body
Orifice Valve (parallel)

4.0
4.1
4.2

Chemical Injection Line


Chemical Injection Line pipe
Chemical injection line connection at bottom of dual bore upper packer

Secondary barrier components:

B annulus (bore of intermediate casing)


Intermediate casing hanger to casing spool seal
Tertiary seal is the C annulus
Production casing hanger seal to the casing spool
B annulus valve & upper annulus spool monitor and vent assembly
VR plug & tertiary valve(s)

Zone 1.11 1.12


Primary barrier components:

Side Pocket Mandrels,


Production tubing..

1.0
1.1
1.2

Side Pocket Mandrels (SPM)


SPM body
Orifice Valve (parallel)

2.0
2.1
2.2

Production tubing
Production Tubing
Premium Tapered Tubing Connection

Secondary barrier components


Not applicable gas already in annulus as function of gas lift.
Zone 1.12 1.13
Primary barrier components:

Production tubing,
Production bore dual bore upper packer.

1.0
1.1
1.2

Production tubing
Tubing
Premium Tapered Tubing Connection

2.0
2.1

Production bore dual bore upper packer


Packer body

42

2.2

Premium Tapered Tubing Connection

Secondary barrier components


Not applicable gas already in annulus as function of gas lift.
Zone 1.13 1.14
Primary barrier components:

Production bore dual bore upper packer,


Production tubing.

1.0
1.1
1.2

Production bore dual bore upper packer


Packer body
Premium Tapered Tubing Connection

2.0
2.1
2.2

Production tubing
Tubing
Premium Tapered Tubing Connection

Secondary barrier components As per details for zone 1.5 1.6


Zone 1.14 1.15
Primary barrier components:

Production tubing,
Production downhole safety valve.

1.0
1.1
1.2

Production tubing
Tubing
Premium Tapered Tubing Connection

2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3

Production downhole safety valve (Fail Closed) - (open)


Premium tapered tubing connection
Valve body
Valve piston/control line seal

Secondary barrier components As per details for zone 1.5 1.6


Zone 1.15 1.16
Primary barrier components:

1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3

Production downhole safety valve,


Production tubing and nipples.
Production downhole safety valve (Fail Closed) - (open)
Premium tapered tubing connection
Valve body
Valve piston/control line seal

43

2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3

Production tubing and nipples


Production Tubing
Production Tubing Nipples
Premium Tapered Tubing Connection

Secondary barrier components As per details for zone 1.5 1.6


Zone 1.16 1.17
Primary barrier components:

Production tubing and nipples,


Production bore tubing hanger.

1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3

Production tubing and nipples


Production Tubing
Production Tubing Nipples
Premium Tapered Tubing Connection

2.0
2.1
2.2

Production bore tubing hanger


Tubing Hanger Body
Premium Tapered Tubing Connection

Secondary barrier components As per details for zone 1.5 1.6


Zone 1.17 1.18
Primary barrier components:

Production bore tubing hanger,


Production bore,
Production lower master valve.

1.0
1.1
1.2

Production bore tubing hanger


Tubing Hanger Body
Premium Tapered Tubing Connection

2.0
2.1
2.2

Production bore
Bore Sleeve (parallel, main fixing bolts for tree)
Tree Body

3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3

Production Lower Master Valve (Manual) Floating Gate (open)


Grease fitting (compression screw thread)
Stem Seal (parallel, screw cap)
Bonnet Seal (compression, bolts)

Secondary barrier components

Tubing spool to tree outer flange seal,


Tubing spool downhole chemical injection line,
Tubing spool downhole chemical injection line packing gland & tertiary outer block
assembly,
Tubing hanger tie down bolts and seals,

44

Tubing spool downhole safety valve control packing gland & tertiary outlet block
assembly,
Tubing spool to tubing hanger seal,
Tubing hanger downhole safety valve control line upper packing gland,
Tubing hanger downhole chemical injection point upper packing gland,
Tubing spool downhole safety valve control line.

4.0
4.1

Tubing spool to tree outer flange seal


Ring Gasket (compression, main fixing bolts for tree)

5.0
5.1

Tubing spool downhole chemical injection line


Chemical Injection Line Integrity

6.0

6.2

Tubing spool downhole chemical injection line packing gland & tertiary outer block
assembly
Packing Gland (tertiary seal - outer block assembly seal (compression, bolts), Gland to
Line Seal)
Gland to Tubing Spool Seal

7.0
7.1

Tubing hanger tie down bolts and seals


Bolt Seals (Compression, screw)

8.0

8.2

Tubing spool downhole safety valve control packing gland & tertiary outlet block
assembly
Packing Gland (tertiary seal - outer block assembly seal (compression, bolts), Gland to
Line Seal)
Gland to Tubing Spool Seal

9.0
9.1

Tubing spool to tubing hanger seal


Tubing spool production Seal (parallel, lockdown)

10.0
10.1

Tubing hanger downhole safety valve control line upper packing gland
Tubing hanger downhole safety valve control upper packing gland (compression,
screw)

11.0
11.1

Tubing hanger downhole chemical injection line upper packing gland


Tubing hanger downhole chemical injection point upper packing gland (compression,
screw)

12.0
12.1

Tubing spool downhole safety valve control line


Downhole safety valve control line Integrity

6.1

8.1

Zone 1.18 1.19


Primary barrier components:

1.0
1.1
1.2

Production lower master valve,


Production bore,
Production upper master valve.
Production lower master valve (Manual) Floating Gate (open)
Bonnet Seal (compression, bolts)
Stem Seal (parallel, screw cap)

45

1.3

Grease fitting (compression screw thread)

2.0
2.1

Production bore
Tree Body

3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3

Production upper master valve (Fail Closed) Floating Gate (open)


Bonnet Seal (compression, bolts)
Stem Seal (parallel, screw cap)
Grease fitting (compression screw thread)

Secondary barrier components None


Zone 1.19 1.20
Primary barrier components:

Production upper master valve,


Production bore,
Swab valve,
Chemical injection point,
Production wing valve,
Production non-active wing valve.

1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

Production Wing Valve (Fail Closed) Floating Gate (open)


Bonnet Seal (compression, bolts)
Stem Seal (parallel, screw cap)
Grease fitting (compression screw thread)
Ring Gasket (compression, bolts)

2.0
2.1

Production Bore
Tree Block

3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3

Production Upper Master Valve (Fail Closed) Floating Gate (open)


Bonnet Seal (compression, bolts)
Stem Seal (parallel, screw cap)
Grease fitting (compression screw thread)

4.0
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5

Production SWAB Valve (Manual) Floating Gate (closed)


Gate Seal (face, pressure)
Seat Seal (face, pressure)
Bonnet Seal (compression, bolts)
Back Seat (face, pressure) - ineffective
Stem seal (grease fitting secondary barrier)

5.0
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4

Chemical Injection Valve (open)


Single Cartridge Dual Check Valve (metal to metal nose joint, threaded)
CI Valve - Bonnet Assembly (screw cap, threaded)
CI Valve - Stem packing
CI Valve - Ring Gasket (compression, bolts)

6.0
6.1
6.2

Production non-active wing valve (Manual) Floating Gate (closed)


Gate Seal (face, pressure)
Seat Seal (face, pressure)

46

6.3
6.4
6.5

Bonnet Seal (compression, bolts)


Back Seat (face, pressure) - ineffective
Stem seal (grease fitting secondary barrier)

Secondary barrier components

7.0
7.1
7.2

Tree cap.
Tree Cap
Tree Cap (parallel, screw cap)
Test Port (compression, screw threads)

47

APPENDIX D
SEAL DESCRIPTIONS SINGLE COMPLETION

48

SEAL DESCRIPTIONS FOR EACH ZONE - SINGLE COMPLETION


Zone 2.1 2.2
Primary barrier components:

Gas check valve,


Connecting pipework,
Tubing spool side valve,

1.0
1.1
1.2

Gas Check Valve (Fail Closed) - (open)


Bonnet Seal (compression, bolts)
Ring gasket (compression, bolts)

2.0
2.1

Connecting Pipework
Ring Gasket (compression, bolts)

3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3

Tubing Spool Side Valve (Fail Closed) Floating Gate (open)


Bonnet Seal (compression, bolts)
Stem Seal (parallel, screw cap)
Grease fitting (compression screw thread)

Secondary barrier components None


Zone 2.2 2.3
Primary barrier components:

Tubing spool side valve,


Tubing spool to tubing hanger seal,
Tubing spool to casing hanger seal,
Production tubing to tubing hanger seal,
Upper well annulus,
Tubing hanger body,
Tubing hanger downhole safety valve control line lower packing gland,
Tubing hanger downhole chemical injection line lower packing gland,
Tubing spool downhole chemical injection line,
Tubing spool downhole safety valve control line,
Production tubing,
Tubing spool side valve,
Upper annulus tubing spool and monitoring assembly.

1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3

Tubing Spool Side Valve (Fail Closed) Floating Gate (open)


Bonnet Seal (compression, bolts)
Stem Seal (parallel, screw cap)
Grease fitting (compression screw thread)

2.0
2.1

Tubing spool to tubing hanger seal


Tubing spool annulus Seal (parallel, lockdown)

3.0
3.1

Tubing spool to casing hanger seal


Tubing spool to casing hanger seal (parallel, lockdown)

49

4.0
4.1

Production tubing to tubing hanger seal


Premium Threaded Connection

5.0
5.1
5.2

Upper well annulus


Tubing
Premium Tapered Tubing Connection

6.0
6.1

Tubing hanger body


Hanger body

7.0
7.1

Tubing hanger downhole safety valve control line lower packing gland (x2)
Tubing hanger downhole safety valve control line lower packing gland (compression,
screw)

8.0
8.1

Tubing hanger downhole chemical injection line lower packing gland


Tubing hanger downhole chemical injection line lower packing gland (compression,
screw)

9.0
9.1

Tubing spool downhole chemical injection line


Chemical Injection Line Integrity

10.0
10.1

Tubing spool downhole safety valve control line


Downhole safety valve control line Integrity

11.0
11.1
11.2

Production tubing
Production tubing
Premium tapered tubing connection

12.0
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4

Tubing spool side valve (Manual) (open) well producing, open


sample
Ring Gasket (compression, bolts)
Bonnet Seal (compression, bolts)
Stem Seal (parallel, screw cap)
Grease fitting (compression, screw thread)

13.0
13.1
13.2

Upper annulus tubing spool and monitoring assembly


Ring Gasket (compression, bolts)
Needle Valve (compression, screw)

valves to take a

Secondary barrier components:

14.0
14.1

Tubing hanger tie down bolts,


Tubing hanger downhole safety valve control line upper packing gland,
Tubing hanger downhole chemical injection line upper packing gland,
Tubing spool to tree outer flange seal,
Tubing hanger downhole safety valve control packing gland & tertiary block assembly,
Tubing hanger downhole chemical injection packing gland & tertiary block assembly,
Tubing spool downhole chemical injection line,
Tubing spool downhole safety valve control line.
Tubing hanger tie down bolts
Bolt Seals (Compression, screw)

50

15.0
15.1

Tubing hanger downhole safety valve control line upper packing gland
Tubing hanger downhole safety valve control line upper packing gland (compression,
screw)

16.0
16.1

Tubing hanger downhole chemical injection line upper packing gland


Tubing hanger downhole chemical injection point upper packing gland (compression,
screw)

17.0
17.1

Tubing spool to tree outer flange seal


Ring Gasket (compression, main fixing bolts for tree)

18.0
18.1

Tubing hanger downhole safety valve control packing gland & tertiary block assembly
Packing Gland (tertiary seal - outer block assembly seal (compression, bolts), Gland to
Line Seal)
Gland to Tubing Spool Seal

18.2
19.0
19.1
19.2

Tubing hanger downhole chemical injection packing gland & tertiary block assembly
Packing Gland (tertiary seal - outer block assembly seal (compression, bolts), Gland to
Line Seal)
Gland to Tubing Spool Seal

20.0
20.1

Tubing spool downhole chemical injection line


Chemical Injection Line Integrity

21.0
21.1

Tubing spool downhole safety valve control line


Downhole safety valve control line Integrity

Zone 2.3 2.4


Primary barrier components:

Upper well annulus,


Annulus downhole safety valve,
Production tubing,

1.0
1.1
1.2

Upper well annulus production casing


Production casing
Premium Tapered Tubing Connection

2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3

Annulus downhole safety valve (Fail Closed) - (open)


Valve Body
Valve piston / control line seal (parallel)
Premium Tapered Tubing Connection

3.0
3.1
3.2

Production tubing
Production Tubing
Premium Tapered Tubing Connection

Secondary barrier components

B Annulus Casing,
B Annulus Tubing Spool Valves,
Upper annulus tubing spool monitor and vent assembly,
B annulus tubing spool to casing hanger seal.

51

4.0
4.1
4.2

Intermediate Casing B Annulus


Intermediate Casing
Premium Tapered Tubing Connection

5.0
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4

B Annulus Tubing Spool Valves (Manual) (open) well producing, open valves to take
a sample
Ring Gasket (compression, bolts)
Bonnet Seal (compression, bolts)
Stem Seal (parallel, screw cap)
Grease fitting (compression, screw thread)

6.0
6.1
6.2

Upper annulus tubing spool monitor and vent assembly


Ring Gasket (compression, bolts)
Needle Valve (compression, screw)

7.0
7.1

B annulus tubing spool to casing hanger seal


Tubing spool to casing hanger seal (parallel, lockdown)

Zone 2.4 2.6


Primary barrier components:

Annulus downhole safety valve,


Dual bore upper packer,
Lower well annulus (9 5/8"),
Side Pocket Mandrels (SPM),
Chemical Injection Line.

1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3

Annulus downhole safety valve in the dual bore packer (Fail Closed) - (open)
Valve Body
Valve piston / control line seal (parallel)
Premium Tapered Tubing Connection

2.0
2.1
2.2

Dual bore upper packer


Packer body
Premium Tapered Tubing Connection

3.0
3.1
3.2

Lower well annulus (9 5/8")


Production casing
Premium Tapered Tubing Connection

4.0
4.1
4.2

Side Pocket Mandrels (SPM)


SPM body
Orifice Valve (parallel)

5.0
5.1
5.2

Chemical Injection Line


Chemical Injection Line pipe
Chemical injection line connection at bottom of dual bore upper packer

52

Secondary barrier components

B annulus (bore of intermediate casing),


Intermediate casing hanger to casing spool seal,
Tertiary seal is the C annulus,
Production casing hanger seal to the casing spool,
B annulus valve & upper annulus spool monitor and vent assembly.

Zone 2.6 2.8


Primary barrier components:

Side packer mandrels,


Lower production tubing,
Dual bore upper packer

1.0
1.1
1.2

Side Pocket Mandrels (SPM)


SPM body
Orifice Valve (parallel)

2.0
2.1
2.2

Lower production tubing


Tubing
Premium Tapered Tubing Connection

3.0
3.1
3.2

Dual bore upper packer


Packer body
Premium Tapered Tubing Connection

Secondary barrier components

Not Applicable (gas already in annulus as a function of gas lift)

Zone 2.8 2.9


Primary barrier components:

Dual bore upper packer,


Upper production tubing.

1.0
1.1
1.2

Production bore dual bore upper packer


Packer body
Premium Tapered Tubing Connection

2.0
2.1
2.2

Upper production tubing


Tubing
Premium Tapered Tubing Connection

Secondary barrier components

Not Applicable (gas already in annulus as a function of gas lift)

53

Zone 2.9 2.10


Primary barrier components:

Upper production tubing,


Production downhole safety valve.

1.0
1.1
1.2

Upper production tubing


Tubing
Premium Tapered Tubing Connection

2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3

Production downhole safety valve (Fail Closed) - (open)


Valve Body
Valve piston / control line seal (parallel)
Premium Tapered Tubing Connection

Secondary barrier components

Not Applicable (gas already in annulus as a function of gas lift)

Zone 2.10 2.11


Primary barrier components:

Production downhole safety valve,


Production tubing and nipples.

1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3

Production downhole safety valve (Fail Closed) - (open)


Valve Body
Valve piston / control line seal (parallel)
Premium Tapered Tubing Connection

2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3

Production tubing and nipples


Tubing
Annulus Tubing Nipples
Premium Tapered Tubing Connection

Secondary barrier components

Not Applicable (gas already in annulus as a function of gas lift)

Zone 2.11 2.12


Primary barrier components:

1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3

Production tubing and nipples,


Tubing hanger.
Production tubing and nipples
Tubing
Annulus Tubing Nipples
Premium Tapered Tubing Connection

54

2.0
2.1
2.2

Tubing hanger
Tubing Hanger Body
Premium Tapered Tubing Connection

Secondary barrier components

Not Applicable (gas already in annulus as a function of gas lift)

Zone 2.12 2.13


Primary barrier components:

Tubing hanger,
Production bore,
Production lower master valve.

1.0
1.1
1.2

Tubing hanger
Tubing Hanger Body
Premium Tapered Tubing Connection

2.0
2.1
2.2

Production bore
Bore Sleeve (parallel, main fixing bolts for tree)
Tree Body

3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3

Production Lower Master Valve (Manual) Floating Gate (open)


Grease fitting (compression screw thread)
Stem Seal (parallel, screw cap)
Bonnet Seal (compression, bolts)

Secondary barrier components

Tubing spool to tree outer flange seal,


Tubing spool downhole chemical injection line,
Tubing spool downhole chemical injection point packing gland & tertiary outer block
assembly,
Tubing hanger tie down bolts and seals,
Tubing spool downhole safety valve control line packing gland & tertiary outlet block
assembly,
Tubing spool to tubing hanger seal,
Tubing hanger downhole safety valve control line packing gland,
Tubing hanger downhole chemical injection point packing gland.
Tubing spool downhole safety valve control line.

4.0
4.1

Tubing spool to tree outer flange seal


Bore Sleeve (parallel, main fixing bolts for tree)

5.0
5.1

Tubing spool downhole chemical injection line


Chemical Injection Line Integrity

6.0

Tubing spool downhole chemical injection point packing gland & tertiary outer block
assembly
Packing Gland (tertiary seal - outer block assembly seal (compression, bolts), Gland to
Line Seal)
Gland to Tubing Spool Seal

6.1
6.2

55

7.0
7.1

Tubing hanger tie down bolts and seals


Bolt Seals (Compression, screw)

8.0

8.2

Tubing spool downhole safety valve control packing gland & tertiary outlet block
assembly
Packing Gland (tertia ry seal - outer block assembly seal (compression, bolts), Gland to
Line Seal)
Gland to Tubing Spool Seal

9.0
9.1

Tubing spool to tubing hanger seal


Tubing spool annulus Seal (parallel, lockdown)

10.0
10.1

Tubing hanger downhole safety valve control line upper packing gland
Tubing hanger downhole safety valve control line upper packing gland (compression,
screw)

11.0
11.1

Tubing hanger downhole chemical injection point upper packing gland


Tubing hanger downhole chemical injection point upper packing gland (compression,
screw)

12.0
12.1

Tubing spool downhole safety valve control line


Downhole safety valve control line Integrity

8.1

Zone 2.13 2.14


Primary barrier components:

Production lower master valve


Production bore,
Production upper master valve

1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3

Production lower master valve (Manual) Floating Gate (open)


Bonnet Seal (compression, bolts)
Stem Seal (parallel, screw cap)
Grease fitting (compression screw thread)

2.0
2.1

Production bore
Tree Body

3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3

Production upper master valve (Fail Closed) Floating Gate (open)


Bonnet Seal (compression, bolts)
Stem Seal (parallel, screw cap)
Grease fitting (compression screw thread)

Secondary barrier components None


Zone 2.14 2.15
Primary barrier components:

Production upper master valve


Production bore,

56

SWAB valve,
Chemical injection valve
Production wing valve
Production non-active wing valve.

1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

Production Wing Valve (Fail Closed) Floating Gate (open)


Bonnet Seal (compression, bolts)
Stem Seal (parallel, screw cap)
Grease fitting (compression screw thread)
Ring Gasket (compression, bolts)

2.0
2.1

Production Bore
Tree Block

3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3

Production Upper Master Valve (Fail Closed) Floating Gate (open)


Bonnet Seal (compression, bolts)
Stem Seal (parallel, screw cap)
Grease fitting (compression screw thread)

4.0
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5

Production SWAB Valve (Manual) Floating Gate (closed)


Gate Seal (face, pressure)
Seat Seal (face, pressure)
Bonnet Seal (compression, bolts)
Back Seat (face, pressure) - ineffective
Stem seal (grease fitting secondary barrier)

5.0
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4

Chemical Injection Valve (open)


Single Cartridge Dual Check Valve (metal to metal nose joint, threaded)
CI Valve - Bonnet Assembly (screw cap, threaded)
CI Valve - Stem packing
CI Valve - Ring Gasket (compression, bolts)

Secondary barrier components

7.0
7.1
7.2

Tree cap
Tree Cap
Tree Cap (parallel, screw cap)
Test Port (compression, screw threads)

57

APPENDIX E

58

SYSTEM

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

1. Gas Check Valve Primary Barrier

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of Bonnet seal leakage
pressurisation in the
(metal to metal joint)
upstream pipework.

Seal incorrectly
specified

Material specification of
seal incompatible with
Gradually leaking over
body causing
time
differential cell to be
setup.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.
Tree has been operating
in excess of 6 months,
2.2
initial teething problems
have been ironed out.

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

1. Gas Check Valve Primary Barrier

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of Bonnet seal leakage
pressurisation in the
(metal to metal joint)
upstream pipework.

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
Wrong seal taken from properties similar to
N one
stores
actual specification,
therefore no immediate
effect.

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

1. Gas Check Valve Primary Barrier

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of Bonnet seal leakage
pressurisation in the
(metal to metal joint)
upstream pipework.

Seal incorrectly
specified

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

1. Gas Check Valve Primary Barrier

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of Bonnet seal leakage
pressurisation in the
(metal to metal joint)
upstream pipework.

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

None.

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.

Seal incorrectly
installed

Effective seal not made Gas leak around seal

2.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

1. Gas Check Valve Primary Barrier

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of Bonnet seal leakage
pressurisation in the
(metal to metal joint)
upstream pipework.

1. Gas Check Valve Primary Barrier

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of Bonnet seal leakage
pressurisation in the
(metal to metal joint)
upstream pipework.

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bolts
unevenly tensioned

Bolts installed
incorrectly - incorrect
grade of bolt fitted

59

Joint integrity reduced

Sealing arrangement
unevenly energised

Joint integrity reduced None.

Employ competent
individuals and
3.3
appropriate supervision
is available.
Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
3.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

1. Gas Check Valve Primary Barrier

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of Bonnet seal leakage
pressurisation in the
(metal to metal joint)
upstream pipework.

1. Gas Check Valve Primary Barrier

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of Bonnet seal leakage
pressurisation in the
(metal to metal joint)
upstream pipework.

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Employ competent
Bolts installed
Seal distortion leading to individuals and
incorrectly - bonnet over Joint integrity reduced
2.3
progressive leakage.
appropriate supervision
tensioned
is available.

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bonnet
under tensioned

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
Instantaneous leak from
Joint integrity reduced
is available.
2.3
bonnet
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

1. Gas Check Valve Primary Barrier

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of Failure of Ring Gasket Bolts loosen off in
pressurisation in the
Seal
service
upstream pipework.

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

1. Gas Check Valve Primary Barrier

To contain the gas


Catastrophic failure of
Appropriate support for
Excessive vibration on
within the tree on loss of Failure of Ring Gasket
Fatigue failure of bolts one or more bolts after a
piping as per pipe stress 3.3
pressurisation in the
Seal
pipework
period of time.
analysis.
upstream pipework.

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

1. Gas Check Valve Primary Barrier

To contain the gas


Thermal/mechanical
Catastrophic failure of
Appropriate piping
within the tree on loss of Failure of Ring Gasket
Displacement from
gradients induce fatigue one or more bolts after a
design as per pipe stress 3.3
pressurisation in the
Seal
normal relative position
on bolts
period of time.
analysis.
upstream pipework.

1. Gas Check Valve Primary Barrier

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of Failure of Ring Gasket Wrong seal taken from
pressurisation in the
Seal
stores
upstream pipework.

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
properties similar to
None
actual specification,
therefore no immediate
effect.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of Failure of Ring Gasket Seal incorrectly
pressurisation in the
Seal
specified
upstream pipework.

Material specification of
seal incompatible with
Gradually increasing
body causing
leak over time.
differential cell to be
setup.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

1. Gas Check Valve Primary Barrier

60

Partial leakage of gas

Gas release

Possible detection by
plant operators and/or
F&G system

2.3

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

1. Gas Check Valve Primary Barrier

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of Failure of Ring Gasket Seal incorrectly
pressurisation in the
Seal
specified
upstream pipework.

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

1. Gas Check Valve Primary Barrier

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

None

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
2.2
initial teething problems
have been ironed out.
Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of Failure of Ring Gasket Seal incorrectly
pressurisation in the
Seal
installed
upstream pipework.

Effective seal not made Gas leakage around seal

2.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

1. Gas Check Valve Primary Barrier

To contain the gas


Bolts installed
within the tree on loss of Failure of Ring Gasket
incorrectly - bolts
pressurisation in the
Seal
unevenly tensioned
upstream pipework.

Sealing arrangement
Joint integrity reduced
unevenly energised

Employ competent
individuals and
3.3
appropriate supervision
is available.

Joint integrity reduced None

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
3.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

1. Gas Check Valve Primary Barrier

To contain the gas


Bolts installed
within the tree on loss of Failure of Ring Gasket
incorrectly - incorrect
Seal
pressurisation in the
grade of bolt fitted
upstream pipework.

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

1. Gas Check Valve Primary Barrier

To contain the gas


Employ competent
Bolts installed
within the tree on loss of Failure of Ring Gasket
Seal distortion leading to individuals and
incorrectly - bonnet over Joint integrity reduced
2.3
pressurisation in the
appropriate supervision
Seal
progressive leakage.
tensioned
upstream pipework.
is available.

1. Gas Check Valve Primary Barrier

To contain the gas


Bolts installed
within the tree on loss of Failure of Ring Gasket
incorrectly - bonnet
pressurisation in the
Seal
under tensioned
upstream pipework.

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

To contain the gas


2. Connecting Pipework within the tree on loss of Failure of Ring Gasket Bolts loosen off in
- Primary Barrier
Seal
service
pressurisation in the
upstream pipework.

61

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
Instantaneous leak from
Joint integrity reduced
is available.
2.3
bonnet
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Partial leakage of gas

Gas release

Possible detection by
plant operators and/or
F&G system

2.3

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

To contain the gas


Catastrophic failure of
Appropriate support for
2. Connecting Pipework within the tree on loss of Failure of Ring Gasket
Excessive vibration on
piping as per pipe stress 3.3
Fatigue failure of bolts one or more bolts after a
- Primary Barrier
pipework
pressurisation in the
Seal
period of time.
analysis.
upstream pipework.

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

To contain the gas


Thermal/mechanical
Catastrophic failure of
Appropriate piping
2. Connecting Pipework within the tree on loss of Failure of Ring Gasket
Displacement from
gradients induce fatigue one or more bolts after a
design as per pipe stress 3.3
- Primary Barrier
pressurisation in the
Seal
normal relative position
on bolts
period of time.
analysis.
upstream pipework.

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

Dimensions, chemical
To contain the gas
and mechanical
2. Connecting Pipework within the tree on loss of Failure of Ring Gasket Wrong seal taken from properties similar to
None
- Primary Barrier
pressurisation in the
Seal
stores
actual specification,
upstream pipework.
therefore no immediate
effect.

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

To contain the gas


2. Connecting Pipework within the tree on loss of Failure of Ring Gasket Seal incorrectly
pressurisation in the
- Primary Barrier
Seal
specified
upstream pipework.

Material specification of
seal incompatible with
Gradually increasing
body causing
leak over time.
differential cell to be
setup.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

To contain the gas


2. Connecting Pipework within the tree on loss of Failure of Ring Gasket Seal incorrectly
- Primary Barrier
pressurisation in the
Seal
specified
upstream pipework.

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
2.2
initial teething problems
have been ironed out.

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

None

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.

To contain the gas


2. Connecting Pipework within the tree on loss of Failure of Ring Gasket Seal incorrectly
- Primary Barrier
pressurisation in the
Seal
installed
upstream pipework.

Effective seal not made Gas leakage around seal

2.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

To contain the gas


Bolts installed
2. Connecting Pipework within the tree on loss of Failure of Ring Gasket
incorrectly - bolts
- Primary Barrier
Seal
pressurisation in the
unevenly tensioned
upstream pipework.

62

Sealing arrangement
Joint integrity reduced
unevenly energised

Employ competent
individuals and
3.3
appropriate supervision
is available.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

To contain the gas


Bolts installed
2. Connecting Pipework within the tree on loss of Failure of Ring Gasket
incorrectly - incorrect
- Primary Barrier
pressurisation in the
Seal
grade of bolt fitted
upstream pipework.

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

To contain the gas


Employ competent
Bolts installed
2. Connecting Pipework within the tree on loss of Failure of Ring Gasket
Seal distortion leading to individuals and
incorrectly - bonnet over Joint integrity reduced
2.3
- Primary Barrier
pressurisation in the
Seal
progressive leakage.
appropriate supervision
tensioned
upstream pipework.
is available.

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

To contain the gas


Bolts installed
2. Connecting Pipework within the tree on loss of Failure of Ring Gasket
incorrectly - bonnet
pressurisation in the
- Primary Barrier
Seal
under tensioned
upstream pipework.

SYMPTOMS

Joint integrity reduced None

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
3.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
Instantaneous leak from
Joint integrity reduced
is available.
2.3
bonnet
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.
Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
3. Annulus Wing Valve pressurisation in the
Bonnet seal leakage
- Primary Barrier
upstream pipework and (metal to metal joint)
or on activation of
platform ESD

Seal incorrectly
specified

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
3. Annulus Wing Valve pressurisation in the
Bonnet seal leakage
- Primary Barrier
upstream pipework and (metal to metal joint)
or on activation of
platform ESD

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
Wrong seal taken from properties similar to
None
stores
actual specification,
therefore no immediate
effect.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
3. Annulus Wing Valve pressurisation in the
Bonnet seal leakage
- Primary Barrier
upstream pipework and (metal to metal joint)
or on activation of
platform ESD

Seal incorrectly
specified

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
2.2
initial teething problems
have been ironed out.

Material specification of
seal incompatible with
Gradually leaking over
body causing
time
differential cell to be
setup.

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

63

None.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

CAUSE

EFFECT

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
3. Annulus Wing Valve pressurisation in the
Bonnet seal leakage
- Primary Barrier
upstream pipework and (metal to metal joint)
or on activation of
platform ESD

Seal incorrectly
installed

Effective seal not made Gas leak around seal

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
3. Annulus Wing Valve pressurisation in the
Bonnet seal leakage
- Primary Barrier
upstream pipework and (metal to metal joint)
or on activation of
platform ESD

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bolts
unevenly tensioned

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
3. Annulus Wing Valve pressurisation in the
Bonnet seal leakage
- Primary Barrier
upstream pipework and (metal to metal joint)
or on activation of
platform ESD

Bolts installed
incorrectly - incorrect
grade of bolt fitted

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
3. Annulus Wing Valve pressurisation in the
Bonnet seal leakage
- Primary Barrier
upstream pipework and (metal to metal joint)
or on activation of
platform ESD

Employ competent
Bolts installed
Seal distortion leading to individuals and
2.3
incorrectly - bonnet over Joint integrity reduced
progressive leakage.
appropriate supervision
tensioned
is available.

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
3. Annulus Wing Valve pressurisation in the
Bonnet seal leakage
- Primary Barrier
upstream pipework and (metal to metal joint)
or on activation of
platform ESD

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

FUNCTION

FAILURE

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
3. Annulus Wing Valve pressurisation in the
Stem Seal Leak
- Primary Barrier
upstream pipework and
or on activation of
platform ESD

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION
CRITICALITY
Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.
2.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bonnet
under tensioned

Joint integrity reduced

Sealing arrangement
unevenly energised

Joint integrity reduced None.

Employ competent
individuals and
3.3
appropriate supervision
is available.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
3.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
Instantaneous leak from
Joint integrity reduced
is available.
2.3
bonnet
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Wear and Tear

Loss of full seal

64

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
Gas leaks from actuator
accordance with
housing
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
3. Annulus Wing Valve pressurisation in the
Stem Seal Leak
- Primary Barrier
upstream pipework and
or on activation of
platform ESD

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
3. Annulus Wing Valve pressurisation in the
Stem Seal Leak
- Primary Barrier
upstream pipework and
or on activation of
platform ESD

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
Fitter backs off
3. Annulus Wing Valve pressurisation in the
Grease fitting Leakage assembly rather than
- Primary Barrier
upstream pipework and
just the cap
or on activation of
platform ESD

Zone 1.1 to 1.2

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
3. Annulus Wing Valve pressurisation in the
Grease fitting Leakage
- Primary Barrier
upstream pipework and
or on activation of
platform ESD

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
1. Annulus Wing Valve pressurisation in the
Bonnet Seal Leakage
- Primary Barrier
upstream pipework and
or on activation of
platform ESD

Seal incorrectly
specified

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
1. Annulus Wing Valve pressurisation in the
Bonnet Seal Leakage
upstream pipework and
- Primary Barrier
or on activation of
platform ESD

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
Wrong seal taken from properties similar to
None
actual specification,
stores
therefore no immediate
effect.

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Packing not set correctlyLoss of full seal

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
Gas leaks from actuator
accordance with
housing
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

Wrong packing fitted

Loss of full seal

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
Gas leaks from actuator
accordance with
housing
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

Partial leak

Audible evidence of gas


Using competent fitters 3.3
release

Removal or backing off


of plug during routine
greasing/lubricating
Partial leak
removes inner check
valve

Audible evidence of gas


Using competent fitters 3.3
release

Material specification of
seal incompatible with
Gradually leaking over
body causing
time
differential cell to be
setup.

65

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.
Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
1. Annulus Wing Valve pressurisation in the
Bonnet Seal Leakage
- Primary Barrier
upstream pipework and
or on activation of
platform ESD

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
1. Annulus Wing Valve pressurisation in the
Bonnet Seal Leakage
upstream pipework and
- Primary Barrier
or on activation of
platform ESD

Seal incorrectly
installed

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
1. Annulus Wing Valve pressurisation in the
Bonnet Seal Leakage
- Primary Barrier
upstream pipework and
or on activation of
platform ESD

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bolts
unevenly tensioned

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
1. Annulus Wing Valve pressurisation in the
Bonnet Seal Leakage
upstream pipework and
- Primary Barrier
or on activation of
platform ESD

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
1. Annulus Wing Valve pressurisation in the
Bonnet Seal Leakage
- Primary Barrier
upstream pipework and
or on activation of
platform ESD

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
1. Annulus Wing Valve pressurisation in the
Bonnet Seal Leakage
- Primary Barrier
upstream pipework and
or on activation of
platform ESD

CRITICALITY

Seal incorrectly
specified

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

None.

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
2.2
initial teething problems
have been ironed out.
Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.

Effective seal not made Gas leak around seal

2.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Sealing arrangement
Joint integrity reduced
unevenly energised

Employ competent
individuals and
3.3
appropriate supervision
is available.

Bolts installed
incorrectly - incorrect
grade of bolt fitted

Joint integrity reduced None.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
3.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bonnet
over tensioned

Employ competent
Seal distortion leading individuals and
Joint integrity reduced
2.3
to progressive leakage. appropriate supervision
is available.

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bonnet
under tensioned

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
Instantaneous leak from
Joint integrity reduced
is available.
2.3
bonnet
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

66

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
1. Annulus Wing Valve pressurisation in the
Stem Seal Leakage
- Primary Barrier
upstream pipework and
or on activation of
platform ESD

Loss of full seal

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
Gas leaks from actuator
accordance with
housing
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
1. Annulus Wing Valve pressurisation in the
Stem Seal Leakage
upstream pipework and
- Primary Barrier
or on activation of
platform ESD

Loss of full seal

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
Gas leaks from actuator
accordance with
housing
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
1. Annulus Wing Valve pressurisation in the
Stem Seal Leakage
upstream pipework and
- Primary Barrier
or on activation of
platform ESD

Wrong packing fitted

Loss of full seal

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
Gas leaks from actuator
accordance with
housing
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
1. Annulus Wing Valve pressurisation in the
Grease fitting leakage
- Primary Barrier
upstream pipework and
or on activation of
platform ESD

Fitter backs off


assembly rather than
just the cap

Partial leak

Audible evidence of gas


Using competent fitters 3.3
release

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
1. Annulus Wing Valve pressurisation in the
Grease fitting leakage
- Primary Barrier
upstream pipework and
or on activation of
platform ESD

Removal or backing off


of plug during routine
greasing/lubricating
Partial leak
removes inner check
valve

Audible evidence of gas


Using competent fitters 3.3
release

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

2. Annulus Bore Primary Barrier

To maintain annulus
pressure integrity

FAILURE

Tree block failure

CAUSE

Wear and Tear

Packing not set


correctly

Manufacturing defect

67

Slag
inclusion/laminations,
Stress raisers and crack
cold laps and other
initiators
geometric imperfections
in the forged block.

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Designers and
manufacturers to have
1.2
ISO quality systems in
place.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

CAUSE

EFFECT

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
3. Annulus Upper
pressurisation in the
Master Valve - Primary
Bonnet Seal Leakage
upstream pipework and
Barrier
or on activation of
platform ESD

Seal incorrectly
specified

Material specification of
seal incompatible with
Gradually leaking over
body causing
time
differential cell to be
setup.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
3. Annulus Upper
pressurisation in the
Bonnet Seal Leakage
Master Valve - Primary
upstream pipework and
Barrier
or on activation of
platform ESD

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
Wrong seal taken from properties similar to
None
stores
actual specification,
therefore no immediate
effect.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
3. Annulus Upper
pressurisation in the
Bonnet Seal Leakage
Master Valve - Primary
upstream pipework and
Barrier
or on activation of
platform ESD

Seal incorrectly
specified

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
2.2
initial teething problems
have been ironed out.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

FUNCTION

FAILURE

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

SYMPTOMS

None.

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
3. Annulus Upper
pressurisation in the
Master Valve - Primary
Bonnet Seal Leakage
upstream pipework and
Barrier
or on activation of
platform ESD

Seal incorrectly
installed

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
3. Annulus Upper
pressurisation in the
Master Valve - Primary
Bonnet Seal Leakage
upstream pipework and
Barrier
or on activation of
platform ESD

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bolts
unevenly tensioned

Effective seal not made Gas leak around seal

2.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

68

Joint integrity reduced

Sealing arrangement
unevenly energised

Employ competent
individuals and
3.3
appropriate supervision
is available.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
3. Annulus Upper
pressurisation in the
Master Valve - Primary
Bonnet Seal Leakage
upstream pipework and
Barrier
or on activation of
platform ESD

Bolts installed
incorrectly - incorrect
grade of bolt fitted

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
3. Annulus Upper
pressurisation in the
Bonnet Seal Leakage
Master Valve - Primary
upstream pipework and
Barrier
or on activation of
platform ESD

Employ competent
Bolts installed
Seal distortion leading to individuals and
2.3
incorrectly - bonnet over Joint integrity reduced
progressive leakage.
appropriate supervision
tensioned
is available.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
3. Annulus Upper
pressurisation in the
Bonnet Seal Leakage
Master Valve - Primary
upstream pipework and
Barrier
or on activation of
platform ESD

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
3. Annulus Upper
pressurisation in the
Master Valve - Primary
Stem Seal Leak
upstream pipework and
Barrier
or on activation of
platform ESD

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
3. Annulus Upper
pressurisation in the
Stem Seal Leak
Master Valve - Primary
upstream pipework and
Barrier
or on activation of
platform ESD

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
3. Annulus Upper
pressurisation in the
Stem Seal Leak
Master Valve - Primary
upstream pipework and
Barrier
or on activation of
platform ESD

CAUSE

EFFECT

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bonnet
under tensioned

SYMPTOMS

Joint integrity reduced None.

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
3.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
Instantaneous leak from
Joint integrity reduced
is available.
2.3
bonnet
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Loss of full seal

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
Gas leaks from actuator
accordance with
housing
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

Packing not set correctlyLoss of full seal

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
Gas leaks from actuator
accordance with
housing
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

Wrong packing fitted

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
Gas leaks from actuator
accordance with
housing
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

Wear and Tear

69

Loss of full seal

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
3. Annulus Upper
Fitter backs off
pressurisation in the
Master Valve - Primary
Grease fitting Leakage assembly rather than
upstream pipework and
just the cap
Barrier
or on activation of
platform ESD

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
3. Annulus Upper
pressurisation in the
Grease fitting Leakage
Master Valve - Primary
upstream pipework and
Barrier
or on activation of
platform ESD

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Partial leak

Audible evidence of gas


Using competent fitters 3.3
release

Removal or backing off


of plug during routine
Partial leak
greasing/lubricating
removes inner check
valve

Audible evidence of gas


Using competent fitters 3.3
release

Pressure testing at
manufactures to ensure
integrity of gate/seat.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

Provides isolation of
annulus from tree cap
4. Annulus SWAB
other than under any
Valve - Primary Barrier
well intervention
conditions

Poor seal between gate Gate/seat scored or


and seat
damaged

Gas passing into upper Pressurised gas under


bore under tree cap
tree cap

Maintenance and
inspection by
1.5
manufacturer including
periodic testing
offshore.

Tree cap is a secondary


barrier

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

Provides isolation of
annulus from tree cap
4. Annulus SWAB
other than under any
Valve - Primary Barrier
well intervention
conditions

Poor seal between seat Seal incorrectly


seal and valve body
specified

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

Provides isolation of
annulus from tree cap
4. Annulus SWAB
other than under any
Valve - Primary Barrier
well intervention
conditions

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
Poor seal between seat Wrong seal taken from properties similar to
Gradually increasing
seal and valve body
stores
leak over time.
actual specification,
therefore no immediate
effect.

Material specification of
seal incompatible with
Gradually leaking over
body causing
time
differential cell to be
setup.

70

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
1.1
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.
Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
1.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

Provides isolation of
annulus from tree cap
4. Annulus SWAB
other than under any
Valve - Primary Barrier
well intervention
conditions

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

FUNCTION

Provides isolation of
annulus from tree cap
4. Annulus SWAB
other than under any
Valve - Primary Barrier
well intervention
conditions

FAILURE

CAUSE

Poor seal between seat Seal incorrectly


seal and valve body
specified

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

None.

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
1.2
initial teething problems
have been ironed out.
Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.

Poor seal between seat Seal incorrectly


seal and valve body
installed

Effective seal not made Gas leak around seal

1.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

Provides isolation of
annulus from tree cap
4. Annulus SWAB
other than under any
Valve - Primary Barrier
well intervention
conditions

Material specification of
seal incompatible with
Gradually leaking over
body causing
time
differential cell to be
setup.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Bonnet seal leakage


(metal to metal joint)

Seal incorrectly
specified

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

Provides isolation of
annulus from tree cap
4. Annulus SWAB
other than under any
Valve - Primary Barrier
well intervention
conditions

Bonnet seal leakage


(metal to metal joint)

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
Wrong seal taken from properties similar to
None
stores
actual specification,
therefore no immediate
effect.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

Provides isolation of
annulus from tree cap
4. Annulus SWAB
other than under any
Valve - Primary Barrier
well intervention
conditions

Bonnet seal leakage


(metal to metal joint)

Seal incorrectly
specified

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
2.2
initial teething problems
have been ironed out.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

Provides isolation of
annulus from tree cap
4. Annulus SWAB
other than under any
Valve - Primary Barrier
well intervention
conditions

Bonnet seal leakage


(metal to metal joint)

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

None.

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.

Seal incorrectly
installed

Effective seal not made Gas leak around seal

2.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

71

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

Provides isolation of
annulus from tree cap
4. Annulus SWAB
other than under any
Valve - Primary Barrier
well intervention
conditions

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

Provides isolation of
annulus from tree cap
4. Annulus SWAB
other than under any
Valve - Primary Barrier
well intervention
conditions

Bonnet seal leakage


(metal to metal joint)

Bolts installed
incorrectly - incorrect
grade of bolt fitted

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

Provides isolation of
annulus from tree cap
4. Annulus SWAB
other than under any
Valve - Primary Barrier
well intervention
conditions

Bonnet seal leakage


(metal to metal joint)

Employ competent
Bolts installed
Seal distortion leading to individuals and
incorrectly - bonnet over Joint integrity reduced
2.3
appropriate supervision
progressive leakage.
tensioned
is available.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

Provides isolation of
annulus from tree cap
4. Annulus SWAB
other than under any
Valve - Primary Barrier
well intervention
conditions

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

Provides isolation of
annulus from tree cap
4. Annulus SWAB
other than under any
Valve - Primary Barrier
well intervention
conditions

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

Provides isolation of
annulus from tree cap
4. Annulus SWAB
other than under any
Valve - Primary Barrier
well intervention
conditions

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

Provides isolation of
annulus from tree cap
4. Annulus SWAB
other than under any
Valve - Primary Barrier
well intervention
conditions

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

Bonnet seal leakage


(metal to metal joint)

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bolts
unevenly tensioned

Joint integrity reduced

Sealing arrangement
unevenly energised

Employ competent
individuals and
3.3
appropriate supervision
is available.

Bonnet seal leakage


(metal to metal joint)

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bonnet
under tensioned

Joint integrity reduced None.

CRITICALITY

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
3.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
Instantaneous leak from
Joint integrity reduced
is available.
2.3
bonnet
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Stem seal leakage

Stem seal leakage

Stem seal leakage

Wear and Tear

Loss of full seal

Packing not set correctlyLoss of full seal

Wrong packing fitted

72

Loss of full seal

Gas leaks from handle


assembly

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
accordance with
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

Gas leaks from handle


assembly

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
accordance with
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

Gas leaks from handle


assembly

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
accordance with
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

Cartridge nose seal


To provide a controlled
failure, annulus gas
5. Chemical Injection
entry point for chemical
Valve - Primary Barrier
leakage past cartridge
injection
wall

Cartridge not fully


tightened

Gas leakage around


cartridge walls

None.

Employ competent
individuals and
1.1
appropriate supervision
is available.

To provide a controlled
5. Chemical Injection
entry point for chemical Failure of bonnet seal
Valve - Primary Barrier
injection

Seal incorrectly
specified

Material specification of
seal incompatible with
Gradually leaking over
body causing
time
differential cell to be
setup.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To provide a controlled
5. Chemical Injection
entry point for chemical Failure of bonnet seal
Valve - Primary Barrier
injection

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
Wrong seal taken from properties similar to
None
stores
actual specification,
therefore no immediate
effect.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To provide a controlled
5. Chemical Injection
entry point for chemical Failure of bonnet seal
Valve - Primary Barrier
injection

Seal incorrectly
specified

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
2.2
initial teething problems
have been ironed out.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

FUNCTION

FAILURE

To provide a controlled
5. Chemical Injection
entry point for chemical Failure of bonnet seal
Valve - Primary Barrier
injection

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

None.

CRITICALITY

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.

Seal incorrectly
installed

Effective seal not made Gas leak around seal

2.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To provide a controlled
5. Chemical Injection
entry point for chemical Failure of bonnet seal
Valve - Primary Barrier
injection

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bolts
unevenly tensioned

73

Sealing arrangement
Joint integrity reduced
unevenly energised

Employ competent
individuals and
3.3
appropriate supervision
is available.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
3.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To provide a controlled
5. Chemical Injection
entry point for chemical Failure of bonnet seal
Valve - Primary Barrier
injection

Bolts installed
incorrectly - incorrect
grade of bolt fitted

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To provide a controlled
5. Chemical Injection
entry point for chemical Failure of bonnet seal
Valve - Primary Barrier
injection

Employ competent
Bolts installed
Seal distortion leading to individuals and
incorrectly - bonnet over Joint integrity reduced
2.3
progressive leakage.
appropriate supervision
tensioned
is available.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To provide a controlled
5. Chemical Injection
entry point for chemical Failure of bonnet seal
Valve - Primary Barrier
injection

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bonnet
under tensioned

Joint integrity reduced None.

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
Instantaneous leak from
Joint integrity reduced
is available.
2.3
bonnet
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To provide a controlled
5. Chemical Injection
Failure of Ring Gasket Bolts loosen off in
entry point for chemical
Valve - Primary Barrier
Seal
service
injection

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To provide a controlled
Catastrophic failure of
Appropriate support for
5. Chemical Injection
Failure of Ring Gasket
Excessive vibration on
entry point for chemical
Fatigue failure of bolts one or more bolts after a
piping as per pipe stress 3.3
Valve - Primary Barrier
Seal
pipework
injection
period of time.
analysis.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To provide a controlled
Thermal/mechanical
Catastrophic failure of
Appropriate piping
5. Chemical Injection
Failure of Ring Gasket
Displacement from
entry point for chemical
gradients induce fatigue one or more bolts after a
design as per pipe stress 3.3
Valve - Primary Barrier
Seal
normal relative position
injection
on bolts
period of time.
analysis.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
To provide a controlled
5. Chemical Injection
Failure of Ring Gasket Wrong seal taken from properties similar to
entry point for chemical
None
Valve - Primary Barrier
Seal
stores
actual specification,
injection
therefore no immediate
effect.

74

Partial leakage of gas

Gas release

Possible detection by
plant operators and/or
F&G system

2.3

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To provide a controlled
5. Chemical Injection
Failure of Ring Gasket Seal incorrectly
entry point for chemical
Valve - Primary Barrier
Seal
specified
injection

Material specification of
seal incompatible with
Gradually increasing
body causing
leak over time.
differential cell to be
setup.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To provide a controlled
5. Chemical Injection
Failure of Ring Gasket Seal incorrectly
entry point for chemical
Valve - Primary Barrier
Seal
specified
injection

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

None

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.
Tree has been operating
in excess of 6 months,
2.2
initial teething problems
have been ironed out.
Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.

To provide a controlled
5. Chemical Injection
Failure of Ring Gasket Seal incorrectly
entry point for chemical
Valve - Primary Barrier
Seal
installed
injection

Effective seal not made Gas leakage around seal

2.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To provide a controlled
Bolts installed
5. Chemical Injection
Failure of Ring Gasket
entry point for chemical
incorrectly - bolts
Valve - Primary Barrier
Seal
injection
unevenly tensioned

Joint integrity reduced

Sealing arrangement
unevenly energised

Employ competent
individuals and
3.3
appropriate supervision
is available.
Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
3.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To provide a controlled
Bolts installed
5. Chemical Injection
Failure of Ring Gasket
entry point for chemical
incorrectly - incorrect
Valve - Primary Barrier
Seal
injection
grade of bolt fitted

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

Employ competent
To provide a controlled
Bolts installed
5. Chemical Injection
Failure of Ring Gasket
Seal distortion leading to individuals and
entry point for chemical
incorrectly - bonnet over Joint integrity reduced
2.3
Valve - Primary Barrier
Seal
progressive leakage.
appropriate supervision
injection
tensioned
is available.

75

Joint integrity reduced None

SYSTEM

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

To provide a controlled
Bolts installed
5. Chemical Injection
Failure of Ring Gasket
entry point for chemical
incorrectly - bonnet
Valve - Primary Barrier
Seal
injection
under tensioned

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
Instantaneous leak from
Joint integrity reduced
is available.
2.3
bonnet
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To provide a controlled
5. Chemical Injection
entry point for chemical Stem seal leakage
Valve - Primary Barrier
injection

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To provide a controlled
5. Chemical Injection
entry point for chemical Stem seal leakage
Valve - Primary Barrier
injection

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To provide a controlled
5. Chemical Injection
entry point for chemical Stem seal leakage
Valve - Primary Barrier
injection

Gas leaks from handle


assembly

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
accordance with
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

Packing not set correctlyLoss of full seal

Gas leaks from handle


assembly

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
accordance with
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

Wrong packing fitted

Gas leaks from handle


assembly

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
accordance with
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

Wear and Tear

Loss of full seal

Loss of full seal

Pressure testing at
manufactures to ensure
integrity of gate/seat.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

6. Annulus non-active
wing valve - Primary
Barrier

To provide a facility for


Poor seal between gate Gate/seat scored or
injecting kill fluid into
and seat
damaged
the annulus.

Gas passing into upper Pressurised gas under


bore under tree cap
tree cap

Maintenance and
inspection by
1.5
manufacturer including
periodic testing
offshore.

Tree cap is a secondary


barrier

76

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

Material specification of
seal incompatible with
Gradually leaking over
body causing
time
differential cell to be
setup.

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
1.1
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

6. Annulus non-active
wing valve - Primary
Barrier

To provide a facility for


Poor seal between seat Seal incorrectly
injecting kill fluid into
seal and valve body
specified
the annulus.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

6. Annulus non-active
wing valve - Primary
Barrier

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
To provide a facility for
Poor seal between seat Wrong seal taken from properties similar to
Gradually increasing
injecting kill fluid into
seal and valve body
stores
actual specification,
leak over time.
the annulus.
therefore no immediate
effect.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
1.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

6. Annulus non-active
wing valve - Primary
Barrier

To provide a facility for


Poor seal between seat Seal incorrectly
injecting kill fluid into
seal and valve body
specified
the annulus.

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
1.2
initial teething problems
have been ironed out.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

6. Annulus non-active
wing valve - Primary
Barrier

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

None.

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.

To provide a facility for


Poor seal between seat Seal incorrectly
injecting kill fluid into
seal and valve body
installed
the annulus.

Effective seal not made Gas leak around seal

1.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

6. Annulus non-active
wing valve - Primary
Barrier

6. Annulus non-active
wing valve - Primary
Barrier

Material specification of
seal incompatible with
Gradually leaking over
body causing
time
differential cell to be
setup.

To provide a facility for


Bonnet seal leakage
injecting kill fluid into
(metal to metal joint)
the annulus.

Seal incorrectly
specified

To provide a facility for


Bonnet seal leakage
injecting kill fluid into
(metal to metal joint)
the annulus.

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
Wrong seal taken from properties similar to
None
stores
actual specification,
therefore no immediate
effect.

77

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.
Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

6. Annulus non-active
wing valve - Primary
Barrier

To provide a facility for


Bonnet seal leakage
injecting kill fluid into
(metal to metal joint)
the annulus.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

6. Annulus non-active
wing valve - Primary
Barrier

FAILURE

To provide a facility for


Bonnet seal leakage
injecting kill fluid into
(metal to metal joint)
the annulus.

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Seal incorrectly
specified

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

None.

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
2.2
initial teething problems
have been ironed out.
Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.

Seal incorrectly
installed

Effective seal not made Gas leak around seal

2.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

6. Annulus non-active
wing valve - Primary
Barrier

To provide a facility for


Bonnet seal leakage
injecting kill fluid into
(metal to metal joint)
the annulus.

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bolts
unevenly tensioned

Sealing arrangement
Joint integrity reduced
unevenly energised

Employ competent
individuals and
3.3
appropriate supervision
is available.

Joint integrity reduced None.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
3.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

6. Annulus non-active
wing valve - Primary
Barrier

To provide a facility for


Bonnet seal leakage
injecting kill fluid into
(metal to metal joint)
the annulus.

Bolts installed
incorrectly - incorrect
grade of bolt fitted

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

6. Annulus non-active
wing valve - Primary
Barrier

To provide a facility for


Bonnet seal leakage
injecting kill fluid into
(metal to metal joint)
the annulus.

Employ competent
Bolts installed
Seal distortion leading to individuals and
incorrectly - bonnet over Joint integrity reduced
2.3
appropriate supervision
progressive leakage.
tensioned
is available.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

6. Annulus non-active
wing valve - Primary
Barrier

To provide a facility for


Bonnet seal leakage
injecting kill fluid into
(metal to metal joint)
the annulus.

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bonnet
under tensioned

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
Instantaneous leak from
Joint integrity reduced
is available.
2.3
bonnet
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

6. Annulus non-active
wing valve - Primary
Barrier

To provide a facility for


injecting kill fluid into Stem seal leakage
the annulus.

Wear and Tear

Loss of full seal

78

Gas leaks from handle


assembly

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
accordance with
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

6. Annulus non-active
wing valve - Primary
Barrier

To provide a facility for


injecting kill fluid into Stem seal leakage
the annulus.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

6. Annulus non-active
wing valve - Primary
Barrier

To provide a facility for


injecting kill fluid into Stem seal leakage
the annulus.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

6. Annulus non-active
wing valve - Primary
Barrier

To provide a facility for


Failure of Ring Gasket Bolts loosen off in
injecting kill fluid into
Seal
service
the annulus.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

6. Annulus non-active
wing valve - Primary
Barrier

To provide a facility for


Catastrophic failure of
Appropriate support for
Failure of Ring Gasket
Excessive vibration on
injecting kill fluid into
Fatigue failure of bolts one or more bolts after a
piping as per pipe stress 3.3
Seal
pipework
the annulus.
period of time.
analysis.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

6. Annulus non-active
wing valve - Primary
Barrier

To provide a facility for


Thermal/mechanical
Catastrophic failure of
Appropriate piping
Failure of Ring Gasket
Displacement from
injecting kill fluid into
gradients induce fatigue one or more bolts after a
design as per pipe stress 3.3
Seal
normal relative position
the annulus.
on bolts
period of time.
analysis.

6. Annulus non-active
wing valve - Primary
Barrier

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
To provide a facility for
Failure of Ring Gasket Wrong seal taken from properties similar to
injecting kill fluid into
None
Seal
stores
actual specification,
the annulus.
therefore no immediate
effect.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Gas leaks from handle


assembly

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
accordance with
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

Loss of full seal

Gas leaks from handle


assembly

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
accordance with
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

Partial leakage of gas

Gas release

Possible detection by
plant operators and/or
F&G system

2.3

Packing not set correctlyLoss of full seal

Wrong packing fitted

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

6. Annulus non-active
wing valve - Primary
Barrier

To provide a facility for


Failure of Ring Gasket Seal incorrectly
injecting kill fluid into
Seal
specified
the annulus.

Material specification of
seal incompatible with
Gradually increasing
body causing
leak over time.
differential cell to be
setup.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

6. Annulus non-active
wing valve - Primary
Barrier

To provide a facility for


Failure of Ring Gasket Seal incorrectly
injecting kill fluid into
Seal
specified
the annulus.

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

79

None

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.
Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.
Tree has been operating
in excess of 6 months,
2.2
initial teething problems
have been ironed out.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

6. Annulus non-active
wing valve - Primary
Barrier

To provide a facility for


Failure of Ring Gasket Seal incorrectly
injecting kill fluid into
Seal
installed
the annulus.

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION
CRITICALITY
Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.
Effective seal not made Gas leakage around seal
2.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

6. Annulus non-active
wing valve - Primary
Barrier

To provide a facility for


Bolts installed
Failure of Ring Gasket
injecting kill fluid into
incorrectly - bolts
Seal
the annulus.
unevenly tensioned

Sealing arrangement
Joint integrity reduced
unevenly energised

Employ competent
individuals and
3.3
appropriate supervision
is available.

Joint integrity reduced None

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
3.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

6. Annulus non-active
wing valve - Primary
Barrier

To provide a facility for


Bolts installed
Failure of Ring Gasket
injecting kill fluid into
incorrectly - incorrect
Seal
the annulus.
grade of bolt fitted

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

6. Annulus non-active
wing valve - Primary
Barrier

Employ competent
To provide a facility for
Bolts installed
Failure of Ring Gasket
Seal distortion leading to individuals and
injecting kill fluid into
incorrectly - bonnet over Joint integrity reduced
2.3
appropriate supervision
Seal
progressive leakage.
the annulus.
tensioned
is available.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

6. Annulus non-active
wing valve - Primary
Barrier

To provide a facility for


Bolts installed
Failure of Ring Gasket
injecting kill fluid into
incorrectly - bonnet
Seal
the annulus.
under tensioned

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
Instantaneous leak from
Joint integrity reduced
is available.
2.3
bonnet
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To provide a removable
7. Tree Cap - Secondary secondary barrier to
Barrier
allow well intervention
activities

On failure of primary
barrier (gate on SWAB)
all tree cap seals are
Bolts loosen off in
primary barriers. Tree service
Cap Annulus Bore Seal
passing.

Partial leakage of gas

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To provide a removable
7. Tree Cap - Secondary secondary barrier to
Barrier
allow well intervention
activities

On failure of primary
barrier (gate on SWAB)
all tree cap seals are
Fatigue of bolts
primary barriers. Tree
Cap Annulus Bore Seal
passing.

Catastrophic failure of
Appropriate support for
Excessive vibration on
one or more bolts after a
piping as per pipe stress 3.3
pipework
period of time.
analysis.

80

Gas release

Possible detection by
plant operators and/or
F&G system

2.3

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To provide a removable
7. Tree Cap - Secondary secondary barrier to
Barrier
allow well intervention
activities

On failure of primary
barrier (gate on SWAB)
Thermal/mechanical
Catastrophic failure of
Appropriate piping
all tree cap seals are
Displacement from
gradients induce fatigue one or more bolts after a
design as per pipe stress 3.3
primary barriers. Tree
normal relative position
on bolts
period of time.
analysis.
Cap Annulus Bore Seal
passing.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To provide a removable
7. Tree Cap - Secondary secondary barrier to
Barrier
allow well intervention
activities

On failure of primary
barrier (gate on SWAB)
all tree cap seals are
Wrong seal taken from
primary barriers. Tree stores
Cap Annulus Bore Seal
passing.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

On failure of primary
To provide a removable barrier (gate on SWAB)
7. Tree Cap - Secondary secondary barrier to
Seal incorrectly
all tree cap seals are
Barrier
allow well intervention primary barriers. Tree specified
activities
Cap Annulus Bore Seal
passing.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To provide a removable
7. Tree Cap - Secondary secondary barrier to
allow well intervention
Barrier
activities

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

On failure of primary
To provide a removable barrier (gate on SWAB)
7. Tree Cap - Secondary secondary barrier to
all tree cap seals are
Seal incorrectly
allow well intervention primary barriers. Tree installed
Barrier
activities
Cap Annulus Bore Seal
passing.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

FUNCTION

To provide a removable
7. Tree Cap - Secondary secondary barrier to
Barrier
allow well intervention
activities

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

On failure of primary
barrier (gate on SWAB)
all tree cap seals are
Seal incorrectly
primary barriers. Tree specified
Cap Annulus Bore Seal
passing.

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
properties similar to
None
actual specification,
therefore no immediate
effect.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Material specification of
seal incompatible with
Gradually increasing
body causing
leak over time.
differential cell to be
setup.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
2.2
initial teething problems
have been ironed out.

None

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.
Effective seal not made Gas leakage around seal

2.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

On failure of primary
barrier (gate on SWAB)
Bolts installed
all tree cap seals are
incorrectly - bolts
primary barriers. Tree
unevenly tensioned
Cap Annulus Bore Seal
passing.

81

Sealing arrangement
Joint integrity reduced
unevenly energised

Employ competent
individuals and
3.3
appropriate supervision
is available.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To provide a removable
7. Tree Cap - Secondary secondary barrier to
Barrier
allow well intervention
activities

On failure of primary
barrier (gate on SWAB)
Bolts installed
all tree cap seals are
incorrectly - incorrect
primary barriers. Tree
grade of bolt fitted
Cap Annulus Bore Seal
passing.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To provide a removable
7. Tree Cap - Secondary secondary barrier to
Barrier
allow well intervention
activities

On failure of primary
barrier (gate on SWAB)
Employ competent
Bolts installed
all tree cap seals are
Seal distortion leading to individuals and
incorrectly - bonnet over Joint integrity reduced
2.3
primary barriers. Tree
progressive leakage.
appropriate supervision
tensioned
Cap Annulus Bore Seal
is available.
passing.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

On failure of primary
To provide a removable barrier (gate on SWAB)
Bolts installed
7. Tree Cap - Secondary secondary barrier to
all tree cap seals are
incorrectly - bonnet
Barrier
allow well intervention primary barriers. Tree
under tensioned
activities
Cap Annulus Bore Seal
passing.

Joint integrity reduced None

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
3.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
Instantaneous leak from
Joint integrity reduced
is available.
2.3
bonnet
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To provide a removable
7. Tree Cap - Secondary secondary barrier to
allow well intervention
Barrier
activities

On failure of primary
barrier (gate on SWAB)
all tree cap seals are
Bolts loosen off in
primary barriers. Tree service
Cap Bonnet Seal
passing.

Partial leakage of gas

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To provide a removable
7. Tree Cap - Secondary secondary barrier to
allow well intervention
Barrier
activities

On failure of primary
barrier (gate on SWAB)
all tree cap seals are
Fatigue of bolts
primary barriers. Tree
Cap Bonnet Seal
passing.

Catastrophic failure of
Appropriate support for
Excessive vibration on
one or more bolts after a
piping as per pipe stress 3.3
pipework
period of time.
analysis.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To provide a removable
7. Tree Cap - Secondary secondary barrier to
allow well intervention
Barrier
activities

On failure of primary
barrier (gate on SWAB)
Thermal/mechanical
Catastrophic failure of
Appropriate piping
all tree cap seals are
Displacement from
gradients induce fatigue one or more bolts after a
design as per pipe stress 3.3
primary barriers. Tree
normal relative position
on bolts
period of time.
analysis.
Cap Bonnet Seal
passing.

82

Gas release

Possible detection by
plant operators and/or
F&G system

2.3

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To provide a removable
7. Tree Cap - Secondary secondary barrier to
Barrier
allow well intervention
activities

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

On failure of primary
To provide a removable barrier (gate on SWAB)
7. Tree Cap - Secondary secondary barrier to
Seal incorrectly
all tree cap seals are
Barrier
allow well intervention primary barriers. Tree specified
activities
Cap Bonnet Seal
passing.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To provide a removable
7. Tree Cap - Secondary secondary barrier to
allow well intervention
Barrier
activities

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

On failure of primary
To provide a removable barrier (gate on SWAB)
7. Tree Cap - Secondary secondary barrier to
all tree cap seals are
Seal incorrectly
allow well intervention primary barriers. Tree installed
Barrier
activities
Cap Bonnet Seal
passing.

EFFECT

On failure of primary
barrier (gate on SWAB)
all tree cap seals are
Wrong seal taken from
primary barriers. Tree stores
Cap Bonnet Seal
passing.

On failure of primary
barrier (gate on SWAB)
all tree cap seals are
Seal incorrectly
primary barriers. Tree specified
Cap Bonnet Seal
passing.

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
properties similar to
None
actual specification,
therefore no immediate
effect.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Material specification of
seal incompatible with
Gradually increasing
body causing
leak over time.
differential cell to be
setup.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
2.2
initial teething problems
have been ironed out.

None

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.
Effective seal not made Gas leakage around seal

2.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

On failure of primary
barrier (gate on SWAB)
Bolts installed
all tree cap seals are
incorrectly - bolts
primary barriers. Tree
unevenly tensioned
Cap Bonnet Seal
passing.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To provide a removable
7. Tree Cap - Secondary secondary barrier to
allow well intervention
Barrier
activities

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

On failure of primary
To provide a removable barrier (gate on SWAB)
Bolts installed
7. Tree Cap - Secondary secondary barrier to
all tree cap seals are
incorrectly - incorrect
Barrier
allow well intervention primary barriers. Tree
grade of bolt fitted
activities
Cap Bonnet Seal
passing.

83

Sealing arrangement
Joint integrity reduced
unevenly energised

Employ competent
individuals and
3.3
appropriate supervision
is available.

Joint integrity reduced None

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
3.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To provide a removable
7. Tree Cap - Secondary secondary barrier to
Barrier
allow well intervention
activities

On failure of primary
barrier (gate on SWAB)
Employ competent
Bolts installed
all tree cap seals are
Seal distortion leading to individuals and
incorrectly - bonnet over Joint integrity reduced
2.3
primary barriers. Tree
progressive leakage.
appropriate supervision
tensioned
Cap Bonnet Seal
is available.
passing.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To provide a removable
7. Tree Cap - Secondary secondary barrier to
Barrier
allow well intervention
activities

On failure of primary
barrier (gate on SWAB)
Bolts installed
all tree cap seals are
incorrectly - bonnet
primary barriers. Tree
under tensioned
Cap Bonnet Seal
passing.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
Instantaneous leak from
Joint integrity reduced
is available.
2.3
bonnet
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.
Careful installation of
tree cap.

On failure of primary
To provide a removable
barrier (gate on SWAB)
7. Tree Cap - Secondary secondary barrier to
Damage of o-ring on
all tree cap seals are
Barrier
allow well intervention
installation of cap
primary barriers. Tree
activities
Cap Plug Seal passing.

Scoring and/or nipping


Gas leakage from the
of o-ring breaking down
tree cap retainer ring.
seal integrity

On failure of primary
To provide a removable
barrier (gate on SWAB) Damage to polished
7. Tree Cap - Secondary secondary barrier to
bore on installation of
all tree cap seals are
Barrier
allow well intervention
primary barriers. Tree tree cap
activities
Cap Plug Seal passing.

Scoring of polished bore

On failure of primary
To provide a removable
barrier (gate on SWAB)
7. Tree Cap - Secondary secondary barrier to
all tree cap seals are
Incorrect o-ring used
Barrier
allow well intervention
primary barriers. Tree
activities
Cap Plug Seal passing.

Inadequate seal

2.4
Pressure test of tree cap
on tree assembly.
Inspect and dress
polished bore prior to
installation.

Gas leakage from the


tree cap retainer ring.

Gas leakage from the


tree cap retainer ring.

2.3
Pressure test of tree cap
on tree assembly.
Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
supervisors checks and
balances.
2.2

Pressure test of tree cap


on tree assembly.

84

CRITICALITY

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

On failure of primary
To provide a removable
barrier (gate on SWAB)
7. Tree Cap - Secondary secondary barrier to
Ageing of o-ring prior
all tree cap seals are
Barrier
allow well intervention
to installation
primary barriers. Tree
activities
Cap Plug Seal passing.

SYMPTOMS

Gradual deteriation of
seal, causing increasing Gas leakage from the
leakage over a period of tree cap retainer ring.
time

MITIGATION
CRITICALITY
Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
supervisors checks and
balances.
2.2

Pressure test of tree cap


on tree assembly.
Use of go/no go gauges
during manufacture.
No visible symptoms.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

On failure of primary
To provide a removable barrier (gate on SWAB)
7. Tree Cap - Secondary secondary barrier to
all tree cap seals are
Thread cut out of
allow well intervention primary barriers. Test tolerance
Barrier
activities
Valve-Tree Cap crewed
seal interface passing.

Reduced thread to
thread contact surface
(seal maintained by
excessive PTFE for
example)

Degraded mechanical
joint, since joint relies
more on excessive
sealant than intimate
thread contact.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in 3.3
place. Offshore
supervisors checks and
balances.

Use of competent fitters


Use of go/no go gauges
during manufacture.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

To provide a removable
7. Tree Cap - Secondary secondary barrier to
Barrier
allow well intervention
activities

On failure of primary
barrier (gate on SWAB)
Thread cut out of
all tree cap seals are
primary barriers. Test tolerance
Valve-Tree Cap crewed
seal interface passing.

Designers and
Component will only
manufacturers to have
Either male or female mate for a proportion of
ISO quality systems in 3.3
threads are cut oversize the threads (rather than
place. Offshore
full length engagement)
supervisors checks and
balances.

Use of competent fitters

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

Excessive torque
required to install.

On failure of primary
To provide a removable barrier (gate on SWAB)
7. Tree Cap - Secondary secondary barrier to
all tree cap seals are
Cross threads
Barrier
allow well intervention primary barriers. Test
activities
Valve-Tree Cap crewed
seal interface passing.

Ineffective seal

Use of competent fitters


and effective
supervision.
1.3

Fitting improperly
aligned.
Suitable pressure
testing.
Leaking joint.

85

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

On failure of primary
To provide a removable barrier (gate on SWAB)
all tree cap seals are
7. Tree Cap - Secondary secondary barrier to
Damaged threads
Barrier
allow well intervention primary barriers. Test
Valve-Tree Cap crewed
activities
seal interface passing.

SYMPTOMS
Joint difficult to make
up.

Excessive torque
required to install.

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Use of competent fitters


and effective
supervision.

Improperly mated
threads

1.3
Fitting improperly
aligned.

Suitable pressure
testing.

Leaking joint

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

On failure of primary
To provide a removable
barrier (gate on SWAB)
7. Tree Cap - Secondary secondary barrier to
Wear and Tear
all tree cap seals are
Barrier
allow well intervention
primary barriers. Valve
activities
Stem packing passing.

Loss of full seal

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
Gas leaks from actuator
accordance with
housing
manufacturers
requirements.

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

On failure of primary
To provide a removable
barrier (gate on SWAB)
7. Tree Cap - Secondary secondary barrier to
all tree cap seals are
Packing not set correctly Loss of full seal
Barrier
allow well intervention
primary barriers. Valve
activities
Stem packing passing.

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
Gas leaks from actuator
accordance with
housing
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

Zone 1.2 to 1.3

On failure of primary
To provide a removable
barrier (gate on SWAB)
7. Tree Cap - Secondary secondary barrier to
all tree cap seals are
Wrong packing fitted
Barrier
allow well intervention
primary barriers. Valve
activities
Stem packing passing.

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
Gas leaks from actuator
accordance with
housing
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

86

Loss of full seal

2.4

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

CAUSE

EFFECT

Zone 1.3 to 1.4

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
1. Annulus Upper
pressurisation in the
Master Valve - Primary
Bonnet Seal Leakage
upstream pipework and
Barrier
or on activation of
platform ESD

Seal incorrectly
specified

Material specification of
seal incompatible with
Gradually leaking over
body causing
time
differential cell to be
setup.

Zone 1.3 to 1.4

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
1. Annulus Upper
pressurisation in the
Bonnet Seal Leakage
Master Valve - Primary
upstream pipework and
Barrier
or on activation of
platform ESD

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
Wrong seal taken from properties similar to
None
actual specification,
stores
therefore no immediate
effect.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Zone 1.3 to 1.4

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
1. Annulus Upper
pressurisation in the
Bonnet Seal Leakage
Master Valve - Primary
upstream pipework and
Barrier
or on activation of
platform ESD

Seal incorrectly
specified

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
2.2
initial teething problems
have been ironed out.

Zone 1.3 to 1.4

Zone 1.3 to 1.4

FUNCTION

FAILURE

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

SYMPTOMS

None.

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
1. Annulus Upper
pressurisation in the
Master Valve - Primary
Bonnet Seal Leakage
upstream pipework and
Barrier
or on activation of
platform ESD

Seal incorrectly
installed

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
1. Annulus Upper
pressurisation in the
Master Valve - Primary
Bonnet Seal Leakage
upstream pipework and
Barrier
or on activation of
platform ESD

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bolts
unevenly tensioned

Effective seal not made Gas leak around seal

2.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

87

Joint integrity reduced

Sealing arrangement
unevenly energised

Employ competent
individuals and
3.3
appropriate supervision
is available.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

Zone 1.3 to 1.4

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
1. Annulus Upper
pressurisation in the
Master Valve - Primary
Bonnet Seal Leakage
upstream pipework and
Barrier
or on activation of
platform ESD

Bolts installed
incorrectly - incorrect
grade of bolt fitted

Joint integrity reduced None.

Zone 1.3 to 1.4

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
1. Annulus Upper
pressurisation in the
Bonnet Seal Leakage
Master Valve - Primary
upstream pipework and
Barrier
or on activation of
platform ESD

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bonnet
over tensioned

Joint integrity reduced

Zone 1.3 to 1.4

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
1. Annulus Upper
pressurisation in the
Bonnet Seal Leakage
Master Valve - Primary
upstream pipework and
Barrier
or on activation of
platform ESD

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bonnet
under tensioned

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
3.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Employ competent
Seal distortion leading individuals and
2.3
to progressive leakage. appropriate supervision
is available.

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
Instantaneous leak from
Joint integrity reduced
is available.
2.3
bonnet
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Zone 1.3 to 1.4

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
1. Annulus Upper
pressurisation in the
Stem Seal Leak
Master Valve - Primary
upstream pipework and
Barrier
or on activation of
platform ESD

Wear and Tear

Zone 1.3 to 1.4

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
1. Annulus Upper
pressurisation in the
Stem Seal Leak
Master Valve - Primary
upstream pipework and
Barrier
or on activation of
platform ESD

Packing not set


correctly

Zone 1.3 to 1.4

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
1. Annulus Upper
pressurisation in the
Stem Seal Leak
Master Valve - Primary
upstream pipework and
Barrier
or on activation of
platform ESD

Wrong packing fitted

88

Loss of full seal

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
Gas leaks from actuator
accordance with
housing
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

Loss of full seal

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
Gas leaks from actuator
accordance with
housing
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

Loss of full seal

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
Gas leaks from actuator
accordance with
housing
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

Zone 1.3 to 1.4

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
1. Annulus Upper
pressurisation in the
Leakage from grease
Master Valve - Primary
upstream pipework and fitting
Barrier
or on activation of
platform ESD

Individual back off


assembly rather than
just the cap

Partial leak

Audible evidence of gas


Using competent fitters 3.3
release

Zone 1.3 to 1.4

To contain the gas


within the tree on loss of
1. Annulus Upper
Leakage from grease
pressurisation in the
Master Valve - Primary
upstream pipework and fitting
Barrier
or on activation of
platform ESD

Removal or backing off


of plug during routine
Partial leak
greasing/lubricating
removes inner check
valve

Audible evidence of gas


Using competent fitters 3.3
release

Zone 1.3 to 1.4

2. Annulus Bore Primary Barrier

FUNCTION

To maintain annulus
pressure integrity

FAILURE

Tree block failure

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Manufacturing defect

Slag
inclusion/laminations,
Stress raisers and crack
cold laps and other
initiators
geometric imperfections
in the forged block.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
1.2
ISO quality systems in
place.

Material specification of
seal incompatible with
Gradually leaking over
body causing
time
differential cell to be
setup.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Zone 1.3 to 1.4

To contain the gas


3. Annulus Lower
within the tree on loss of
Bonnet Seal Leakage
Master Valve - Primary
pressurisation in the
Barrier
upstream pipework

Seal incorrectly
specified

Zone 1.3 to 1.4

To contain the gas


3. Annulus Lower
within the tree on loss of
Master Valve - Primary
Bonnet Seal Leakage
pressurisation in the
Barrier
upstream pipework

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
Wrong seal taken from properties similar to
None
stores
actual specification,
therefore no immediate
effect.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Zone 1.3 to 1.4

To contain the gas


3. Annulus Lower
within the tree on loss of
Master Valve - Primary
Bonnet Seal Leakage
pressurisation in the
Barrier
upstream pipework

Seal incorrectly
specified

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
2.2
initial teething problems
have been ironed out.

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

89

None.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

Zone 1.3 to 1.4

To contain the gas


3. Annulus Lower
within the tree on loss of
Master Valve - Primary
Bonnet Seal Leakage
pressurisation in the
Barrier
upstream pipework

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

Seal incorrectly
installed

Effective seal not made Gas leak around seal

MITIGATION
CRITICALITY
Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.
2.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Zone 1.3 to 1.4

To contain the gas


3. Annulus Lower
within the tree on loss of
Master Valve - Primary
Bonnet Seal Leakage
pressurisation in the
Barrier
upstream pipework

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bolts
unevenly tensioned

Joint integrity reduced

Sealing arrangement
unevenly energised

Employ competent
individuals and
3.3
appropriate supervision
is available.
Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
3.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Zone 1.3 to 1.4

To contain the gas


3. Annulus Lower
within the tree on loss of
Master Valve - Primary
Bonnet Seal Leakage
pressurisation in the
Barrier
upstream pipework

Bolts installed
incorrectly - incorrect
grade of bolt fitted

Zone 1.3 to 1.4

To contain the gas


3. Annulus Lower
within the tree on loss of
Master Valve - Primary
Bonnet Seal Leakage
pressurisation in the
Barrier
upstream pipework

Employ competent
Bolts installed
Seal distortion leading to individuals and
incorrectly - bonnet over Joint integrity reduced
2.3
progressive leakage.
appropriate supervision
tensioned
is available.

Zone 1.3 to 1.4

To contain the gas


3. Annulus Lower
within the tree on loss of
Bonnet Seal Leakage
Master Valve - Primary
pressurisation in the
Barrier
upstream pipework

Zone 1.3 to 1.4

To contain the gas


3. Annulus Lower
within the tree on loss of
Master Valve - Primary
Stem Seal Leak
pressurisation in the
Barrier
upstream pipework

Zone 1.3 to 1.4

To contain the gas


3. Annulus Lower
within the tree on loss of
Master Valve - Primary
Stem Seal Leak
pressurisation in the
Barrier
upstream pipework

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bonnet
under tensioned

Joint integrity reduced None.

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
Instantaneous leak from
Joint integrity reduced
is available.
2.3
bonnet
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Wear and Tear

Loss of full seal

Packing not set correctlyLoss of full seal

90

Gas leaks from handle


assembly

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
accordance with
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

Gas leaks from handle


assembly

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
accordance with
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

Zone 1.3 to 1.4

To contain the gas


3. Annulus Lower
within the tree on loss of
Master Valve - Primary
Stem Seal Leak
pressurisation in the
Barrier
upstream pipework

Zone 1.3 to 1.4

Zone 1.3 to 1.4

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Wrong packing fitted

Loss of full seal

Gas leaks from handle


assembly

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
accordance with
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

To contain the gas


3. Annulus Lower
within the tree on loss of Leakage from grease
Master Valve - Primary
pressurisation in the
fitting
Barrier
upstream pipework

Individual back off


assembly rather than
just the cap

Partial leak

Audible evidence of gas


Using competent fitters 3.3
release

To contain the gas


3. Annulus Lower
within the tree on loss of Leakage from grease
Master Valve - Primary
pressurisation in the
fitting
Barrier
upstream pipework

Removal or backing off


of plug during routine
Partial leak
greasing/lubricating
removes inner check
valve

Audible evidence of gas


Using competent fitters 3.3
release

Material specification of
seal incompatible with
Gradually leaking over
body causing
time
differential cell to be
setup.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

To contain the gas


1. Annulus Lower
within the tree on loss of
Bonnet Seal Leakage
Master Valve - Primary
pressurisation in the
Barrier
upstream pipework

Seal incorrectly
specified

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

To contain the gas


1. Annulus Lower
within the tree on loss of
Master Valve - Primary
Bonnet Seal Leakage
pressurisation in the
Barrier
upstream pipework

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
Wrong seal taken from properties similar to
None
stores
actual specification,
therefore no immediate
effect.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

To contain the gas


1. Annulus Lower
within the tree on loss of
Master Valve - Primary
Bonnet Seal Leakage
pressurisation in the
Barrier
upstream pipework

Seal incorrectly
specified

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
2.2
initial teething problems
have been ironed out.

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

To contain the gas


1. Annulus Lower
within the tree on loss of
Bonnet Seal Leakage
Master Valve - Primary
pressurisation in the
Barrier
upstream pipework

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

None.

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.

Seal incorrectly
installed

Effective seal not made Gas leak around seal

2.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

91

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

To contain the gas


1. Annulus Lower
within the tree on loss of
Master Valve - Primary
Bonnet Seal Leakage
pressurisation in the
Barrier
upstream pipework

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

To contain the gas


1. Annulus Lower
within the tree on loss of
Master Valve - Primary
Bonnet Seal Leakage
pressurisation in the
Barrier
upstream pipework

Bolts installed
incorrectly - incorrect
grade of bolt fitted

Joint integrity reduced None.

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

To contain the gas


1. Annulus Lower
within the tree on loss of
Master Valve - Primary
Bonnet Seal Leakage
pressurisation in the
Barrier
upstream pipework

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bonnet
over tensioned

Employ competent
Seal distortion leading individuals and
Joint integrity reduced
2.3
to progressive leakage. appropriate supervision
is available.

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

To contain the gas


1. Annulus Lower
within the tree on loss of
Bonnet Seal Leakage
Master Valve - Primary
pressurisation in the
Barrier
upstream pipework

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

To contain the gas


1. Annulus Lower
within the tree on loss of
Master Valve - Primary
Stem Seal Leak
pressurisation in the
Barrier
upstream pipework

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

To contain the gas


1. Annulus Lower
within the tree on loss of
Stem Seal Leak
Master Valve - Primary
pressurisation in the
Barrier
upstream pipework

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

To contain the gas


1. Annulus Lower
within the tree on loss of
Stem Seal Leak
Master Valve - Primary
pressurisation in the
Barrier
upstream pipework

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bolts
unevenly tensioned

Joint integrity reduced

Sealing arrangement
unevenly energised

Employ competent
individuals and
3.3
appropriate supervision
is available.

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bonnet
under tensioned

CRITICALITY

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
3.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
Instantaneous leak from
Joint integrity reduced
is available.
2.3
bonnet
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Loss of full seal

Wear and Tear

Packing not set


correctly

Loss of full seal

Wrong packing fitted

92

Loss of full seal

Gas leaks from handle


assembly

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
accordance with
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

Gas leaks from handle


assembly

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
accordance with
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

Gas leaks from handle


assembly

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
accordance with
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

To contain the gas


1. Annulus Lower
within the tree on loss of Leakage from grease
Master Valve - Primary
pressurisation in the
fitting
Barrier
upstream pipework

Individual back off


assembly rather than
just the cap

Partial leak

Audible evidence of gas


Using competent fitters 3.3
release

To contain the gas


1. Annulus Lower
within the tree on loss of Leakage from grease
Master Valve - Primary
pressurisation in the
fitting
Barrier
upstream pipework

Removal or backing off


of plug during routine
greasing/lubricating
Partial leak
removes inner check
valve

Audible evidence of gas


Using competent fitters 3.3
release

2. Annulus Bore Primary Barrier

FUNCTION

To maintain annulus
pressure integrity

FAILURE

Tree block failure

Manufacturing defect

Slag
inclusion/laminations,
Stress raisers and crack
cold laps and other
initiators
geometric imperfections
in the forged block.

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Designers and
manufacturers to have
1.2
ISO quality systems in
place.
Confirmed by pressure
testing and established
installation procedures.

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

2. Annulus Bore Primary Barrier

To maintain annulus
pressure integrity

Annulus bore sleeve


seal failure

During installation of
tree the seals become
damaged

Leakage into xmas


Potential leakage from
tree/upper tubing hanger tied own bolts or tree
cavity
body gasket.

2.3
Competent individuals
and appropriate
supervision
Confirmed by pressure
testing and established
installation procedures.

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

2. Annulus Bore Primary Barrier

To maintain annulus
pressure integrity

Annulus bore sleeve


seal failure

Due to incorrect
Leakage into xmas
Potential leakage from
installation seals fail to tree/upper tubing hanger tied own bolts or tree
energise
cavity
body gasket.

2.3
Competent individuals
and appropriate
supervision

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

To provide a continuous
3. Annulus bore tubing
bore between the tree Annulus bore failure
hanger - Primary Barrier
and the annulus tubing

Manufacturing defect

93

Slag
inclusion/laminations,
Stress raisers and crack
cold laps and other
initiators
geometric imperfections
in the forged block.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
1.1
ISO quality systems in
place.

SYSTEM

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

To provide a sealed
3. Annulus bore tubing
mechanical joint
hanger - Primary Barrier
between components

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

Failure due to threads


Failure of seal (metal to being out with
metal)
manufacturing
tolerances

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Ineffective seal

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.4 to 1.5

To provide a sealed
3. Annulus bore tubing
mechanical joint
hanger - Primary Barrier
between components

Failure of seal (metal to


Galling on seal face
metal)

Ineffective seal

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
Instrument monitor
consequently
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.4 to 1.5

To provide a sealed
3. Annulus bore tubing
mechanical joint
hanger - Primary Barrier
between components

Failure of seal (metal to Insufficient make up


metal)
torque

Ineffective seal

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

94

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.4 to 1.5

To provide a sealed
3. Annulus bore tubing
mechanical joint
hanger - Primary Barrier
between components

Failure of seal (metal to Excessive loading on


metal)
seal arrangement

Seal integrity reduced or


failed

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.4 to 1.5

To provide a sealed
3. Annulus bore tubing
mechanical joint
hanger - Primary Barrier
between components

Failure of threaded
connection

Jumping out or
Joint opens
'unzipping' of the thread

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
Instrument monitor
consequently
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.4 to 1.5

To provide a sealed
3. Annulus bore tubing
mechanical joint
hanger - Primary Barrier
between components

Failure of threaded
connection

Shearing of threads

Joint integrity reduced


or failed

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

4. Tubing spool to tree Provide seal between


outer flange seal the tree and the spool
Secondary Barrier
interface

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Thermal/mechanical
Catastrophic failure of
Appropriate piping
Leakage of gas around
Displacement from
gradients induce fatigue one or more bolts after a
design as per pipe stress 2.3
seal
normal relative position
on bolts
period of time.
analysis.

95

SYSTEM

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

4. Tubing spool to tree Provide seal between


outer flange seal the tree and the spool
Secondary Barrier
interface

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
Leakage of gas around Wrong seal taken from properties similar to
None
seal
stores
actual specification,
therefore no immediate
effect.

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

4. Tubing spool to tree Provide seal between


outer flange seal the tree and the spool
Secondary Barrier
interface

Leakage of gas around Seal incorrectly


seal
specified

Material specification of
seal incompatible with
Gradually increasing
body causing
leak over time.
differential cell to be
setup.

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

4. Tubing spool to tree Provide seal between


outer flange seal the tree and the spool
Secondary Barrier
interface

Leakage of gas around Seal incorrectly


seal
specified

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

4. Tubing spool to tree Provide seal between


outer flange seal the tree and the spool
Secondary Barrier
interface

None

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
1.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.
Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
1.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.
Tree has been operating
in excess of 6 months,
1.2
initial teething problems
have been ironed out.
Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.

Leakage of gas around Seal incorrectly


seal
installed

Effective seal not made Gas leakage around seal

1.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Pump Labouring
(audible)

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

5. Tubing spool
downhole chemical
injection line Secondary Barrier

Rupture of chemical
Provide a conduit for
injection line - between Pipework damaged
chemical injection into
tubing spool and tree
during installation
production bore
cavity

Significant reduction or
Pressurisation of void
cessation of dosing rate
between tree and tubing
of chemicals.
spool with chemicals.

Potential leakage from


ring gasket and tie down
bolts.

96

Regular checks of pump


pressure injection rates
by plant operators.
1.2
Competent fitters and
appropriate installation
procedures.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

6. Tubing spool
downhole chemical
injection line packing
gland - Secondary
Barrier
Outer block assembly Tertiary Barrier

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

6. Tubing spool
downhole chemical
injection line packing
gland - Secondary
Barrier
Outer block assembly Tertiary Barrier

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

6. Tubing spool
downhole chemical
injection line packing
gland - Secondary
Barrier
Outer block assembly Tertiary Barrier

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

6. Tubing spool
downhole chemical
injection line packing
gland - Secondary
Barrier
Outer block assembly Tertiary Barrier

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

6. Tubing spool
downhole chemical
injection line packing
gland - Secondary
Barrier
Outer block assembly Tertiary Barrier

FUNCTION

To provide a seal
between the chemical
injection line and the
gland bore

To provide a seal
between the chemical
injection line and the
gland bore

FAILURE

Leakage around seal

Leakage around seal

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

Ageing of seal

Gradual deteriation of
seal, causing increasing Leakage around seal
leakage over a period of increasing over time.
time

MITIGATION
CRITICALITY
Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
supervisors checks and
balances.
2.2

Pressure test of
complete assembly.
Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.

Seal incorrectly
installed

Effective seal not made Gas leakage around seal

1.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

To provide a seal
between the chemical
injection line and the
gland bore

To provide a seal
between the chemical
injection line and the
gland bore

To provide a seal
between the chemical
injection line and the
gland bore

Leakage around seal

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
Wrong seal taken from properties similar to
None
stores
actual specification,
therefore no immediate
effect.

Leakage around seal

Seal incorrectly
specified

Material specification of
seal incompatible with
Gradually increasing
body causing
leak over time.
differential cell to be
setup.

Leakage around seal

Seal incorrectly
specified

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

97

None

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
1.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.
Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
1.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
1.2
initial teething problems
have been ironed out.

SYSTEM

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

SUB-SYSTEM
6. Tubing spool
downhole chemical
injection line packing
gland - Secondary
Barrier

FUNCTION

FAILURE

To provide a seal
between the gland body Leakage around seal
and the tubing spool

CAUSE

EFFECT

MITIGATION
CRITICALITY
Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.
Effective seal not made Gas leakage around seal
1.1

Seal incorrectly
installed

SYMPTOMS

Outer block assembly Tertiary Barrier

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

6. Tubing spool
downhole chemical
injection line packing
gland - Secondary
Barrier

Pressure tested after


envelope broken.

To provide a seal
between the gland body Leakage around seal
and the tubing spool

Outer block assembly Tertiary Barrier

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

6. Tubing spool
downhole chemical
injection line packing
gland - Secondary
Barrier

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
Wrong seal taken from properties similar to
None
stores
actual specification,
therefore no immediate
effect.

To provide a seal
between the gland body Leakage around seal
and the tubing spool

Seal incorrectly
specified

Material specification of
seal incompatible with
Gradually increasing
body causing
leak over time.
differential cell to be
setup.

To provide a seal
between the gland body Leakage around seal
and the tubing spool

Seal incorrectly
specified

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

Outer block assembly Tertiary Barrier

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

6. Tubing spool
downhole chemical
injection line packing
gland - Secondary
Barrier

None

Outer block assembly Tertiary Barrier

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

6. Tubing spool
downhole chemical
injection line packing
gland - Secondary
Barrier

To provide a seal
between the gland body Leakage around seal
and the tubing spool

Gradual deteriation of
seal, causing increasing Leakage around seal
leakage over a period of increasing over time.
time

Ageing of seal

Outer block assembly Tertiary Barrier

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
1.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.
Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
1.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
1.2
initial teething problems
have been ironed out.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
supervisors checks and
balances.
2.2

Pressure test of
complete assembly.

98

SYSTEM

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

7. Tubing hanger tie


down bolts and seals Secondary Barrier

To provide a secondary
barrier between the
Leakage around seal
casing spool and the tie
down bolts

8. Tubing spool
downhole safety valve
To provide a seal
control packing gland between the DHSV
Secondary Barrier
control line and the
gland bore
Outlet block assembly Tertiary Barrier

FAILURE

Leakage around seal

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

Ageing of seal

Leakage around seal


Gradual deteriation of increasing over time.
seal, causing increasing
leakage over a period of Casing hanger may drop
as a result of seal
time
deteriation.

Gradual deteriation of
seal, causing increasing Leakage around seal
leakage over a period of increasing over time.
time

Ageing of seal

MITIGATION
CRITICALITY
Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
supervisors checks and
balances.
2.2

Pressure test of
complete assembly.
Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
supervisors checks and
balances.
2.2

Pressure test of
complete assembly.

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

8. Tubing spool
downhole safety valve
To provide a seal
control packing gland between the DHSV
Secondary Barrier
control line and the
gland bore
Outlet block assembly Tertiary Barrier

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

8. Tubing spool
downhole safety valve
To provide a seal
control packing gland between the DHSV
Secondary Barrier
control line and the
gland bore
Outlet block assembly Tertiary Barrier

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

8. Tubing spool
downhole safety valve
To provide a seal
control packing gland between the DHSV
Secondary Barrier
control line and the
gland bore
Outlet block assembly Tertiary Barrier

Leakage around seal

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
Wrong seal taken from properties similar to
None
stores
actual specification,
therefore no immediate
effect.

Leakage around seal

Seal incorrectly
specified

Material specification of
seal incompatible with
Gradually increasing
body causing
leak over time.
differential cell to be
setup.

Leakage around seal

Seal incorrectly
specified

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

99

None

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
1.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.
Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
1.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
1.2
initial teething problems
have been ironed out.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

8. Tubing spool
downhole safety valve
To provide a seal
control packing gland between the DHSV
Secondary Barrier
control line and the
gland bore
Outlet block assembly Tertiary Barrier

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

Leakage around seal

Seal incorrectly
installed

8. Tubing spool
downhole safety valve
control packing gland - To provide a seal
Secondary Barrier
between the gland body Leakage around seal
and the tubing spool
Outlet block assembly Tertiary Barrier

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION
CRITICALITY
Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.
Effective seal not made Gas leakage around seal
1.1

Gradual deteriation of
seal, causing increasing Leakage around seal
leakage over a period of increasing over time.
time

Ageing of seal

Pressure tested after


envelope broken.
Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
supervisors checks and
balances.
2.2

Pressure test of
complete assembly.

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

8. Tubing spool
downhole safety valve
control packing gland - To provide a seal
Secondary Barrier
between the gland body Leakage around seal
and the tubing spool
Outlet block assembly Tertiary Barrier

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

8. Tubing spool
downhole safety valve
control packing gland - To provide a seal
Secondary Barrier
between the gland body Leakage around seal
and the tubing spool
Outlet block assembly Tertiary Barrier

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

8. Tubing spool
downhole safety valve
control packing gland - To provide a seal
Secondary Barrier
between the gland body Leakage around seal
and the tubing spool
Outlet block assembly Tertiary Barrier

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
Wrong seal taken from properties similar to
None
stores
actual specification,
therefore no immediate
effect.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
1.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Seal incorrectly
specified

Material specification of
seal incompatible with
Gradually increasing
body causing
leak over time.
differential cell to be
setup.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
1.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Seal incorrectly
specified

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
1.2
initial teething problems
have been ironed out.

100

None

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

8. Tubing spool
downhole safety valve
control packing gland - To provide a seal
Secondary Barrier
between the gland body Leakage around seal
and the tubing spool
Outlet block assembly Tertiary Barrier

Seal incorrectly
installed

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

9. Tubing spool to
tubing hanger seal Secondary Barrier

To provide a seal
Leakage around seal
between the tubing
hanger and tubing spool

Seal loses energisation

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

9. Tubing spool to
tubing hanger seal Secondary Barrier

To provide a seal
Leakage around seal
between the tubing
hanger and tubing spool

Seal incorrectly
installed

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION
CRITICALITY
Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.
Effective seal not made Gas leakage around seal
1.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.
Pressure build up in the Instrument monitor
upper A annulus.
facility on upper A
annulus.
Over a period of time
seal has compressed

1.3
Tertiary barriers
provided by annular
Pressure in upper A
valves, VR plug and
annulus monitored by
instrumentation fittings plant operators.
Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.
Effective seal not made Gas leakage around seal
1.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

9. Tubing spool to
tubing hanger seal Secondary Barrier

To provide a seal
Leakage around seal
between the tubing
hanger and tubing spool

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
Wrong seal taken from properties similar to
None
stores
actual specification,
therefore no immediate
effect.

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

9. Tubing spool to
tubing hanger seal Secondary Barrier

To provide a seal
between the tubing
Leakage around seal
hanger and tubing spool

Seal incorrectly
specified

Material specification of
seal incompatible with
Gradually increasing
body causing
leak over time.
differential cell to be
setup.

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

9. Tubing spool to
tubing hanger seal Secondary Barrier

To provide a seal
between the tubing
Leakage around seal
hanger and tubing spool

Seal incorrectly
specified

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

101

None

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
1.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.
Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
1.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.
Tree has been operating
in excess of 6 months,
1.2
initial teething problems
have been ironed out.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

9. Tubing spool to
tubing hanger seal Secondary Barrier

To provide a seal
between the tubing
Leakage around seal
hanger and tubing spool

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

Ageing of seal

Gradual deteriation of
seal, causing increasing Leakage around seal
leakage over a period of increasing over time.
time

MITIGATION
CRITICALITY
Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
supervisors checks and
balances.
2.2

Pressure test of
complete assembly.
Use of go/no go gauges
during manufacture.
No visible symptoms.

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

10. Tubing hanger


downhole safety valve
control line upper
packing gland Secondary Barrier

Loss of integrity of
Provide a seal between
packing gland body
the DHSV control line
Thread cut out of
thread causing trapped
and the tubing hanger
tolerance
pressure to leak into
body
upper annulus

Reduced thread to
thread contact surface
(seal maintained by
excessive PTFE for
example)

Degraded mechanical
joint, since joint relies
more on excessive
sealant than intimate
thread contact.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in 3.3
place. Offshore
supervisors checks and
balances.

Use of competent fitters


Use of go/no go gauges
during manufacture.

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

10. Tubing hanger


downhole safety valve
control line upper
packing gland Secondary Barrier

Loss of integrity of
Provide a seal between
packing gland body
the DHSV control line
Thread cut out of
thread causing trapped
and the tubing hanger
tolerance
pressure to leak into
body
upper annulus

Designers and
Component will only
manufacturers to have
Either male or female mate for a proportion of
ISO quality systems in 3.3
threads are cut oversize the threads (rather than
place. Offshore
full length engagement)
supervisors checks and
balances.

Use of competent fitters


Excessive torque
required to install.
Zone 1.4 to 1.5

10. Tubing hanger


downhole safety valve
control line upper
packing gland Secondary Barrier

Loss of integrity of
Provide a seal between
packing gland body
the DHSV control line
thread causing trapped Cross threads
and the tubing hanger
pressure to leak into
body
upper annulus

Ineffective seal

1.3

Fitting improperly
aligned.
Leaking joint.

102

Use of competent fitters


and effective
supervision.

Suitable pressure
testing.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

10. Tubing hanger


downhole safety valve
control line upper
packing gland Secondary Barrier

Loss of integrity of
Provide a seal between
packing gland body
the DHSV control line
thread causing trapped Damaged threads
and the tubing hanger
pressure to leak into
body
upper annulus

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

10. Tubing hanger


downhole safety valve
control line upper
packing gland Secondary Barrier

Provide a seal between


the DHSV control line
and the tubing hanger
body

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS
Joint difficult to make
up.

Excessive torque
required to install.

MITIGATION

Use of competent fitters


and effective
supervision.

Improperly mated
threads

1.3
Fitting improperly
aligned.

Loss of integrity of
packing gland
Leakage of gas into
compression fitting
Incorrect joint make-up
causing trapped pressure
upper A annulus
to leak into upper
annulus

CRITICALITY

Suitable pressure
testing.

Leaking joint
Pressure build up in the Instrument monitor
upper A annulus.
facility on upper A
annulus.
1.3
Tertiary barriers
provided by annular
Pressure in upper A
valves, VR plug and
annulus monitored by
instrumentation fittings plant operators.
Use of go/no go gauges
during manufacture.
No visible symptoms.

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

11. Tubing hanger


downhole chemical
injection line upper
packing gland Secondary Barrier

Loss of integrity of
Provide a seal between
packing gland body
the Chemical Injection
Thread cut out of
thread causing trapped
line and the tubing
tolerance
pressure to leak into
hanger body
upper annulus

Reduced thread to
thread contact surface
(seal maintained by
excessive PTFE for
example)

Degraded mechanical
joint, since joint relies
more on excessive
sealant than intimate
thread contact.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in 3.3
place. Offshore
supervisors checks and
balances.

Use of competent fitters

103

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

11. Tubing hanger


downhole chemical
injection line upper
packing gland Secondary Barrier

Loss of integrity of
Provide a seal between
packing gland body
the Chemical Injection
Thread cut out of
thread causing trapped
line and the tubing
tolerance
pressure to leak into
hanger body
upper annulus

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION
CRITICALITY
Use of go/no go gauges
during manufacture.

Designers and
Component will only
manufacturers to have
Either male or female mate for a proportion of
ISO quality systems in 3.3
threads are cut oversize the threads (rather than
place. Offshore
full length engagement)
supervisors checks and
balances.

Use of competent fitters


Excessive torque
required to install.

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

11. Tubing hanger


downhole chemical
injection line upper
packing gland Secondary Barrier

Loss of integrity of
Provide a seal between
packing gland body
the Chemical Injection
thread causing trapped Cross threads
line and the tubing
pressure to leak into
hanger body
upper annulus

Ineffective seal

Use of competent fitters


and effective
supervision.

Fitting improperly
aligned.

1.3
Suitable pressure
testing.

Leaking joint.
Joint difficult to make
up.

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

11. Tubing hanger


downhole chemical
injection line upper
packing gland Secondary Barrier

11. Tubing hanger


downhole chemical
injection line upper
packing gland Secondary Barrier

Loss of integrity of
Provide a seal between
packing gland body
the Chemical Injection
thread causing trapped Damaged threads
line and the tubing
pressure to leak into
hanger body
upper annulus

Provide a seal between


the Chemical Injection
line and the tubing
hanger body

Excessive torque
required to install.
Improperly mated
threads

Loss of integrity of
packing gland
compression fitting
Leakage of gas into
Incorrect joint make-up
causing trapped pressure
upper A annulus
to leak into upper
annulus

104

Use of competent fitters


and effective
supervision.
1.3

Fitting improperly
aligned.

Suitable pressure
testing.

Leaking joint
Pressure build up in the Instrument monitor
upper A annulus.
facility on upper A
annulus.
1.3
Tertiary barriers
provided by annular
Pressure in upper A
valves, VR plug and
annulus monitored by
instrumentation fittings plant operators.

SYSTEM

Zone 1.4 to 1.5

SUB-SYSTEM

12. Tubing spool


downhole safety valve
control line - Secondary
Barrier

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

Provide a conduit for


Rupture of down hole
the hydraulic fluid for safety valve control line Pipework damaged
control of the down hole - between tubing spool during installation
safety valves
and tree cavity

SYMPTOMS
Pump Labouring
(audible)

Pressurisation of void Significant reduction or


between tree and tubing cessation of dosing rate
spool with hydraulic
of chemicals.
fluid.
Potential leakage from
ring gasket and tie down
bolts.

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

To provide a continuous
1. Annulus bore tubing
bore between the tubing
hanger - Primary
Annulus bore failure
hanger and the annulus
Barrier
tubing

1. Annulus bore tubing To provide a sealed


hanger - Primary
mechanical joint
Barrier
between components

Manufacturing defect

Slag
inclusion/laminations,
Stress raisers and crack
cold laps and other
initiators
geometric imperfections
in the forged block.

Failure due to threads


Failure of seal (metal to being out with
Ineffective seal
manufacturing
metal)
tolerances

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Regular checks of pump


pressure injection rates
by plant operators.
1.2
Competent fitters and
appropriate installation
procedures.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
1.1
ISO quality systems in
place.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
Instrument monitor
consequently
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
Instrument monitor
consequently
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.5 to 1.6

1. Annulus bore tubing To provide a sealed


hanger - Primary
mechanical joint
Barrier
between components

Failure of seal (metal to


Galling on seal face
metal)

2.2

Ineffective seal
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

105

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
Instrument monitor
consequently
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.5 to 1.6

1. Annulus bore tubing To provide a sealed


hanger - Primary
mechanical joint
Barrier
between components

Failure of seal (metal to Insufficient make up


metal)
torque

2.2

Ineffective seal
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
Instrument monitor
consequently
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.5 to 1.6

1. Annulus bore tubing To provide a sealed


hanger - Primary
mechanical joint
Barrier
between components

Failure of seal (metal to Excessive loading on


metal)
seal arrangement

Seal integrity reduced


or failed

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
Instrument monitor
consequently
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.5 to 1.6

1. Annulus bore tubing To provide a sealed


hanger - Primary
mechanical joint
Barrier
between components

Failure of threaded
connection

Jumping out or
Joint opens
'unzipping' of the thread

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

106

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
Instrument monitor
consequently
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.5 to 1.6

1. Annulus bore tubing To provide a sealed


hanger - Primary
mechanical joint
Barrier
between components

Failure of threaded
connection

Shearing of threads

Joint integrity reduced


or failed

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Leakage of gas into the


upper A annulus.

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

2. Annulus tubing &


Provide location and
Nipple body integrity
annulus tubing nipples - hang-off for well
failure
Primary Barrier
intervention equipment

Manufacturing defect

Stress raisers and crack


initiators
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Designers and
manufacturers to have
2.2
ISO quality systems in
place.

Leakage of gas into the


upper A annulus.

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

Annulus tubing will


2. Annulus tubing &
provide a conduit for the
annulus tubing nipples Annulus tubing ruptures Manufacturing defect
gas to be injected into
Primary Barrier
the production bore.

2. Annulus tubing &


To provide a sealed
annulus tubing nipples - mechanical joint
Primary Barrier
between components

Failure due to threads


Failure of seal (metal to being out with
manufacturing
metal)
tolerances

107

Stress raisers and crack


initiators
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Designers and
manufacturers to have
2.2
ISO quality systems in
place.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Ineffective seal

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.5 to 1.6

2. Annulus tubing &


To provide a sealed
annulus tubing nipples - mechanical joint
between components
Primary Barrier

Failure of seal (metal to


Galling on seal face
metal)

Ineffective seal

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.5 to 1.6

2. Annulus tubing &


To provide a sealed
annulus tubing nipples - mechanical joint
Primary Barrier
between components

Failure of seal (metal to Insufficient make up


metal)
torque

Ineffective seal

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
Instrument monitor
consequently
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.5 to 1.6

2. Annulus tubing &


To provide a sealed
annulus tubing nipples - mechanical joint
Primary Barrier
between components

Failure of seal (metal to Excessive loading on


metal)
seal arrangement

Seal integrity reduced or


failed

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

108

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.5 to 1.6

2. Annulus tubing &


To provide a sealed
annulus tubing nipples - mechanical joint
between components
Primary Barrier

Failure of threaded
connection

Jumping out or
Joint opens
'unzipping' of the thread

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.5 to 1.6

2. Annulus tubing &


To provide a sealed
annulus tubing nipples - mechanical joint
Primary Barrier
between components

Failure of threaded
connection

Shearing of threads

Joint integrity reduced


or failed

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

3. Production casing Secondary Barrier

3. Production casing Secondary Barrier

To protect the formation


to the top of the pay
Production casing split Corrosion (where water
zone and the 9 5/8"
or parted
is present)
casing

Degradation of
Produce corrosion
components over time.
products which are a
source of debris and can
under certain situations
apply a pressure to
This less applicable to
mating surfaces
13% Cr Alloys.
Deep pits and cavities.

To protect the formation


to the top of the pay
Production casing split Corrosion (where water
Localised corrosion
zone and the 9 5/8"
or parted
is present)
casing

109

If equipment is left for


an extended period of
time full wall
perforation can occur.

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Optimisation of material
design and selection
1.3
Injection of inhibitors
Optimisation of material
design and selection
4.3
Good corrosion
management strategy
and execution.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

3. Production casing Secondary Barrier

To protect the formation


to the top of the pay
Production casing split
Incorrect casing design Casing could part
zone and the 9 5/8"
or parted
casing

SYMPTOMS
MITIGATION
Gas lift pressure leakage
into the B annulus,
consequently annular
valves on B annulus
become primary barrier.
Correct casing design
B annulus is rated to a
lower pressure than the
A annulus.
Gas lift pressure leakage
into the B annulus,
consequently annular
valves on B annulus
become primary barrier.

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

3. Production casing Secondary Barrier

13% Cr steels
To protect the formation
B annulus is rated to a
Embrittlement during vulnerable to temper
to the top of the pay
Production casing split
lower pressure than the
manufacturing process Embrittlement under
zone and the 9 5/8"
or parted
A annulus.
(high alloy steels)
incorrect welding and
casing
heat treatment regimes.
Loss of ductility
resulting in a greater
sensitivity to cracking
under normal well
conditions (thermal
loading).

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

3. Production casing Secondary Barrier

To provide a sealed
mechanical joint
between components

Failure due to threads


Failure of seal (metal to being out with
metal)
manufacturing
tolerances

110

CRITICALITY

3.3

Design and
manufacturers quality
assurance in accordance
with ISO and
equivalent.
2.3
Plant operators would
monitor annulus
pressure.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Ineffective seal

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.5 to 1.6

3. Production casing Secondary Barrier

To provide a sealed
mechanical joint
between components

Failure of seal (metal to


Galling on seal face
metal)

Ineffective seal

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.5 to 1.6

3. Production casing Secondary Barrier

To provide a sealed
mechanical joint
between components

Failure of seal (metal to Insufficient make up


metal)
torque

Ineffective seal

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
Instrument monitor
consequently
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.5 to 1.6

3. Production casing Secondary Barrier

To provide a sealed
mechanical joint
between components

Failure of seal (metal to Excessive loading on


metal)
seal arrangement

Seal integrity reduced or


failed

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

111

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.5 to 1.6

3. Production casing Secondary Barrier

To provide a sealed
mechanical joint
between components

Failure of threaded
connection

Jumping out or
Joint opens
'unzipping' of the thread

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.5 to 1.6

3. Production casing Secondary Barrier

To provide a sealed
mechanical joint
between components

Failure of threaded
connection

Shearing of threads

Joint integrity reduced


or failed

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Pressure build up in the


Instrument monitor
B annulus.
facility on B annulus.
Zone 1.5 to 1.6

4. Production casing
hanger seal to tubing
spool - Secondary
Barrier

To provide a seal
Leakage around seal
between the casing
hanger and casing spool

Seal loses energisation

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

4. Production casing
hanger seal to tubing
spool - Secondary
Barrier

To provide a seal
between the casing
Leakage around seal
hanger and casing spool

Seal incorrectly
installed

Over a period of time


seal has compressed

3.3
Secondary barriers
Pressure in B annulus
provided by annular
monitored by plant
valves and
operators.
instrumentation fittings
Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.
Effective seal not made Gas leakage around seal
1.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

112

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

4. Production casing
hanger seal to tubing
spool - Secondary
Barrier

FUNCTION

FAILURE

To provide a seal
between the casing
Leakage around seal
hanger and casing spool

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
Wrong seal taken from properties similar to
None
stores
actual specification,
therefore no immediate
effect.

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

4. Production casing
hanger seal to tubing
spool - Secondary
Barrier

To provide a seal
Leakage around seal
between the casing
hanger and casing spool

Seal incorrectly
specified

Material specification of
seal incompatible with
Gradually increasing
body causing
leak over time.
differential cell to be
setup.

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

4. Production casing
hanger seal to tubing
spool - Secondary
Barrier

To provide a seal
between the casing
Leakage around seal
hanger and casing spool

Seal incorrectly
specified

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

4. Production casing
hanger seal to tubing
spool - Secondary
Barrier

To provide a seal
between the casing
Leakage around seal
hanger and casing spool

None

Leakage around seal


Gradual deteriation of increasing over time
seal, causing increasing
leakage over a period of Casing hanger may drop
as a result of seal
time
deteriation.

Ageing of seal

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
1.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.
Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
1.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.
Tree has been operating
in excess of 6 months,
1.2
initial teething problems
have been ironed out.
Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
supervisors checks and
balances.
2.2

Pressure test of
complete assembly.

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

To provide a facility to
5. Upper annulus tubing
isolate the A,B or C
Bonnet seal leakage
spool inner and outer
Seal incorrectly
annulus and with
(metal to metal joint) - 2
valves - Secondary
specified
instrumentation monitor valves
Barrier
annular pressures

Material specification of
seal incompatible with
Gradually leaking over
body causing
time
differential cell to be
setup.

113

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

To provide a facility to
5. Upper annulus tubing
isolate the A,B or C
Bonnet seal leakage
spool inner and outer
Wrong seal taken from
annulus and with
(metal to metal joint) - 2
valves - Secondary
stores
instrumentation monitor valves
Barrier
annular pressures

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
properties similar to
None
actual specification,
therefore no immediate
effect.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

To provide a facility to
5. Upper annulus tubing
Bonnet seal leakage
isolate the A,B or C
spool inner and outer
Seal incorrectly
(metal to metal joint) - 2
annulus and with
valves - Secondary
specified
instrumentation monitor valves
Barrier
annular pressures

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
2.2
initial teething problems
have been ironed out.

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

None.

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.

To provide a facility to
5. Upper annulus tubing
isolate the A,B or C
Bonnet seal leakage
spool inner and outer
Seal incorrectly
annulus and with
(metal to metal joint) - 2
valves - Secondary
installed
instrumentation monitor valves
Barrier
annular pressures

Effective seal not made Gas leak around seal

2.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

To provide a facility to
5. Upper annulus tubing
isolate the A,B or C
Bolts installed
Bonnet seal leakage
spool inner and outer
(metal to metal joint) - 2 incorrectly - bolts
annulus and with
valves - Secondary
instrumentation monitor valves
unevenly tensioned
Barrier
annular pressures

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

To provide a facility to
5. Upper annulus tubing
isolate the A,B or C
Bonnet seal leakage
Bolts installed
spool inner and outer
annulus and with
(metal to metal joint) - 2 incorrectly - incorrect
valves - Secondary
instrumentation monitor valves
grade of bolt fitted
Barrier
annular pressures

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

To provide a facility to
5. Upper annulus tubing
Employ competent
Bonnet seal leakage
Bolts installed
isolate the A,B or C
spool inner and outer
Seal distortion leading to individuals and
(metal to metal joint) - 2 incorrectly - bonnet over Joint integrity reduced
2.3
annulus and with
valves - Secondary
progressive leakage.
appropriate supervision
instrumentation monitor valves
tensioned
Barrier
is available.
annular pressures

114

Sealing arrangement
Joint integrity reduced
unevenly energised

Employ competent
individuals and
3.3
appropriate supervision
is available.

Joint integrity reduced None.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
3.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

To provide a facility to
5. Upper annulus tubing
isolate the A,B or C
Bonnet seal leakage
Bolts installed
spool inner and outer
annulus and with
(metal to metal joint) - 2 incorrectly - bonnet
valves - Secondary
instrumentation monitor valves
under tensioned
Barrier
annular pressures

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
Instantaneous leak from
Joint integrity reduced
is available.
2.3
bonnet
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

To provide a facility to
5. Upper annulus tubing
isolate the A,B or C
spool inner and outer
Stem Seal Leak - 2
annulus and with
valves - Secondary
valves
instrumentation monitor
Barrier
annular pressures

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

To provide a facility to
5. Upper annulus tubing
isolate the A,B or C
spool inner and outer
Stem Seal Leak - 2
annulus and with
valves - Secondary
valves
instrumentation monitor
Barrier
annular pressures

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

To provide a facility to
5. Upper annulus tubing
isolate the A,B or C
spool inner and outer
Stem Seal Leak - 2
annulus and with
valves - Secondary
valves
instrumentation monitor
Barrier
annular pressures

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

To provide a facility to
5. Upper annulus tubing
isolate the A,B or C
Fitter backs off
spool inner and outer
annulus and with
Grease fitting Leakage assembly rather than
valves - Secondary
just the cap
instrumentation monitor
Barrier
annular pressures

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

To provide a facility to
5. Upper annulus tubing
isolate the A,B or C
spool inner and outer
annulus and with
Grease fitting Leakage
valves - Secondary
instrumentation monitor
Barrier
annular pressures

Removal or backing off


of plug during routine
greasing/lubricating
Partial leak
removes inner check
valve

Audible evidence of gas


Using competent fitters 3.3
release

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked
Barrier
to the A annulus

Cartridge not fully


tightened

None.

Cartridge nose seal


failure, annulus gas
leakage past cartridge
wall

Gas leaks from handle


assembly

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
accordance with
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

Packing not set correctlyLoss of full seal

Gas leaks from handle


assembly

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
accordance with
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

Wrong packing fitted

Loss of full seal

Gas leaks from handle


assembly

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
accordance with
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

Partial leak

Audible evidence of gas


Using competent fitters 3.3
release

Wear and Tear

Loss of full seal

115

Gas leakage around


cartridge walls

Employ competent
individuals and
1.1
appropriate supervision
is available.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

CAUSE

EFFECT

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
Failure of bonnet seal
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked
Barrier
to the A annulus

Seal incorrectly
specified

Material specification of
seal incompatible with
Gradually leaking over
body causing
time
differential cell to be
setup.

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
Failure of bonnet seal
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked
Barrier
to the A annulus

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
Wrong seal taken from properties similar to
None
stores
actual specification,
therefore no immediate
effect.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
Failure of bonnet seal
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked
Barrier
to the A annulus

Seal incorrectly
specified

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
2.2
initial teething problems
have been ironed out.

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

FUNCTION

FAILURE

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
Failure of bonnet seal
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked
Barrier
to the A annulus

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

SYMPTOMS

None.

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.

Seal incorrectly
installed

Effective seal not made Gas leak around seal

2.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
Failure of bonnet seal
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked
Barrier
to the A annulus

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
Failure of bonnet seal
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked
Barrier
to the A annulus

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bolts
unevenly tensioned

Bolts installed
incorrectly - incorrect
grade of bolt fitted

116

Joint integrity reduced

Sealing arrangement
unevenly energised

Joint integrity reduced None.

Employ competent
individuals and
3.3
appropriate supervision
is available.
Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
3.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
Failure of bonnet seal
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked
Barrier
to the A annulus

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
Failure of bonnet seal
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked
Barrier
to the A annulus

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Employ competent
Bolts installed
Seal distortion leading to individuals and
incorrectly - bonnet over Joint integrity reduced
2.3
progressive leakage.
appropriate supervision
tensioned
is available.

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bonnet
under tensioned

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
Instantaneous leak from
Joint integrity reduced
is available.
2.3
bonnet
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
Failure of Ring Gasket Bolts loosen off in
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked Seal
service
Barrier
to the A annulus

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


Catastrophic failure of
Appropriate support for
spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
Failure of Ring Gasket
Excessive vibration on
Fatigue failure of bolts one or more bolts after a
piping as per pipe stress 3.3
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked Seal
pipework
period of time.
analysis.
Barrier
to the A annulus

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


Thermal/mechanical
Catastrophic failure of
Appropriate piping
spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
Failure of Ring Gasket
Displacement from
gradients induce fatigue one or more bolts after a
design as per pipe stress 3.3
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked Seal
normal relative position
on bolts
period of time.
analysis.
Barrier
to the A annulus

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
Failure of Ring Gasket Wrong seal taken from
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked Seal
stores
Barrier
to the A annulus

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
properties similar to
None
actual specification,
therefore no immediate
effect.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
Failure of Ring Gasket Seal incorrectly
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked Seal
specified
Barrier
to the A annulus

Material specification of
seal incompatible with
Gradually increasing
body causing
leak over time.
differential cell to be
setup.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

117

Partial leakage of gas

Gas release

Possible detection by
plant operators and/or
F&G system

2.3

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
Failure of Ring Gasket Seal incorrectly
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked Seal
specified
Barrier
to the A annulus

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

None

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
2.2
initial teething problems
have been ironed out.
Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
Failure of Ring Gasket Seal incorrectly
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked Seal
installed
Barrier
to the A annulus

Effective seal not made Gas leakage around seal

2.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


Bolts installed
spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
Failure of Ring Gasket
incorrectly - bolts
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked Seal
unevenly tensioned
Barrier
to the A annulus

Sealing arrangement
Joint integrity reduced
unevenly energised

Employ competent
individuals and
3.3
appropriate supervision
is available.

Joint integrity reduced None

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
3.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


Bolts installed
spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
Failure of Ring Gasket
incorrectly - incorrect
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked Seal
grade of bolt fitted
Barrier
to the A annulus

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


Employ competent
Bolts installed
spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
Failure of Ring Gasket
Seal distortion leading to individuals and
incorrectly - bonnet over Joint integrity reduced
2.3
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked Seal
appropriate supervision
progressive leakage.
tensioned
Barrier
to the A annulus
is available.

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


Bolts installed
spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
Failure of Ring Gasket
incorrectly - bonnet
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked Seal
under tensioned
Barrier
to the A annulus

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
Stem seal leakage
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked
Barrier
to the A annulus

Wear and Tear

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
Instantaneous leak from
Joint integrity reduced
is available.
2.3
bonnet
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Loss of full seal

118

Gas leaks from handle


assembly

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
accordance with
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
Stem seal leakage
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked
Barrier
to the A annulus

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
Stem seal leakage
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked
Barrier
to the A annulus

CAUSE

EFFECT

Packing not set correctlyLoss of full seal

Wrong packing fitted

Loss of full seal

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Gas leaks from handle


assembly

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
accordance with
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

Gas leaks from handle


assembly

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
accordance with
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

Leakage of gas into the


inner annular valve.

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

Provides isolation in
7. VR plug - Secondary
A,B or C annulus to
Barrier
carry out maintenance
on annular valves and
Tertiary valve(s)
fittings.

Nose seal failure

Debris on seal face

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

Provides isolation in
7. VR plug - Secondary
A,B or C annulus to
Barrier
carry out maintenance
on annular valves and
Tertiary valve(s)
fittings.

Failure of threaded
connection

Misalignment during
installation

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

Provides isolation in
7. VR plug - Secondary
A,B or C annulus to
Barrier
carry out maintenance
on annular valves and
Tertiary valve(s)
fittings.

Failure of threaded
connection

Galling of threads due


to debris on threaded
connections

119

Correct torque applied


to VR plug in
accordance with the
manufacturers
VR plugs are generally
Seal not seated correctly
1.1
specification.
used for maintenance
when one of the annular
valves requires to be
removed and an
Use of competent fitters
additional isolation is
required.
Leakage from upper A
annulus into inner
annular valve.

Threads crossed causing


VR plugs are generally Use of competent fitters.1.3
loss of integrity of joint
used for maintenance
when one of the annular
valves requires to be
removed and an
additional isolation is
required.
Leakage from upper A
annulus into inner
annular valve.

Loss of integrity of joint VR plugs are generally Use of competent fitters.1.3


used for maintenance
when one of the annular
valves requires to be
removed and an
additional isolation is
required.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

8. Tubing hanger seal to To provide a seal


tubing spool between the tubing
Leakage around seal
hanger and tubing spool
Secondary Barrier

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

Ageing of seal

Gradual deteriation of
seal, causing increasing Leakage around seal
leakage over a period of increasing over time.
time

MITIGATION
CRITICALITY
Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
supervisors checks and
balances.
2.2

Pressure test of
complete assembly.

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

8. Tubing hanger seal to To provide a seal


Leakage around seal
tubing spool between the tubing
Secondary Barrier
hanger and tubing spool

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
Wrong seal taken from properties similar to
None
stores
actual specification,
therefore no immediate
effect.

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

8. Tubing hanger seal to To provide a seal


tubing spool between the tubing
Leakage around seal
Secondary Barrier
hanger and tubing spool

Seal incorrectly
specified

Material specification of
seal incompatible with
Gradually increasing
body causing
leak over time.
differential cell to be
setup.

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

8. Tubing hanger seal to To provide a seal


tubing spool between the tubing
Leakage around seal
Secondary Barrier
hanger and tubing spool

Seal incorrectly
specified

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

8. Tubing hanger seal to To provide a seal


Leakage around seal
tubing spool between the tubing
Secondary Barrier
hanger and tubing spool

None

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
1.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.
Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
1.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.
Tree has been operating
in excess of 6 months,
1.2
initial teething problems
have been ironed out.
Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.

Seal incorrectly
installed

Effective seal not made Gas leakage around seal

1.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

120

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

CAUSE

EFFECT

8. Tubing hanger seal to To provide a seal


tubing spool between the tubing
Leakage around seal
Secondary Barrier
hanger and tubing spool

Seal loses energisation

Over a period of time


seal has compressed

9. Tubing spool
downhole chemical
injection line Secondary Barrier

Provide a conduit for


Rupture of chemical
chemical injection into injection line - below
production bore
tubing hanger

Pipework damaged
during installation

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

10. Tubing spool


downhole safety valve
control line - Secondary
Barrier

Provide a conduit for


Rupture of down hole
the hydraulic fluid for
Pipework damaged
safety valve control line
control of the down hole
during installation
- below tubing hanger
safety valves

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

Loss of integrity of
packing gland body
11. Tubing hanger
thread causing trapped
Provide a seal between
downhole safety valve
pressure to leak into
the DHSV control line
Thread cut out of
control line lower
cavity between tree and
and the tubing hanger
tolerance
packing gland tubing hanger.
body
Secondary Barrier
On coincident failure of
upper packing gland.

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

FUNCTION

FAILURE

Pressurisation of void
between tubing hanger
and the dual bore upper
packer with chemicals.

SYMPTOMS
MITIGATION
Pressure build up in the
Instrument monitor
B annulus.
facility on B annulus.

3.3
Secondary barriers
Pressure in B annulus
provided by annular
monitored by plant
valves and
operators.
instrumentation fittings
Regular checks of pump
Pump Labouring
pressure and injection
(audible) - increased
rates by plant operators.
injection rate
1.2

Competent fitters and


Significant increase of
appropriate installation
dosing rate of chemicals.
procedures.
Regular checks of pump
pressure and injection
Pressurisation of void
rates by plant operators.
between tubing hanger Pump Labouring
and the dual bore upper (audible) - increased
1.2
packer with hydraulic injection rate
fluid.
Competent fitters and
appropriate installation
procedures.
Use of go/no go gauges
during manufacture.
No visible symptoms.
Reduced thread to
thread contact surface
(seal maintained by
excessive PTFE for
example)

Degraded mechanical
joint, since joint relies
more on excessive
sealant than intimate
thread contact.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in 3.3
place. Offshore
supervisors checks and
balances.

Use of competent fitters

121

CRITICALITY

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

Loss of integrity of
packing gland body
11. Tubing hanger
thread causing trapped
Provide a seal between
downhole safety valve
pressure to leak into
the DHSV control line
Thread cut out of
control line lower
cavity between tree and
and the tubing hanger
tolerance
packing gland tubing hanger.
body
Secondary Barrier
On coincident failure of
upper packing gland.

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION
CRITICALITY
Use of go/no go gauges
during manufacture.

Designers and
Component will only
manufacturers to have
Either male or female mate for a proportion of
ISO quality systems in 3.3
threads are cut oversize the threads (rather than
place. Offshore
full length engagement)
supervisors checks and
balances.

Use of competent fitters

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

Excessive torque
required to install.

Loss of integrity of
packing gland body
thread causing trapped
11. Tubing hanger
Provide a seal between
downhole safety valve
pressure to leak into
the DHSV control line
cavity between tree and Cross threads
control line lower
and the tubing hanger
tubing hanger.
packing gland body
Secondary Barrier
On coincident failure of
upper packing gland.

Ineffective seal

Use of competent fitters


and effective
supervision.

Fitting improperly
aligned.

1.3
Suitable pressure
testing.

Leaking joint.
Joint difficult to make
up.

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

Loss of integrity of
packing gland body
11. Tubing hanger
thread causing trapped
Provide a seal between
pressure to leak into
downhole safety valve
the DHSV control line
cavity between tree and Damaged threads
control line lower
and the tubing hanger
packing gland tubing hanger.
body
Secondary Barrier
On coincident failure of
upper packing gland.

Excessive torque
required to install.
Improperly mated
threads

1.3
Fitting improperly
aligned.

Leaking joint

122

Use of competent fitters


and effective
supervision.

Suitable pressure
testing.

SYSTEM

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

Loss of integrity of
packing gland body
thread causing trapped
11. Tubing hanger
Provide a seal between
downhole safety valve
pressure to leak into
the DHSV control line
Leakage of gas into
cavity between tree and Incorrect joint make-up
control line lower
and the tubing hanger
upper A annulus
tubing hanger.
packing gland body
Secondary Barrier
On coincident failure of
upper packing gland.

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
pressurising the cavity Instrument monitor
between tree and tubing facility on upper A
hanger
annulus.
1.3
Tertiary barriers
provided by tie down
Pressure in upper A
bolt arrangement,
annulus monitored by
chemical injection point, plant operators.
down hole safety valve
point, tubing hanger to
casing spool seal.
Use of go/no go gauges
during manufacture.

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

12. Tubing hanger


downhole chemical
injection line lower
packing gland Secondary Barrier

Loss of integrity of
packing gland body
thread causing trapped
Provide a seal between
pressure to leak into
the Chemical Injection
Thread cut out of
cavity between tubing
line and the tubing
tolerance
hanger and tree.
hanger body
On coincident failure of
upper packing gland.

No visible symptoms.
Reduced thread to
thread contact surface
(seal maintained by
excessive PTFE for
example)

Degraded mechanical
joint, since joint relies
more on excessive
sealant than intimate
thread contact.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in 3.3
place. Offshore
supervisors checks and
balances.

Use of competent fitters


Use of go/no go gauges
during manufacture.

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

12. Tubing hanger


downhole chemical
injection line lower
packing gland Secondary Barrier

Loss of integrity of
packing gland body
thread causing trapped
Provide a seal between
pressure to leak into
the Chemical Injection
Thread cut out of
cavity between tubing
line and the tubing
tolerance
hanger and tree.
hanger body
On coincident failure of
upper packing gland.

Designers and
Component will only
manufacturers to have
Either male or female mate for a proportion of
ISO quality systems in 3.3
threads are cut oversize the threads (rather than
place. Offshore
full length engagement)
supervisors checks and
balances.

Use of competent fitters

123

SYSTEM

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

SUB-SYSTEM

12. Tubing hanger


downhole chemical
injection line lower
packing gland Secondary Barrier

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

Loss of integrity of
packing gland body
thread causing trapped
Provide a seal between
pressure to leak into
the Chemical Injection
cavity between tubing Cross threads
line and the tubing
hanger and tree.
hanger body

Ineffective seal

SYMPTOMS
Excessive torque
required to install.

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Use of competent fitters


and effective
supervision.

Fitting improperly
aligned.

1.3
Suitable pressure
testing.

On coincident failure of
upper packing gland.
Leaking joint.
Joint difficult to make
up.

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

12. Tubing hanger


downhole chemical
injection line lower
packing gland Secondary Barrier

Loss of integrity of
packing gland body
thread causing trapped
Provide a seal between
pressure to leak into
the Chemical Injection
cavity between tubing Damaged threads
line and the tubing
hanger and tree.
hanger body

Excessive torque
required to install.

Use of competent fitters


and effective
supervision.

Improperly mated
threads

1.3
Fitting improperly
aligned.

On coincident failure of
upper packing gland.

Suitable pressure
testing.

Leaking joint

Zone 1.5 to 1.6

12. Tubing hanger


downhole chemical
injection line lower
packing gland Secondary Barrier

Loss of integrity of
packing gland body
thread causing trapped
Provide a seal between
pressure to leak into
Leakage of gas into
the Chemical Injection
cavity between tubing Incorrect joint make-up cavity between tubing
line and the tubing
hanger and tree.
hanger and tree.
hanger body
On coincident failure of
upper packing gland.

124

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
pressurising the cavity
between tree and tubing
hanger.
None.
Tertiary barriers
provided by tie down
bolt arrangement,
chemical injection point,
down hole safety valve
point, tubing hanger to
casing spool seal.

1.3

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Leakage of gas into the


upper A annulus.

Zone 1.6 to 1.7

1. Annulus tubing &


Provide location and
Nipple body integrity
annulus tubing nipples - hang-off for well
failure
Primary Barrier
intervention equipment

Manufacturing defect

Stress raisers and crack


initiators
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Designers and
manufacturers to have
2.2
ISO quality systems in
place.

Leakage of gas into the


upper A annulus.

Zone 1.6 to 1.7

Zone 1.6 to 1.7

Annulus tubing will


1. Annulus tubing &
provide a conduit for
annulus tubing nipples - the gas to be injected
Primary Barrier
into the production
bore.

1. Annulus tubing &


To provide a sealed
annulus tubing nipples - mechanical joint
Primary Barrier
between components

Annulus tubing ruptures Manufacturing defect

Failure due to threads


Failure of seal (metal to being out with
metal)
manufacturing
tolerances

Stress raisers and crack


Additional loading on
initiators
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Designers and
manufacturers to have
2.2
ISO quality systems in
place.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
Instrument monitor
consequently
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Ineffective seal

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.6 to 1.7

1. Annulus tubing &


To provide a sealed
annulus tubing nipples - mechanical joint
Primary Barrier
between components

Failure of seal (metal to


Galling on seal face
metal)

Ineffective seal

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

125

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.6 to 1.7

1. Annulus tubing &


To provide a sealed
annulus tubing nipples - mechanical joint
Primary Barrier
between components

Failure of seal (metal to Insufficient make up


metal)
torque

Ineffective seal

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.6 to 1.7

1. Annulus tubing &


To provide a sealed
annulus tubing nipples - mechanical joint
Primary Barrier
between components

Failure of seal (metal to Excessive loading on


metal)
seal arrangement

Seal integrity reduced or


failed

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
Instrument monitor
consequently
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.6 to 1.7

1. Annulus tubing &


To provide a sealed
annulus tubing nipples - mechanical joint
Primary Barrier
between components

Failure of threaded
connection

Jumping out or
Joint opens
'unzipping' of the thread

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

126

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.6 to 1.7

1. Annulus tubing &


To provide a sealed
annulus tubing nipples - mechanical joint
Primary Barrier
between components

Failure of threaded
connection

Shearing of threads

Joint integrity reduced


or failed

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Zone 1.6 to 1.7

Zone 1.6 to 1.7

2. Annulus downhole
safety valve - Primary
Barrier

2. Annulus downhole
safety valve - Primary
Barrier

To provide addition
barrier between lower
annulus and
tree/wellhead

To provide addition
barrier between lower
annulus and
tree/wellhead

Failure due to threads


Failure of seal (metal to being out with
metal)
manufacturing
tolerances

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Ineffective seal

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
Instrument monitor
consequently
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Failure of seal (metal to
Galling on seal face
metal)

Ineffective seal

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

127

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

SYSTEM

Zone 1.6 to 1.7

Zone 1.6 to 1.7

Zone 1.6 to 1.7

SUB-SYSTEM

2. Annulus downhole
safety valve - Primary
Barrier

2. Annulus downhole
safety valve - Primary
Barrier

2. Annulus downhole
safety valve - Primary
Barrier

FUNCTION

To provide addition
barrier between lower
annulus and
tree/wellhead

To provide addition
barrier between lower
annulus and
tree/wellhead

To provide addition
barrier between lower
annulus and
tree/wellhead

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Failure of seal (metal to Insufficient make up
metal)
torque

Ineffective seal

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Failure of seal (metal to Excessive loading on
metal)
seal arrangement

Seal integrity reduced or


failed

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
Instrument monitor
consequently
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Failure of threaded
connection

Jumping out or
Joint opens
'unzipping' of the thread

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

128

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

SYSTEM

Zone 1.6 to 1.7

SUB-SYSTEM

2. Annulus downhole
safety valve - Primary
Barrier

FUNCTION

To provide addition
barrier between lower
annulus and
tree/wellhead

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Failure of threaded
connection

Shearing of threads

Joint integrity reduced


or failed

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Correct specification of
seals.

Zone 1.6 to 1.7

2. Annulus downhole
safety valve - Primary
Barrier

To provide addition
barrier between lower
annulus and
tree/wellhead

Zone 1.6 to 1.7

2. Annulus downhole
safety valve - Primary
Barrier

To provide addition
barrier between lower
annulus and
tree/wellhead

Gas leakage into upper


A annulus.
Failure of housing
sealing arrangement

Failure of two radially


DHSV housing loses
successive seals of the
integrity
component interface

Failure of control line


housing

Failure of two radially


Leakage into the A
successive seals of the
annulus
component interface

Manufacturers and
1.1
designers have a
A Annular valves
suitable quality
become tertiary barriers. assurance system in
accordance with ISO or
equivalent.
Gas leakage into upper
A annulus.
Correct specification of
seals.
Flapper closes if control
line ruptures

2.1
Periodic testing

A Annular valves
become tertiary barriers.

Zone 1.7 to 1.8

1. Annulus downhole
safety valve - Primary
Barrier

To provide addition
barrier between lower
annulus and
tree/wellhead

Failure due to threads


Failure of seal (metal to being out with
Ineffective seal
manufacturing
metal)
tolerances

129

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
Instrument monitor
consequently
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

SYSTEM

Zone 1.7 to 1.8

Zone 1.7 to 1.8

Zone 1.7 to 1.8

SUB-SYSTEM

1. Annulus downhole
safety valve - Primary
Barrier

1. Annulus downhole
safety valve - Primary
Barrier

1. Annulus downhole
safety valve - Primary
Barrier

FUNCTION

To provide addition
barrier between lower
annulus and
tree/wellhead

To provide addition
barrier between lower
annulus and
tree/wellhead

To provide addition
barrier between lower
annulus and
tree/wellhead

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
Instrument monitor
consequently
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Failure of seal (metal to
Galling on seal face
metal)

2.2

Ineffective seal
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
Instrument monitor
consequently
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Failure of seal (metal to Insufficient make up
metal)
torque

2.2

Ineffective seal
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
Instrument monitor
consequently
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Failure of seal (metal to Excessive loading on
metal)
seal arrangement

Seal integrity reduced


or failed

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

130

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

SYSTEM

Zone 1.7 to 1.8

Zone 1.7 to 1.8

SUB-SYSTEM

1. Annulus downhole
safety valve - Primary
Barrier

1. Annulus downhole
safety valve - Primary
Barrier

FUNCTION

To provide addition
barrier between lower
annulus and
tree/wellhead

To provide addition
barrier between lower
annulus and
tree/wellhead

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

1. Annulus downhole
safety valve - Primary
Barrier

To provide addition
barrier between lower
annulus and
tree/wellhead

CRITICALITY

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
Instrument monitor
consequently
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Failure of seal (metal to Jumping out or
Joint opens
metal)
'unzipping' of the thread

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
Instrument monitor
consequently
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Failure of seal (metal to
Shearing of threads
metal)

Joint integrity reduced


or failed

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)
Gas leakage into upper
A annulus.

Zone 1.7 to 1.8

MITIGATION

Failure of housing
sealing arrangement

Failure of two radially


DHSV housing loses
successive seals of the
integrity
component interface

A Annular valves
become tertiary
barriers.

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Correct specification of
seals.

1.1
Manufacturers and
designers have a
suitable quality
assurance system in
accordance with ISO or
equivalent.

Gas leakage into upper


A annulus.

Zone 1.7 to 1.8

1. Annulus downhole
safety valve - Primary
Barrier

To provide addition
barrier between lower
annulus and
tree/wellhead

Failure of control line


housing

Failure of two radially


Leakage into the A
successive seals of the
annulus
component interface

Flapper closes if control


line ruptures
A Annular valves
become tertiary
barriers.

131

Correct specification of
seals.
2.1
Periodic testing

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Leakage of gas into the


upper A annulus.

Zone 1.7 to 1.8

Zone 1.7 to 1.8

2. Annulus Tubing Primary Barrier

2. Annulus Tubing Primary Barrier

Annulus tubing will


provide a conduit for the
Annulus tubing ruptures Manufacturing defect
gas to be injected into
the production bore.

To provide a sealed
mechanical joint
between components

Failure due to threads


Failure of seal (metal to being out with
manufacturing
metal)
tolerances

Stress raisers and crack


initiators
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Designers and
manufacturers to have
2.2
ISO quality systems in
place.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Ineffective seal

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.7 to 1.8

2. Annulus Tubing Primary Barrier

To provide a sealed
mechanical joint
between components

Failure of seal (metal to


Galling on seal face
metal)

Ineffective seal

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

132

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.7 to 1.8

2. Annulus Tubing Primary Barrier

To provide a sealed
mechanical joint
between components

Failure of seal (metal to Insufficient make up


metal)
torque

Ineffective seal

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.7 to 1.8

2. Annulus Tubing Primary Barrier

To provide a sealed
mechanical joint
between components

Failure of seal (metal to Excessive loading on


metal)
seal arrangement

Seal integrity reduced or


failed

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
Instrument monitor
consequently
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.7 to 1.8

2. Annulus Tubing Primary Barrier

To provide a sealed
mechanical joint
between components

Failure of threaded
connection

Jumping out or
Joint opens
'unzipping' of the thread

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

133

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.7 to 1.8

2. Annulus Tubing Primary Barrier

To provide a sealed
mechanical joint
between components

Failure of threaded
connection

Shearing of threads

Joint integrity reduced


or failed

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Leakage of gas into the


upper A annulus.

Zone 1.8 to 1.9

Zone 1.8 to 1.9

1. Annulus Tubing Primary Barrier

1. Annulus Tubing Primary Barrier

Annulus tubing will


provide a conduit for
the gas to be injected
into the production
bore.

To provide a sealed
mechanical joint
between components

Annulus tubing ruptures Manufacturing defect

Failure due to threads


Failure of seal (metal to being out with
metal)
manufacturing
tolerances

134

Stress raisers and crack


initiators
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Designers and
manufacturers to have
2.2
ISO quality systems in
place.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Ineffective seal

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.8 to 1.9

1. Annulus Tubing Primary Barrier

To provide a sealed
mechanical joint
between components

Failure of seal (metal to


Galling on seal face
metal)

Ineffective seal

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.8 to 1.9

1. Annulus Tubing Primary Barrier

To provide a sealed
mechanical joint
between components

Failure of seal (metal to Insufficient make up


metal)
torque

Ineffective seal

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
Instrument monitor
consequently
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.8 to 1.9

1. Annulus Tubing Primary Barrier

To provide a sealed
mechanical joint
between components

Failure of seal (metal to Excessive loading on


metal)
seal arrangement

Seal integrity reduced or


failed

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

135

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.8 to 1.9

1. Annulus Tubing Primary Barrier

To provide a sealed
mechanical joint
between components

Failure of threaded
connection

Jumping out or
Joint opens
'unzipping' of the thread

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.8 to 1.9

1. Annulus Tubing Primary Barrier

To provide a sealed
mechanical joint
between components

Failure of threaded
connection

Shearing of threads

Joint integrity reduced


or failed

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Periodic checks of upper


A annulus pressure.
Zone 1.8 to 1.9

Zone 1.8 to 1.9

Zone 1.8 to 1.9

2. Annulus bore dual


bore upper packer Primary Barrier

Dual upper bore packer


provides isolation
Failure of the packer
between the upper and sealing element
lower annulus

Incorrectly set

2. Annulus bore dual


bore upper packer Primary Barrier

Dual upper bore packer


provides isolation
Failure of the packer
between the upper and sealing element
lower annulus

Gas passing from lower


Deteriation of the
Upper A annulus
annulus to upper
packer sealing element
pressurise with gas.
annulus

2. Annulus bore dual


bore upper packer Primary Barrier

Dual upper bore packer


provides isolation
Failure of the packer
between the upper and sealing element
lower annulus

Design working loads


are exceeded

Gas passing from lower


Upper A annulus
annulus to upper
pressurise with gas.
annulus

136

2.2
Pressure testing when
packer was originally
installed.
Periodic checks of upper
A annulus pressure.
2.2
Pressure testing when
packer was originally
installed.

Expansion and
Packer to be designed
Additional tensile loads contraction of annulus
for all reasonably
imposed on packer
tubing in the absence of
foreseeable events.
a slip joint.

2.3

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

Zone 1.8 to 1.9

2. Annulus bore dual


bore upper packer Primary Barrier

2. Annulus bore dual


bore upper packer Primary Barrier

Zone 1.8 to 1.9

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

Dual upper bore packer


provides isolation
Failure of the tubing
between the upper and annulus to packer seal
lower annulus

Deteriation of the
annulus upper bore
tubing stab seal

Gas passing from lower


Upper A annulus
annulus to upper
pressurise with gas.
annulus

Dual upper bore packer


provides isolation
Failure of the tubing
between the upper and annulus to packer seal
lower annulus

Design working loads


are exceeded

Expansion and
Additional tensile loads contraction of annulus
imposed on packer
tubing in the absence of
a slip joint.
Pump Labouring
(audible)

Zone 1.8 to 1.9

Rupture of chemical
3. Downhole chemical Provide a conduit for
injection line - between Pipework damaged
injection line chemical injection into
tubing hanger and dual during installation
Secondary Barrier
production bore
bore upper packer

Pressurisation of upper a Significant reduction or


annulus with chemicals cessation of dosing rate
of chemicals.
A annulus pressure
increase.

Zone 1.8 to 1.9

4. Dual bore packer


downhole chemical
injection line upper
packing gland Secondary Barrier

Loss of integrity of
packing gland body
thread causing trapped
pressure to leak up
against the lower
Provide a seal between
chemical injection line
the Chemical Injection
Thread cut out of
packing gland.
line and the dual bore
tolerance
upper packer body
Coincident failure of
lower chemical injection
line packing gland in
order to leak into lower
annulus.

MITIGATION
CRITICALITY
Periodic checks of upper
A annulus pressure.
2.2
Pressure testing when
packer was originally
installed.
Tubing stab to be
designed for all
2.3
reasonably foreseeable
events.
Regular checks of pump
pressure injection rates
by plant operators.
1.2
Competent fitters and
appropriate installation
procedures.
Use of go/no go gauges
during manufacture.

No visible symptoms.
Reduced thread to
thread contact surface
(seal maintained by
excessive PTFE for
example)

Degraded mechanical
joint, since joint relies
more on excessive
sealant than intimate
thread contact.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in 3.3
place. Offshore
supervisors checks and
balances.

Use of competent fitters

137

SYSTEM

Zone 1.8 to 1.9

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

4. Dual bore packer


downhole chemical
injection line upper
packing gland Secondary Barrier

Loss of integrity of
packing gland body
thread causing trapped
pressure to leak up
against the lower
Provide a seal between
chemical injection line
the Chemical Injection
Thread cut out of
packing gland.
line and the dual bore
tolerance
upper packer body
Coincident failure of
lower chemical injection
line packing gland in
order to leak into lower
annulus.

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION
CRITICALITY
Use of go/no go gauges
during manufacture.

Designers and
Component will only
manufacturers to have
Either male or female mate for a proportion of
ISO quality systems in 3.3
threads are cut oversize the threads (rather than
place. Offshore
full length engagement)
supervisors checks and
balances.

Use of competent fitters

Zone 1.8 to 1.9

Zone 1.8 to 1.9

4. Dual bore packer


downhole chemical
injection line upper
packing gland Secondary Barrier

4. Dual bore packer


downhole chemical
injection line upper
packing gland Secondary Barrier

Loss of integrity of
packing gland body
thread causing trapped
pressure to leak up
against the lower
Provide a seal between
chemical injection line
the Chemical Injection
packing gland.
Cross threads
line and the dual bore
upper packer body
Coincident failure of
lower chemical injection
line packing gland in
order to leak into lower
annulus.

Excessive torque
required to install.

Ineffective seal

Use of competent fitters


and effective
supervision.

Fitting improperly
aligned.

1.3
Suitable pressure
testing.

Leaking joint.

Loss of integrity of
packing gland body
thread causing trapped
pressure to leak up
against the lower
Provide a seal between
chemical injection line
the Chemical Injection
packing gland.
Damaged threads
line and the dual bore
upper packer body
Coincident failure of
lower chemical injection
line packing gland in
order to leak into lower
annulus.

Joint difficult to make


up.

Excessive torque
required to install.
Improperly mated
threads

1.3
Fitting improperly
aligned.

Leaking joint

138

Use of competent fitters


and effective
supervision.

Suitable pressure
testing.

SYSTEM

Zone 1.8 to 1.9

Zone 1.9 to 1.11

Zone 1.9 to 1.11

Zone 1.9 to 1.11

Zone 1.9 to 1.11

SUB-SYSTEM

4. Dual bore packer


downhole chemical
injection line upper
packing gland Secondary Barrier

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

Loss of integrity of
packing gland body
thread causing trapped
pressure to leak up
against the lower
Provide a seal between
chemical injection line
the Chemical Injection
Leakage of gas into
packing gland.
Incorrect joint make-up
line and the dual bore
upper A annulus
upper packer body
Coincident failure of
lower chemical injection
line packing gland in
order to leak into lower
annulus.

SYMPTOMS

Chemical injection line


pressurised with
injection gas when not
Pressure in upper A
injecting chemicals.
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

1.3

Tertiary barriers
provided by annular
valves, VR plug and
instrumentation fittings
Periodic checks of
upper A annulus
pressure.

Incorrectly set

Dual upper bore packer


provides isolation
Failure of the packer
between the upper and sealing element
lower annulus

Gas passing from lower


Deteriation of the
Upper A annulus
annulus to upper
packer sealing element
pressurise with gas.
annulus

1. Annulus bore dual


bore upper packer Primary Barrier

Dual upper bore packer


provides isolation
Failure of the packer
between the upper and sealing element
lower annulus

Design working loads


are exceeded

1. Annulus bore dual


bore upper packer Primary Barrier

Dual upper bore packer


Deteriation of the
provides isolation
Failure of the tubing
annulus upper bore
between the upper and annulus to packer seal
tubing stab seal
lower annulus

1. Annulus bore dual


bore upper packer Primary Barrier

CRITICALITY

Chemical injection line


subject to back pressure
from injection gas under
normal chemical
injection activities.
Instrument monitor
Chemical injection
facility on upper A
pressure will increase.
annulus.

Dual upper bore packer


provides isolation
Failure of the packer
between the upper and sealing element
lower annulus

1. Annulus bore dual


bore upper packer Primary Barrier

MITIGATION

Gas passing from lower


Upper A annulus
annulus to upper
pressurise with gas.
annulus

2.2
Pressure testing when
packer was originally
installed.
Periodic checks of
upper A annulus
pressure.
2.2
Pressure testing when
packer was originally
installed.

139

Expansion and
Packer to be designed
Additional tensile loads contraction of annulus
for all reasonably
imposed on packer
tubing in the absence of
foreseeable events.
a slip joint.

Gas passing from lower


Upper A annulus
annulus to upper
pressurise with gas.
annulus

2.3

Periodic checks of
upper A annulus
pressure.
2.2
Pressure testing when
packer was originally
installed.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

Zone 1.9 to 1.11

1. Annulus bore dual


bore upper packer Primary Barrier

Dual upper bore packer


provides isolation
Failure of the tubing
Design working loads
between the upper and annulus to packer seal are exceeded
lower annulus

Zone 1.9 to 1.11

To provide a conduit for


2. Lower well annulus
the gas to be injected
Lower annulus casing
(9 5/8") - Primary
into the production
split or parted
Barrier
string

SYMPTOMS

Expansion and
Additional tensile loads contraction of annulus
imposed on packer
tubing in the absence of
a slip joint.

Degradation of
Produce corrosion
components over time.
products which are a
Corrosion (where water source of debris and can
under certain situations
is present)
apply a pressure to
This less applicable to
mating surfaces
13% Cr Alloys.
Deep pits and cavities.

Zone 1.9 to 1.11

To provide a conduit for


2. Lower well annulus
the gas to be injected
Lower annulus casing
(9 5/8") - Primary
into the production
split or parted
Barrier
string

Corrosion (where water


Localised corrosion
is present)

Zone 1.9 to 1.11

To provide a conduit for


2. Lower well annulus
the gas to be injected
Lower annulus casing
(9 5/8") - Primary
into the production
split or parted
Barrier
string

Incorrect casing design Casing could part

Zone 1.9 to 1.11

13% Cr steels
B annulus is rated to a
Embrittlement during vulnerable to temper
lower pressure than the
manufacturing process Embrittlement under
A annulus.
(high alloy steels)
incorrect welding and
heat treatment regimes.
Loss of ductility
resulting in a greater
sensitivity to cracking
under normal well
conditions (thermal
loading).

140

CRITICALITY

Tubing stab to be
designed for all
2.3
reasonably foreseeable
events.
Optimisation of material
design and selection
1.3
Injection of inhibitors
Optimisation of material
design and selection

If equipment is left for


an extended period of Good corrosion
time full wall
management strategy
perforation can occur. and execution.
Gas lift pressure leakage
into the B annulus,
consequently annular
valves on B annulus
become primary barrier.
Correct casing design
B annulus is rated to a
lower pressure than the
A annulus.
Gas lift pressure leakage
into the B annulus,
consequently annular
valves on B annulus
become primary barrier.

To provide a conduit for


2. Lower well annulus
the gas to be injected
Lower annulus casing
(9 5/8") - Primary
into the production
split or parted
Barrier
string

MITIGATION

4.3

3.3

Design and
manufacturers quality
assurance in accordance
with ISO and
equivalent.
2.3
Plant operators would
monitor annulus
pressure.

SYSTEM

Zone 1.9 to 1.11

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

2. Lower well annulus To provide a sealed


(9 5/8") - Primary
mechanical joint
between components
Barrier

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

Failure due to threads


Failure of seal (metal to being out with
metal)
manufacturing
tolerances

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Ineffective seal

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.9 to 1.11

2. Lower well annulus To provide a sealed


(9 5/8") - Primary
mechanical joint
Barrier
between components

Failure of seal (metal to


Galling on seal face
metal)

Ineffective seal

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
Instrument monitor
consequently
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.9 to 1.11

2. Lower well annulus To provide a sealed


(9 5/8") - Primary
mechanical joint
Barrier
between components

Failure of seal (metal to Insufficient make up


metal)
torque

Ineffective seal

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

141

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.9 to 1.11

2. Lower well annulus To provide a sealed


(9 5/8") - Primary
mechanical joint
between components
Barrier

Failure of seal (metal to Excessive loading on


metal)
seal arrangement

Seal integrity reduced or


failed

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.9 to 1.11

2. Lower well annulus To provide a sealed


(9 5/8") - Primary
mechanical joint
Barrier
between components

Failure of threaded
connection

Jumping out or
Joint opens
'unzipping' of the thread

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
Instrument monitor
consequently
pressurising the upper A facility on upper A
annulus.
annulus.
Zone 1.9 to 1.11

2. Lower well annulus To provide a sealed


(9 5/8") - Primary
mechanical joint
Barrier
between components

Failure of threaded
connection

Shearing of threads

Joint integrity reduced


or failed

2.2
Additional loading on
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Zone 1.9 to 1.11

To provide a means of
3. Side Pocket Mandrels
Orifice valve fails to
injecting gas into the
(SPM) - Primary Barrier
open on demand
bore string

Incorrect set pressure

142

Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
plant operators.

Manufacturers and
designers quality
assurance scheme in
Gas is not injected at the Gas lift is not effective, accordance with ISO or
1.2
right level in the
if well is reliant on gas equivalent.
production string
lift well may not flow.
Orifice valves checked
before installation in
well.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

Zone 1.9 to 1.11

To provide a means of
3. Side Pocket Mandrels
Orifice valve fails to
injecting gas into the
(SPM) - Primary Barrier
open on demand
bore string

Zone 1.9 to 1.11

4. Chemical Injection
Line

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

Orifice valve seized closed

Provide a conduit to
Chemical injection line Operational loads
inject chemicals into the
rupture
exceeded
production tubing

MITIGATION
CRITICALITY
Manufacturers and
Gas lift is not effective,
designers quality
if well is reliant on gas
assurance scheme in
lift well may not flow.
accordance with ISO or
equivalent.
Gas is not injected into
1.2
the production string
Lower A annulus is
pressurised beyond
Orifice valves checked
normal operating
before installation in
conditions.
well.

Line could split

SYMPTOMS

Chemical injection line


Chemical injection
subject to back pressure
pipework and fittings
from injection gas under
should be designed and
normal chemical
constructed for all
injection activities.
reasonably foreseeable
Chemical injection
events.
pressure will increase.

2.3

Chemical injection
Chemical injection line
pressure should be
pressurised with
monitored by competent
injection gas when not
individuals.
injecting chemicals.

Zone 1.9 to 1.11

4. Chemical Injection
Line

Provide a conduit to
Chemical injection line Operational loads
inject chemicals into the
rupture
exceeded
production tubing

Combination of
vibration and tension in
line due to slippage of
supports.
Fatigue
Pressure cyclic effects
from injecting.

143

Correct supporting
arrangement.

2.3

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

Zone 1.9 to 1.11

4. Chemical Injection
Line

Provide a conduit to
Chemical injection line Operational loads
inject chemicals into the
rupture
exceeded
production tubing

Zone 1.9 to 1.11

4. Chemical Injection
Line

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

Provide a conduit to
Chemical injection line Operational loads
inject chemicals into the
rupture
exceeded
production tubing

Incorrect installation

Corrosion of fittings

SYMPTOMS
MITIGATION
CRITICALITY
Joint leakage at either
dual bore upper packer
or connection to
production tubing.
Chemical injection
pipework and fittings
should be designed and
Chemical injection line constructed for all
subject to back pressure reasonably foreseeable
from injection gas under events.
normal chemical
2.3
injection activities.
Chemical injection
pressure will increase. Chemical injection
pressure should be
monitored by competent
individuals.
Chemical injection line
pressurised with
injection gas when not
injecting chemicals.
Due to residual liquids
from previous
operations.

Chemical injection line


subject to back pressure
Corrosion/materials
from injection gas under
engineer to ensure
normal chemical
compatibility of
injection activities.
materials with
Chemical injection
environment.
pressure will increase.

Chemical injection line


pressurised with
injection gas when not
injecting chemicals.

144

2.3

SYSTEM

Zone 1.9 to 1.11

Zone 1.9 to 1.11

Zone 1.9 to 1.11

Zone 1.9 to 1.11

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

4. Chemical Injection
Line

Upper chemical
injection line seal to
dual bore upper packer
takes lower A annulus
Lower seal between
Provide a conduit to
Deteriation of the lower Gas passing from lower pressure. Coincidental
chemical injection line
inject chemicals into the
chemical injection line annulus to upper
failure of upper
and dual bore upper
production tubing
seal
annulus
chemical injection line
packer
seal to dual bore upper
packer to upper A
annulus pressurise with
gas.

4. Chemical Injection
Line

4. Chemical Injection
Line

4. Chemical Injection
Line

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

Lower seal between


Provide a conduit to
chemical injection line Design working loads
inject chemicals into the
and dual bore upper
are exceeded
production tubing
packer

Expansion and
Additional tensile loads contraction of annulus
imposed on packer
tubing in the absence of
a slip joint.

Upper seal between


Provide a conduit to
Deteriation of the upper Gas passing from lower
chemical injection line
inject chemicals into the
chemical injection line annulus to upper
and dual bore upper
production tubing
seal
annulus
packer

Upper seal between


Provide a conduit to
chemical injection line Design working loads
inject chemicals into the
and dual bore upper
are exceeded
production tubing
packer

145

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Periodic checks of upper


A annulus pressure.
2.2
Pressure testing when
packer was originally
installed.

Tubing stab to be
designed for all
2.3
reasonably foreseeable
events.

Failure of upper
chemical injection line
seal to dual bore upper
packer to upper A
Periodic checks of upper
annulus pressurise with
A annulus pressure.
gas.
2.2
Pressure testing when
Failure of lower
packer was originally
chemical injection line
installed.
seal to dual bore upper
packer to upper A
annulus pressurise with
gas.

Expansion and
Additional tensile loads contraction of annulus
tubing in the absence of
imposed on packer
a slip joint.

Tubing stab to be
designed for all
2.3
reasonably foreseeable
events.

APPENDIX F
SINGLE COMPLETION FMECA RESULTS

146

SYSTEM

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

CAUSE

EFFECT

1. Gas Check Valve Primary Barrier

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of Bonnet seal leakage
the wellhead on loss of
(metal to metal joint)
pressurisation in the
upstream pipework.

Seal incorrectly
specified

Material specification
of seal incompatible
Gradually leaking over
with body causing
time
differential cell to be
setup.

1. Gas Check Valve Primary Barrier

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
Bonnet seal leakage
the wellhead on loss of
(metal to metal joint)
pressurisation in the
upstream pipework.

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
Wrong seal taken from properties similar to
None
actual specification,
stores
therefore no immediate
effect.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

1. Gas Check Valve Primary Barrier

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
Bonnet seal leakage
the wellhead on loss of
(metal to metal joint)
pressurisation in the
upstream pipework.

Seal incorrectly
specified

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
initial teething
2.2
problems have been
ironed out.

1. Gas Check Valve Primary Barrier

FAILURE

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
Bonnet seal leakage
the wellhead on loss of (metal to metal joint)
pressurisation in the
upstream pipework.

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

SYMPTOMS

None.

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.

Seal incorrectly
installed

Effective seal not made Gas leak around seal

2.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

1. Gas Check Valve Primary Barrier

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of Bonnet seal leakage
the wellhead on loss of
(metal to metal joint)
pressurisation in the
upstream pipework.

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bolts
unevenly tensioned

147

Joint integrity reduced

Sealing arrangement
unevenly energised

Employ competent
individuals and
3.3
appropriate supervision
is available.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

1. Gas Check Valve Primary Barrier

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of Bonnet seal leakage
the wellhead on loss of
(metal to metal joint)
pressurisation in the
upstream pipework.

Bolts installed
incorrectly - incorrect Joint integrity reduced None.
grade of bolt fitted

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

1. Gas Check Valve Primary Barrier

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
Bonnet seal leakage
the wellhead on loss of
(metal to metal joint)
pressurisation in the
upstream pipework.

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bonnet
over tensioned

1. Gas Check Valve Primary Barrier

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
Bonnet seal leakage
the wellhead on loss of (metal to metal joint)
pressurisation in the
upstream pipework.

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bonnet
under tensioned

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
3.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Employ competent
Seal distortion leading individuals and
Joint integrity reduced to progressive leakage. appropriate supervision 2.3
is available.

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
Instantaneous leak from
Joint integrity reduced
is available.
2.3
bonnet
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

1. Gas Check Valve Primary Barrier

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
Failure of Ring Gasket Bolts loosen off in
the wellhead on loss of Seal
service
pressurisation in the
upstream pipework.

1. Gas Check Valve Primary Barrier

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
Catastrophic failure of
Appropriate support for
Failure of Ring Gasket
Excessive vibration on
the wellhead on loss of
piping as per pipe stress 3.3
Fatigue failure of bolts one or more bolts after pipework
Seal
pressurisation in the
a period of time.
analysis.
upstream pipework.

148

Partial leakage of gas

Gas release

Possible detection by
plant operators and/or 2.3
F&G system

SYSTEM

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

1. Gas Check Valve Primary Barrier

To contain the gas


Appropriate piping
within the A annulus of Failure of Ring Gasket Thermal/mechanical Catastrophic failure of Displacement from
the wellhead on loss of
gradients induce fatigue one or more bolts after
design as per pipe stress 3.3
Seal
normal relative position
pressurisation in the
on bolts
a period of time.
analysis.
upstream pipework.

1. Gas Check Valve Primary Barrier

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
Failure of Ring Gasket Wrong seal taken from
the wellhead on loss of
Seal
stores
pressurisation in the
upstream pipework.

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
properties similar to
None
actual specification,
therefore no immediate
effect.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

1. Gas Check Valve Primary Barrier

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
Failure of Ring Gasket Seal incorrectly
the wellhead on loss of Seal
specified
pressurisation in the
upstream pipework.

Material specification
of seal incompatible
Gradually increasing
with body causing
leak over time.
differential cell to be
setup.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work syst em etc.

1. Gas Check Valve Primary Barrier

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
Failure of Ring Gasket Seal incorrectly
the wellhead on loss of Seal
specified
pressurisation in the
upstream pipework.

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
initial teething
2.2
problems have been
ironed out.

1. Gas Check Valve Primary Barrier

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
Failure of Ring Gasket Seal incorrectly
the wellhead on loss of
Seal
installed
pressurisation in the
upstream pipework.

Effective seal not made

SYMPTOMS

None

Gas leakage around


seal

MITIGATION

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.
2.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

149

CRITICALITY

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

1. Gas Check Valve Primary Barrier

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of Failure of Ring Gasket Bolts installed
the wellhead on loss of
incorrectly - bolts
Seal
pressurisation in the
unevenly tensioned
upstream pipework.

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

1. Gas Check Valve Primary Barrier

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
Bolts installed
Failure of Ring Gasket
the wellhead on loss of
incorrectly - incorrect Joint integrity reduced None
Seal
grade of bolt fitted
pressurisation in the
upstream pipework.

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

1. Gas Check Valve Primary Barrier

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
Bolts installed
Failure of Ring Gasket
incorrectly - bonnet
the wellhead on loss of Seal
pressurisation in the
over tensioned
upstream pipework.

1. Gas Check Valve Primary Barrier

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of Failure of Ring Gasket Bolts installed
the wellhead on loss of
incorrectly - bonnet
Seal
pressurisation in the
under tensioned
upstream pipework.

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

2. Connecting
Pipework - Primary
Barrier

FAILURE

CAUSE

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
Failure of Ring Gasket Bolts loosen off in
the wellhead on loss of
Seal
service
pressurisation in the
upstream pipework.

150

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Joint integrity reduced

Sealing arrangement
unevenly energised

Employ competent
individuals and
3.3
appropriate supervision
is available.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
3.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Employ competent
Seal distortion leading individuals and
Joint integrity reduced to progressive leakage.
2.3
appropriate supervision
is available.

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
Instantaneous leak from
Joint integrity reduced
is available.
2.3
bonnet
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Partial leakage of gas

Gas release

Possible detection by
plant operators and/or 2.3
F&G system

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

2. Connecting
Pipework - Primary
Barrier

To contain the gas


Catastrophic failure of
Appropriate support for
within the A annulus of Failure of Ring Gasket
Excessive vibration on
the wellhead on loss of
Fatigue failure of bolts one or more bolts after
piping as per pipe stress 3.3
Seal
pipework
pressurisation in the
a period of time.
analysis.
upstream pipework.

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

2. Connecting
Pipework - Primary
Barrier

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
Thermal/mechanical Catastrophic failure of
Appropriate piping
Failure of Ring Gasket
Displacement from
the wellhead on loss of
gradients induce fatigue one or more bolts after
design as per pipe stress 3.3
Seal
normal relative position
on bolts
a period of time.
analysis.
pressurisation in the
upstream pipework.

2. Connecting
Pipework - Primary
Barrier

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
Failure of Ring Gasket Wrong seal taken from
the wellhead on loss of Seal
stores
pressurisation in the
upstream pipework.

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
properties similar to
None
actual specification,
therefore no immediate
effect.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

2. Connecting
Pipework - Primary
Barrier

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of Failure of Ring Gasket Seal incorrectly
the wellhead on loss of
Seal
specified
pressurisation in the
upstream pipework.

Material specification
of seal incompatible
Gradually increasing
with body causing
leak over time.
differential cell to be
setup.

Designers and
manufact urers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

2. Connecting
Pipework - Primary
Barrier

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
Failure of Ring Gasket Seal incorrectly
the wellhead on loss of
Seal
specified
pressurisation in the
upstream pipework.

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
initial teething
2.2
problems have been
ironed out.

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

151

SYMPTOMS

None

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

SYSTEM

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

SUB-SYSTEM

2. Connect ing
Pipework - Primary
Barrier

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of Failure of Ring Gasket Seal incorrectly
the wellhead on loss of
Seal
installed
pressurisation in the
upstream pipework.

Effective seal not made

SYMPTOMS

Gas leakage around


seal

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.
2.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

2. Connecting
Pipework - Primary
Barrier

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
Bolts installed
Failure of Ring Gasket
the wellhead on loss of
incorrectly - bolts
Seal
pressurisation in the
unevenly tensioned
upstream pipework.

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

2. Connecting
Pipework - Primary
Barrier

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
Bolts installed
Failure of Ring Gasket
incorrectly - incorrect Joint integrity reduced None
the wellhead on loss of Seal
pressurisation in the
grade of bolt fitted
upstream pipework.

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

2. Connecting
Pipework - Primary
Barrier

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
Bolts installed
Failure of Ring Gasket
incorrectly - bonnet
the wellhead on loss of Seal
pressurisation in the
over tensioned
upstream pipework.

2. Connecting
Pipework - Primary
Barrier

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
Bolts installed
Failure of Ring Gasket
the wellhead on loss of
incorrectly - bonnet
Seal
pressurisation in the
under tensioned
upstream pipework.

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

152

Sealing arrangement
Joint integrity reduced unevenly energised

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision 3.3
is available.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
3.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Employ competent
Seal distortion leading individuals and
Joint integrity reduced to progressive leakage.
2.3
appropriate supervision
is available.

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
Instantaneous leak from is available.
Joint integrity reduced
2.3
bonnet
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
the wellhead on loss of
3. Tubing Spool Side
Bonnet seal leakage
pressurisation in the
Valve - Primary Barrier upstream pipework and (metal to metal joint)
or on activation of
platform ESD

Seal incorrectly
specified

Material specification
of seal incompatible
Gradually leaking over
with body causing
time
differential cell to be
setup.

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
the wellhead on loss of
3. Tubing Spool Side pressurisation in the
Bonnet seal leakage
Valve - Primary Barrier
(metal to metal joint)
upstream pipework and
or on activation of
platform ESD

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
Wrong seal taken from properties similar to
None
actual specification,
stores
therefore no immediate
effect.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
the wellhead on loss of
3. Tubing Spool Side
Bonnet seal leakage
pressurisation in the
Valve - Primary Barrier
(metal to metal joint)
upstream pipework and
or on activation of
platform ESD

Seal incorrectly
specified

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
initial teething
2.2
problems have been
ironed out.

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
the wellhead on loss of
3. Tubing Spool Side
Bonnet seal leakage
pressurisation in the
Valve - Primary Barrier
(metal to metal joint)
upstream pipework and
or on activation of
platform ESD

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

SYMPTOMS

None.

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.

Seal incorrectly
installed

Effective seal not made Gas leak around seal

2.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

153

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
the wellhead on loss of
3. Tubing Spool Side
Bonnet seal leakage
pressurisation in the
Valve - Primary Barrier upstream pipework and (metal to metal joint)
or on activation of
platform ESD

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bolts
unevenly tensioned

Sealing arrangement
Joint integrity reduced
unevenly energised

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
the wellhead on loss of
3. Tubing Spool Side pressurisation in the
Bonnet seal leakage
Valve - Primary Barrier
(metal to metal joint)
upstream pipework and
or on activation of
platform ESD

Bolts installed
incorrectly - incorrect Joint integrity reduced None.
grade of bolt fitted

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
the wellhead on loss of
3. Tubing Spool Side
Bonnet seal leakage
pressurisation in the
Valve - Primary Barrier
(metal to metal joint)
upstream pipework and
or on activation of
platform ESD

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bonnet
over tensioned

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
the wellhead on loss of
3. Tubing Spool Side
Bonnet seal leakage
pressurisation in the
Valve - Primary Barrier
(metal to metal joint)
upstream pipework and
or on activation of
platform ESD

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bonnet
under tensioned

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

Employ competent
individuals and
3.3
appropriate supervision
is available.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
3.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Employ competent
Seal distortion leading individuals and
Joint integrity reduced
2.3
to progressive leakage. appropriate supervision
is available.

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
Instantaneous leak from
Joint integrity reduced
is available.
2.3
bonnet
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

154

CRITICALITY

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
the wellhead on loss of
3. Tubing Spool Side
pressurisation in the
Stem Seal Leak
Valve - Primary Barrier upstream pipework and
or on activation of
platform ESD

Wear and Tear

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
the wellhead on loss of
3. Tubing Spool Side pressurisation in the
Stem Seal Leak
Valve - Primary Barrier
upstream pipework and
or on activation of
platform ESD

Packing not set


correctly

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
the wellhead on loss of
3. Tubing Spool Side
pressurisation in the
Stem Seal Leak
Valve - Primary Barrier
upstream pipework and
or on activation of
platform ESD

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
the wellhead on loss of
Fitter backs off
3. Tubing Spool Side
pressurisation in the
Grease fitting Leakage assembly rather than
Valve - Primary Barrier
upstream pipework and
just the cap
or on activation of
platform ESD

Loss of full seal

Perform maintenance
Gas leaks from actuator and inspection in
accordance with
housing
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

Loss of full seal

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
Gas leaks from actuator
accordance with
housing
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

Wrong packing fitted Loss of full seal

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
Gas leaks from actuator
accordance with
housing
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

155

Partial leak

Audible evidence of
gas release

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Using competent fitters 3.3

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

Zone 2.1 to 2.2

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
the wellhead on loss of
3. Tubing Spool Side
pressurisation in the
Grease fitting Leakage
Valve - Primary Barrier upstream pipework and
or on activation of
platform ESD

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

Removal or backing off


of plug during routine
Partial leak
greasing/lubricating
removes inner check
valve

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Audible evidence of
gas release

Using competent fitters 3.3

1. Tubing Spool Side


Valve - Primary
Barrier

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
the wellhead on loss of
pressurisation in the
Bonnet Seal Leakage
upstream pipework and
or on activation of
platform ESD

Seal incorrectly
specified

1. Tubing Spool Side


Valve - Primary
Barrier

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
the wellhead on loss of
pressurisation in the
Bonnet Seal Leakage
upstream pipework and
or on activation of
platform ESD

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
Wrong seal taken from properties similar to
None
stores
actual specification,
therefore no immediate
effect.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

1. Tubing Spool Side


Valve - Primary
Barrier

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
the wellhead on loss of
pressurisation in the
Bonnet Seal Leakage
upstream pipework and
or on activation of
platform ESD

Seal incorrectly
specified

Tree has been


operating in excess of 6
months, initial teething 2.2
problems have been
ironed out.

Material specification
of seal incompatible
Gradually leaking over
with body causing
time
differential cell to be
setup.

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

156

None.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

SYSTEM

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

1. Tubing Spool Side


Valve - Primary
Barrier

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
the wellhead on loss of
pressurisation in the
Bonnet Seal Leakage
upstream pipework and
or on activation of
platform ESD

Seal incorrectly
installed

1. Tubing Spool Side


Valve - Primary
Barrier

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
the wellhead on loss of
pressurisation in the
Bonnet Seal Leakage
upstream pipework and
or on activation of
platform ESD

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bolts
unevenly tensioned

1. Tubing Spool Side


Valve - Primary
Barrier

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
the wellhead on loss of
pressurisation in the
Bonnet Seal Leakage
upstream pipework and
or on activation of
platform ESD

Bolts installed
incorrectly - incorrect Joint integrity reduced None.
grade of bolt fitted

1. Tubing Spool Side


Valve - Primary
Barrier

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
the wellhead on loss of
pressurisation in the
Bonnet Seal Leakage
upstream pipework and
or on activation of
platform ESD

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bonnet
over tensioned

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.
Effective seal not made Gas leak around seal
2.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

157

Joint integrity reduced

Joint integrity reduced

Sealing arrangement
unevenly energised

Employ competent
individuals and
3.3
appropriate supervision
is available.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
3.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Employ competent
Seal distortion leading individuals and
2.3
to progressive leakage. appropriate supervision
is available.

SYSTEM

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

1. Tubing Spool Side


Valve - Primary
Barrier

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
the wellhead on loss of
pressurisation in the
Bonnet Seal Leakage
upstream pipework and
or on activation of
platform ESD

1. Tubing Spool Side


Valve - Primary
Barrier

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
the wellhead on loss of
pressurisation in the Stem Seal Leakage
upstream pipework and
or on activation of
platform ESD

1. Tubing Spool Side


Valve - Primary
Barrier

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
the wellhead on loss of
pressurisation in the
Stem Seal Leakage
upstream pipework and
or on activation of
platform ESD

1. Tubing Spool Side


Valve - Primary
Barrier

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
the wellhead on loss of
pressurisation in the Stem Seal Leakage
upstream pipework and
or on activation of
platform ESD

CAUSE

EFFECT

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bonnet
under tensioned

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
Instantaneous leak from
Joint integrity reduced
is available.
2.3
bonnet
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Wear and Tear

Gas leaks from


actuator housing

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
accordance with
2.4
manufacturers
requirements.

Loss of full seal

Gas leaks from


actuator housing

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
accordance with
2.4
manufacturers
requirements.

Loss of full seal

Gas leaks from


actuator housing

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
2.4
accordance with
manufacturers
requirements.

Loss of full seal

Packing not set


correctly

Wrong packing fitted

158

SYSTEM

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

1. Tubing Spool Side


Valve - Primary
Barrier

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
the wellhead on loss of
Fitter backs off
pressurisation in the
Grease fitting leakage assembly rather than
upstream pipework and
just the cap
or on activation of
platform ESD

1. Tubing Spool Side


Valve - Primary
Barrier

To contain the gas


within the A annulus of
the wellhead on loss of
pressurisation in the
Grease fitting leakage
upstream pipework and
or on activation of
platform ESD

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Partial leak

Audible evidence of gas


Using competent fitters 3.3
release

Removal or backing off


of plug during routine
greasing/lubricating Partial leak
removes inner check
valve

Audible evidence of gas


Using competent fitters 3.3
release

Pressure build up in the


cavity between tree and
tubing hanger.

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

2. Tubing spool to
tubing hanger seal Primary Barrier

2. Tubing spool to
tubing hanger seal Primary Barrier

To provide a seal
between the tubing
Leakage around seal
hanger and tubing spool

To provide a seal
between the tubing
Leakage around seal
hanger and tubing spool

Seal fails to remain


energised

Seal incorrectly
installed

Over a period of time Secondary barriers


seal is permanent
None.
provided by tie down
deformed
bolt arrangement,
chemical injection
point, downhole safety
valve point, tubing
hanger to casing spool
seal.

Effective seal not made

Gas leakage around


seal

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.
1.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

159

1.3

SYSTEM

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

SUB-SYSTEM

2. Tubing spool to
tubing hanger seal Primary Barrier

FUNCTION

FAILURE

To provide a seal
Leakage around seal
between the tubing
hanger and tubing spool

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
Wrong seal taken from properties similar to
None
actual specification,
stores
therefore no immediate
effect.

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

2. Tubing spool to
tubing hanger seal Primary Barrier

To provide a seal
between the tubing
Leakage around seal
hanger and tubing spool

Seal incorrectly
specified

Material specification
of seal incompatible
Gradually increasing
with body causing
leak over time.
differential cell to be
setup.

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

2. Tubing spool to
tubing hanger seal Primary Barrier

To provide a seal
between the tubing
Leakage around seal
hanger and tubing spool

Seal incorrectly
specified

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

2. Tubing spool to
tubing hanger seal Primary Barrier

To provide a seal
between the tubing
Leakage around seal
hanger and tubing spool

None

Gradual determination
of seal, causing
Leakage around seal
increasing leakage over increasing over time.
a period of time

Ageing of seal

MITIGATION

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
1.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
1.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
initial teething
1.2
problems have been
ironed out.
Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
supervisors checks and
balances.
2.2

Pressure test of
complete assembly.

160

CRITICALITY

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Pressure build up in the


B annulus.
Instrument monitor
facility on B annulus.
Zone 2.2 to 2.3

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

3. Tubing spool to
Casing Hanger Seal Primary Barrier

3. Tubing spool to
Casing Hanger Seal Primary Barrier

To provide a seal
between the casing
Leakage around seal
hanger and casing spool

To provide a seal
between the casing
Leakage around seal
hanger and casing spool

Seal fails to remain


energised

Seal incorrectly
installed

Over a period of time Secondary barriers


seal is permanently
provided by tie down
deformed
bolt arrangement,
Pressure in B annulus
chemical injection
monitored by plant
point, downhole safety
operators.
valve point, tubing
hanger to casing spool
seal.

Effective seal not made

Gas leakage around


seal

3.3

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.
1.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

3. Tubing spool to
Casing Hanger Seal Primary Barrier

3. Tubing spool to
Casing Hanger Seal Primary Barrier

To provide a seal
between the casing
Leakage around seal
hanger and casing spool

To provide a seal
between the casing
Leakage around seal
hanger and casing spool

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
Wrong seal taken from properties similar to
None
stores
actual specification,
therefore no immediate
effect.

Material specification
of seal incompatible
Gradually increasing
with body causing
leak over time.
differential cell to be
setup.

Seal incorrectly
specified

161

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
1.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
1.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

3. Tubing spool to
Casing Hanger Seal Primary Barrier

To provide a seal
between the casing
Leakage around seal
hanger and casing spool

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

3. Tubing spool to
Casing Hanger Seal Primary Barrier

FAILURE

To provide a seal
between the casing
Leakage around seal
hanger and casing spool

CAUSE

EFFECT

Seal incorrectly
specified

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

None

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
initial teething
1.2
problems have been
ironed out.

Leakage around seal


Gradual determination increasing over time.
of seal, causing
increasing leakage over Casing hanger may
a period of time
drop as a result of seal
determination.

Ageing of seal

CRITICALITY

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
supervisors checks and
balances.
2.2

Pressure test of
complete assembly.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
pressurising the cavity
between tree and tubing
hanger.
Zone 2.2 to 2.3

4. Production Tubing toTo provide a sealed


Tubing Hanger Seal - mechanical joint
Primary Barrier
between components

Failure due to threads


Failure of seal (metal tobeing out with
metal)
manufacturing
tolerances

162

Ineffective seal

Secondary barriers
provided by tie down
bolt arrangement,
chemical injection
point, downhole safety
valve point, tubing
hanger to casing spool
seal.

None.

2.2

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

None.

2.2

None.

2.2

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
pressurising the cavity
between tree and tubing
hanger.
Zone 2.2 to 2.3

4. Production Tubing toTo provide a sealed


Tubing Hanger Seal - mechanical joint
Primary Barrier
between components

Failure of seal (metal to


Galling on seal face
metal)

Ineffective seal

Secondary barriers
provided by tie down
bolt arrangement,
chemical injection
point, downhole safety
valve point, tubing
hanger to casing spool
seal.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
pressurising the cavity
between tree and tubing
hanger.
Zone 2.2 to 2.3

4. Production Tubing to To provide a sealed


Tubing Hanger Seal - mechanical joint
Primary Barrier
between components

Failure of seal (metal toInsufficient make up


metal)
torque

163

Ineffective seal

Secondary barriers
provided by tie down
bolt arrangement,
chemical injection
point, downhole safety
valve point, tubing
hanger to casing spool
seal.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
pressurising the cavity
between tree and tubing
hanger.
Zone 2.2 to 2.3

4. Production Tubing toTo provide a sealed


Tubing Hanger Seal - mechanical joint
Primary Barrier
between components

Failure of seal (metal toExcessive loading on


metal)
seal arrangement

Seal integrity reduced


None.
or failed
Secondary barriers
provided by tie down
bolt arrangement,
chemical injection
point, downhole safety
valve point, tubing
hanger to casing spool
seal.

2.2

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
pressurising the cavity
between tree and tubing
hanger.
Zone 2.2 to 2.3

4. Production Tubing toTo provide a sealed


Tubing Hanger Seal - mechanical joint
Primary Barrier
between components

Failure of threaded
connection

Jumping out or
'unzipping' of the threadJoint opens

164

Secondary barriers
provided by tie down
bolt arrangement,
chemical injection
point, downhole safety
valve point, tubing
hanger to casing spool
seal.

None.

2.2

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
pressurising the cavity
between tree and tubing
hanger.
Zone 2.2 to 2.3

4. Production Tubing toTo provide a sealed


Tubing Hanger Seal - mechanical joint
Primary Barrier
between components

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

To provide containment
5. Upper Well annulus - for hydrocarbon gas to
Casing Spool failure
Primary Barrier
be injected into
production bore

Failure of threaded
connection

Shearing of threads

Manufacturing defect

Joint integrity reduced


None.
or failed
Secondary barriers
provided by tie down
bolt arrangement,
chemical injection
point, downhole safety
valve point, tubing
hanger to casing spool
seal.

Slag
inclusion/laminations,
Stress raisers and crack cold laps and other
initiators
geometric
imperfections in the
forged block.

2.2

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in 1.2
place.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
pressurising the cavity
between tree and tubing
hanger.
Zone 2.2 to 2.3

To provide a sealed
5. Upper Well annulus mechanical joint
Primary Barrier
between components

Failure due to threads


Failure of seal (metal tobeing out with
metal)
manufacturing
tolerances

165

Ineffective seal

Secondary barriers
provided by tie down
bolt arrangement,
chemical injection
point, downhole safety
valve point, tubing
hanger to casing spool
seal.

None.

2.2

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

None.

2.2

None.

2.2

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
pressurising the cavity
between tree and tubing
hanger.
Zone 2.2 to 2.3

To provide a sealed
5. Upper Well annulus mechanical joint
Primary Barrier
between components

Failure of seal (metal to


Galling on seal face
metal)

Ineffective seal

Secondary barriers
provided by tie down
bolt arrangement,
chemical injection
point, downhole safety
valve point, tubing
hanger to casing spool
seal.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
pressurising the cavity
between tree and tubing
hanger.
Zone 2.2 to 2.3

To provide a sealed
5. Upper Well annulus mechanical joint
Primary Barrier
between components

Failure of seal (metal toInsufficient make up


metal)
torque

166

Ineffective seal

Secondary barriers
provided by tie down
bolt arrangement,
chemical injection
point, downhole safety
valve point, tubing
hanger to casing spool
seal.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
pressurising the cavity
between tree and tubing
hanger.
Zone 2.2 to 2.3

To provide a sealed
5. Upper Well annulus mechanical joint
Primary Barrier
between components

Failure of seal (metal toExcessive loading on


metal)
seal arrangement

Seal integrity reduced


None.
or failed
Secondary barriers
provided by tie down
bolt arrangement,
chemical injection
point, downhole safety
valve point, tubing
hanger to casing spool
seal.

2.2

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
pressurising the cavity
between tree and tubing
hanger.
Zone 2.2 to 2.3

To provide a sealed
5. Upper Well annulus mechanical joint
Primary Barrier
between components

Failure of threaded
connection

Jumping out or
'unzipping' of the threadJoint opens

167

Secondary barriers
provided by tie down
bolt arrangement,
chemical injection
point, downhole safety
valve point, tubing
hanger to casing spool
seal.

None.

2.2

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
pressurising the cavity
between tree and tubing
hanger.
Zone 2.2 to 2.3

To provide a sealed
5. Upper Well annulus mechanical joint
Primary Barrier
between components

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

To provide a
6. Tubing hanger body continuous bore
- Primary Barrier
between the tree and Production bore failure Manufacturing defect
the production tubing

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

Loss of integrity of
packing gland body
thread causing trapped
pressure to leak up to
7. Tubing hanger
Provide a seal between upper packing gland.
downhole safety valve
the DHSV control line
Thread cut out of
control line lower
and the tubing hanger Coincident failure of tolerance
packing gland (x2) body
upper packing gland
Primary Barrier
would lead to trapped
pressure leaking into
cavity between tubing
hanger and tree.

Failure of threaded
connection

Shearing of threads

Joint integrity reduced


None.
or failed
Secondary barriers
provided by tie down
bolt arrangement,
chemical injection
point, downhole safety
valve point, tubing
hanger to casing spool
seal.

Slag
inclusion/laminations,
Stress raisers and crack cold laps and other
initiators
geometric
imperfections in the
forged block.

2.2

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in 1.1
place.

Use of go/no go gauges


during manufacture.
No visible symptoms.
Reduced thread to
thread contact surface
(seal maintained by
Degraded mechanical
joint, since joint relies
excessive PTFE for
more on excessive
example)
sealant than intimate
thread contact.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in 3.3
place. Offshore
supervisors checks and
balances.

Use of competent fitters

168

SYSTEM

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Use of go/no go gauges


during manufacture.

Loss of integrity of
packing gland body
thread causing trapped
pressure to leak up to
7. Tubing hanger
Provide a seal between upper packing gland.
downhole safety valve
Thread cut out of
the DHSV control line
control line lower
and the tubing hanger Coincident failure of tolerance
packing gland (x2) body
upper packing gland
Primary Barrier
would lead to trapped
pressure leaking into
cavity between tubing
hanger and tree.

Designers and
Component will only
manufacturers to have
Either male or female mate for a proportion of
ISO quality systems in 3.3
threads are cut oversize the threads (rather than
place. Offshore
full length engagement)
supervisors checks and
balances.

Use of competent fitters

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

Loss of integrity of
packing gland body
thread causing trapped
pressure to leak up to
7. Tubing hanger
Provide a seal between upper packing gland.
downhole safety valve
the DHSV control line
control line lower
Cross threads
and the tubing hanger Coincident failure of
packing gland (x2) body
upper packing gland
Primary Barrier
would lead to trapped
pressure leaking into
cavity between tubing
hanger and tree.

Excessive torque
required to install.

Ineffective seal

Use of competent fitters


and effective
supervision.

Fitting improperly
aligned.

1.3
Suitable pressure
testing.

Leaking joint.

Joint difficult to make


up.

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

Loss of integrity of
packing gland body
thread causing trapped
pressure to leak up to
7. Tubing hanger
Provide a seal between upper packing gland.
downhole safety valve
the DHSV control line
control line lower
Damaged threads
and the tubing hanger Coincident failure of
packing gland (x2) body
upper packing gland
Primary Barrier
would lead to trapped
pressure leaking into
cavity between tubing
hanger and tree.

Excessive torque
required to install.

Use of competent fitters


and effective
supervision.

Improperly mated
threads

1.3
Fitting improperly
aligned.

Leaking joint

169

Suitable pressure
testing.

SYSTEM

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

Loss of integrity of
packing gland body
thread causing trapped
pressure to leak up to
7. Tubing hanger
Provide a seal between upper packing gland.
Leakage of gas into
downhole safety valve
the DHSV control line
control line lower
Incorrect joint make-up cavity between tubing
and the tubing hanger Coincident failure of
packing gland (x2) hanger and tree.
body
upper packing gland
Primary Barrier
would lead to trapped
pressure leaking into
cavity between tubing
hanger and tree.

8. Tubing hanger
downhole chemical
injection line lower
packing gland Primary Barrier

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

None.

1.3

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
pressurising the cavity
between tree and tubing
hanger.
Secondary barriers
provided by tie down
bolt arrangement,
chemical injection
point, downhole safety
valve point, tubing
hanger to casing spool
seal.

Use of go/no go gauges


during manufacture.

Loss of integrity of
packing gland body
thread causing trapped
pressure to leak up to
Provide a seal between upper packing gland.
the Chemical Injection
Thread cut out of
line and the tubing
Coincident failure of tolerance
hanger body
upper packing gland
would lead to trapped
pressure leaking into
cavity between tubing
hanger and tree.

No visible symptoms.
Reduced thread to
thread contact surface
(seal maintained by
Degraded mechanical
joint, since joint relies
excessive PTFE for
more on excessive
example)
sealant than intimate
thread contact.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in 3.3
place. Offshore
supervisors checks and
balances.

Use of competent fitters

170

SYSTEM

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

SUB-SYSTEM

8. Tubing hanger
downhole chemical
injection line lower
packing gland Primary Barrier

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Use of go/no go gauges


during manufacture.

Loss of integrity of
packing gland body
thread causing trapped
pressure to leak up to
Provide a seal between upper packing gland.
Thread cut out of
the Chemical Injection
line and the tubing
Coincident failure of tolerance
hanger body
upper packing gland
would lead to trapped
pressure leaking into
cavity between tubing
hanger and tree.

Designers and
Component will only
manufacturers to have
Either male or female mate for a proportion of
ISO quality systems in 3.3
threads are cut oversize the threads (rather than
place. Offshore
full length engagement)
supervisors checks and
balances.

Use of competent fitters

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

8. Tubing hanger
downhole chemical
injection line lower
packing gland Primary Barrier

Loss of integrity of
packing gland body
thread causing trapped
pressure to leak up to
Provide a seal between upper packing gland.
the Chemical Injection
Cross threads
line and the tubing
Coincident failure of
hanger body
upper packing gland
would lead to trapped
pressure leaking into
cavity between tubing
hanger and tree.

Excessive torque
required to install.

Ineffective seal

Use of competent fitters


and effective
supervision.

Fitting improperly
aligned.

1.3
Suitable pressure
testing.

Leaking joint.

Joint difficult to make


up.

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

8. Tubing hanger
downhole chemical
injection line lower
packing gland Primary Barrier

Loss of integrity of
packing gland body
thread causing trapped
pressure to leak up to
Provide a seal between upper packing gland.
the Chemical Injection
Damaged threads
line and the tubing
Coincident failure of
hanger body
upper packing gland
would lead to trapped
pressure leaking into
cavity between tubing
hanger and tree.

Excessive torque
required to install.

Use of competent fitters


and effective
supervision.

Improperly mated
threads

1.3
Fitting improperly
aligned.

Leaking joint

171

Suitable pressure
testing.

SYSTEM

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

SUB-SYSTEM

8. Tubing hanger
downhole chemical
injection line lower
packing gland Primary Barrier

FUNCTION

FAILURE

EFFECT

Loss of integrity of
packing gland body
thread causing trapped
pressure to leak up to
Provide a seal between upper packing gland.
Leakage of gas into
the Chemical Injection
Incorrect joint make-up cavity between tubing
line and the tubing
Coincident failure of
hanger and tree.
hanger body
upper packing gland
would lead to trapped
pressure leaking into
cavity between tubing
hanger and tree.

9. Tubing spool
Provide a conduit for Rupture of chemical
downhole chemical
chemical injection into injection line - below
injection line - Primary
production bore
tubing hanger
Barrier

10. Tubing spool


downhole safety valve
control line - Primary
Barrier

CAUSE

Provide a conduit for


hydraulic fluid for
control of the down
hole safety valves

Pipework damaged
during installation

Rupture of down hole


Pipework damaged
safety valve control line
during installation
- below tubing hanger

172

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

None.

1.3

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
pressurising the cavity
between tree and tubing
hanger.
Secondary barriers
provided by tie down
bolt arrangement,
chemical injection
point, downhole safety
valve point, tubing
hanger to casing spool
seal.

Pump Labouring
(audible) - increased
Pressurisation of void injection rate
between the tubing
hanger and the dual
bore upper packer with
Significant increase of
chemicals.
dosing rate of
chemicals.

Pressurisation of void
between the tubing
Pump Labouring
hanger and the dual
(audible) - increased
bore upper packer with injection rate
hydraulic fluid

Regular checks of
pump pressure and
injection rates by plant
operators.
1.2
Competent fitters and
appropriate installation
procedures.
Regular checks of
pump pressure and
injection rates by plant
operators.
1.2
Competent fitters and
appropriate installation
procedures.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

Production tubing will


11. Production tubing - provide a conduit for Production tubing
the hydrocarbon fluid
primary barrier
ruptures
to the topsides process
plant.

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

FUNCTION

To provide a sealed
11. Production tubing mechanical joint
primary barrier
between components

To provide a sealed
11. Production tubing mechanical joint
primary barrier
between components

To provide a sealed
11. Production tubing mechanical joint
primary barrier
between components

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Leakage of gas into the


production tubing
Designers and
Stress raisers and crack
manufacturers to have 1.2
Manufacturing defect
No credible effect,
initiators
ISO quality systems in
since gas pressure
place.
should be higher than
hydrocarbon fluids.

Failure due to threads


Failure of seal (metal tobeing out with
metal)
manufacturing
tolerances

Failure of seal (metal to


Galling on seal face
metal)

Failure of seal (metal toInsufficient make up


metal)
torque

173

Ineffective seal

Leakage of gas into the


production tubing
Use of competent fitters
and effective
supervision.
1.2
No credible effect,
since gas pressure
Suitable pressure
should be higher than testing.
hydrocarbon fluids.

Ineffective seal

Leakage of gas into the


production tubing
Use of competent fitters
and effective
supervision.
1.2
No credible effect,
since gas pressure
Suitable pressure
should be higher than testing.
hydrocarbon fluids.

Ineffective seal

Leakage of gas into the


production tubing
Use of competent fitters
and effective
supervision.
1.2
No credible effect,
since gas pressure
Suitable pressure
should be higher than testing.
hydrocarbon fluids.

SYSTEM

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

To provide a sealed
11. Production tubing mechanical joint
primary barrier
between components

To provide a sealed
11. Production tubing mechanical joint
primary barrier
between components

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

Failure of seal (metal toExcessive loading on


metal)
seal arrangement

Failure of threaded
connection

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

To provide a sealed
11. Production tubing mechanical joint
primary barrier
between components

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

To provide a facility to
isolate the A,B or C
12. Annulus Tubing
annulus and with
Bonnet seal leakage
Spool Valves - Primary
instrumentation
(metal to metal joint)
Barrier
monitor annular
pressures

Failure of threaded
connection

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Leakage of gas into the


Use of competent fitters
production tubing
and effective
Seal integrity reduced
supervision.
1.2
No credible effect,
or failed
Suitable pressure
since gas pressure
should be higher than testing.
hydrocarbon fluids.

Jumping out or
Joint opens
'unzipping' of the thread

Leakage of gas into the


production tubing
Use of competent fitters
and effective
supervision.
1.2
No credible effect,
since gas pressure
Suitable pressure
should be higher than testing.
hydrocarbon fluids.

Shearing of threads

Leakage of gas into the


production tubing
Use of competent fitters
and effective
supervision.
Joint integrity reduced
1.2
or failed
No credible effect,
since gas pressure
Suitable pressure
should be higher than testing.
hydrocarbon fluids.

Seal incorrectly
specified

Material specification
of seal incompatible
Gradually leaking over
with body causing
time
differential cell to be
setup.

174

Designers and
manufact urers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

To provide a facility to
isolate the A,B or C
12. Annulus Tubing
annulus and with
Bonnet seal leakage
Spool Valves - Primary instrumentation
(metal to metal joint)
Barrier
monitor annular
pressures

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
Wrong seal taken from properties similar to
None
actual specification,
stores
therefore no immediate
effect.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

To provide a facility to
isolate the A,B or C
12. Annulus Tubing
annulus and with
Bonnet seal leakage
Spool Valves - Primary
instrumentation
(metal to metal joint)
Barrier
monitor annular
pressures

Seal incorrectly
specified

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
initial teething
2.2
problems have been
ironed out.

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

To provide a facility to
isolate the A,B or C
12. Annulus Tubing
annulus and with
Bonnet seal leakage
Spool Valves - Primary
instrumentation
(metal to metal joint)
Barrier
monitor annular
pressures

Seal incorrectly
installed

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

To provide a facility to
isolate the A,B or C
12. Annulus Tubing
Bonnet seal leakage
Spool Valves - Primary annulus and with
(metal to metal joint)
instrumentation
Barrier
monitor annular
pressures

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bolts
unevenly tensioned

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

To provide a facility to
isolate the A,B or C
12. Annulus Tubing
annulus and with
Bonnet seal leakage
Spool Valves - Primary instrumentation
(metal to metal joint)
Barrier
monitor annular
pressures

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

SYMPTOMS

None.

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.
Effective seal not made Gas leak around seal

2.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Sealing arrangement
Joint integrity reduced unevenly energised

Bolts installed
incorrectly - incorrect Joint integrity reduced None.
grade of bolt fitted

175

Employ competent
individuals and
3.3
appropriate supervision
is available.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
3.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

To provide a facility to
isolate the A,B or C
12. Annulus Tubing
Bonnet seal leakage
annulus and with
Spool Valves - Primary
instrumentation
(metal to metal joint)
Barrier
monitor annular
pressures

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

To provide a facility to
isolate the A,B or C
12. Annulus Tubing
annulus and with
Bonnet seal leakage
Spool Valves - Primary
instrumentation
(metal to metal joint)
Barrier
monitor annular
pressures

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

FUNCTION

FAILURE

To provide a facility to
isolate the A,B or C
12. Annulus Tubing
Spool Valves - Primary annulus and with
Stem Seal Leak
instrumentat ion
Barrier
monitor annular
pressures

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bonnet
over tensioned

Joint integrity reduced

Employ competent
Seal distortion leading individuals and
2.3
to progressive leakage. appropriate supervision
is available.

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bonnet
under tensioned

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

Stem Seal Leak

To provide a facility to
isolate the A,B or C
12. Annulus Tubing
annulus and with
Spool Valves - Primary
Stem Seal Leak
instrumentation
Barrier
monitor annular
pressures

CRITICALITY

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
Instantaneous leak from
Joint integrity reduced
is available.
2.3
bonnet
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Loss of full seal

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
Gas leaks from handle
accordance with
assembly
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

Loss of full seal

Perform maintenance
Gas leaks from handle and inspection in
accordance with
assembly
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

Wrong packing fitted Loss of full seal

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
Gas leaks from handle
accordance with
assembly
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

Wear and Tear

To provide a facility to
isolate the A,B or C
12. Annulus Tubing
annulus and with
Spool Valves - Primary
instrumentation
Barrier
monitor annular
pressures

MITIGATION

Packing not set


correctly

176

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

To provide a facility to
isolate the A,B or C
12. Annulus Tubing
Fitter backs off
annulus and with
Spool Valves - Primary
Grease fitting Leakage assembly rather than
instrumentation
Barrier
just the cap
monitor annular
pressures

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

To provide a facility to
isolate the A,B or C
12. Annulus Tubing
annulus and with
Spool Valves - Primary
Grease fitting Leakage
instrumentation
Barrier
monitor annular
pressures

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

13. Upper annulus


tubing spool monitor
and vent assembly Primary Barrier

CRITICALITY

Partial leak

Audible evidence of
gas release

Using competent fitters 3.3

Removal or backing off


of plug during routine
greasing/lubricating
Partial leak
removes inner check
valve

Audible evidence of
gas release

Using competent fitters 3.3

None.

Employ competent
individuals and
1.1
appropriate supervision
is available.

To provide a facility for Cartridge nose seal


pressure monitoring
failure, annulus gas
Cartridge not fully
equipment to be linked leakage past cartridge tightened
to the A annulus
wall

Gas leakage around


cartridge walls

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

13. Upper annulus


tubing spool monitor
and vent assembly Primary Barrier

To provide a facility for


pressure monitoring
Seal incorrectly
Failure of bonnet seal
specified
equipment to be linked
to the A annulus

Material specification
of seal incompatible
Gradually leaking over
with body causing
time
differential cell to be
setup.

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

13. Upper annulus


tubing spool monitor
and vent assembly Primary Barrier

To provide a facility for


Wrong seal taken from
pressure monitoring
Failure of bonnet seal
equipment to be linked
stores
to the A annulus

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
properties similar to
None
actual specification,
therefore no immediate
effect.

177

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

13. Upper annulus


tubing spool monitor
and vent assembly Primary Barrier

To provide a facility for


Seal incorrectly
pressure monitoring
Failure of bonnet seal
equipment to be linked
specified
to the A annulus

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

13. Upper annulus


tubing spool monitor
and vent assembly Primary Barrier

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

None.

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
initial teething
2.2
problems have been
ironed out.
Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.

To provide a facility for


Seal incorrectly
pressure monitoring
Failure of bonnet seal
equipment to be linked
installed
to the A annulus

Effective seal not made Gas leak around seal

2.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

13. Upper annulus


tubing spool monitor
and vent assembly Primary Barrier

To provide a facility for


Bolts installed
pressure monitoring
incorrectly - bolts
Failure
of
bonnet
seal
equipment to be linked
unevenly tensioned
to the A annulus

Sealing arrangement
Joint integrity reduced unevenly energised

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

13. Upper annulus


tubing spool monitor
and vent assembly Primary Barrier

To provide a facility for


Bolts installed
pressure monitoring
Failure of bonnet seal incorrectly - incorrect Joint integrity reduced None.
equipment to be linked
grade of bolt fitted
to the A annulus

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

13. Upper annulus


tubing spool monitor
and vent assembly Primary Barrier

To provide a facility for


Bolts installed
pressure monitoring
incorrectly - bonnet
equipment to be linked Failure of bonnet seal
over tensioned
to the A annulus

178

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision 3.3
is available.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
3.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Employ competent
Seal distortion leading individuals and
Joint integrity reduced to progressive leakage. appropriate supervision 2.3
is available.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

13. Upper annulus


tubing spool monitor
and vent assembly Primary Barrier

To provide a facility for


Bolts installed
pressure monitoring
Failure of bonnet seal incorrectly - bonnet
equipment to be linked
under tensioned
to the A annulus

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

13. Upper annulus


tubing spool monitor
and vent assembly Primary Barrier

To provide a facility for


pressure monitoring
Failure of Ring Gasket Bolts loosen off in
equipment to be linked Seal
service
to the A annulus

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

13. Upper annulus


tubing spool monitor
and vent assembly Primary Barrier

To provide a facility for


Catastrophic failure of
Appropriate support for
pressure monitoring
Failure of Ring Gasket
Excessive vibration on
one or more bolts after
piping as per pipe stress 3.3
Fatigue
failure
of
bolts
equipment to be linked Seal
pipework
a period of time.
analysis.
to the A annulus

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

13. Upper annulus


tubing spool monitor
and vent assembly Primary Barrier

To provide a facility for


Thermal/mechanical Catastrophic failure of
Appropriate piping
pressure monitoring
Failure of Ring Gasket
Displacement from
gradients induce fatigue one or more bolts after
design as per pipe stress 3.3
equipment to be linked Seal
normal relative position
on bolts
a period of time.
analysis.
to the A annulus

13. Upper annulus


tubing spool monitor
and vent assembly Primary Barrier

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
To provide a facility for
pressure monitoring
Failure of Ring Gasket Wrong seal taken from properties similar to
None
actual specification,
equipment to be linked Seal
stores
to the A annulus
therefore no immediate
effect.

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

179

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
Instantaneous leak from
Joint integrity reduced
is available.
2.3
bonnet
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Partial leakage of gas

Gas release

Possible detection by
plant operators and/or 2.3
F&G system

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

13. Upper annulus


tubing spool monitor
and vent assembly Primary Barrier

To provide a facility for


Failure of Ring Gasket Seal incorrectly
pressure monitoring
equipment to be linked Seal
specified
to the A annulus

Material specification
of seal incompatible
Gradually increasing
with body causing
leak over time.
differential cell to be
setup.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

13. Upper annulus


tubing spool monitor
and vent assembly Primary Barrier

To provide a facility for


pressure monitoring
Failure of Ring Gasket Seal incorrectly
equipment to be linked Seal
specified
to the A annulus

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
initial teething
2.2
problems have been
ironed out.

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

13. Upper annulus


tubing spool monitor
and vent assembly Primary Barrier

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

To provide a facility for


pressure monitoring
Failure of Ring Gasket Seal incorrectly
equipment to be linked Seal
installed
to the A annulus

Effective seal not made

SYMPTOMS

None

Gas leakage around


seal

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.
2.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

13. Upper annulus


tubing spool monitor
and vent assembly Primary Barrier

13. Upper annulus


tubing spool monitor
and vent assembly Primary Barrier

To provide a facility for


Bolts installed
pressure monitoring
Failure of Ring Gasket
incorrectly - bolts
equipment to be linked Seal
unevenly tensioned
to the A annulus

Sealing arrangement
Joint integrity reduced unevenly energised

To provide a facility for


Bolts installed
pressure monitoring
Failure of Ring Gasket
incorrectly - incorrect Joint integrity reduced None
equipment to be linked Seal
grade of bolt fitted
to the A annulus

180

Emplo y competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision 3.3
is available.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
3.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

13. Upper annulus


tubing spool monitor
and vent assembly Primary Barrier

To provide a facility for


Bolts installed
Failure of Ring Gasket
pressure monitoring
incorrectly - bonnet
equipment to be linked Seal
over tensioned
to the A annulus

13. Upper annulus


tubing spool monitor
and vent assembly Primary Barrier

To provide a facility for


Bolts installed
Failure of Ring Gasket
pressure monitoring
incorrectly - bonnet
equipment to be linked Seal
under tensioned
to the A annulus

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

13. Upper annulus


tubing spool monitor
and vent assembly Primary Barrier

To provide a facility for


pressure monitoring
equipment to be linked Stem seal leakage
to the A annulus

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

13. Upper annulus


tubing spool monitor
and vent assembly Primary Barrier

To provide a facility for


pressure monitoring
equipment to be linked Stem seal leakage
to the A annulus

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

13. Upper annulus


tubing spool monitor
and vent assembly Primary Barrier

To provide a facility for


pressure monitoring
equipment to be linked Stem seal leakage
to the A annulus

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

To provide a secondary
14. Tubing hanger tie
barrier between the
down bolts and seals casing spool and the tie Leakage around seal
Secondary Barrier
down bolts

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Employ competent
Seal distortion leading individuals and
Joint integrity reduced
2.3
to progressive leakage. appropriate supervision
is available.

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
Instantaneous leak from
Joint integrity reduced
is available.
2.3
bonnet
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Loss of full seal

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
Gas leaks from handle
accordance with
assembly
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

Loss of full seal

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
Gas leaks from handle
accordance with
assembly
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

Wrong packing fitted Loss of full seal

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
Gas leaks from handle
accordance with
assembly
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

Wear and Tear

Packing not set


correctly

Leakage around seal


Gradual determination increasing over time.
of seal, causing
increasing leakage over Casing hanger may
a period of time
drop as a result of seal
determination.

Ageing of seal

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
supervisors checks and
balances.
2.2

Pressure test of
complete assembly.

181

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Use of go/no go gauges


during manufacture.

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

Loss of integrity of
packing gland body
15. Tubing hanger
thread causing trapped
Provide a seal between
pressure to leak into
downhole safety valve
the DHSV control line cavity between tubing Thread cut out of
control line upper
and the tubing hanger
tolerance
packing gland hanger and tree.
body
Secondary Barrier
On coincident failure of
lower packing gland.

No visible symptoms.
Reduced thread to
thread contact surface
Degraded mechanical
(seal maintained by
excessive PTFE for
joint, since joint relies
example)
more on excessive
sealant than intimate
thread contact.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in 3.3
place. Offshore
supervisors checks and
balances.

Use of competent fitters


Use of go/no go gauges
during manufacture.

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

Loss of integrity of
packing gland body
thread causing trapped
15. Tubing hanger
Provide a seal between pressure to leak into
downhole safety valve
the DHSV control line
Thread cut out of
control line upper
cavity between tubing
and the tubing hanger
tolerance
packing gland hanger and tree.
body
Secondary Barrier
On coincident failure of
lower packing gland.

Designers and
Component will only manufacturers to have
Either male or female mate for a proportion of ISO quality systems in
3.3
threads are cut oversize the threads (rather than
place. Offshore
full length engagement)
supervisors checks and
balances.

Use of competent fitters

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

Excessive torque
required to install.

Loss of integrity of
packing gland body
15. Tubing hanger
thread causing trapped
Provide a seal between
downhole safety valve
pressure to leak into
the DHSV control line
control line upper
and the tubing hanger cavity between tubing Cross threads
packing gland hanger and tree.
body
Secondary Barrier
On coincident failure of
lower packing gland.

Ineffective seal

Use of competent fitters


and effective
supervision.

Fitting improperly
aligned.

1.3
Suitable pressure
testing.

Leaking joint.

182

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

Loss of integrity of
packing gland body
15. Tubing hanger
Provide a seal between thread causing trapped
downhole safety valve
pressure to leak into
the DHSV control line
control line upper
cavity between tubing Damaged threads
and the tubing hanger
packing gland hanger and tree.
body
Secondary Barrier
On coincident failure of
lower packing gland.

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS
MITIGATION
Joint difficult to make
up.

Excessive torque
required to install.

CRITICALITY

Use of competent fitters


and effective
supervision.

Improperly mated
threads

1.3
Fitting improperly
aligned.

Suitable pressure
testing.

Leaking joint
Leakage of gas past
threaded connection
consequently
pressurising the cavity
between tree and tubing
hanger.

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

Loss of integrity of
packing gland body
15. Tubin g hanger
Provide a seal between thread causing trapped
Leakage of gas into
downhole safety valve
pressure to leak into
the DHSV control line
control line upper
cavity between tubing Incorrect joint make-up cavity between tubing
None.
and the tubing hanger
Secondary barriers
packing gland hanger and tree.
hanger and tree.
body
provided
by
tie
down
Secondary Barrier
bolt arrangement,
On coincident failure of
chemical injection
lower packing gland.
point, downhole safety
valve point, tubing
hanger to casing spool
seal.

183

1.3

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Use of go/no go gauges


during manufacture.

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

16. Tubing hanger


downhole chemical
injection line upper
packing gland Secondary Barrier

Loss of integrity of
packing gland body
thread causing trapped
Provide a seal between
pressure to leak into
the Chemical Injection cavity between tubing Thread cut out of
line and the tubing
tolerance
hanger and tree.
hanger body

No visible symptoms.
Reduced thread to
thread contact surface
Degraded mechanical
(seal maintained by
excessive PTFE for
joint, since joint relies
example)
more on excessive
sealant than intimate
thread contact.

On coincident failure of
lower packing gland.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in 3.3
place. Offshore
supervisors checks and
balances.

Use of competent fitters


Use of go/no go gauges
during manufacture.

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

16. Tubing hanger


downhole chemical
injection line up per
packing gland Secondary Barrier

Loss of integrity of
packing gland body
thread causing trapped
Provide a seal between pressure to leak into
the Chemical Injection
Thread cut out of
cavity between tubing
line and the tubing
tolerance
hanger and tree.
hanger body

Designers and
Component will only manufacturers to have
Either male or female mate for a proportion of ISO quality systems in
3.3
threads are cut oversize the threads (rather than
place. Offshore
full length engagement)
supervisors checks and
balances.

On coincident failure of
lower packing gland.

Use of competent fitters

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

16. Tubing hanger


downhole chemical
injection line upper
packing gland Secondary Barrier

Excessive torque
required to install.

Loss of integrity of
packing gland body
thread causing trapped
Provide a seal bet ween
pressure to leak into
the Chemical Injection
cavity between tubing Cross threads
line and the tubing
hanger and tree.
hanger body

Ineffective seal

Use of competent fitters


and effective
supervision.

Fitting improperly
aligned.

1.3
Suitable pressure
testing.

On coincident failure of
lower packing gland.
Leaking joint.

184

SYSTEM

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

SUB-SYSTEM

16. Tubing hanger


downhole chemical
injection line upper
packing gland Secondary Barrier

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

Loss of integrity of
packing gland body
Provide a seal between thread causing trapped
pressure to leak into
the Chemical Injection
cavity between tubing Damaged threads
line and the tubing
hanger and tree.
hanger body

SYMPTOMS
MITIGATION
Joint difficult to make
up.

Excessive torque
required to install.

Use of competent fitters


and effective
supervision.

Improperly mated
threads

1.3
Fitting improperly
aligned.

On coincident failure of
lower packing gland.

CRITICALITY

Suitable pressure
testing.

Leaking joint
Leakage of gas past
threaded connection
consequently
pressurising the cavity
between tree and tubing
hanger.

Loss of integrity of
packing gland body
Provide a seal between thread causing trapped
Leakage of gas into
pressure to leak into
the Chemical Injection
cavity between tubing Incorrect joint make-up cavity between tubing
None.
line and the tubing
Secondary barriers
hanger and tree.
hanger and tree.
hanger body
provided by tie down
bolt arrangement,
On coincident failure of
chemical injection
lower packing gland.
point, downhole safety
valve point, tubing
hanger to casing spool
seal.

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

16. Tubing hanger


downhole chemical
injection line upper
packing gland Secondary Barrier

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

17. Tubing spool to tree Provide seal between


outer flange seal the tree and the spool
Secondary Barrier
interface

1.3

Thermal/mechanical Catastrophic failure of


Appropriate piping
Leakage of gas around
Displacement from
gradients induce fatigue one or more bolts after
design as per pipe stress 2.3
seal
normal relative position
on bolts
a period of time.
analysis.

185

SYSTEM

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

17. Tubing spool to tree Provide seal between


outer flange seal the tree and the spool
Secondary Barrier
interface

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
Leakage of gas around Wrong seal taken from properties similar to
None
actual specification,
seal
stores
therefore no immediate
effect.

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

17. Tubing spool to tree Provide seal between


outer flange seal the tree and the spool
Secondary Barrier
interface

Leakage of gas around Seal incorrectly


seal
specified

Material specification
of seal incompatible
Gradually increasing
with body causing
leak over time.
differential cell to be
setup.

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

17. Tubing spool to tree Provide seal between


outer flange seal the tree and the spool
Secondary Barrier
interface

Leakage of gas around Seal incorrectly


seal
specified

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

17. Tubing spool to tree Provide seal between


outer flange seal the tree and the spool
Secondary Barrier
interface

Leakage of gas around Seal incorrectly


seal
installed

Effectiv e seal not made

None

Gas leakage around


seal

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
1.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
1.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
initial teething
1.2
problems have been
ironed out.
Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.
1.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

18. Tubing spool


downhole safety valve
To provide a seal
control packing gland - between the DHSV
Secondary Barrier
control line and the
gland bore
Outlet block assembly Tertiary Barrier

Leakage around seal

Gradual determination
of seal, causing
Leakage around seal
increasing leakage over increasing over time.
a period of time

Ageing of seal

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
supervisors checks and
balances.
2.2

Pressure test of
complete assembly.

186

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

18. Tubing spool


downhole safety valve
To provide a seal
control packing gland between the DHSV
Secondary Barrier
control line and the
gland bore
Outlet block assembly Tertiary Barrier

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

18. Tubing spool


downhole safety valve
control packing gland - To provide a seal
between the DHSV
Secondary Barrier
control line and the
gland bore
Outlet block assembly Tertiary Barrier

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

FUNCTION

18. Tubing spool


downhole safety valve
control packing gland - To provide a seal
between the DHSV
Secondary Barrier
control line and the
Outlet block assembly - gland bore

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

Leakage around seal

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
Wrong seal taken from properties similar to
None
actual specification,
stores
therefore no immediate
effect.

Leakage around seal

Seal incorrectly
specified

Material specification
of seal incompatible
Gradually increasing
with body causing
leak over time.
differential cell to be
setup.

Leakage around seal

Seal incorrectly
specified

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

None

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
1.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
1.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
initial teething
1.2
problems have been
ironed out.

Tertiary Barrier

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

18. Tubing spool


downhole safety valve
control packing gland - To provide a seal
between the DHSV
Secondary Barrier
control line and the
gland bore
Outlet block assembly Tertiary Barrier

Leakage around seal

Seal incorrectly
installed

Effective seal not made

Gas leakage around


seal

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.
1.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

187

SYSTEM

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

18. Tubing spool


downhole safety valve
control packing gland - To provide a seal
Secondary Barrier
between the gland body Leakage around seal
and the tubing spool
Outlet block assembly Tertiary Barrier

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

Gradual determination
Leakage around seal
of seal, causing
increasing leakage over increasing over time.
a period of time

Ageing of seal

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
supervisors checks and
balances.
2.2

Pressure test of
complete assembly .

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

18. Tubing spool


downhole safety valve
control packing gland - To provide a seal
Secondary Barrier
between the gland body Leakage around seal
and the tubing spool
Outlet block assembly Tertiary Barrier

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

18. Tubing spool


downhole safety valve
control packing gland - To provide a seal
Secondary Barrier
between the gland body Leakage around seal
and the tubing spool
Outlet block assembly Tertiary Barrier

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

18. Tubing spool


downhole safety valve
control packing gland - To provide a seal
Secondary Barrier
between the gland body Leakage around seal
and the tubing spool
Outlet block assembly Tertiary Barrier

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
Wrong seal taken from properties similar to
None
stores
actual specification,
therefore no immediate
effect.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
1.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Seal incorrectly
specified

Material specification
of seal incompatible
Gradually increasing
with body causing
leak over time.
differential cell to be
setup.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
1.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Seal incorrectly
specified

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
1.2
initial teething
problems have been
ironed out.

188

None

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

18. Tubing spool


downhole safety valve
control packing gland - To provide a seal
Secondary Barrier
between the gland body Leakage around seal
and the tubing spool
Outlet block assembly Tertiary Barrier

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

19. Tubing spool


downhole chemical
injection line packing
gland - Secondary
Barrier

FUNCTION

To provide a seal
between the chemical
injection line and the
Outer block assembly - gland bore
Tertiary Barrier

FAILURE

Leakage around seal

CAUSE

EFFECT

Seal incorrectly
installed

Effective seal not made

SYMPTOMS

Gas leakage around


seal

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriat e supervision
is available.
1.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Gradual determination
of seal, causing
Leakage around seal
increasing leakage over increasing over time.
a period of time

Ageing of seal

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
supervisors checks and
balances.
2.2

Pressure test of
complete assembly.

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

19. Tubing spool


downhole chemical
injection line packing
gland - Secondary
Barrier

To provide a seal
between the chemical
Leakage around seal
injection line and the
Outer block assembly - gland bore
Tertiary Barrier

19. Tubing spool


downhole chemical
injection line packing
gland - Secondary
Barrier

To provide a seal
between the chemical Leakage around seal
injection line and the
Outer block assembly - gland bore
Tertiary Barrier

Seal incorrectly
installed

Effective seal not made

Gas leakage around


seal

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.
1.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
Wrong seal taken from properties similar to
None
actual specification,
stores
therefore no immediate
effect.

189

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
1.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

SYSTEM

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

SUB-SYSTEM

FAILURE

To provide a seal
between the chemical Leakage around seal
injection line and the
Outer block assembly - gland bore
Tertiary Barrier

19. Tubing spool


downhole chemical
injection line packing
gland - Secondary
Barrier

To provide a seal
between the chemical
Leakage around seal
injection line and the
Outer block assembly - gland bore
Tertiary Barrier

19. Tubing spool


downhole chemical
injection line packing
gland - Secondary
Barrier
Outer block assembly Tertiary Barrier

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

FUNCTION

19. Tubing spool


downhole chemical
injection line packing
gland - Secondary
Barrier

19. Tubing spool


downhole chemical
injection line packing
gland - Secondary
Barrier
Outer block assembly Tertiary Barrier

To provide a seal
between the gland body Leakage around seal
and the tubing spool

CAUSE

EFFECT

Seal incorrectly
specified

Material specification
of seal incompatible
Gradually increasing
with body causing
leak over time.
differential cell to be
setup.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
1.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Seal incorrectly
specified

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
initial teething
1.2
problems have been
ironed out.

Seal incorrectly
installed

Effective seal not made

SYMPTOMS

None

Gas leakage around


seal

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.
1.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

To provide a seal
between the gland body Leakage around seal
and the tubing spool

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
Wrong seal taken from properties similar to
None
stores
actual specification,
therefore no immediate
effect.

190

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
1.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

SYSTEM

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

SUB-SYSTEM
19. Tubing spool
downhole chemical
injection line packing
gland - Secondary
Barrier
Outer block assembly Tertiary Barrier

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

19. Tubing spool


downhole chemical
injection line packing
gland - Secondary
Barrier
Outer block assembly Tertiary Barrier

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

19. Tubing spool


downhole chemical
injection line packing
gland - Secondary
Barrier
Outer block assembly Tertiary Barrier

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

To provide a seal
between the gland body Leakage around seal
and the tubing spool

Seal incorrectly
specified

Material specification
of seal incompatible
Gradually increasing
with body causing
leak over time.
differential cell to be
setup.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
1.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

To provide a seal
between the gland body Leakage around seal
and the tubing spool

Seal incorrectly
specified

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
initial teething
1.2
problems have been
ironed out.

To provide a seal
between the gland body Leakage around seal
and the tubing spool

SYMPTOMS

None

Gradual determination
of seal, causing
Leakage around seal
increasing leakage over increasing over time.
a period of time

Ageing of seal

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
supervisors checks and
balances.
2.2

Pressure test of
complete assembly.
Pump Labouring
(audible)

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

20. Tubing spool


downhole chemical
injection line Secondary Barrier

Rupture of chemical
Provide a conduit for
injection line - between Pipework damaged
chemical injection into
tubing spool and tree during installation
production bore
cavity

Pressurisation of void Significant reduction or


between the tree and cessation of dosing rate
tubing spool with
of chemicals.
chemicals.
Potential leakage from
ring gasket and tie
down bolts.

191

Regular checks of
pump pressure injection
rates by plant operators.
1.2
Competent fitters and
appropriate installation
procedures.

SYSTEM

Zone 2.2 to 2.3

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

21. Tubing spool


Provide a conduit for
downhole safety valve hydraulic fluid for
control line - Secondary control of the down
Barrier
hole safety valves

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

Rupture of down hole


safety valve control line Pipework damaged
- between tubing spool during installation
and tree cavity

SYMPTOMS

Pressurisation of void
Pump Labouring
between the tree and
(audible) - increased
tubing spool with
injection rate
hydraulic fluid

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Regular checks of
pump pressure and
injection rates by plant
operators.
1.2
Competent fitters and
appropriate installation
procedures.

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

To provide containment
1. Upper Well annulus - for hydrocarbon gas to
Casing Spool failure
Primary Barrier
be injected into
production bore

Slag
inclusion/laminations,
Stress raisers and crackcold laps and other
Manufacturing defect initiators
geometric
imperfections in the
forged block.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in 1.2
place.

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
pressurising the cavity
between tree and tubing
hanger.
Zone 2.3 to 2.4

To provide a sealed
1. Upper Well annulus mechanical joint
Primary Barrier
between components

Failure due to threads


Failure of seal (metal being out with
Ineffective seal
to metal)
manufacturing
tolerances

192

Secondary barriers
provided by tie down
bolt arrangement,
chemical injection
point, downhole safety
valve point, tubing
hanger to casing spool
seal.

None.

2.2

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
pressurising the cavity
between tree and tubing
hanger.
Zone 2.3 to 2.4

To provide a sealed
1. Upper Well annulus mechanical joint
Primary Barrier
between components

Failure of seal (metal


Galling on seal face
to metal)

Ineffective seal

Secondary barriers
provided by tie down
bolt arrangement,
chemical injection
point, downhole safety
valve point, tubing
hanger to casing spool
seal.

None.

2.2

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
pressurising the cavity
between tree and tubing
hanger.
Zone 2.3 to 2.4

To provide a sealed
1. Upper Well annulus mechanical joint
Primary Barrier
between components

Failure of seal (metal Insufficient make up


to metal)
torque

193

Ineffective seal

Secondary barriers
provided by tie down
bolt arrangement,
chemical injection
point, downhole safety
valve point, tubing
hanger to casing spool
seal.

None.

2.2

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
pressurising the cavity
between tree and tubing
hanger.
Zone 2.3 to 2.4

To provide a sealed
1. Upper Well annulus mechanical joint
Primary Barrier
between components

Failure of seal (metal Excessive loading on


to metal)
seal arrangement

Seal integrity reduced


None.
or failed
Secondary barriers
provided by tie down
bolt arrangement,
chemical injection
point, downhole safety
valve point, tubing
hanger to casing spool
seal.

2.2

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
pressurising the cavity
between tree and tubing
hanger.
Zone 2.3 to 2.4

To provide a sealed
1. Upper Well annulus mechanical joint
Primary Barrier
between components

Failure of threaded
connection

Jumping out or
'unzipping' of the
thread

Joint opens

194

Secondary barriers
provided by tie down
bolt arrangement,
chemical injection
point, downhole safety
valve point, tubing
hanger to casing spool
seal.

None.

2.2

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
pressurising the cavity
between tree and tubing
hanger.
Zone 2.3 to 2.4

To provide a sealed
1. Upper Well annulus mechanical joint
Primary Barrier
between components

Failure of threaded
connection

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

2. Annulus downhole
To provide addition
safety valve - Primary
barrier in A annulus
Barrier

Failure due to threads


Failure of seal (metal tobeing out with
metal)
manufacturing
tolerances

Ineffective seal

No credible effect, gas


already present in both
Not Applicable
upper and lower A
annulus.

2.2

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

2. Annulus downhole
To provide addition
safety valve - Primary
barrier in A annulus
Barrier

Failure of seal (metal to


Galling on seal face
metal)

Ineffective seal

No credible effect, gas


already present in both
Not Applicable
upper and lower A
annulus.

2.2

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

2. Annulus downhole
To provide addition
safety valve - Primary
barrier in A annulus
Barrier

Failure of seal (metal toInsufficient make up


metal)
torque

Ineffective seal

No credible effect, gas


already present in both
Not Applicable
upper and lower A
annulus.

2.2

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

2. Annulus downhole
To provide addition
safety valve - Primary
barrier in A annulus
Barrier

Failure of seal (metal toExcessive loading on


metal)
seal arrangement

No credible effect, gas


Seal integrity reduced already present in both
Not Applicable
or failed
upper and lower A
annulus.

2.2

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

2. Annulus downhole
To provide addition
safety valve - Primary
barrier in A annulus
Barrier

Failure of threaded
connection

Jumping out or
Joint opens
'unzipping' of the thread

No credible effect, gas


already present in both
Not Applicable
upper and lower A
annulus.

2.2

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

2. Annulus downhole
To provide addition
safety valve - Primary
barrier in A annulus
Barrier

Failure of threaded
connection

Shearing of threads

No credible effect, gas


Joint integrity reduced already present in both
Not Applicable
or failed
upper and lower A
annulus.

2.2

Shearing of threads

195

Joint integrity reduced


None.
or failed
Secondary barriers
provided by tie down
bolt arra ngement,
chemical injection
point, downhole safety
valve point, tubing
hanger to casing spool
seal.

2.2

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Correct specification of
seals.

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

2. Annulus downhole
To provide addition
safety valve - Primary
barrier in A annulus
Barrier

2. Annulus downhole
To provide addition
safety valve - Primary
barrier in A annulus
Barrier

Failure of housing
sealing arrangement

Failure of two radially


Failure of control line
Leakage into the A
successive seals of the
housing
annulus
component interface

Production tubing will


provide a conduit for
3. Production tubing Production tubing
the hydrocarbon fluid ruptures
primary barrier
to the topsides process
plant.

To provide a sealed
3. Production tubing mechanical joint
primary barrier
between components

Failure of two radially


DHSV housing loses
successive seals of the
integrity
component interface

No credible effect, gas


already present in both
1.1
upper and lower A
Manufacturers and
annulus.
designers have suitable
quality assurance
system in accordance
with ISO or equivalent.

Upper A annulus
already pressurised
Correct specification of
seals.
with gas, therefore
pressure of gas
2.1
potentially higher than
hydrocarbon fluid
inhibiting the leak into Periodic testing
the upper A annulus.

Leakage of gas into the


production tubing
Manufacturing defect

Failure due to threads


Failure of seal (metal tobeing out with
metal)
manufacturing
tolerances

196

Designers and
Stress raisers and crack
manufacturers to have
1.2
initiators
No credible effect,
ISO quality systems in
since gas pressure
place.
should be higher than
hydrocarbon fluids.

Ineffective seal

Leakage of gas into the


Use of competent fitters
production tubing
and effective
supervision.
1.2
No credible effect,
Suitable pressure
since gas pressure
should be higher than testing.
hydrocarbon fluids.

SYSTEM

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

To provide a sealed
3. Production tubing mechanical joint
primary barrier
between components

To provide a sealed
3. Production tubing mechanical joint
primary barrier
between components

To provide a sealed
3. Production tubing mechanical joint
primary barrier
between components

To provide a sealed
3. Production tubing mechanical joint
primary barrier
between components

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

Ineffective seal

Leakage of gas into the


Use of competent fitters
production tubing
and effective
supervision.
1.2
No credible effect,
Suitable pressure
since gas pressure
should be higher than testing.
hydrocarbon fluids.

Failure of seal (metal toInsufficient make up


metal)
torque

Ineffective seal

Leakage of gas into the


production tubing
Use of competent fitters
and effective
supervision.
1.2
No credible effect,
since gas pressure
Suitable pressure
should be higher than testing.
hydrocarbon fluids.

Failure of seal (metal toExcessive loading on


metal)
seal arrangement

Leakage of gas into the


production tubing
Use of competent fitters
and effective
supervision.
Seal integrity reduced
1.2
or failed
No credible effect,
since gas pressure
Suitable pressure
should be higher than testing.
hydrocarbon fluids.

Failure of seal (metal to


Galling on seal face
metal)

Failure of threaded
connection

Jumping out or
Joint opens
'unzipping' of the thread

197

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Leakage of gas into the


production tubing
Use of competent fitters
and effective
supervision.
1.2
No credible effect,
since gas pressure
Suitable pressure
should be higher than testing.
hydrocarbon fluids.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

Shearing of threads

Leakage of gas into the


Use of competent fitters
production tubing
and effective
Joint integrity reduced
supervision.
1.2
No credible effect,
or failed
Suitable pressure
since gas pressure
should be higher than testing.
hydrocarbon fluids.

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

To provide a sealed
3. Production tubing mechanical joint
primary barrier
between components

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

Produce corrosion
products which are a
To give additional
source of debris and
4. B Annulus Casing - protection to the
Production casing split Corrosion (where water
can under certain
secondary barrier
formation to the top of or parted
is present)
situations apply a
the pay zone.
pressure to mating
surfaces

Failure of threaded
connection

SYMPTOMS

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

To give additional
4. B Annulus Casing - protection to the
Production casing split Corrosion (where water
Localised corrosion
secondary barrier
is present)
formation to the top of or parted
the pay zone.

To give additional
4. B Annulus Casing - protection to the
Production casing split
Incorrect casing design Casing could part
secondary barrier
formation to the top of or parted
the pay zone.

1.3
This less applicable to
13% Cr Alloys.
Injection of inhibitors
Optimisation of
material design and
selection

If equipment is left for


an extended period of
Good corrosion
time full wall
management strategy
perforation can occur.
and execution.
Gas lift pressure
leakage into the C
annulus, consequently
annular valves on C
annulus become
primary barrier.

C annulus is rated to a
lower pressure than the
B annulus.

198

CRITICALITY

Degradation of
Optimisation of
components over time. material design and
selection

Deep pits and cavities.

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

MITIGATION

Correct casing design

4.3

3.3

SYSTEM

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

Precipitation of
To give additional
Embrittlement during Chromium Carbides
4. B Annulus Casing - protection to the
Production casing split
manufacturing process under incorrect welding
secondary barrier
formation to the top of or parted
(high alloy steels)
and heat treatment
the pay zone.
regimes.

SYMPTOMS
Gas lift pressure
leakage into the C
annulus, consequently
annular valves on C
annulus become
primary barrier.

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Design and
manufacturers quality
assurance in accordance
with ISO and
equivalent.
2.3

Plant operators would


C annulus is rated to a
monitor annulus
lower pressure than the
pressure.
B annulus.

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

To provide a sealed
4. B Annulus Casing mechanical joint
secondary barrier
between components

To provide a sealed
4. B Annulus Casing mechanical joint
secondary barrier
between components

Failure due to threads


Failure of seal (metal tobeing out with
metal)
manufacturing
tolerances

Failure of seal (metal to


Galling on seal face
metal)

Ineffective seal

Gas lift pressure


leakage into the C
Instrument monitor
annulus, consequently
facility on B & C
annular valves on C
annulus.
annulus become
primary barrier.
Pressure in B and C
annulus monitored by
C annulus is rated to a
lower pressure than the plant operators.
B annulus.

Ineffective seal

Gas lift pressure


leakage into the C
Instrument monitor
annulus, consequently
facility on B & C
annular valves on C
annulus.
annulus become
primary barrier.
Pressure in B and C
annulus monitored by
C annulus is rated to a
lower pressure than the plant operators.
B annulus.

199

2.2

2.2

SYSTEM

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

To provide a sealed
4. B Annulus Casing mechanical joint
secondary barrier
between components

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

Failure of seal (metal toInsufficient make up


metal)
torque

Ineffective seal

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

Gas lift pressure


leakage into the C
Instrument monitor
annulus, consequently
facility on B & C
annular valves on C
annulus.
annulus become
primary barrier.

CRITICALITY

2.2

Pressure in B and C
annulus monitored by
C annulus is rated to a
lower pressure than the plant operators.
B annulus.

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

To provide a sealed
4. B Annulus Casing mechanical joint
secondary barrier
between components

Failure of seal (metal toExcessive loading on


metal)
seal arrangement

Gas lift pressure


leakage into the C
Instrument monitor
annulus, consequently
facility on B & C
annular valves on C
annulus.
annulus become
Seal integrity reduced primary barrier.
or failed

2.2

Pressure in B and C
annulus monitored by
C annulus is rated to a
lower pressure than the plant operators.
B annulus.

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

To provide a sealed
4. B Annulus Casing mechanical joint
secondary barrier
between components

Failure of threaded
connection

Jumping out or
Joint opens
'unzipping' of the thread

Gas lift pressure


leakage into the C
Instrument monitor
annulus, consequently
facility on B & C
annular valves on C
annulus.
annulus become
primary barrier.
Pressure in B and C
annulus monitored by
C annulus is rated to a
lower pressure than the plant operators.
B annulus.

200

2.2

SYSTEM

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

To provide a sealed
4. B Annulus Casing mechanical joint
secondary barrier
between components

FAILURE

Failure of threaded
connection

CAUSE

EFFECT

Shearing of threads

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

Gas lift pressure


leakage into the C
Instrument monitor
annulus, consequently
facility on B & C
annular valves on C
annulus.
annulus become
Joint integrity reduced primary barrier.
or failed

CRITICALITY

2.2

Pressure in B and C
annulus monitored by
C annulus is rated to a
lower pressure than the plant operators.
B annulus.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

5. B Annulus Tubing
Spool Valves Secondary Barrier

To provide a facility to
isolate the B annulus
and with
Bonnet seal leakage
instrumentation
(metal to metal joint)
monitor annular
pressures

Seal incorrectly
specified

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

5. B Annulus Tubing
Spool Valves Secondary Barrier

To provide a facility to
isolate the B annulus
and with
Bonnet seal leakage
instrumentation
(metal to metal joint)
monitor annular
pressures

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
Wrong seal taken from properties similar to
None
actual specification,
stores
therefore no immediate
effect.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

5. B Annulus Tubing
Spool Valves Secondary Barrier

To provide a facility to
isolate the B annulus
and with
Bonnet seal leakage
(metal to metal joint)
instrumentation
monitor annular
pressures

Seal incorrectly
specified

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
initial teething
2.2
problems have been
ironed out.

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

Material specification
of seal incompatible
Gradually leaking over
with body causing
time
differential cell to be
setup.

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

201

None.

SYSTEM

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

5. B Annulus Tubing
Spool Valves Secondary Barrier

To provide a facility to
isolate the B annulus
and with
Bonnet seal leakage
instrumentation
(metal to metal joint)
monitor annular
pressures

Seal incorrectly
installed

5. B Annulus Tubing
Spool Valves Secondary Barrier

To provide a facility to
isolate the B annulus
and with
Bonnet seal leakage
instrumentation
(metal to metal joint)
monitor annular
pressures

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bolts
unevenly tensioned

5. B Annulus Tubing
Spool Valves Secondary Barrier

To provide a facility to
isolate the B annulus
and with
Bonnet seal leakage
instrumentation
(metal to metal joint)
monitor annular
pressures

Bolts installed
incorrectly - incorrect Joint integrity reduced None.
grade of bolt fitted

5. B Annulus Tubing
Spool Valves Secondary Barrier

To provide a facility to
isolate the B annulus
Bonnet seal leakage
and with
(metal to metal joint)
instrumentation
monitor annular
pressures

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bonnet
over tensioned

5. B Annulus Tubing
Spool Valves Secondary Barrier

To provide a facility to
isolate the B annulus
and with
Bonnet seal leakage
instrumentation
(metal to metal joint)
monitor annular
pressures

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.
Effective seal not made Gas leak around seal

2.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Bolts installed
incorrectly - bonnet
under tensioned

Sealing arrangement
Joint integrity reduced unevenly energised

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision 3.3
is available.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
3.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Employ competent
Seal distortion leading individuals and
Joint integrity reduced to progressive leakage.
2.3
appropriate supervision
is available.

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
Instantaneous leak from is available.
Joint integrity reduced
2.3
bonnet
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

202

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

5. B Annulus Tubing
Spool Valves Secondary Barrier

To provide a facility to
isolate the B annulus
and with
Stem Seal Leak
instrumentation
monitor annular
pressures

Wear and Tear

5. B Annulus Tubing
Spool Valves Secondary Barrier

To provide a facility to
isolate the B annulus
and with
Stem Seal Leak
instrumentation
monitor annular
pressures

Packing not set


correctly

5. B Annulus Tubing
Spool Valves Secondary Barrier

To provide a facility to
isolate the B annulus
and with
Stem Seal Leak
instrumentation
monitor annular
pressures

5. B Annulus Tubing
Spool Valves Secondary Barrier

To provide a facility to
isolat e the B annulus
Fitter backs off
and with
Grease fitting Leakage assembly rather than
instrumentation
just the cap
monitor annular
pressures

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

5. B Annulus Tubing
Spool Valves Secondary Barrier

To provide a facility to
isolate the B annulus
and with
Grease fitting Leakage
instrumentation
monitor annular
pressures

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for Cartridge nose seal


Cartridge not fully
spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
failure, annulus gas
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked leakage past cartridge tightened
Barrier
to the B annulus
wall

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

Loss of full seal

Perform maintenance
Gas leaks from handle and inspection in
accordance with
assembly
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

Loss of full seal

Perform maintenance
and in spection in
Gas leaks from handle
accordance with
assembly
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

Loss of full seal

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
Gas leaks from handle
accordance with
assembly
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

Partial leak

Audible evidence of
gas release

Using competent fitters 3.3

Removal or backing off


of plug during routine
greasing/lubricating
Partial leak
removes inner check
valve

Audible evidence of
gas release

Using competent fitters 3.3

None.

Employ competent
individuals and
1.1
appropriate supervision
is available.

Wrong packing fitted

203

Gas leakage around


cartridge walls

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


Seal incorrectly
spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
Failure of bonnet seal
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked
specified
Barrier
to the B annulus

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for
spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
Wrong seal taken from properties similar to
Failure of bonnet seal
None
actual specification,
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked
stores
Barrier
to the B annulus
therefore no immediate
effect.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
Seal incorrectly
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked Failure of bonnet seal specified
Barrier
to the B annulus

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
initial teething
2.2
problems have been
ironed out.

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

Material specification
of seal incompatible
Gradually leaking over
with body causing
time
differential cell to be
setup.

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

None.

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
Seal incorrectly
Failure of bonnet seal
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked
installed
Barrier
to the B annulus

Effective seal not made Gas leak around seal

2.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


Bolts installed
spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
Failure of bonnet seal incorrectly - bolts
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked
unevenly tensioned
Barrier
to the B annulus

204

Sealing arrangement
Joint integrity reduced unevenly energised

Employ competent
individuals and
3.3
appropriate supervision
is available.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


Bolts installed
spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
Failure of bonnet seal incorrectly - incorrect Joint integrity reduced None.
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked
grade of bolt fitted
Barrier
to the B annulus

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


Bolts installed
spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
incorrectly - bonnet
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked Failure of bonnet seal
over tensioned
Barrier
to the B annulus

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


Bolts installed
spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
Failure of bonnet seal incorrectly - bonnet
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked
under tensioned
Barrier
to the B annulus

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
3.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Employ competent
Seal distortion leading individuals and
Joint integrity reduced to progressive leakage. appropriate supervision 2.3
is available.

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriat e supervision
Instantaneous leak from is available.
Joint integrity reduced
2.3
bonnet
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
Failure of Ring Gasket Bolts loosen off in
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked Seal
service
Barrier
to the B annulus

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


Catastrophic failure of
Appropriate support for
spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
Failure of Ring Gasket
Excessive vibration on
piping as per pipe stress 3.3
Fatigue failure of bolts one or more bolts after pipework
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked Seal
a period of time.
analysis.
Barrier
to the B annulus

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


Thermal/mechanical Catastrophic failure of
Appropriate piping
spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
Failure of Ring Gasket
Displacement from
gradients induce fatigue one or more bolts after
design as per pipe stress 3.3
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked Seal
normal relative position
on bolts
a period of time.
analysis.
Barrier
to the B annulus

205

Partial leakage of gas

Gas release

Possible detection by
plant operators and/or 2.3
F&G system

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


Failure of Ring Gasket Wrong seal taken from
spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked Seal
stores
Barrier
to the B annulus

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
properties similar to
None
actual specification,
therefore no immediate
effect.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
Failure of Ring Gasket Seal incorrectly
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked Seal
specified
Barrier
to the B annulus

Material specification
of seal incompatible
Gradually increasing
with body causing
leak over time.
differential cell to be
setup.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
2.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
Failure of Ring Gasket Seal incorrectly
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked Seal
specified
Barrier
to the B annulus

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
initial teething
2.2
problems have been
ironed out.

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
Failure of Ring Gasket Seal incorrectly
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked Seal
installed
Barrier
to the B annulus

Effective seal not made

SYMPTOMS

None

Gas leakage around


seal

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.
2.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


Bolts installed
spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
Failure of Ring Gasket
incorrectly - bolts
Seal
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked
unevenly tensioned
Barrier
to the B annulus

206

Sealing arrangement
Joint integrity reduced unevenly energised

Employ competent
individuals and
3.3
appropriate supervision
is available.

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


Bolts installed
Failure of Ring Gasket
spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
incorrectly - incorrect Joint integrity reduced None
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked Seal
grade of bolt fitted
Barrier
to the B annulus

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


Bolts installed
spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
Failure of Ring Gasket
incorrectly - bonnet
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked Seal
over tensioned
Barrier
to the B annulus

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


Bolts installed
spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
Failure of Ring Gasket
incorrectly - bonnet
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked Seal
under tensioned
Barrier
to the B annulus

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

FUNCTION

FAILURE

6. Upper annulus tubing To provide a facility for


spool monitor and vent pressure monitoring
assembly - Secondary equipment to be linked Stem seal leakage
Barrier
to the B annulus

CAUSE

EFFECT

Wear and Tear

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
3.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Employ competent
Seal distortion leading individuals and
Joint integrity reduced to progressive leakage. appropriate supervision 2.3
is available.

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
Instantaneous leak from is available.
Joint integrity reduced
2.3
bonnet
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Loss of full seal

Perform maintenance
and inspection in
Gas leaks from handle
accordance with
assembly
manufacturers
requirements.

2.4

Pressure build up in the


B annulus.
Instrument monitor
facility on B annulus.
Zone 2.3 to 2.4

7. B annulus tubing
To provide a seal
spool to casing hanger between the casing
Leakage around seal
seal - Primary Barrier hanger and casing spool

Seal fails to remain


energised

207

Over a period of time Secondary barriers


seal is permanently
provided by tie down
deformed
bolt arrangement,
Pressure in B annulus
chemical injection
monitored by plant
point, downhole safety
operators.
valve point, tubing
hanger to casing spool
seal.

3.3

SYSTEM

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

7. B annulus tubing
To provide a seal
Leakage around seal
spool to casing hanger between the casing
seal - Primary Barrier hanger and casing spool

CAUSE

EFFECT

Seal incorrectly
installed

Effective seal not made

SYMPTOMS

Gas leakage around


seal

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Employ competent
individuals and
appropriate supervision
is available.
1.1
Pressure tested after
envelope broken.

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

7. B annulus tubing
To provide a seal
spool to casing hanger between the casing
Leakage around seal
seal - Primary Barrier hanger and casing spool

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

7. B annulus tubing
To provide a seal
spool to casing hanger between the casing
Leakage around seal
seal - Primary Barrier hanger and casing spool

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

7. B annulus tubing
To provide a seal
spool to casing hanger between the casing
Leakage around seal
seal - Primary Barrier hanger and casing spool

Zone 2.3 to 2.4

7. B annulus tubing
To provide a seal
spool to casing hanger between the casing
Leakage around seal
seal - Primary Barrier hanger and casing spool

Dimensions, chemical
and mechanical
Wrong seal taken from properties similar to
None
actual specification,
stores
therefore no immediate
effect.

Seal incorrectly
specified

Seal incorrectly
specified

Material specification
of seal incompatible
Gradually increasing
with body causing
leak over time.
differential cell to be
setup.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
1.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Seal incorrectly
specified in design

Tree has been operating


in excess of 6 months,
initial teething
1.2
problems have been
ironed out.

None

Leakage around seal


Gradual determination increasing over time.
of seal, causing
increasing leakage over Casing hanger may
a period of time
drop as a result of seal
determination.

Ageing of seal

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
1.2
supervisors checks and
balances i.e. permit to
work system etc.

Designers and
manufacturers to have
ISO quality systems in
place. Offshore
supervisors checks and
balances.
2.2

Pressure test of
complete assembly.

208

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Zone 2.4 to 2.6

1. Annulus downhole
To provide addition
safety valve - Primary
barrier in A annulus
Barrier

Failure due to threads


Failure of seal (metal being out with
Ineffective seal
to metal)
manufacturing
tolerances

No credible effect, gas


already present in both
Not Applicable
upper and lower A
annulus.

2.2

Zone 2.4 to 2.6

1. Annulus downhole
To provide addition
safety valve - Primary
barrier in A annulus
Barrier

Failure of seal (metal


Galling on seal face
to metal)

Ineffective seal

No credible effect, gas


already present in both
Not Applicable
upper and lower A
annulus.

2.2

Zone 2.4 to 2.6

1. Annulus downhole
To provide addition
safety valve - Primary
barrier in A annulus
Barrier

Failure of seal (metal Insufficient make up


to metal)
torque

Ineffective seal

No credible effect, gas


already present in both Not Applicable
upper and lower A
annulus.

2.2

Zone 2.4 to 2.6

1. Annulus downhole
To provide addition
safety valve - Primary
barrier in A annulus
Barrier

Failure of seal (metal Excessive loading on


to metal)
seal arrangement

No credible effect, gas


Seal integrity reduced already present in both
Not Applicable
or failed
upper and lower A
annulus.

2.2

Zone 2.4 to 2.6

1. Annulus downhole
To provide addition
safety valve - Primary
barrier in A annulus
Barrier

Failure of threaded
connection

Jumping out or
'unzipping' of the
thread

Joint opens

No credible effect, gas


already present in both
Not Applicable
upper and lower A
annulus.

2.2

Zone 2.4 to 2.6

1. Annulus downhole
To provide addition
safety valve - Primary
barrier in A annulus
Barrier

Failure of threaded
connection

Shearing of threads

No credible effect, gas


Joint integrity reduced already present in both
Not Applicable
or failed
upper and lower A
annulus.

2.2

Correct specification of
seals.

Zone 2.4 to 2.6

1. Annulus downhole
To provide addition
safety valve - Primary
barrier in A annulus
Barrier

Failure of housing
sealing arrangement

Failure of two radially


DHSV housing loses
successive seals of the
integrity
component interface

209

No credible effect, gas


already present in both
1.1
upper and lower A
Manufacturers and
annulus.
designers have suitable
quality assurance
system in accordance
with ISO or equivalent.

SYSTEM

Zone 2.4 to 2.6

Zone 2.4 to 2.6

Zone 2.4 to 2.6

Zone 2.4 to 2.6

Zone 2.4 to 2.6

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

1. Annulus downhole
To provide addition
safety valve - Primary
barrier in A annulus
Barrier

2. Annulus bore dual


bore upper packer Primary Barrier

2. Annulus bore dual


bore upper packer Primary Barrier

2. Annulus bore dual


bore upper packer Primary Barrier

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

Failure of two radially


Failure of control line
Leakage into the A
successive seals of the
housing
annulus
component interface

Dual upper bore packer


provides isolation
Failure of the packer
between the upper and sealing element
lower annulus

Incorrectly set

Dual upper bore packer


provides isolation
Failure of the packer
between the upper and sealing element
lower annulus

Determination of the
packer sealing element None.

None.

Dual upper bore packer


Determination of the
provides isolation
Failure of the tubing
annulus upper bore
between the upper and annulus to packer seal
tubing stab seal
lower annulus

To provide a conduit
3. Lower well annulus
for the gas to be
(9 5/8") - Primary
injected into the
Barrier
production string

None.

Produce corrosion
products which are a
source of debris and
Lower annulus casing Corrosion (where water
can under certain
split or parted
is present)
situations apply a
pressure to mating
surfaces

210

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Upper A annulus
Correct specification of
already pressurised
with gas, therefore
seals.
pressure of gas
2.1
potentially higher than
hydrocarbon fluid
inhibiting the leak into Periodic testing
the upper A annulus.

No credible effect, gas


already present in both
upper and lower A
annulus.

No credible effect, gas


already present in both
upper and lower A
annulus.

No credible effect, gas


already present in both
upper and lower A
annulus.

Periodic checks of
upper A annulus
pressure.
2.2
Pressure testing when
packer was originally
installed.
Periodic checks of
upper A annulus
pressure.
2.2
Pressure testing when
packer was originally
installed.
Periodic checks of
upper A annulus
pressure.
2.2
Pressure testing when
packer was originally
installed.

Degradation of
Optimisation of
components over time. material design and
selection
1.3
This less applicable to
13% Cr Alloys.
Injection of inhibitors

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

Zone 2.4 to 2.6

To provide a conduit
3. Lower well annulus
for the gas to be
(9 5 /8") - Primary
injected into the
Barrier
production string

Zone 2.4 to 2.6

FUNCTION

To provide a conduit
3. Lower well annulus
for the gas to be
(9 5/8") - Primary
injected into the
Barrier
production string

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

Lower annulus casing Corrosion (where water


Localised corrosion
split or parted
is present)

Lower annulus casing


Incorrect casing design Casing could part
split or parted

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION
Optimisation of
Deep pits and cavities.
material design and
selection
If equipment is left for
an extended period of
Good corrosion
time full wall
management strategy
perforation can occur.
and execution.
Gas lift pressure
leakage into the B
annulus, consequently
annular valves on B
annulus become
primary barrier.

Correct casing design

CRITICALITY

4.3

3.3

B annulus is rated to a
lower pressure than the
A annulus.

Zone 2.4 to 2.6

To provide a conduit
3. Lower well annulus
for the gas to be
(9 5/8") - Primary
injected into the
Barrier
production string

Gas lift pressure


leakage into the B
annulus, consequently
annular valves on B
annulus become
primary barrier.
Design and
manufacturers quality
assurance in accordance
Precipitation of
with ISO and
Embrittlement during Chromium Carbides
B annulus is rated to a equivalent.
Lower annulus casing
manufacturing process under incorrect welding lower pressure than the
2.3
split or parted
A annulus.
(high alloy steels)
and heat treatment
regimes.
Plant operators would
monitor annulus
Loss of ductility
pressure.
resulting in a greater
sensitivity to cracking
under normal well
conditions (thermal
loading).

211

SYSTEM

Zone 2.4 to 2.6

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

3. Lower well annulus To provide a sealed


(9 5/8") - Primary
mechanical joint
Barrier
between components

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

Failure due to threads


Failure of seal (metal tobeing out with
metal)
manufacturing
tolerances

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
Instrument monitor
consequently
pressurising the upper facility on upper A
A annulus.
annulus.
Ineffective seal

2.2
Additional loading on Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
plant operators.
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper facility on upper A
annulus.
A annulus.
Zone 2.4 to 2.6

3. Lower well annulus To provide a sealed


(9 5/8") - Primary
mechanical joint
Barrier
between components

Failure of seal (metal to


Galling on seal face
metal)

Ineffective seal

2.2
Additional loading on Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
plant operators.
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper facility on upper A
annulus.
A annulus.
Zone 2.4 to 2.6

3. Lower well annulus To provide a sealed


(9 5/8") - Primary
mechanical joint
Barrier
between components

Failure of seal (metal toInsufficient make up


metal)
torque

Ineffective seal

2.2
Additional loading on Pressure in upper A
the dual bore upper
annulus monitored by
packer (hydrostatic
plant operators.
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

212

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
Instrument monitor
consequently
pressurising the upper facility on upper A
A annulus.
annulus.
Zone 2.4 to 2.6

3. Lower well annulus To provide a sealed


(9 5/8") - Primary
mechanical joint
Barrier
between components

Failure of seal (metal toExcessive loading on


metal)
seal arrangement

Seal integrity reduced


or failed

2.2
Additional loading on Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
plant operators.
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper facility on upper A
annulus.
A annulus.
Zone 2.4 to 2.6

3. Lower well annulus To provide a sealed


(9 5/8") - Primary
mechanical joint
Barrier
between components

Failure of threaded
connection

Jumping out or
Joint opens
'unzipping' of the thread

2.2
Additional loading on Pressure in upper A
annulus monitored by
the dual bore upper
packer (hydrostatic
plant operators.
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

Leakage of gas past


threaded connection
consequently
Instrument monitor
pressurising the upper facility on upper A
annulus.
A annulus.
Zone 2.4 to 2.6

3. Lower well annulus To provide a sealed


(9 5/8") - Primary
mechanical joint
Barrier
between components

Failure of threaded
connection

Shearing of threads

Joint integrity reduced


or failed

2.2
Additional loading on Pressure in upper A
the dual bore upper
annulus monitored by
packer (hydrostatic
plant operators.
head, weight of tubing
and gas lift pressure)

213

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

Zone 2.4 to 2.6

4. Side Pocket
Mandrels (SPM) Primary Barrier

To provide a means of
Orifice valve fails to
injecting gas into the
open on demand
bore string

Zone 2.4 to 2.6

Zone 2.4 to 2.6

4. Side Pocket
Mandrels (SPM) Primary Barrier

FAILURE

To provide a means of
Orifice valve fails to
injecting gas into the
open on demand
bore string

CAUSE

EFFECT

Incorrect set pressure

Gas is not injected at


the right level in the
production string

Orifice valve seized closed

Gas is not injected into


the production string

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION
CRITICALITY
Manufacturers and
designers quality
assurance scheme in
accordance with ISO or
Gas lift is not effective, equivalent.
1.2
if well is reliant on gas
lift well may not flow.
Orifice valves checked
before installation in
well.
Manufacturers and
Gas lift is not effective,
designers quality
if well is reliant on gas
assurance scheme in
lift well may not flow.
accordance with ISO or
equivalent.
1.2
Lower A annulus is
pressurised beyond
normal operating
conditions.

5. Chemical Injection Provide a conduit to


Chemical injection line Operational loads
Line primary barrier inject chemicals into
rupture
exceeded
the production tubing

Line could split

Chemical injection line


subject to backpressure
from injection gas
under normal chemical
injection activities.
Chemical injection
pressure will increase.

Orifice valves checked


before installation in
well.

Chemical injection
pipework and fittings
should be designed and
constructed for all
reasonably foreseeable
events.
2.3

Chemical injection
Chemical injection line
pressure should be
pressurised with
monitored by
injection gas when not
competent individuals.
injecting chemicals.

Zone 2.4 to 2.6

Combination of
vibration and tension in
line due to slippage of
supports.

5. Chemical Injection Provide a conduit to


Chemical injection line Operational loads
Line primary barrier inject chemicals into
rupture
exceeded
the production tubing

Fatigue
Pressure cyclic effects
from injecting.

214

Correct supporting
arrangement.

2.3

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Joint leakage at either


dual bore upper packer
or connection to
production tubing.

Zone 2.4 to 2.6

5. Chemical Injection Provide a conduit to


Chemical injection line Operational loads
Line primary barrier inject chemicals into
rupture
exceeded
the production tubing

Incorrect installation

Chemical injection
pipework and fittings
should be designed and
Chemical injection line constructed for all
subject to backpressure reasonably foreseeable
from injection gas
events.
under normal chemical
2.3
inject ion activities.
Chemical injection
pressure will increase. Chemical injection
pressure should be
monitored by
competent individuals.
Chemical injection line
pressurised with
injection gas when not
injecting chemicals.

Due to residual liquids


from previous
operations.

Zone 2.4 to 2.6

5. Chemical Injection Provide a conduit to


Chemical injection line Operational loads
Line primary barrier inject chemicals into
rupture
exceeded
the production tubing

Corrosion of fittings

Chemical injection line


subject to backpressure
from injection gas
under normal chemical
injection activities.
Chemical injection
pressure will increase.

Chemical injection line


pressurised with
injection gas when not
injecting chemicals.

215

Corrosion/materials
engineer to ensure
compatibility of
materials with
environment.

2.3

SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

FUNCTION

FAILURE

CAUSE

EFFECT

SYMPTOMS

MITIGATION

CRITICALITY

Upper chemical
Periodic checks of
injection line seal to
dual bore upper packer upper A annulus
takes lower A annulus pressure.
Gas passing from lower pressure. Coincidental
2.2
annulus to upper
failure of upper
annulus
chemical injection line
seal to dual bore upper Pressure testing when
packer was originally
packer to upper A
annulus pressurise with installed.
gas.

Zone 2.4 to 2.6

Lower seal between


5. Chemical Injection Provide a conduit to
Determination of the
chemical injection line
Line primary barrier inject chemicals into
lower chemical
and dual bore upper
the production tubing
injection line seal
packer

Zone 2.4 to 2.6

Lower seal between


Expansion and
Tubing stab to be
5. Chemical Injection Provide a conduit to
chemical injection line Design working loads Additional tensile loads contraction of annulus designed for all
Line primary barrier inject chemicals into
2.3
are exceeded
imposed on packer
and dual bore upper
tubing in the absence of reasonably foreseeable
the production tubing
packer
a slip joint.
events.

Zone 2.4 to 2.6

Zone 2.4 to 2.6

Upper seal between


5. Chemical Injection Provide a conduit to
Determination of the
chemical injection line
Line primary barrier inject chemicals into
upper chemical
and dual bore upper
the production tubing
injection line seal
packer

Failure of upper
chemical injection line
seal to dual bore upper
packer to upper A
Periodic checks of
annulus pressurise with upper A annulus
gas.
pressure.
Gas passing from lower
annulus to upper
annulus

2.2
Failure of lower
Pressure testing when
chemical injection line packer was originally
seal to dual bore upper installed.
packer to upper A
annulus pressurise with
gas.

Upper seal between


Expansion and
Tubing stab to be
5. Chemical Injection Provide a conduit to
chemical injection line Design working loads Additional tensile loads contraction of annulus designed for all
Line primary barrier inject chemicals into
and dual bore upper
are exceeded
imposed on packer
tubing in the absence of reasonably foreseeable 2.3
the production tubing
packer
a slip joint.
events.

216

APPENDIX G
DUAL COMPLETION MODEL DRAWINGS

217

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APPENDIX H
SINGLE COMPLETION MODEL DRAWINGS

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Printed and published by the Health and Safety Executive


C0.35
01/02

ISBN 0-7176-2244-4

OTO 2001/061

35.00

9 780717 622443