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Aare /s/amic Coins


BY

GEORGE C. MILES

THE AMERICAN NUMISMATIC SOCIETY

BROADwAY

AT 156TH STREET

NEW YORK

1950

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coPYRIGHT, 1950, BY THE AMERICAN NUMISMATIC sociETY

COMPOSITION

PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

BY PRINCETON

PRESSWORK

UNIVERSITY PRESS.

BY MERIDEN GRAVURE

CO.

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NUMISMATIC NOTES AND MONOGRAPHS


Number
118

NUMISMATIC NOTES AND MONOGRAPHS


is devoted to essays and treatises on subjects

relat

ing to coins, paper money, medals and decorations.

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PUBLICATION COMMITTEE
HERBERT

E. IvEs, Chairman

ALFRED R. BELLINGER
AGNES BALDw1N BRETT

THOMAs O. MABBOTT
SAwYER.

McA.

MossER,

Editor

FOREWORD

\HIS

P-

is the first of

a projected

of contributions in

series

which it is proposed to describe inedited and rare Islamic


coins for the most part in the Museum of the American Nu
mismatic Society. To these have been added notable rarities in other
public and private collections to which I have had access. Among
the latter is the fine unpublished collection formed in Egypt by

Yacoub Artin Bey in the late nineteenth century, acquired by


Robert C. H. Brock in 1902 and presented by him to the University

of

Pennsylvania Museum, whose authorities have generously placed


the collection on temporary loan with the American Numismatic
the Islamic coins

for example, the

certainly desirable,
the American Numismatic Society,
met, such
catalogue
the prohibitive expense could
is

be

Museum

in,

complete catalogue of

if of

all

Society for purposes of publication.

of

to

of

of

be

is

on

as

of

as

in

in

this and other collections systematically, beginning


nearly chrono
with the earliest Muslim issues and proceeding
logical order
possible down through the successive dynasties
the rare coins

to

of

to

be

Islam, need scarcely


argued. Each rare coin has something
add,
sometimes trivial, sometimes quite significant,
our knowledge

Islamic numismatics, history and geography. The orderly presenta


of

to of

of a

of

of

of

tion
this material should facilitate the eventual compilation
complete corpus
the coinages
each
the numerous Islamic
gigantic undertaking, needless
dynasties,
say, and one which,

of

an

in

III

in

this collection have been published


Society Museum Notes,
(1948), Some Early Arab

in

The American Numismatic


pp. 93-114.

The Umayyad and early Abbsid dinars

article
Dinars,"

in

spite

of

in

the already great mass


edited coins, must still await
many large and important
the detailed description
the rarities
collections.
*

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of

but even
very large amount
would involve the needless duplication
already well known; both the cost
material that
the publisher
scarcely commen
and the effort
the part
the editor would
publishing
surate with the benefits gained. But the advantages

have been liberal: that

have

in

CO I NS
is,

In determining rarity I

IS LA M I

RARE

or

numismatic literature. Thus, while

no

by

siderable number

of

have checked each specimen against the descriptions

in

the vast and often obscure

in

and (for me) the disproportionately unrewarding labor involved


discovering whether
given issue has
has not been published

I in

to

of

in

cluded some pieces which have been published before and some
which may have been edited, because
have borne
mind the
many out-of-the-way publications,
inaccessibility
most readers

very

con

books, catalogues and articles, each search has

means been exhaustive.

tradition.

II.

the Sassanian

The

of

Post-Reform Umayyad Coinage, beginning with the earliest dinars


and dirhams
the purely Arab type, after the reform
Abd
of

the decline

the Abbsid Caliphate

vi

and with the later Islamic empires, kingdoms and principalities


both the East and the West.

in

evolved during the course

of

to

to

of

in

al-Malik, and continuing down


the end
the dynasty
132
A.H. (750 A.D.). III. The Abbsid Coinage, from 132 A.H.
656 A.H.
Subsequent
dynasties
(1258 A.D.).
volumes will deal with the
which
of

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Bukhr and Tabaristn are

in

the Umayyad and Abbsid periods, for the early Muslim coins

of

I.

of

in

The present volume deals with rarities


the three earliest di
visions
Islamic numismatics:
The Pre-Reform Coinage, includ
ing the Sassanian and Byzantine imitations. This section straddles

CONTENTS
PAGE

FOREwoRD

ix

ABBREVIATIONS

I. THE

PRE-REFORM

CoINAGE

A. Arab-Sassanian
Anonymous
Governors
Barbarous Imitations

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Abbsid Coins of Bukhr

Arab-Ephthalite

IO

Khwrizm

IO

Abbsid Governors of Tabaristn

I2

Earliest African and Spanish Issues

15

Gold

15

Copper

C. Byzantine-Arab

II. THE

PosT-REFORM

I6
UMAYYAD CoINAGE

A. Gold

I9

B.

22

Silver

C. Copper

III.

27

THE ABBASID CoINAGE

A. Gold
B.

C. Copper

INDICES

35

Silver
107

With Names of Mints

107

Mint Names Lacking or Effaced

I24
127

ABBREVIATIONS
AGW=George C. Miles, Early Arabic
The American

ANS=The

Society,

Numismatic

Monographs, no.

111,

Glass Weights and Stamps,

New York,

Numismatic

and

1948.

Museum of the American Numismatic

York.

Notes
Society,

New

Berlin=Heinrich Ntzel, Katalog der Orientalischen Mnzen, I:


Die Mnzen der stlichen Chalifen (Knigliche Museen zu
Berlin), Berlin, 1898.

I)

John Walker, A Catalogue of the Arab-Sas


sanian Coins (British Museum), London, 1941.
(in Sections II and III) Stanley Lane-Poole, Catalogue of Oriental
Coins in the British Museum, London, 1875-1890.

BM=(in

Section

Casanova,

Casanova=P.

Inventaire sommaire de la Collection des

Qatalght, Qustantiniyyah,

Dorn, Nova Supplementa=B.


numorum

Muhammedanorum,

Islm.
author's collection.

Ibn-al-Athir=Al-Kmil

al-Ta'rikh, ed.

J.

GCM=the

editoris aucta,

Acad. Imp. Scient.


Petersbourg, 1855.

of

I=Encyclopaedia

fi

of

E.

Petropolit. Additamentis

C.

censionem

1312.

Dorn, Nova Supplementa ad Re


St.

Qadimeh-i-Islmiyyeh

Tornberg, Leyden,

1867-1874.

of

JNSI=Journal
JRAS=Journal

of of &

de

de

Ibn-Khaldn=Kitb al-'Ibar, ed. Blq, 1284 A.H.


Ibn-Khallikn=Wafayt al-A'yn, ed.
Slane, Paris, 1838; transl.,
London, 1843-1871.
Slane, Paris
the Numismatic Society
India.
the Royal Asiatic Society.

[ix

at

in

of

Khedivial Library=Stanley Lane-Poole, Catalogue


the Collection
Cairo,
Arabic Coins preserved
the Khedivial Library
London, 1897.
of

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Monnaies Musulmanes de S.A. la Princesse Ismail, Paris, 1896.


Constantinople=Ism'il
Ghlib, Mze-yi-Humyn,
Meskkt-i

RARE

IS LA M I C

CO I

NS

Le Strange, Lands=G. Le Strange, The Lands of the Eastern Cal


iphate, Cambridge, 1930.

Le Strange, Palestine=Guy Le Strange, Palestine under the Mos


lems, London,
Petersbourg,

Muruj=Kitb Murj al-Dhahab,

ed.

Mey

de

Mas'udi,

Monet,

1896.

C.

St.

Markov=A.

1890.

Markov, Inventarnii Katalog Musulmanskikh


Barbier

de

Pavet

Chronicle, London.

NHR=George

Miles, The Numismatic History

C.

NC=Numismatic

York, The American Numismatic


Studies No. 2).

Society,

of

of

&

Courteille, Les Prairies d'Or, Paris 1861-1877.


MMA=Metropolitan Museum
Fine Arts, New York.
nard

Rayy, New

(Numismatic

1938.

de

Lavoix, Catalogue des Monnaies Musulmanes


Paris, 1887.

Bibliothque Nationale,

du

et

Copenhague,

I,

Paris=Henri

Muse National

Turques

la

Cabinet Royal des Mdailles


Copenhagen, 1938.

de

du

NZ=Numismatische Zeitschrift, Wien.


strup=J. strup, Catalogue des Monnaies Arabes

Academiae Imp. Scient. Petropolitanae,


RN=Revue Numismatique, Paris.

St.

RA=Revue Archologique.
Recensio=C. M. Fraehn, Recensio Numorum Muhammedamorum
Petersbourg,

de

ed.

Geoje

1879-1901.

St.

al., Leyden,

1826.

la

de

Numismatique Belge.
RNB =Revue
TabariAl-Tabari, Tar'ikh al-Rusul wa-al-Mulk,
et

Peters

Tornberg, Numi Cufici Regii Numophylacii


miensis, Upsalla, 1848.

Hol

Ties.>W. Tiesenhausen, Moneti

Khalifata,

1873.

ad

numa
Museo regio Holmiensi (Nova Acta
ser.

riam Muhammedanorum
Reg. Soc. Scient. Upsaliensis,

Tornberg, Symbolae

III,

IV=C.

Tornberg, Symbolae

J.

Tornberg=C.

ex

bourg,

vostochnavo

J.

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NNA=Nordisk Numismatisk Arsskrift.

vol.

IV),

rem

Uppsala,

1862.

R A RE

UM=Collection
sylvania,

CO I NS

of the University Museum, University of Penn

Philadelphia;

Yqt=Mu'jam
Zambaur,

IS LA M I

formerly Yacoub Artin Bey Collection.


al-Buldn, ed. F. Wstenfeld, Leipzig, 1866-1870.

ManuelE.

de Zambaur,

Manuel de Gnalogie

et de

Chronologie pour lHistoire de l'Islam, Hannover, 1927.


ZDMG=Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlndischen Gesellschaft.

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Z. fr N.EZeitschrift fr Numismatik,

[ xi

Berlin.

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I. THE PRE-REFORM

COINAGE

A. ARAB-SAssANIAN

Of approximately

150 Arab-Sassanian

coins

in the collection of

the American Numismatic Society, fifty-seven have been published

in John Walker's admirable Catalogue of the Arab-Sassanian Coins


(British Museum, London, 1941). Except in one or two instances
where

have felt that some minor emendation

is necessary

have

omitted reference to these published specimens in the following


pages. They may be easily found in Walker's catalogue, designated
vast majority of

ETN or ANS. The

Mr. Newell's collection


incorporated
has been
with that of the Museum to which he devoted
many
years
so
of his life. In the present publication I have included

ANS and other collections unknown to Walker.


part
they
For the most
are minor varieties of published pieces, but
a few are unique or quite unusual. With some exceptions I make
no mention of specimens identical with those appearing in the

BM

catalogue.
ANONYMOUS, WITH THE NAME OF KHUSRAU

Year

1.

30.

II

Drbjird.

clipped specimen similar to BM No. 15 (p. 10), except that the


obverse marginal legend, although obscure due to wear, appears not

Walker reads the mint signature a 3 as DR.' I


would suggest the more apparent reading DP, a quite logical ab
breviation, especially in view of the existing variant DAP."
ANs (ex

Newell Coll.). 27mm., 2.72grm.


PLATE

AR.

to be defective.

In

as

of

to

in

is
a

to all

In

be

all

to

to to

by

and Arab-Ssnian

Coins,

in

on Ssnian
}

(Mint-marks

Paruck

J.

pp. cili and cxvi.

D.

BM,

in

many other virtues, his exhaustive handling


previously published Arab-Sas
sanian coins spares the student the laborious searching,
which
have referred
the
foreword, usually incident
publishing rare and inedited coins.
consequence
have
and large been content
refer only
this work;
other pertinent references can
found there.
of

Among

as

so

as

is

or

of

of

in

to

to

Referred
this section
the present volume simply
BM.
the sections dealing
with the post-reform Umayyad coinage and the Abbsid coinage, the abbreviation BM refers
the pertinent volume
Lane-Poole's Catalogue
Oriental Coins
the British Museum.
definitive,
delight
nearly
Walker's catalogue
one can wish, and
use.

* *
F.

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specimens from the

JNSI, VI,

R A RE
2.

IS LA M I

CO I NS

Year 30. Nihwand.

RB 2 (p. 10), with the following exceptions:


-AJH (BM signature No. 43a), and the star

Similar to BM No.
the mint signature is

and crescent on the rev. are reversed, i.e., star

l. and crescent r. of

GCM

(Teheran, 1935). 30mm., 3.69grm.

3.

PLATE

Year

AR.

flame.

Drbjird.

41.

is

it

(#.
(ex Newell Coll.). 29mm., 3.3ogrm.

ANs

Year 45. Sistan.


(p. 18).
reading

of I

BM No. Th.

Identical with

reproduce this specimen

in

the

R.

is

it

confirms Walker's
the date, which
faint, but almost certainly 45.
Thorburn Collection
because

1946). 32mm., 4.08grm.


PLATE

no

5.

GCM (Bombay,

Year 43(2). Sistn.

GCM

(Bombay, 1946). 32mm.,

4.01 grm.

above, except

in

No.

the

following particulars: breast

p.

Similar

Year 44(?). Sistn.


to

6.

PLATE

AR.

to

is

in

in

to

Similar
the above except
the following particulars:
breast
&\e-;
ornament; legend
first quarter
date --rel-e-. The date
puzzle. With great hesitation
suggest JHLSIH.
me

in

is

as

de

of

by

in

of

to

of

of

be

105) read DP and made the vague suggestion


that the mint might
located
Drbgard.
assigning BM mint
agree with Walker
the vicinity
the district
Drbjird, and
general with his consolidation
marks Nos. 17-22
variants. The
Morgan
separate mints hypothecated
number
such writers
Paruck and
fantastic.
1944,

in

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4.

PLATE

AR.

*.*.: J) (-

l.

is

I.

(p. 17), probably identical, but


not illus
margin
present
specimen
trated and the obv.
not described. The
shoulder,
has: crescent over
breast-ornament ..., and margin,

Cf. BM No.

A R A B-SAS SANIAN

; date

JHLJR

GCM

(Bombay, 1946). 32mm., 3.91grm.

be

to

of

the margin

these

MZD, Pahlevi mizd, Lohn=Persian

the year

No.

the final letter

and the Thorburn specimen

of is

more clearly written than

and

valid currency. On Nos.


4

sense

on

the

me
mizd, muzd, reward, premium, salary, wages, hire, probably

of

-,

in

the first quarter

to in

The legend N*-

of

PLATE

coins" appears

with much reserve.


AR.

submit

-ca)-2-. This date also is very curious and

ornament

45.

no

25

7.

Year 48. Bishapr.


of

in

to

(p. 19), but


countermark, obverse mar
Similar
BM No.
gin correctly written, and slight variation
the epigraphy
the

to

(similar

BM counter

obverse over beginning

the epigraphy
AR.

variations

in

Three specimens similar

(p. 21), but with minor

the date and mint.

(ex Newell Coll.). 33,

31, 30mm. 3.89, 3.26, 3.38grm.

following particulars: ear

s.v.

II

p.

is

this legend
on the Thorburn specimen.
(Uppsala, 1928),
(Uppsala, 1931),
53,

152; Steingass,

In

S.

*
6

the BM catalogue the only occurrence


Nyberg, Hilfsbuch des Pehlevi,

Cf. H.

the

of

except

the above

Similar

in

Year 50(?). Bishpiir.


to

10.

ANs

BM No.

33

Bishpiir.

of to

9.

50.

(ex Newell Coll.). 33mm., 3.93grm.

ANs

PLATE

Year

of

quarter

***6

&#
of

second

AR.

11

mark No.
Arabic legend.

in

above, but countermark

?)

to

Similar

.
.

Bishpiir.

48.

8.

Year

AR.

(ex Newell Coll.), 32mm., 3.47grm.

ANs

PLATE

p.

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date.

IS LA M I C CO I NS

RA R E

Ji

ornament
obverse margin 9 g. 6:
r" (# (pellet, if any,
under star and crescent at bottom, clipped); date somewhat obscure.
(Teheran, 1935). 28mm., 2.75grm.

GCM

PLATE

AR.

&,

Governors

Drbjird. Year 53=65

A.H. =684/5 A.D.

of

reverse

d".

in

of

fourth quarter

(Teheran, 1935). 31mm., 3.81grm.

GCM

applies

as

well

in

the Pahlevi legend

the

of

be

to

to

me
(with the letter following)
the description
BM No. 48. The same ob

BM No.

(p. 103).

206

ANs (ex Newell

Coll.).

31mm., 4.02grm.
PLATE

13.

52

Ziyd
Bishpr. Year

b.

II

AR.

servation

in

transcribed

to

not

as

as

that
obverse margin appears

the present specimen

of

(p. 35). On
BM No.
the BM the third letter

in to

on

Similar

A.H. =686/7 A.D.


48

Kirmn. Year

12.

abi-Sufyan

A.H. =672 A.D.

ANs

(ex Newell Coll.). 33mm., 3.74grm.

is

clearly

on

[4

(ex Newell Coll.). 28mm., 2.76grm.


PLATE

II

ANs

AR.

no

and there

A.H. =664/5 A.D.

(p. 47), but the breast-ornament


additional pellet
the neck.

BM No.
is

Similar

mir

68

Bishapr. Year
to

14.

44

Abdullh

b.

PLATE

II

AR,

in

of

no

to

(p. 38), but with


Similar
BM No. ANS
minor difference
the epigraphy
the date, and
countermark.

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67

PLATE

II

AR.

in

(p. 33), except: breast-orna


crown; minor difference

date; and

r.

epigraphy

and
nothing
7

*; star

l,

to

BM Nos. ANS

Similar
ment clearly

of

11.

Zubayr

b.

Abdullah

A R A B-SAS

AN IAN

Ubaydullah b. Ziyd
15.

A.H. =677/8 A.D.

Basrah. Year 58

ANs (ex Newell

Coll.).

if

the

28mm., 3.36grm.
PLATE

II

AR.

Similar to BM No. 80 (p. 58) (not illustrated), that is


epigraphy of the date is the same.

83

BM No.

(p. 58), but date written


AR.

Similar

AH-679/80 A.D.

Year 60

Basrah.

to

16.

kJ/0/.

(ex Newell Coll.). 32mm., 4.28grm.

ANs

of

to

of

to

62

of

61

of

Walker (BM, pp. 184-185) has made brief mention


two speci
Basrah, year
Basrah,
mens
(similar
BM No. 85), and one
year
(similar
BM No. 87), two
them from the Newell Col

Similar

b.

99

7B

9B.

Ziyd

A.H. =682/3 A.D.

BM Nos.

124ff. (p. 78), except that there

no

Marv. Year
to

17.

63

Salm

to

in 60

NHR No.

to

of

was listed

(ex Newell Coll.), similar

is

104,

Rayy, year

in

BM No.

specimen

62

of

is

Coll.).

crescent

ANs (ex

Brand Coll.). 33mm., 3.43grm.

A.H. =686/7 A.D.


of

as

interpretation
the mint signature usually read
the epigraphical difficulty inherent
this reading.
Paruck's counter-arguments (op. cit., pp. 99-10o), although
the Parsik

form

of

in

to

with regard

to

cannot agree with the bulk


dispute his statement
am not equipped
Balkh.

accept Walker's
am inclined
BM, pp. cxii-cxiii),
spite

(see

Khzim

of

Year

of in

BBA

Balkh.

to

18.

67

Abdullah

b.

PLATE

II

AR.

of

l.

is

#5, in
shoulder, and there
only one countermark
over the
the first quarter
the obverse. Date poorly preserved and badly
written.

I I

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he

lection, the other from the Wood Collection. Similarly


has men
(p.
Rayy,
year
except
tioned
186) one
(similar
BM No.
.".), published
my NHR, No.
that the earring
(ex Newell

the name

R A RE

BM No.

158

fou

over 64 of obverse margin.

A.."

91), but countermark


only,
obverse margin, between the Arabic legend
172

of

second quarter

the flan.
AR.

and the edge

A.H. =685/6 A.D.

BM No.
of

in

Similar

(ex Newell Coll.). 33mm., 3.97grm.

ANs

(p.

Marv. Year
to

19.

66

AR.

and countermark

(p. 88), but no crescent over the l. shoulder,

ANs

(ex Newell Coll.). 34mm., 4.06grm.

it

has the

BM No.

(p. 93).

182

only because
almost the same position, just

same countermark

mention

it

Identical with

A.H. =688/9 A.D.

Marv. Year

in

20.

69

PLATE

II

Similar to

IS LA M I C CO I NS

AR.

Marv. Year

69

21.

ANs

(ex Newell Coll.). 34mm., 4.02grm.

A.H. =688/9 A.D.

foL

(pp. 92-3), but countermark

175ff.

A.H. =689/90 A.D.

foL

dif

first quarter.

(twice

over 64, and

first quarter.

in

to

(b)
(c)

(p. 94), but with

in

I'

185

l.

to

Three specimens, similar


BM No.
ferent countermarks,
wit: (a)

P)

Marv. Year

Newell Coll.). 33mm., 3.68grm.

ANs (ex

in

22.

70

AR.

in

to

Similar
BM Nos.
only,
third quarter.

third

the date.

One

p.

Walker,

of

191.

Newell Coll.). 34, 34, 34mm., 4.06, 4.02, 3.96grm.

ANs (ex

AR.

the specimens received mention

the epigraphy

by

There are minor differences

in

quarter.

of

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above (#.

ARA

B-SAS S AN IAN

Umar b. 'Ubaydullh
23.

Ardashir-Khurrah. Year 70 A.H. =689/90 A.D.

3:

of

r.

no

of

r.

l.

no

..)

pellet over 1, shoulder; obv, margin **)


...-J1
(*countermark; pellet
pellet
and
mint signature;

Similar to BM No. Cam. 9 (p. 99), except in these particulars:

(ex Newell Coll.). 28mm., 2.93grm.

ANs

24.

67

PLATE

Bishapr. Year

II

AR.

date.

A.H. =686/7 A.D.


(p. 99), except

in

194

the

to

Similar

L'o

195

and

p.

(p. 99), but ear-crescent doubtful, and


fourth quarter.

<k"

AR.

countermarks

BM No.

A.H. =687/8 A.D.

(ex Newell Coll.). 33mm., 4.04grm.

ANs

Bishapr. Year
to

Similar

BM No.

A.H. =688/9 A.D.

197

in

is

it

illustrated here because


shows the
margin,
specimen.
the reverse
cut off
the BM
ANs (ex Newell

Coll.).

32mm., 4.02grm.
PLATE

to

is

Three specimens,
which one
similar
(p. 110). The other two: (a) breast-ornament

BM No. Th.

14

A.H. =698/9 A.D.


;

Year

abi-Bakrah

Sistn.

of

27.

79

Ubaydullh

b.

II

AR.

pellet

on

Walker (p. 193), but

(p. 100). This specimen received mention

it

26.

69

PLATE

II

Bishpiir. Year

(ex Newell Coll.). 25mm., 2.57grm.

ANs

in

68

25.

by

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AR.

by

to

in

""

BM No.

to

following particulars:
clipping;
points
obverse margin uncertain due
Walker,
no countermarks. Mentioned but not described
193.
Similar
earring

date obscure;

RA R E

IS LA M I

INS

CO

nothing l. and r. of flame; (b) breast-ornament

r";

(?); pellet under

AR,

pellet and obscure stroke l, and r. of flame.


GCM

(Bombay, 1946). 33, 32mm., 4.07, 3.98grm.


PLATE

72

A.H. =691/2 A.D.


as

in

mentioned
Walker (p. 196). Although the
legible, and
the specimen differs
some

is

obscure

it

is

date

is

This specimen

27b)

by

Kirmn. Year

28.

(No.

al-Aswad

b.

Atiyah

II

Ji

beginning of

the end.
PLATE

II

as

publish

it

(p. 111).

74

BM No. Th.

here,

Thor

the

has not been illustrated.


AR.

burn specimen

(ex Newell Coll.). 31mm., 3.91grm.

ANs

A.H. =693/4 A.D.


15

(Teheran, 1935). 28mm., 2.92grm.

GCM

PLATE

the

BM No.

b.

A.H. =694/5 A.D.

222 (p. 114). There

pellet after the date

BM specimen, although not described).


AR,

(also

on

Similar

abi-Sufrah

is
a

Bishapr. Year
to

30.

75

Al-Muhallab

ANS. 32mm., 3.56grm.

A.H. =695/6 A.D.


230 (p. 118), but

remarkable interest and


ANs

reproduce

it

here
relatively good preservation.

BM No.

AR.

its

Identical with

III

Ysuf

its

31. Bishapr. Year

76

Al-Hajjj

b.

PLATE

view

III

in

Similar

to

Kirmn. Year

of

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29.

in

it

here:

AR.

letters

at

obliterated,

describe

no

Pahlevi inscription after


obverse margin; and the mint signature contains additional, but
particulars

(ex Starosselsky Coll.,), 32mm., 3.82grm.


PLATE

[8]

III

B UK

HARA

Barbarous Imitations
32.

Zaranj

(?). Date uncertain.

similar to BM No. 245 (p. 126). In both cases


only part of the marginal Arabic legend is preserved, and the name
of the mint is completely effaced. The epigraphy of the name in
Pahlevi at the r. of the bust differs somewhat from the BM speci

Two

specimens

men, but
specimen

HUSRUI

is undoubtedly

illustrated

the correct reading.

can make nothing

of the mint signature (if

any); on the other specimen it is defaced by


The dates (?) are:
and 22.
AR.

-'

ANs (ex Newell

Coll.).

crack in the coin.

33, 32mm., 3.07, 3.0ogrm.

of

PLATE

(No.

32a)

Bukhr

ANS

of

In

III

p.

of p.

of

collection there are three specimens


the Bukhr
163); one
intermediate imitations (BM Nos. b.5-b.6,
the type
164); nine
with --> (BM No. 317,
the 5-til type (BM,
the

(i),

Nos. 319., pp. 164-166), and three other specimens,


described below.
variant

33.

Bilingual,

with legend Al-Mahdi al-Fadl li'llh.

Pl.
I,

11,

p.

S.

le

de

de

of

One other example


this very rare issue has been published
(W. Tiesenhausen, Notice sur une collection
monnaies orientales
Stroganoff (St. Petersburg, 1880)
M.
Comte

il

of

(p. 167). The obverse


No. 5=BM No. Ties.
the present piece
identical with the above. The reverse, which has never been

the inscriptions

Hor

made

of

head

flames. Nothing can

of

grotesque

be

the altar surmounted

by

fire altar and attendants, with

Walker assumed, the usual debased representa

(?).
AR.

muzd

on a

tion

of

lustrated, bears,

as

is

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Abbsid Coins

On the

ANs

(ex Newell Coll.). 26mm., 2.93grm.


PLATE

[9]

III

Arabic legend, Ali Sulayman.

or

it to

ap

gle, -the

letters after the critical word


the interpretation

the

the legend which


discussed (BM, pp. xciv

of

letter

greatest difficulty

thoroughly and competently


accept Walker's reading and argument for al-Amin, but
so

Walker has
xcvi).

bear

different dies, but essentially similar


them, only because
illustrate one

in

point

to

of to

pears

3-yl

of

of

published specimens.

Gle

They are

J3-2

3-

J-

...~

344-350 (pp. 168-9), bearing

BM Nos.

Ji

obverse legend:

INS

specimens similar to

the

Two

u.

34.

CO

IS LA M I

RA R E

must confess

scepticism about the suggestion

considerable

that

or

&

of

of

Sulayman

at the hands

of

an
b.

Ali

after gle are not clear; but


does somewhat support one
these two logical pos
omitted word which would make the legend read

AR, ANS.

Sulayman.

25, 25mm., 2.5I, 2.43grm.


PLATE

III (No.

34a)

Arab-Ephthalite
b.

17

by

b.

of

in

of

The two rare Arab-Ephthalite coins


the ANS, one
Rabi'
(?),
Ziyd (?), and the other
Abdullah
Khzim
have been
Walker, BM Nos. ANS
published
pp.
20,
and ETN
127-8.

(?),

turban

with

surrounded

necklace

ca. 795

A.H.

A.D.

riding prancing
holding
horse with trappings
whip (?) upraised with left
hand, and reins with right;
Horseman,

r.,

king,

helmet

flaps behind;

two

Aramaic leg-

wears crested helmet

(?), with

flaps; quiver suspended


[

r.

strands. Debased
end

Ca. 179

10

crested
by

wearing

head

(?).

r.,

Beardless

Yahy

of

Al-Fadl

of

35.

b.

Khwrizm

at

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it

believe that
sibilities; i.e.,

either

in

gle, because the letters(?)

or

5-4

of

to

an

of

two governors are present. Unfortunately the present


argument
specimen fails
clinch
favor
concealed
the names

diago

KH w ARIZM
nally behind rider's legs; above
croup, in finely engraved Kufic

Jail);

characters,
end

around,

leg

in Khwrizmian charac

(ex Newell Coll.). 25mm., 1.91grm.

ANs

Thomas

1870, and subsequently

by

III

W. Tiesen

Cunningham,

be

al-Birni's

P.

list

by

1937-1938,

this type and

suggest the

with the names

the pre-Islamic

of

and

to

eighth centuries,

in

Material Culture

the issuing rulers

certain

conducted

excavations

of

to

third

of

kings given

the

of

result

Khwrizmian kings

establish the provenance

of to

identification

in of of

antecedents

of

the late eighth century

the Aphrigid dynasty. As

Tolstov has been able

S.

any doubt about the correct attribution

the present type

longer

the Soviet Institute for the History

Khwrizmian

dynasty.
the

Arab viceroy

Yahy, who governed

of

of

issue

in

Barmecide al-Fadl

an

probability

b.

all

in

is

The particular type represented here, bearing the name al-Fadl,


Khursn, the

the East from

177

so 4,

et

in

in

K.

10

A.

p.

en

of

of

J.

* *
E. E.

Thomas, Indo-Parthian Coins, NC, 1870 pp. 142ff. JRAS, 1870, pp. 153ff.
Rapson, On the Attribution
Fabric, NC,
certain Silver Coins
Sassanian
1896, pp. 246ff.; Ed. Drouin, Observations sur les Monnaies
lgendes
Pehlevi
RA, 1886,
Pehlevi-Arabe,
66;
Markov, Neizdannye arsakidskie monety,
ZVORAO, VI, pp. 265-304.
Monety Shakhov Drevnego Khorezma
Alfavit,
Drevnekhorezmiiskii
Vestnik

is

in

of

N.

of

is

It

1938, pp. 120-145.


Drevnei Istorii, No.
unfortunate that the illustrations accompany
ing this article are
poor. The following notes were written before the publication
Frye's Notes on the Early Coinage
Richard
Transoxiana (Numismatic Notes and
Monographs, No. 113, N.Y., 1949),
which (pp. 196.) the present type
discussed and

11

2,

in an

at

in

of

is

this particular piece


illustrated.
The results
these excavations are summarized
article by Henry Field and
Eugene Prostov, Excavations
Khwarazm, 1937-1938,
Ars Islamica, Vol. VI, Pt.
1939, pp. 158-166. The coins are briefly discussed on pp. 164-5.
11

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of of

1938" there can

to

no

of

Rapson, Drouin, Markov and others." Their identification long


mained uncertain, but since the publication
Tolstov

its

hausen and

by

this and allied types were first discussed

in

Coins

E.

of

PLATE

in re

AR.

terS.

RAR E

IS LA M I C

C O

I NS

Other coins of similar type bear


the name Ja'far, identified with Ja'far b. Muhammad, governor of
to

179

or

180 A.H. =793-797 A.D.

Khursn in

On both of these types


Tolstov tentatively reads the Khwrizmian legend as Abdullh
Shh, the Muslim name of the probable Aphrigid ruler of the
A.H. =787-789 A.D."

171-173

period.

The weights of Tolstov's specimens with Arabic legends are:


2.05, 1.92, 1.44

and

1.32 grims.

Abbsid Governors of Tabaristn


Umar b. al-Al
Name in Pahlevi
Year

122 = 157

A.H. =773/4 A.D.


of

r.,

P)

l.,

This coin is unique. Similar to BM No. 262 (p. 134), except in the
following particulars: star and pellet
pellet (and star

AR.

of

is

at

l.

r.

of

crown; star
flame; date 'el) Pelul (the first
and crescent
missing because the coin has been pierced
letter
this point);
pellet over
mint name.
(Teheran, 1935). 24mm., 1.91grm.

GCM

Name

in

PLATE

Pahlevi and Arabic

A.H. =776/7 A.D.


(p. 136).
Identical with BM No.

because

of

reproduce

it

40

B.

excellent preservation.
AR.

its

III

Year 125=160

37.

(ex Newell Coll.). 24mm, 1.92grm.

ANs

III

p.

is

of

pp. 629, 631, 637, 645. There


some question about the period
al-Fadl's
Khursn;
my NHR, pp. 67-8. Tolstov (op. cit.,
the discussion
131)
in

III,

cf.

Tabari
governorship

of

**

PLATE

12

of

be

to

is,

J.

p.

b.

135.

p.

p.

is

on

It

V,

ibid.,

of E.

to

of

to

787-795 A.D. and makes reference


other reports
the dates
al-Fadl's viceroyship.
Barthold (Turkestan down
the Mongol Invasion,
W. Gibb Memorial Series, N.S.,
London, 1928, pp. 202, 464) gives 794-795.
course, not
excluded that the
Sulaymn (783-787 A.D.) (cf. Tolstov, loc. cit.).
Fadl mentioned
the coins
al-Fadl
*Tolstov, op. cit.,
131; Tabari III,
609.
gives

**

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36.

TABARISTAN
Name in Arabic
38.

Year 127=162

A.H. =778/9 A.D.

AR.

Similar to BM No. 268 (p. 138), but no pellet over S of mint


name.
(Teheran, 1935). 24mm, 1.87grm.

GCM

PLATE

III

Sulaymn
39.

Year 137=172 A.H. =788/9 A.D.

various differences

in

to

Six specimens similar

285-288 (pp. 144-5), but

BM Nos.

faulty obverse marginal inscription.


AR. R.

(a)
(b)

ANs
GCM

reproduce two specimens only.

(ex Newell Coll.). 24mm, 2.1ogrm.


(Istanbul, 1942). 23mm., 1.76grm.
PLATE
PLATE

III

(No.

IV (No.

39a)
39b)

Year 138=173 A.H. =789/90 A.D.


Similar
BM No. 288 (p. 145), but with different neck-orna
209); Unvala lists none.
mentation. This issue
rare (cf. BM
AR.

is

p.

to

40.

GCM

(Istanbul, 1942). 23mm.,

1.71

PLATE

grn.

IV

Jarir
Year 135=170 A.H. =786/7 A.D.
(p. 145), but breast-ornament ".", and
Similar
BM No.
of 5

and

r.

l.

pellet (not star)

Z.

to

41.

flame.
25mm., I.92grm.

42.

AR. ANS.

F.

ANs (ex

J.

AR.

l.

r. to

(p.

Year 136=171 A.H. =787/8 A.D.


145), but breast-ornament
Similar
BM No. 289
star
and
of flame.
Jones

Coll.). 24mm,

"...',

and

1.65grm.

to

as

be

13

in

to

in

no

to

be

J.-M. Unvala, Numismatique

mens

it

pl.

XXII, lists some speci


du Tabaristn (Paris, 1938),
that may
identical
this. This work cannot, unfortunately,
relied upon
legible reproductions.
abounds
errors and contains
have not attempted
collate
specimens
his references
the ANs.
15

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with

the neck-ornamentation, and none with the

IS LA M I C CO I NS

RA R E

Hni
Year 137=172

A.H. =788/9 A.D.

BM No.

293

and

"...',

(ex Newell Coll.). 24mm, 1.94grm.

ANs

A.D.

789/90

".",

147), but breast-ornament

and

l.

Similar

A.H.

(p.

Year 138=173
to

44.

AR.

Similar to BM No. 291 (p. 147), but breast-ornament


(apparently) crescent l. and pellet r. of flame.

r.

43.

AR.

of flames obscure.
(ex Newell Coll.). 24mm, 2.17grm.

ANs

Muqtil
of

l.

and star

Armstrong (Toronto). 23mm., 1.87grm.

Abdullh

BM No.

on

A.H. =790/1 A.D.


55

Similar

174

I.

to

Year 139=

46.

(p. 150), but the date

this specimen

(Teheran, 1936). 23mm, 2.07grm.

BM

catalogue

No. ANS

the other

(p. 151), Pl.

is

of

one and the reverse

Abdullh's issue

of

The obverse

specimens
21

the

ANS two
as

in

year 140.

the

of

There are

in

PLATE

IV

of

GCM

the

illustrated

XXVI, No.

5.

AR.

is

distinct.

Afzut Coins

star; tiny pellet

and

of

in

following particulars: the


r.

appears

the

l,

breast-ornament

305, except
a

BM No.

be

Similar

A.H. =784/5 A.D.


to

Year 133=168
to

47.

the

AR.

flame.
GCM

(Teheran, 1935). 24mm,

Unvala does not list this variety.

14

16

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H.

296 (p. 149), but crescent

BM No.

r.

A.H. =790/1 A.D.

F.

174

AR.

Similar
flame."

to

Year 139=

45.

1.82

grm.

TABARISTAN
Year 134=

48.

A.H. = 785/6 A.D.

169

Similar to BM No. 306 (p. 155), but star, not pellet, l. and r. of
D.

R.

AR.

flame.
Kenney

(N.Y.).

25mm., 2.11grm.

Year 136= 171 A.H. =787/8 A.D.


157), but breast-ornament ".", and
Similar
BM No. 312
flame.
AR.

and

r.

(?)

pellets

of

to

(p.

49.

of

and

r.

star

l.

implies

23

BM No. ETN

to

Similar

1.61grm.

A.H. =788/9 A.D.

Year 137=172

50.

GCM. 24mm.,

(p. 158), but the

flame, whereas

BM description

ETN

both the

specimen

AR.

and the present one have pellets, not stars.

of flame.
ANs (ex Wood

Coll.). 23mm,
PLATE

(p.

313

IV

159), but breast-ornament "...', and

flame.
AR,

of

and star

r.

l.

pellet

BM No.

176

1.8ogrm.

A.H. =792/3 A.D.

141

to

Year
Similar

52.

2.04grm.

(p. 158), but breast-ornament ".",


AR.

and

23

BM No. ETN
r.

to

l.

and star

ANs. 24mm, 2.16grm.


PLATE IV

Year 143= 178 A.H. =794/5 A.D.


Similar
BM Nos. 314ff. (p. 160), but breast-ornament uncer
flame.
AR.

of

and

r.

tain, and pellet

l.

to

53.

ANs (ex Newell

B. EARLIEST AFRICAN

Coll.).

25mm., 1.78grm.

AND SPANISH IssuEs

Similar

to

Africa. Type

54.

I.

Gold

BM ix," Nos.

74-75 (p. 21), Codera," pp. 39-42.

The

references

de

15

in

of

to

17

Stanley Lane-Poole's Catalogue


henceforth are
Oriental Coins
Museum (London, 1875-90).
Zaidin, Tratado
Don Francisco Codera
Numismtica Arbigo-Espaola (Madrid,
1879).

BM

the British

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Similar

Coll.). 24mm,

A.H. =788/9 A.D.

Year 137=172

51.

ANs (ex Wood

RARE

IS LA M I C

C O

I NS

present piece presents nothing unusual, but good specimens

of

these

issues are of sufficient rarity to deserve reproduction.


A.

(ex Newell Coll.). Iomm., 2.01grm.

ANs

PLATE

Similar to BM

No.

73

Africa. Type I.

ix,

55.

IV

(p. 21), but inscriptions imperfectly


A.

preserved.
(ex Newell Coll.). Iomm., 1.36grm.

ANs

PLATE
56.

Spain. Type

III.

Year

IV

93.

INOCXI.

(ex Newell,

ANs

ex

A'.

and

92

to

ix,

(p. 24), Codera, pp. 4651. Obverse in


Similar
BM
No.
scriptions completely preserved: ININ2LFRTIN2PNANNXCIII
Campaner

Coll.).

12.5mm., 4.26grm.
PLATE IV

Nusayr.
as

Same type

Paris,

i,

Msa

b.

57.

Nos.

120-124,

but the variant inscriptions

NI........
.

NIIVSI&MVS

MIR(?)

.
.

Rev.: reading from top counter-clockwise

Obv.: reading from top clockwise (upside down)


(right side up) XVX.

are worth recording:

AE, ANS.

I5mm., 2.90grm.
PLATE

IV

C. BYzANTINE-ARAB
Copper

who undertakes
do

the scholar

to a

of

to

of

use

of

These may
complete publication
described.

be

of

in

Among the approximately fifty Byzantine-Arab coppers


the
types commonly
collection
ANS there are several varieties

16

be

this series, but the varieties


not seem
reproducing
quite
me
worth
here. The few
unusual pieces are
described below.
to

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Copper

BYZ ANT IN E - A R A B COPPER

Harrn.

X-P-A.

Beneath: obscure,
Beaded border.

(?)

(Adler).
AE

52

Cf. Ties, No.

IS

Beaded border.

I.

At

&l_-

At

+Q

-->

r.:

At

l.:

Caliph standing. At

1:

58.

ANs (ex

Newell Coll.). 19mm., 2.93grm.

IV

PLATE

Qinnasrin.

Bearded head
facing.

R.

by

of

Paris, described

Caliph

in

to

(?),

is

[]-->

From the eyebrows downward the face

better preserved than

AE.

spite

in

so

This coin

is

bare-headed.

of

reproduce

in

that

it

coins should not be described

its as

on

in

to on

of

on the Paris specimen, but not unfortunately the upper part


the
head,
part
argument
which Cottevieille-Giraudet
bases his
Caliph
reply
suggestion"
Byzantine-Arab
Walker's
that the

curious

poor preservation.
ANs (ex

Wood Coll.). 16mm., 2.12grm.


PLATE

Letters

C!

e.

center:

In

I,

of

BM

standing,
Heraclius
Nos. 2ff, (pp. 4-6).

at ix,
r.

as

Figure

obscure.

\s,
Beneath:
Beaded border.
AE.

all

Beaded border.

ANs (ex Newell

Coll.).

20mm., 4.01grm.

125.

17

1935,

J.

NC,

p.

PLATE
Walker,

IV

&P

Uncertain Mint.

60.

19

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that
the Cabinet des Mdailles,
Cottevieille-Giraudet, RN, 1935, pp. 227-8.

very rare coin similar

59.

IV

RAR E

Uncertain Mint.

In

Caliph standing. Traces of legupwards,


end at

center:

J.

.
.
.

l.,

&E->

(3)

Beaded border.

Around: beginning

at

61.

IS LA M I C CO INS

top,

up
y

J1

yl

J1

J3-2

4J)

.
.

side down,

ANs (ex

Newell Coll.). 18mm., 3.62grm.

18

PLATE

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AE.

Beaded border.

IV

II. THE POST-REFORM UMAYYAD


COINAGE
A. GoLD

Of

ANS

the thirty-three Umayyad dinars in the

collection the

following seven merit publication."

A.H. = 709/10 A.D. One-third dinar.


Within circle:
Within circle: 1 J1 y
all y
91

Margin: Qurn, IX, 33, to 3-J)


A.

to 94

J-J)

s-

- -dl

-->

ANs (Greenwood). 14mm., 1.42grm.


PLATE IV

is

to

i,

ANs (ex Newell

Coll.).

J-yu

above, but rev. margin:

(ex Newell,

ex

A'.

similar specimen was published


ANs

cull

Longprier

Campaner

-->

** 3:

(Ties, No. 497).

Coll.).

15mm., 1.43grm.

19
|

III

The American Numismatic Society Museum Notes,


and 92.

87

in

PLATE
19a Listed
57, 75, 84,

IV

A.H. =720/1 A.D. One-third dinar.


lie

102

by

no.

62

As

Al-Andalus. Year

to

16.5mm, 2.11grm.
PLATE

65.

the

1.

i,

half dinar, although the legend reads &l:


A'.

standard

ANs (ex Newell Coll.). 12mm., 1.07grm.


PLATE IV

A.H. =714/5 A.D. One-half dinar.


BM No. 20, but both size and weight conform

Year
Similar

64.

of to 96

A'.

of

17,

A.H. =712/3 A.D. One-quarter dinar.


Similar
BM No.
but &&- (sic), and the weight
that
quarter dinar, although the legend appears
read &d).
Year

63.

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(-:

c-J)

Margin:

3-3

J)

lie

Year

62.

IV

(1948), Nos. 43, 53,

IS LA M I C CO

R A RE

INS

Madin Amir al-Mu'minin bi'l-Hijaz.


Year 105 A.H. =723/4 A.D.

66.

e-A-9

c)-Aaa

all

eu*_*
+

- J|

* * ~.J3

J| y

Yl

J1

J-51] U-l

Margin: Qurn, IX, 33, to

5\ad-u

J-

Margin:

als'

**

J--> <- L.-J., 1* +---

A. ANs (ex Newell Coll.). 20mm., 4.16grm.


PLATE IV

This extraordinary issue, of which there were four specimens


(from two sets of dies) in the Princesse Ismail Collection, was
partially described and discussed by P. Casanova
its

of the duplicates in Casanova's

the uniqueness

it
in

E.
T.

of

Mr.

way into the market and


Newell, who presented

events the extreme rarity

the mint, The mine

of

ANS. At

the

all

1929

into the hands

of

to

eventually

the coin and

the Commander

the

of

of

the problem

he

to

to

identifying this mine.

collect material relating


an

years,

In to

period

of

over

in

Believers
the Hijz, contribute
the singular interest
this
writing
proceeded,
issue. After
the brief note cited above Casanova

21 20

approximately 41 20'
Casanova, Nos. 162-3,

be

at

N. The

23 30'

3976-7, and pp.

Arab historians record

IV-VI.

of

on

Mecca,

mine
identified

Medina and
the route between Baghdad and Mecca,

E.,

north-west

of

with Madin (later Harrah) Bani Sulaim, southeast

of to

is

the Believers

the Hijz

of

all

of

the Commander

in

the undoubtedly correct conclusion that the

of

arrived

at

he

of

of

in

article
which
made use
all the
geographical
sources,
available Arabic historical and
the accounts
modern travellers and explorers, and
the existing maps,

substance

at

the

de

la

de

in

20

is

of

Arabia until the most recent times

the cartography

of

of

state

be

et

au

de

presented

of

his study
the geographical section
the
Congrs des socits savantes
Strasbourg, and published the full monograph under
Hidjz,
Gographie (Comit des
the title, Une Mine d'or
Bulletin
Section
XXXV,
historiques
scientifiques),
(Paris,
1921), pp. 69-125.
travaux
Vol.
Year 1920
These coordinates, through no fault
M. Casanova's, cannot
trusted. The chaotic
Casanova

22

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inventory, which later perhaps found

of of

may be that the present coin is one

of

It

as early as 1896.

notorious.

U MAYYA

GOLD

that the Umayyad Caliph Umar b. 'Abd al-'Aziz (99-101 A.H.)


bought a piece of land, on which there was at least one mine, from
the son of a certain Bill b. al-Hrith, to whom the property had
been given

in fief by the Prophet; and Casanova has amply demon

strated that this mine was the source of the gold as well as the mint

of our coin. While this dinar was struck five years after the death
of the Caliph whose personal property the mine was, it is not sur
prising to find the name of the mint still in use.
There

seems

to me little doubt that the Madin

Bani Sulaim is

further to be identified with Mahad Dahab (~3 +), the site


of the gold mine now being worked by the Saudi Arabian Mining

1941

Mr. Twitchell was kind

photograph

of an

my disposition

of

In

N.

2329'52"

to

place

extremely

to

be

of

of

to

in

interesting Kufic inscription found


the old tailings
the mine,
publish this inscription together with
and hope soon
able
further discussion
the probable identity
Mahad Dahab

in

to

of

of

of

and the Mine


the Commander
the Believers
the Hijz.
The inscription, dated 304 A.H. =916/7 A.D., records the building
great highway for the pilgrimage
Mecca.
Year

107

A.H. =725/6 A.D.

Khedivial Library, No. 41, except that the points under


are lacking.
ANs (ex Starosselsky Coll.). 20mm., 4.19grm.
A.

J3

of

instead

to

Similar

A.H. =728/9 A.D.


BM
No. 32" (p. 28),

U+2.

except that ten

IV

written 3_42,

size, weight, fabric and style this dinar

is

110

ix,

Year

In

68.

is

PLATE

atypi

its

Similar

to

67.

of

of

an

21

in

in

in

at

in

of

p.

S.

K.

*I *

Twitchell, Saudi Arabia, with


Cf.
Account
the Development
Natural
Resources (Princeton, N.J., 1947),
146.
presented the substance
this inscription
short paper entitled Two Epigraphical
Documents from Mahad Dhahab
the Hidjz, before the American Oriental Society
April, 1947.
Washington, D.C.
annual meeting
its

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at 40 52' 45

enough

at

E.,

Syndicate Ltd., under the management of the American Smelting


and Refining Company. I owe to Mr. K. S. Twitchell the knowl
edge of many interesting facts in connection with this mine, located

IS LA M I C CO I NS

RARE

It

cal.
issue

is possibly a contemporary forgery but more probably the

of some temporary mint.


A.

ANs. 24mm., 4.08grm.

IV

PLATE

B. SILVER
There are more than 230 Umayyad dirhams of the reformed type
in the ANS. Of these the following are worthy of notice:

Arminiyah. Year 100 A.H. =718/9 A.D.


Similar to BM i, No. 48, except that there is no point in the rev.

69.

ANs. 28mm., 2.87grm.

Pellet under

...

the earliest date

of

A.3 out

is &

of

i,

to

this mint

me.
ANs

(ex Nies Coll.). 27mm., 2.46grm. (ringed)


PLATE

Ifriqiyah. Year 102 A.H. =720/1 A.D.


Similar
BM
No. 53 (p. 30), but

AR.

to

of

known

BM

A.H. =716/7 A.D.

No. 54, but date


and under
3-3. This

not omitted.
ANs. 29mm, 2.82grm.
PLATE

A.H. =734/5 A.D.


BM No. 56, but
i,

Two

116

specimens similar

to

Ifriqiyah. Year

72.

date: 2-3 2-4

AR.

us

to

ix,

71.

-- ~

PLATE

A.H. =741/2 A.D.


4.e3 &=

ANs. 27mm.,

2.87grm.

Tiesenhausen's reference under his No. 543,


there
this peculiar fabric and style.

22

of

of

access

110 described

is

Lacking

the dinar

to

PLATE

<!-3

R.

No. 58, but date:

124

&

BM

i,

Similar

to

Ifriqiyah. Year

73.

AR.

(a) R.ANs. 28mm., 2.91grm.


(b)
GCM. 23mm, 2.25grm. (clipped)

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Similar

98

Ifriqiyah. Year

70.

"

PLATE

AR.

arC2.

cannot tell whether

al-Awsat. Year

A.H. =708/9 A.D.

No. 43, but mint and date:


AR.

--

&:-

-3W suit:

ANs.

26.5mm, 2.75grm. (formerly ringed)

BM

i,

Similar

90

Bihqubadh
to

74.

U MAYYAD SILVER

PLATE

Of

(al-Al, Upper, al-Awsat, Middle,

the three Bihqubadh's

BM

98

No. 69,

Similar

A.H. =716/7 A.D.


but date: 3-3 Ju.

of

al-Al.

Al-Taymarrah. Year
i,

75.

to

is

one; and none

of

of

of

of

and al-Asfal, Lower), four specimens are known (all


the year
al-Asfal; two specimens
al-Awsat,
90)
which the present

27mm., 2.72grm.
PLATE

under

"...

"...

curiously written;
of

which

33:1;

under

&-l.

ANs (ex Starosselsky Coll.). 28mm., 2.72grm.


PLATE

very

of

properly read,

is

the mint name

is

This unique coin,

if

AR.

[f]=::\:

&21

21

mint and date:

3-3

under

A.H. =712/3 A.D.

43, but

is

i,

No.

g
of
of

lia;

Year

BM

under

of

Points:

Similar

to

Al-Janzah(?).

on

to

of is

be

However,

and the

3.

the cast), and there

ap

believe

or

is

taken
correct. Janzah
the early
Kanja (Elizabetpol),
Tvgaxa, Ganjah,
to

that the reading can


Arabic orthography

the

be

stroke between

the reproduction

of

be
a

pears

to

coin itself, but not

in

(it

by

is

of

curiously
considerable interest. The writing
the mint name
bungled, probably
uneven striking, with the result that the
definite article has scarcely any relief
clear
the eye
the

p.

in

T.
p.

23

p.

S.

in

of

to

in

E.

II,

in

in

26

Rogers Collection (NC, 1874), one


One
the
the Bibliothque Nationale, one
my own. Cf. Walker (Arab-Sassanians),
cix,
the Khedivial Collection, and one
note 2.
my attention: Ulla
The other, also
the year 9o, only recently came
Linder
NNA, 1941,
Welin, Ein grosser Fund Arabischer Mnzen aus Stora Velinge, Gotland
p. 94.
132; and Le Strange, Lands,
*Cf. Yqt,
178.

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76.

94

AR. ANS.

R A R E IS

LA M I C CO I NS

Arrn between Bard and Tiflis, in what is

an important city of

now Karabagh. The existence of this mint-name on an issue of the


reformed coinage is important collaborative evidence of the probable
validity of Mordtmann's and Walker's attribution of an Arab-Sas
dirham to KNjA (Kanja).
In Markov's inventory of the Ermitage Collection a dirham of
Djanze, also of the year 94, is listed (p. 4, No. 106); it is probably
identical with the present specimen, although I do not know what

sanian

to make

of the parenthetical description, polovinka. Is only half

of the coin preserved, or is it

Jundi Sbr. Year 90 A.H. =708/9 A.D.


(ex Newell Coll.). 26mm., 2.48grm. (frag. lacking)

ANs

J:

but mint and date:

J--> <-

W.

J:-"

Clark (New York). 25mm, 2.65grm.

exceedingly rare

961,

BM

A.H., and

has been

No. 25").

A.H. =699/700 A.D.

No. 43, but mint and date:

&:

Similar

i,

Dasht-Maysn. Year
to

78.

(Markov,

80

recorded

p.

of

of

of

mint.
know only
issues
the years 84, 85, and
my knowledge only one other specimen
the year

85

86

an

is

be

to

confused with Ardabil,

AR.

3'-- ~~
ANs. 26mm.,

2.69grm.

p.

II,

cf.

24

ZDMG,

1879,

p.

Mordtmann, Zur Pehlevi Mnzkunde


op.cit., pp. cxx, cxxxv, and cxli.
*"Yqt,
pp. 548-9;
Le Strange, Lands,
182.

Walker,

am aware, the only


in

far

as

so

is,

unique, and

D.

A.

is

PLATE

This coin

to

43,

L.

85

No.

PLATE

Dabil, not

A.H. =704 A.D.

AR.

BM

i,

Similar

to

Dabil. Year

77a.

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PLATE

AR.

G-:

but date:

BM i, No.

Similar to

*-

74,

77.

half-dirham?

131,

appear
No. 95;

MAYYAD SILVER

of this mint in the reformed coinage. Maysn and Dasht-Maysn


(Dasht-i Maysn) were districts in Irq.

ance

Dimishq.

79.

Year

Similar to BM

A.H. =736 A.D.

118

i, No.

but unlike the

113,

BM

specimen, the weight

AR.

is up to standard.

A.H. =748/9 A.D.

131

No.

141.

(ex Newell Coll.). 24.5mm., 2.86grm.

ANs

p.

or

in

an

article entitled Mesenisches

NZ, IX,

but date: g--->


ANs.

27mm, 2.75grm. (pierced)

but date: g--->


ANs (ex

to

Ju:

Newell Coll.). 27.5mm., 2.91grm.


PLATE

108

A.H. =726/7 A.D.

AR.

i,

to

Similar
BM
No. 148, but date: *3 Juclipped and the annulets are therefore off the flan.
ANs

The coin

is

Al-Kfah. Year

(ex Starosselsky Coll.). 23.5mm., 1.93grm.


PLATE

83.

133,

g;

No.

<-

BM

me.

A.H. =710/11 A.D.


AR.

Similar

to

Surraq. Year

92

the earliest issue of this mint known

i,

This

is

PLATE

132,

No.

<-

90

A.H. =708/9 A.D.


AR.

BM

i,

Sarakhs. Year

Similar

82.

set

pp. 270-273.

to

81.

in

by

1877,

Otto Blau

Cf. Le Strange, Lands, pp. 42,80; and Walker, BM (Arab-Sassanians), pp. cxvii-cxviii,
cxl, where mention
made
the existence
this dirham.
Nassar, Quarterly, Dept.
Antiquities
Palestine, XIII, Nos. 3-4,
**Cf.
121.
in

25

p.

of

of

of

G.

N.

is

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forth

to

ii,

Characene, near the capital Spasinu-Charax,

later (BM
221) corrected
cogent argument for identifying
Besamia

Lane-Poole, and
read al-Smiyah. The full and
al-Smiyah with Baesamsa

of

This mint was originally read al-Shmiyah

is

AR.

BM

i,

to

Similar

Year

by

Al-Smiyah.

80.

(ex Newell Coll.). 26.5mm, 2.89grm.

ANs

IS LA M I C CO I NS

R A R E

Al-Kufah. Year

84.

BM

but mint and date:

141,

** J.--> &- ~

**Qu

ANs (ex Newell Coll.). 24mm., 2.77grm.


PLATE

be

of

is

no

no

ex

other

of

know from published notices,

of

ample

far

as

There

so

is,

AR.

Similar to

A.H. =744/5 A.D.

127

i, No.

of

of

without

me

the revolutionary
be

In

to

view

no

supported

third and fourth

the

likelihood

view

of

be

course cannot

ex

the

85

of

amplesthat there were


regular issues
al-Kufah after 128
below), and that the published specimens attributed
(see No.
should read

4.23

p.

Nouvelles Contributions

Numismatique

<

*sju

von Zambaur,
NZ,
Orientale,

116, no. 401.


AR.

1914,

3W

i,

but mint and date:


piece was published

141,

in

&

*3

BM
No.
An identical

to

Similar

A.H. =745/6 A.D.

128

by

Al-Kufah. Year

85.

127.

E.

129

la

to

the year

ANs

(ex Newell Coll.). 24mm, 2.90grm.


PLATE

of

162,

but date:

g:

No.

A.H. =699/700 A.D.


<AR.

80

Year

BM

of

of

Similar

to

Mandhir.

y.

r*-

i,

with
86.

p.

ix,

is

regular Umayyad issue. All other specimens


This
this
35), with the exception
mint and date (e.g., BM
No. 150",
abu-Muslim,
Zambaur's piece, are
the revolutionary type

of

ANs. 26mm., 2.58grm.

26

to

this mint known

the earliest issue

This

of

PLATE

is

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which

the others.

the year 128, there would seem

of

of

strokes than between any


issues

be

slightly more space between

of

to

appears

be

While the first stroke may

there

the first four strokes


the digit.
little higher than the others, there
to of

between

any

the question,

as

not entirely out

of

clear separation

is

127,

rather than

of

Kfah issue
this date. That this specimen may
published specimens)
the year 129 (of which there are number

me.

MAYYAD SILVER

Maysn. Year 79 A.H. =698/9 A.D.


Similar to BM i, No. 43, but mint and date:

87.

- 3
-,

ANs. 26mm, 2.53grm.


PLATE

AR.

3-3 c-

A.D.

170,

...

sa-

(ex Newell Coll.). 29mm., 2.89grm.

ANs

No.

but date:

G-3

:-

BM

A.H. =714/5 A.D.

170,

c.-

Year
i,

Similar

to

Hamadhn.

96

PLATE

89.

The

g.

i,

but date: g---is


usual, defectively written 3...a.

No.

709/10

91

A.H.

AR.

as

BM

is,

Similar
mint name

to

Hamadhn. Year

88.

The an

nulets are clipped off the flan.


25mm., 2.31 grim.

classified

roughly

various

five categories:

in

reformed types. These may

be

The ANS collection contains over 300 Umayyad fuls

of

C. CoPPER

with (a) the simplest religious legends, (b) less common


religious inscriptions, (c) animals and birds and other adjuncts,
(d) dates but
mint names, and (e) mint names, with
without

these types

with more

do or

pro

few

of

the first category.

not

less identical legends have been accurately

the present publication.

The student who


all

task not appropriate

to

is

be

of

tell whether

impossible

to

is

given type has


not. Certainly the classification
these early
anonymous coppers
something that should
undertaken, but this
or it

reproduced that
been published

the pieces

in

describe any

of

with governors' names. At present


or

pose

to

dates, sometimes

So

no

those

is

27

to

to

study should have access


undertakes such
the larger col
lections, and
attempting
determine the provenance should
travel throughout the former Umayyad lands, gathering the evi

in

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AR. ANS.

IS LA M I C

RAR E

CO

I NS

for copper seldom travels far. Above all, he


should make full use of the mass of excavation specimens, the vast
majority of them unpublished but doubtless stored in the basements
and closets of many museums in Europe and America.
Of the remaining four categories I describe a few here which
appear to me, without exhaustive search for similar published types,

dence

on the spot,

to be worthy of notice.

No mint (?), or date.

Within square: Fish to

At
At
At

J1

J|

e-A-9
?

Marginal legend

1.

-->

top:

J3-2

J)

bottom:

AE. ANS.

?)

Annulet (or inscription

I5mm., 3.19grm.

VI

No mint

.
.

~~

Torrey Coll.). 15mm., 2.52grm.

r.

to

date.

Scroll

J1

[1]

Margin:

ANs (ex Newell,

y y or

92.

Within beaded circle:


ex

marginal legend
AE.

Traces

of

Within beaded circle: duck

All

date.

or

91.

AE.

all

ANs. 16mm.,

93.

No mint

or

PLATE

5.07grm.

VI

date.

Within beaded circle:


-->ea

J1

y!

to
l.

Lion crouching
Around: 2-3 J1

J3-2

J)

Margin within beaded circle:


AE,

OOOOOO

ANS. 15mm.,

of

To my knowledge only three


the Umayyad
years 101, 116 and 120 A.H. (NHR, Nos.
28

Al-Rayy,

coppers

in

PLATE
33

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PLATE

No mint (?),

at
r.

Within square:

l.:

90.

the

ANS

26, 30, and 31B).

2.63grm.

VI

have been published:

U MAYYAD COPPER

No mint. Year

94.

107

A.H. =725/6 A.D.

Double struck and obscure.

J-M1 lia. .

AE.

All

Within beaded circle:

(?)

AE.

No mint. Year
Within circle:
y

Within circle:
!

J)

all

3
AE.

Adharbayjn.

r.

Within beaded circle:

y
y!

J)

J3

the mint name are obscure, but

AE.

little doubt about the reading.


ANs (ex Newell

Coll.).

18mm., 1.92grm.
PLATE

29

be

The two letters before the

of

J1

-->

&\2:23

J.

No date.

All

believe there can

(ex Starosselsky Coll.). 21mm., 4.59grm.

ANs

beaded circle:

A-

*-

-->

Margin: (sic)
-->

.
.

is

--!

--all

Margin: (sic)

Within

A.H. =734/5 A.D.

&_*

(ex Newell Coll.). 19mm., 5.92grm.

J|

y!

116

ANs

-3 J)

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al

*...

96.

97.

<

e
o
o

[ell,

3:23

J%3
-

.
.

AU1

.
.
.
.

[-]3

beaded circle:

[1]
O

A.H. =727/8 A.D.

Within

109

No mint. Year

ANs (ex Newell Coll.). 16mm., 3.38grm.


PLATE VI

95.

-->
J3-2

. .

&-

Margin:

Within beaded circle:

Area illegible

VI

R AR E
98.

Mint

No

IS LA M I C CO I NS

date.

Within beaded circle:

all

A-e-Pea

y! y

all

Within triple beaded circle:

J3-2
All

e-A-5

Coll.).

24mm., 3.60grm.
PLATE VI

J.J.'s", assuming the

might

be

puzzling.

ANs (ex Newell

It

The mint name

is

AE.

Margin

is

be

of

be

to

defectively written. But the omission


the definite article
irregular, and the fabric
would
not Andalusian.
Ba'alabak. No date.
Within beaded circle:

In

center, star

within circle

Margin: (sic) ell." (*).,

y y

J1 J1

(sic)

"--

AE.

-A-9

Dimishq.

No

ANs (ex Newell

*A*-*

Yl y

all

Within partly beaded circle:

J3-2
all

at

A-3

Outside circle,

Outside circle,

top:

3*-* -->

3+*-*
AE.

ANs (ex Newell

top:

*-*

Coll.).

23mm., 2.92grm.
PLATE VI

SR (?). No date.
Within beaded circle:

All!

Margin:

ANs (ex Newell

30

R.

J-

J-M1

lia -->

Coll.).

-A-9

.
.

all

J3-2

all

*A*-*

y!

Within triple beaded circle:

101.

15mm., 2.66grm.
PLATE VI

date.

Within circle:
All

Coll.).

at

100.

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99.

22mm., 3.42grm.
PLATE VI

U MAYYAD COPPER

There is

the end and the beginning of the mar


perhaps omitted: Surraq, a known mint at which

a space between

ginal legend. Is Q
Umayyad dirhams were struck?

Surr, nor Sirr, seems

Neither

likely.

(?). Year 110(?) A.H. =728/9 (?) A.D.


J1 y
Lion crouching to l.

Tabariyah

102.

At bottom,

All y!

downwards:

A-3

Margin:
Margin: 53

3-[3]ll

*3

. . .
AE.

J3-2

AUl

U+*

Coll.).

ANs (ex Wood

(3)

-A-Pve

&_cla.

. .

17mm., 4.47grm.
PLATE VI

Jel: the Commander

of

#1

&

ordered honesty.

the Believers

Atrib; Misr. No date [132 A.H. =750 A.D.].


center, within beaded circle:
center, within beaded circle:
Margin:

J-31

401

-e

33-,

AE.

->l 33-,

&

Margin:

*_

dull -->

ANs.

[s-.] ge

18.5mm., 4.89grm.

almost

all

of

only one other specimen

VI

this humble but

respects, other than the critical reverse

identical with several known copper issues

of

it

area,

fals.

is

markable

of

am aware

In

PLATE

re

_*

In

In

103.

the last

76.

by

Yqt, III,

p.

b.

at

b.

of

Umayyad Finance Director


Egypt, Adb al-Malik
Marwn
Ms, struck
Fustt, Fayym and, perhaps, Iskandariyah. These

of

is

of

Paris
Nos. 1494-5, Berlin
Nos. 2028a,b (p. 376), Ties., No. 655, Khedivial
Nos. 843-4; Paris
No. 1496; Khedivial Library, No. 845. Cf. my AGW, pp. 95-6.

31

i,

i,

i,

See

Library,

be

it

of

to

its

drawing

the latter work. Due


legend and consequently

of

this imperfectly preserved specimen appears


the title-page
poor preservation Blau had difficulty with the reverse marginal
ventured certain ingenious but certainly erroneous philological
observations. His identification
the reverse area inscription, however,
identical with mine.
may
think
assumed that the Odessa specimen and the present one are
the same issue.

1876, No. 35.

on

zu

in

in

In

NZ, VI-VII (1874-1875), under


the Odessa Museum, first published
Otto Blau
the title Nachlese orientalischer Mnzen, pp. 9-10, and subsequently
Die orientalischen
Odessa,
Mnzen des Museums der Kaiserlichen Historisch-Archologischen Gesellschaft
84a

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part:

in

must have read

\s,

Both the mint and the date are very doubtful. The obverse margin

is

lieve

ATRIB

intended and that the reading

in

the

of

the present piece looks more like

the specific

word

the

J,

on

Although the final letter

the reverse.

reverse area

the obverse, and the name

is

mint

of

on

all

Misr (Egypt)

bear

of

IS LA M I C CO I NS

RARE

be

H, KH,

almost certainly

Atrib, sometimes more correctly rendered Athrib,

is

COrreCt.

the Arabic

in

of

over-simplification: we cannot fail


Egyptian Hat-te-her-be (or Ha-to-heri-ab),

to

of

say the

to

reckon with ancient


and Assyrian Hatha

riba.

of

leaden tokens

the third century, inscribed

A6GIBIC.".

more than passing interest and perhaps suggestive

of It

Trajan and Hadrian for the nome A8PIBITHC,


of

of

think,

and

of

pre-Arab numismatic history: we know, for example,

bronze issues

is,

of

Atrib had

III,

is

pp. 111-12, and

Egypt,

2070.

Atrib (Athrib) figures frequently

the history

of

ii,

is

in

of

p.

Athribis,

Yqt,

I,

cf.

name,

in

in

his day
given

Arab mints

the earliest specific

pp. 762-3, where Atrib


de
the district (krah)
which the chief town was Ayn Shams (Heliopolis),
ruins, nothing remaining but ancient monuments. The pre-Arab literature
Pauly-Wissowa, Real-Encyclopdie der Classischen
Altertum swissenschaft,
s.v.

For the Arabic

scribed

appear

in

(?)

in as

86

Alexandria

as

to

Byzantinist and Arabist alike, that Atrib


further profitable study
and Fayyum (Arsinoe), which along with Fustt (old Cairo) and

the Persian and Arab

of

J.

cf.

Egypt;

de

de

ii,

Numorum,

864, and

G.

Cf. Head, Historia

Dattari,

Numi Augg.

Alexandrini

32

Leaden Tokens"

in

Milne, Egyptian

Dattari, op. cit., No. 6415, and


pp. 307-9.

G.

1901), Nos. 6213-6216.

J.

(Cairo,

p.

in

* **

of

in

Butler, The Arab Conquest


Egypt and the Last Thirty
Alfred
Years
the Roman Dominion (Oxford, 1902), passim.
pp. 394-6; also Yqt, loc. cit.
Cf. Mas'udi, Murilj,
l'gypte
Roug, Monnaies des Nomes
Cf. Pauly-Wissowa, loc. cit., and Jacques
RN, n.s. Vol. XV, pp. 49-50.

campaigns

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least,

Egypt was

is,

of

of

of

an

Nh (Noah); Atrib's brothers, among whom the rest


divided, were Qubt (Copt), Ashmn and S. This

of an

to

their best etymological tradition, ascribed the name


Misr, son
Hm, son
eponymous Atrib, son
Baysar, son

in

Arabs,

in

of

in

an

of

'A6puSs, capital
form
the vous'A6puffirms,
Lower Egypt,
important town
early Arab, Byzantine and ancient times,
situated north
Cairo near modern Benha,
the delta. The

NC,

1930,

UMAYYAD COPPER
were two of four towns (Memphis and Oxyrhynchus
others) whose names occur on the leaden tokens.

being the

Al-Mawsil. No date.

104.

Within partly beaded circle:


All

Within beaded circle:

J1

J3-2
all

*A*-*

--

--all

Margin, within partly beaded

Ji yi Ji y Ji
chu:

ning

specimens, from different dies,

lie "La

Ju-all L
J-31u

marginal legends begin

on

Two

J-M1

-->

the

circle:

Margin, within beaded circle:

of

AE,

GCM (Damascus,

specimen

105. Wsit. Year 108

1935). 22, 19.5mm., 3.84, 5.22grm.

y
|

J1

J3-D

&_*

AE.

J1

**

Jus:

this year

any

of

published Wsit fals

in

ANs (ex Nies Coll.). 21mm., 2.47grm.

of

no

Margin, within circle:


*-13: J-M1
-->
.

@)

AUl
@)

@)

Soret.

Within circle:

All

is

There

104a)

A.H. =726/7 A.D.

2-3

Annulets:

VI (No.

this coin was published

-->ea

yl

Within double circle:

of

An imperfect

is

is

to

reproduction.

satisfactory

PLATE

the large

collections.

Finally

.
.
.

307.
Fraehn, Mm.

Soc. Imp. d'archologie,

33

28

op. cit.,

Lettre
Ties., No. 2635.

**

Cf. Milne,

of

do

p.

to

be

include six obscure cast coins, probably Umayyad but


possibly early Abbsid, and probably from northern Syria.
not
attempt
identify them further, but the reproductions may

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the other, but unfortunately the latter

by

quite clear
permit
too smooth

it

trated;

on

is

on

at

quite different points


each specimen. The governor's
name, al-Dahhk,
imperfectly preserved
the specimen illus

St. Petersburg,

1851,

No.

RARE

IS LA M I C

C O

I NS

use to someone who,

it is to be hoped, will one day attempt the


classification of these crude cast coins. A large number of cast coins
of similar fabric and style was found in the Princeton excavations
at Antioch: some of these are described in my report on the Islamic
coins of Antioch."
106.

Obscure inscriptions.

Cross surrounded by four large


pellets.

Two

of different dies.

specimens,

AE

ANs (ex Newell

Coll.).

17mm, 2.25, 2.05grm.

18,

PLATE

VI (No.

106a)

107.

all

*A*->ea

All

J3-2
AE.

ANs

(ex Newell Coll.). 17mm., 1.79grm.


PLATE

VI

108.

(?)-1-yl

AE.

Obscure three-line inscription

ANs (ex Newell

Coll.). 16mm,
PLATE

I09.

cs" gle

(*)-3-

(*)cial
AE.

J-y
ANs (ex Newell

Coll.).

2.17grm.

VI

16mm., 1.87grm.
PLATE VI

II.O.

Within circle:

>y

yi y

(sic)
Annulets, within outer circle:

CSU->

Annulets, within outer circle:


AE.

all

Within circle:

ANs. 21mm., 2.18grm.

PLATE

IV,

Part One (Princeton,

34

Antioch-on-the-Orontes,

**

In

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All

VI

1948), Nos. 148-153, pp. 118-19.

III. THE ABBASID COINAGE


In the description of Abbsid

following space-saving

coins the

conventions have been observed. Unless otherwise noted the obverse

J1 y

area is understood to read: y!

-3 J1

and the reverse area:

&L

...--

J3-2

J)

Supplementary words or symbols in the obverse and reverse areas


horizontal line, indicating their posi
tion relative to the conventional inscription. In the gold described
are given above and beneath

the silver

noted
23

3-0

in &

4:

--

3:4) Gle

is

--

3/3

In

J-5

4.
the

each occurrence.

IX,

both the gold and the silver the Qur'anic verse

33%"

L-yl

the outer obverse margin;

on

these verses

-3.3 3.3

3-4,

in

are present

in

of

4)

presence

s-Ju

33, a.s...]

4-21 [4])

J3-2

understood. Reverse central pellets are not noted;


determine when these are simply centering points
ornament, the distinction perhaps

on

in

and when they are


the nature
depending
the size.

of

difficul,

to is

the silver)

is

it in

in

or

of

of

is

or

always present
more
less complete,
the reverse margin. The
first part
the mint-date formula preceding the name
the mint
margin
gold,
margin
(obverse inner
the
obverse
inner margin

A. GoLD"
tofore described,

of

111-137. Twenty-five

mintless dinars, differing from those here

the years 138, 142, 147, 149, 153, 160 167, 168, 170,

171, 177, 178, 184, 187, 196, 199, 201, 202, 203

At

and 205, and two dinars


of

in

of

writing there are 120 Abbsid dinars


the date
the Museum
the American
Society; the University Museum Collection contains 206. Of these the specimens
notice; the rest are well-known,
relatively
described
the following pages are worthy
43

of

35

issues.

well-known,

or

Numismatic

in

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--~ 3:30 C-4

XXX,

is

the Qurnic verses

here

IS LA M I C CO I NS

R A R E

of Misr, dated 203 and 216 A.H., published in Some Early Arab
Dinars." Of these seventeen are in the UM Collection and ten
in the ANS.
138.

-U

Misr. Year 222 A.H. =836/7 A.D.


J:V-3 &L-23 &:)

-TET
all

A. UM. 20.5mm., 4.05grm. (pierced)

4.e3 &21

"...a

As above.

specimen

in

is
a

There

of

A'.

3:V3 &

A.H. =838/9 A.D.

this issue

ANs. 18.5mm., 3.34grm.

the Ermitage

(Markov,

p.

San'a. Year 224

139.

44,

in

of

Surra man-ra'a, Year 226

J.-->

--

A.H. =840/1 A.D.

sl-

J:

W.

140.

--

As above.
A. UM. 2Imm., 4.13grm.

is,

To my knowledge this

by

PLATE

VII

five years, the earliest recorded dinar

&:V-9 3-4-3 &-

Madinat al-Salm. Year

141.

227

f>0~

in

of

Samarra, and only two years later than the earliest dirham.
Samarra became the temporary Abbsid capital
221 A.H."

A.H. =841/2 A.D.

"
Gl,
9,

ANs. 21mm.,

III

Av.

Allu

4.08grm.

(1948), Nos.
14, 21, 23, 32,
The American Numismatic Society. Museum Notes
43, 57, 60, 61, 68, 69, 83, 84, 85, 96, 104, 121, 126, 131, 136, 138, 141, 143, 144, 147,
148 and 160.

Dinar, 231, A.H., Berlin, No. 1449; dirham, 224 A.H., Ties., No. 1860.

36

s.v. Smarr.

of
I.,

45a

E.

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of

No. 781, not described). Only two earlier gold coins


San are
known,
the years 221 and 223, both
the Bibliothque Nationale.

ABB As ID GoLD

There is a dinar of the same mint and year in the Ermitage


(Markov, p. 44, No. 788= Ties, No. 2855, not described).
142.

&:V: J.L*3

143.

&V.

Year 229

San'a.

&:V3 &

144.

&

A.H. =842/3 A.D.

Madinat al-Salm. Year 228

4.e3

(3-)

A. UM.22mm., 4.04grm. (pierced)

--

A.H. =843/4 A.D.

&-

Madinat al-Salm. Year

&:V3 & #3

As above.

(5-

As above.

231

f>J)

A.

ANs. 20.5mm., 3.48grm.

A.H. =845/6 A.D.


As above.

145.

Al-Muhammadiyah.

Year 245

in NHR, No.

130
A'.

Described

A.H. =859/60 A.D.

B.

ANs (ex Starosselsky

Coll.).

19mm., 4.25grm.

Misr. Year 247 A.H. =861/2 A.D.


4-13

--

&:V3

&

146.

&-

all

All Gle J33:ll

known: Constantinople

Surra man-ra'a. Date illegible=Dec.

--

597.

861-June 862 A.D.

ab-

is

T.J.

(ex Starosselsky Coll.). 19mm., 3.26grm.


37

PLATE

ANs

All

breviated and illegible, but


the mint
almost certain.
A.

No.

...

sl-

The mint-date formula

is

*-

147.

is

One similar specimen

UM. 18mm., 4.1ogrim.

II,

5-all

A.

4JW

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A. UM. 22mm., 4.05grm.

VII

of

in

is

It

the British Museum."

A.H. =863/4 A.D.

249

*-

Marw. Year

&:V:

3-4-13 C-:

:--

All

J.'"

W.

All

&

J-31) ---

J-- ~

UM. 22mm., 4.11grm. (pierced)


PLATE VII

-:

Marw. Year 250 A.H. =864/5 A.D.

&:V:

As above.

Misr. Year
&:V-3

(ex Starosselsky Coll.). 22mm., 4.20grm.

2-3

5th line:

ANs

A.H. =869 A.D.


J--> <-

255

4th line effaced.

3:31)

--

"
4th line effaced.

SJ

5th line:

3:31) ---

A. UM. 23.5mm., 4.22grm.

was undoubtedly issued

VII

by

most interesting coin.

It

This

is

PLATE

the

of
of

on

38

p.

of

the Caliphate, NC, 1919,


|

Allan, Unpublished Coins

J.

al-Mu'tazz,

that the traces are not still visible

completely
of

removingbut not

the preceding Caliph

the year 255

of

cut, used old dies

so

ture

gouging out the lines


the dies. There can
being informed
doubt that the mint-master,
the investi
al-Muhtadi and before new dies bearing his name had been

of

be

no

actually obliterated

on

by

on

of

on

at

in

Caliph al-Muhtadi
the early months, probably
the very begin
ning,
his brief reign. The names
the fourth lines
the obverse
and reverse areas are not simply effaced
the coin, they were

46

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A.

As above.

150.

J.-ll

31)

A.

,->

149.

INS

know, only one other published dinar


the
Caliph al-Muntasir, also struck
Samarra and with
far

the date 248 preserved.


148.

CO

at

ephemeral

IS LA M I C

R E

as

There

so

is,

RA

196.

ABB As ID GoLD
the names of the latter's son Abdullh, the heir apparent, on the
obverse, and of al-Mu'tazz himself on the reverse. The effaced in
scriptions are preserved on dinars of al-Mu'tazz
254 and in 255.
151. San'a. Year 257

&:V3

&-3

--

issued at

Misr in

A.H. =870/1 A.D.

&-

"
All gle x-all

J-31)
AW. ANS.

--

20mm., 2.91grm.

(NC,

Misr. Year 257 A.H. =870/1 A.D.

&:V. (sic)

J-3 &-

--~~
All

Jia-

A.

All Gle

all

152.

UM. 21.5mm., 4.18grm.

Misr. Year 257 A.H. =870/1 A.D.


As above, but
As above, but date correctly

153.

beneath.

written.
Av. ANS.

22.5mm., 4.13grm.
PLATE VII

of

of

5,

p.

de

et

of

or

p.

of

**

Berlin, No. 1512; Harvey Porter, Unpublished Coins


the Caliphate, NC, 1921,
322, lacking the ornament
letter beneath the obverse area. Since the above was written,
Misr, 225 A.H., with inscrip
M. Marcel Jungfleisch has made mention
similar dinar
tions effaced on the dies (Un poids
une estampille sur verre datant d'Ahmed ibn Touloun,
Bulletin
l'Institut d'gypte, XXX (1948),
footnote (2),
the reprint). There and
of

correspondence with me, M. Jungfleisch has suggested that the explanation


the
may not
simple
the one
have advanced. Deleting the lines on the old
engraving entirely new ones. The true ex
dies would have been almost
much trouble
planation may
political complexities which cannot
discussed here.
be

as

as

39

in

lie

as

mutilation

as

recent

be

in

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There appears to be only one other specimen of this issue


1919, p. 196, not described).

IS LA M I C CO I NS

R A RE

-U

Misr. Year 258 A.H. =871/2 A.D.

154-155.

3-3

&:V-9

&V.

"

Jia-

All Gle ---all


(or) &l_*

JJ"
2 specimens:

A. UM. 21mm., 4.12, 4.14grm.


PLATE

VII (No.

155)

This issue is known," but I publish this specimen here in order


of the reading of the enigmatic word
beneath the Caliph's name on the reverse. Rogers was unable, as
might be, but who
I am, to read
Lavoix read Najrn, which
was
could not
the place name)? Lane-Poole read Bahrayn

it

be

(it

In

the same year struck

at a

negate this reading.

by

Tlnid, and dinars

is

this issue

of to

specimens, would seem definitely

sense

Misr

in

be

surprising

if

can make

no

Egypt.

b.

the name

of

would not
some Turkish official, but

It

facto ruler
of

de of

in

so

question have been


without the word
classified
number
writers, for Ahmad
already
Tln had
254 become the

gestion.

we had here
specific sug

e-

J-2

Al-Ahwaz. Year 259 A.H. =872/3 A.D.


313-yu
&:V's

156.

All

As above.

All gle x-all

A. UM. 20.5mm., 4.23grm.

*E.

on

is

[40

p.

the Tlni Dynasty (London, 1877),


|

Rogers, The Coins

of

is

it

T.

E.

E.g.,

in by

17.

of

22

p.

of

to

T.

on

Rogers, Notice
the Dinars
the Abbaside Dynasty, JRAS, 1875,
reprint; Paris, No. 1020, where Lavoix refers
Rogers but says
the specimen described
that the word beneath the reverse
different from that
the specimen
the Bibliothque
Nationale.
believe
the same.
Khedivial Library, No. 619.

**

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The clear presence

with mint effaced, bearing similar legend."


the mint name Misr,
the present and Paris
on

261 A.H.,

of

dinar

of

on

he

it.

to raise again the question

ABBA's ID

J-3 &-

\a-a:
AU

*A*-*

4) J3-2
all gle x-all

J-31)

Margin ends with als.


A. UM. 20mm, 2.90grm. (pierced)
PLATE

ll

282

"
ll gle x-all

G1 C-34)

Qumm. Year

3:2 5:l

ANs (ex Starosselsky Coll.). 22.5mm., 3.32grm.

A.H. =895/6 A.D.


c.

3:V's

159.

sl., &

A'.

+ -

"

(ex Starosselsky Coll.). 19.5mm., 4.16grm. (pierced)

apparently the earliest known

dinar

Abbsid mint. The earliest heretofore known

&:V:

3:3

one

rare

the Ermitage

No. 885").

A.H.

Harrn. Year 284

916,

Qumm,

897

A.D.

160.

284

p.

dated

(Markov,

...a...all

of

ANs

is

This

is

A.

Allu

J-3

&:V's

VII

A.H. =876/7 A.D.

Surra man-ra'a, Year 263

158.

-->

in

&:V's

&2)

&L=

As above.

am aware, the earliest known Abbsid coin

[41

Harrn.

of

far

as

This

so

A. UM. 23.5mm., 3.97grm.


PLATE VII

is,

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A.H. =872/3 A.D.

San'a. Year 259

157.

Gold

Outer margin ends with

2.

A.H. = 897 A.D.


As above.
ANs. 22mm., 3.88grm.

A.

&

A.H. = 900/1 A.D.

Madinat al-Salm. Year 288

162.

3-53

&:V-9

&V.

(3-)
A'.

Outer margin ends with 2.

Filastin. Year

J-3

A.H.

24mm., 4.14grm.

A.D.

=904

&-> <- gla-l

3-1 G3

<

&:W.

291

Coll.).

ANs (ex Nies

4.

163.

As above.

sil

Madinat al-Salm. Year 284


&:V-9 3-#3 &=
f>0~

161.

IS LA M I C CO I NS

R A R E

this interesting issue


known. The
the Tlnid ruler's name proclaims the reconquest

by

Hrn

is

of

of

Filastin (al-Ramlah)

the Abbsid forces.

absence

by

of

One other specimen

Tlnid dinar struck

in

by

it

in

b.

at

in

Khumarawaih
Filastin earlier
the same year has
been published. The present coin must have been struck sometime
Rajab, 291 (May/June, 904)
after May
the year 904, for
was

was during the course

E.

by

I,

b.

Egypt had been retaken


cf.

By Rabi

Khumrawaih.

49, No. 904, not described.


324;
Zambaur,
1921,

292

of

(Jan.,

the Abbsids.
NZ (Wien),

Khalifenmnzen,

Neue

[42

the Tlni Dynasty,

R.

Gibb, s.v.

p.

A.

310; also

H.

p.

of

cf.

Ibn-Khaldn, IV,

Rogers, The Coins

T.

and

E.

I.,

the

pp. 2248, 2251-2;


of

III,

in

9.
Tabari
Tlnids,

E.

I922,

Hrn

p.

p.

Porter, NC,

(Nov., 904), when

p.

**

Markov,

b.

combat

905), Fustt

292

the year 291

Sulayman started from Syria toward the border

in

to

Egypt

of

(after Rajab) and before the first month


Muhammad

all events the coin

of

the fact that

establishes

determine, but

at

have not been able

it

tured

to

to

b.

Sulaymn was sent


that the general Muhammad
the Caliph
recover Syria for the Abbsids. Just when al-Ramlah was cap

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A. UM. 23mm., 3.44grm.


PLATE VII

13.

ABB As ID

Wali al-Dawlah

Gold

the obverse area) was the title

(beneath

of the

Vizier abl-Husayn al-Qsim b. 'Ubaydullh.


164.

165.

Nisibin. Year 292 A.H. =904/5 A.D.


&:V's
&:)
3:44

J-3

--

As above.

Isbahn. Year 293


&:V-3
-1

J-3

A. UM. 23mm., 4.3ogrm.

A.H. =905/6 A.D.


&W-V

As above.
A.

166.

Isbahn. Year 293

Nies Coll.). 22mm., 4.17grm.

A.H. =905/6 A.D.

55, but

beneath obverse area.

A'.

Similar to No.

ANs (ex.

ANs

(ex Newell Coll.). 22mm., 4.24grm.

VII

These two dinars


Isbahn are exceptionally rare. To my knowl
edge only one other Abbsid dinar
the famous Persian city has
978, No. 934(a).
been published: 300 A.H., Markov,

gla-l.

J-3

A.H. =905/6 A.D.

-"

&:V3

p. of

of

Filastin. Year 293

One specimen

of

167.

As above.
A. UM. 23mm., 3.77grm.

this issue has been published but not fully

de

scribed.

293

A.H. =905/6 A.D.

J-3
A.

As above.
ANs.

(ex Newell Coll.).

22.5

mm.4.13grm.

p.

Zambaur, NZ, 1922,

[43

VII

the title, see Fraehn, apud Ties., No. 2175,


9.

discussion

of

PLATE

cf.

p.

For this identification and


and the sources quoted there.
Porter, NC, 1921,
324;

*-

J-3 *

Al-Mawsil Year
&:V-3

168.

**

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PLATE

IS LA M I

R A R E

CO

INS

i,

II,

Mosul is also a very rare Abbsid dinar mint. I am aware of only


two other issues: 263 A.H. (Constantinople
No. 938) and 278 A.H.
(BM, No. 366).

- *|Ju

Al-Rafiqah. Year 294 A.H. =906/7 A.D.

&:

V-3

169.

J-3

&-l

As above.
A. UM. 24mm., 3.I.4grm.

5:la-li

3-2

&:V:

173.

of

Dimishq. Year 295 A.H. =907/8


&:V-9
J--> <- 54-4

3-3

G-3

A.D.

A.

As above.

295

D-->

ANs

(ex Nies Coll.). 21.5mm., 4.1ogrm.

A.H. =907/8 A.D.


(sic)

*JV

As above.

A.

Al-Rafiqah. Year

&:V3

VII

197).

<-

172.

PLATE

UM. 25.5mm., 2.98grm.

Al-Karaj. Year 295 A.H. =907/8 A.D.

J-3 J-->

C_2\,
As above.

[44]

an

Al-Karaj (usually read al-Karkh)

is

A.

&:V.

<-

171.

1919,

(ex Newell Coll.). 24mm., 3.66grm. (pierced)

ANs

this issue has been published but not described

p.

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(Allan, NC,

As above.

A.

One specimen

A.H. =906/7 A.D.

Filastin. Year 294


&

170.

UM. 23mm., 4.oogrm.


PLATE

VII

exceptionally rare mint,

ABB As ID GoLD
and this dinar is by thirteen years the earliest known. Lavoix,
Markov, Codrington and Allan read the name as al-Karkh, and in
this form it appears in Codrington's Manual, identified as part of
Baghdad.

cannot believe that this is an acceptable identification:


Karkh was a suburb of Baghdad and the presence of a mint there,
so close to the capital, would be very unlikely. I submit, without
proof to be sure, that the mint is Karaj, that is the Karaj of

abi

Dulaf between Hamadhn and Isbahn. The few Arabic lead


seals that have been published establish the fact that Karaj, the
capital of the petty dynasty of the Dulafids, was an administrative
and fiscal center during the second half of the third century of the

Hijrah. We

Dulafid coins of Karaj to sup

have, unfortunately, no

mint at the seat of their principality is to be


expected. Ten years before the present issue the Abbsid govern
ment reassumed control over the territory administered for more
the presence of

than half a century by the Dulafids, and if my supposition be cor


rect, we have in this coin evidence of the continuation of Karaj as
an administrative center after it had been put on the map, so to
speak, by the Dulafids. By the time of the author of the Hudd
al-'Alam (372 A.H. =982 A.D.), the Karaj of abi-Dulaf was mostly

in ruins."

* 308

(Paris, No. 1130; Markov, p. 52, No. 965); 315 A.H. (Paris, No. 1131);
(O. Codrington, Some Rare Oriental Coins, NC, 1902, p. 272); 321 A.H.
(Markov, p. 54, No. 1025); date effaced (al-Qhir), 320-322 A.H. (Allan, NC, 1919, p. 197).
"Yqt, IV, p. 254; cf. Le Strange, Lands, p. 31. Zambaur (NZ, 1922, pp. 10-11) also

318

A.H.

C.

be

to

is

cf. a

p.

al-Muhammadiyah

have

been

expressed

in

issues

of

R.

R.

46. My doubts about the Dulafid

Minorsky

(E.

W. Gibb Memorial

[45]

Series,

N.S.

XI

Hudud al-'Alam, transl.


p. 132.

J.

128.

V.

NHR,

p.

p.

60

of

V,

in

Yqt,

of

Basrah, Smarr, Maysn, etc.


dozen Karkhs, including those
distinguished
Le Strange, op. cit., pp. 197-8. This Karaj
Miles,
from that
the Rdhrwar district, between Hamadhn and Nihwand:
see G.
pt.
(1938),
The Coinage
the Kkwayhid Dynasty, Iraq,
104.
Khalil Edhem, Qrshiin mhtir qatlogi (Constantinople, 1321), pp. 20ff.
Vasmer, Dva klada kuficheskikh monet (Leningrad,
1927),
Cf. Markov, and
p.

Yqt lists half


IV,
251;

is

to

of

as

Baghdad:

of is,

A.H.

accepts the reading al-Karkh and the identification as a Quartier der Hauptstadt. There
fact, no reason
matter
assume that Karkh, reading the name so,
the Karkh

61

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port the argument, but it would certainly not be surprising if one


should turn up, for the Dulafid generals did issue coins at Isbahn,
Frs, Mh al-Kfah, Hamadhn, and (?) Muhammadiyah," and

(1937),

IS LA M I C

R A R E

J-3

&:V's

&-

INS

A.H. =909/10 A.D.

Dimishq. Year 297

174.

CO

3-4

#
JW 5-all

A. UM. 25mm., 4.12grm.


PLATE
175.

- *|Ju

VII

Al-Rafiqah. Year 297 A.H. =909/10 A.D.

J-3

&:V-3

&-

As above.
A. UM. 25mm., 3.52grm. (pierced)

176.

Dimishq.

J-3

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&:V3

A.H. =910/1 A.D.

Year 298
&V*

3+-->

As above.

& cruell 3:

J-31) ---

177.

(sic)

178.

San'a. Year 299

c.

A. UM. 24mm., 3.67grm. (pierced)

A.H. =911/2 A.D.


was

As above.
Margin ends with als.
A.

20mm, 2.82grm.

ANs.

Misr. Year 299 A.H. =911/2 A.D.


&:V's

J-3

& crual

J-31

&-

--~~

"
Ju
--all

3:)

-->

Very lightly struck.


A. UM. 25.5mm., 4.18grm.

There is

a specimen

Museum (Allan,

NC,

of the same mint and date in the British


1919, p. 197,

[46

not described).
|

ABB As ID
179.

Al-Rafiqah. Year
*W** 5-> <-

J-31)

Gold

A.H. =913/4 A.D.

301

*|Ju

-->
A. UM. 27.5mm., 4.23grm. (part of edge broken or clipped)
PLATE VII

Although there are dirhams of later date this appears to be the


last known dinar of al-Rafiqah.
180.

Misr. Year 303 A.H. =915/6 A.D.

*W**

-I

U-a

As above.

As above.
A. UM. 25mm., 4.04grm.

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181.

Dimishq. Year 306

*W**

--

A.H. =918/9 A.D.

34.2%

As above.

As above.
A. UM. 24mm., 3.78grm. (pierced)

182.

Madinat al-Salm. Year

307

A.H. =919/20 A.D.

"

As above.

4JV

--all

SJ

A. ANs (ex Starosselsky Coll.). 24mm., 3.88grm.


PLATE

VII

The two published specimens of this issue have not been fully de
scribed (Markov, p. 51, No. 956; Allan, NC, 1919, p. 197).
183.

Sq al-Ahwaz.

Year 308

*W*3

313-yl

&V.

A.H. =920/1 A.D.

33

All

As above.

JW 5-all

A. ANs (ex Nies Coll.). 25.5mm., 6.37grm.


PLATE

[47

VII

This

IS LA M

CO I NS

IC

known dinar

believe, the earliest

Sq al-Ahwaz.

The

exceptional.

Tustar min-al-Ahwaz.

Year 309

*W**

313-yl

L-:

&

184.

is

weight

of

is,

RAR E

A.

As above.

ANs

A.H. =921/2 A.D.


As above.

(ex Newell Coll.). 25mm., 3.77grm.


is

Allan, NC,

p.

No.

1919,

Sq al-Ahwaz. Year 309

*W**

197).

A.H. =921/2 A.D.

33

185.

specimens

9;

1885,

of

fully de
this issue are known, but neither
scribed (Lane-Poole, Fasti Arabici: Mr. Calvert's Collection, NC,

Two

313-yl

As above.

As above.

186.

Al-Ahwaz. Year

*W*:

A.H. =924/5 A.D.

312

34 G-:)

313-y\|

As above.
A.

As above.

Coll.).

24mm., 4.42grm.

of

to

have been

an

this appears

error, probably for Sq al-Ahwaz.

Misr. Year 313 A.H. =925/6 A.D.

*W**

44'

4-

"
4JW

A.

34

187.

ANs (ex Newell

Tiesenhausen (No. 2305), Fraehn listed, but did not


dinar
this mint and date in the British Museum, but
to

describe,

According

2-call

UM. 25mm., 4.02grm.

[48

other dies

of

of

this issue, with different arrangements


the pellets, have been published.

Specimens

of

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A. UM. 25mm., 4.199 rm.

ABB As ID GoLD

A.H. =925/6 A.D.

Hamadhn. Year 313

188.

*-* >

*W**

& crual

<- &l-e

"
Ju

3:

2-call

J-31) ---

A'.

ANs

(ex Newell Coll.). 26mm., 3.96grm.

Tiesenhausen (No. 2311) lists


and date.

undescribed

&-l

>

*W*

Misr. Year 314 A.H. =926/7 A.D.

189.

L-a

Ju

is

197)

this mint

--all

UM. 34.5mm, 4.27grm.

not described

in

the

be
British Museum (Allan, NC,

full.

Ardabil. Year 318 A.H. =930 A.D.


*V
34 &V.
J2240

&

190.

p.

neath the reverse; another


1919,

VIII

Berlin (No. 1657) apparently has three pellets


in

specimen

in

AV.

*A*->va

*-

U-

All!

ANs (ex Newell

B-sil

Coll.).

22mm., 3.64grm.

the British Museum

[49

not fully described.

(Allan, NC,

1919,

VIII

p.

specimen

in

PLATE

197)

is

A.

All

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As above.

dinar

of

an

PLATE

RAR E

IS LA M I C CO I NS

From the historical point of view this is an interesting and valuable


coin, for it records the restoration of purely Abbsid control in
Azerbaijan during the complicated marches and counter-marches
involving the Sajid princes and several Abbsid governors. Vasmer
has

of this involved

in minute detail the developments

traced

period.
Bardha'ah. Year 318
*V &l's 34

[-

A.H. =930 A.D.

JV: *-

:23):
all

*A*-P-A.

J3-2

5-31) ---

te

A.

2-call

(ex Newell Coll.). 22mm., 4.16grm.

ANs

It

190 above.

of

number

politi
Sajid

would appear

the only

be

course Abbsid

to

of

the same mint, but this

Bardha'ah,

reflects the same

as

No.

VIII

by

dirhams

that recorded

Azerbaijan.

Bardha'ah are known, and there are

of

dinars

of

cal situation

Arrn, north

of

the capital

believe, the unique purely Abbsid dinar

of

This

in

is,

PLATE

or

of

think, should establish the fact that Muflih's gov

of

320

that year, for there are dinars and dirhams


A.H." bearing his name and that
the Caliph

al-Muqtadir who was killed

the day mentioned.

p.

is

p.

50

of

in

O monetakh

izuchennya Azerbaidjana,

5,

R.

R.

Sadjidov,
obssledavannya
Izvestia obschestva
pp. 22-51; see especially
44, where the BM specimen
No.
taken into account. Cf. also NHR, pp. 142ff.
Bardha'ah, dated 323, struck by the latter, cited by Vasmer, op. cit.,
44,
Cf. dinar
No. 27.
64 Ibid.
82

Vasmer,

on

Ardabil

the year 320, and before the

in

Shawwal

of

of

27th

of

ernorship began during the course

of

This specimen,

of

Bardhaah dinar not struck


the petty dynasts, and not bearing
the name
one
the Caliph's mawlas, Wasif
Muflib al-Ysufi."

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Ju

of

191.

ABB As ID GoLD
192.

Tustar min-al-Ahwaz.

*W**

34 &V.

&

cruel! 3:

J-31)

Year

318

313-yl

J.

A.H. =930 A.D.

L:

#
Ju

2-call

-->

A. ANs (ex Newell Coll.). 24mm., 4.26grm.

One specimen of this issue has been published but not fully
scribed."
Filastin. Year

193.

*W**

A.H. =931 A.D.

&- ~ 5-la-l.

As above.

cruell 3:

3-3)

specimen

A. UM. 24mm., 4.06grm.

of this issue has been published but not fully de

scribed."

Misr. Year 319 A.H. =931 A.D.


<
*_-e &--~~

\**

all
W.

All

As above.

Av.

specimen

UM. 24.5mm., 4.02grm.

differs from published examples

the pellet beneath the reverse."


p.

51

cf.

p.

Lane-Poole, NC, 1885 (op. cit.), No. 9a.


Porter, NC, 1921,
325;
Zambaur, NZ, 1922,
Paris, No. 1145, Khedivial Library, Nos. 668, 668A.

**

of

This

10.

2-call

in

194.

**

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&

34

319

de

the presence

R A RE

Misr. Year

195.

Margin

319

IS LA M I C CO I NS

A.H. =931 A.D.

as above.

"
4Ju 2-all

& cruel! 3:

J-l

5-3.)

196-198.

A. UM. 24mm., 3.85grm.

Al-Ahwz. Year 320 A.H. =932 A.D.

<\#3 J.--> <-

2-call

-->

3 specimens: A. ANs

3-0)

-->

(2 ex Newell Coll.). 26mm.,

25mm., 25mm.; 4.3ogrm., 3.39grm., 5.17grm.


PLATE

VIII (No.

198)

Ermitage" is not described. Amid


al-Dawlah was the title of the Vizier abu-Ali al-Husayn b. al
Qsim."
similar

(?)

specimen in the

No mint. No date (Al-Muqtadir, 295-320 A.H. =908-932 A.D.).


Nandi, sacred bull of Siva,
Horseman,
coat
mail (?),
helmeted, riding horse
clining left; above, Ju ---all.
of

silver dirhams

of

traordinary issues

the

of

fragment lacking)
PLATE VIII

my knowledge, the only gold specimen

of

This

these

ex

Kabul bull and horseman type. The

the same type have most recently been discussed

John Walker, who tends toward the view that these coins were
by

by

above,_*

(ex Starosselsky Coll.). 19mm., 3.6ogrm. (about

to

ANs

is,

A.

left;

J.

to

in

re-

199.

in

of

of

52

69

54, No. 1019.

Markov,

p.

in

to

propaganda pieces purposely struck


the Caliph's moneyers
Iraq,
order
win the approval
the Hindu tribes
the Kabul

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#
Ju

& J.'...')

J-31

315yu

Cf. Ties., No.

2357.

Gold

ABB As ID

Valley." The

present unique dinar is not from the same dies as

in the ANS (see below, Nos. 348-9), but is

the silver specimens

otherwise of identical design.

s-- ~

321

A.H. =933 A.D.


g-

313-yl

>

J
Lawl

W.

3:

&

"W

All

*W*3 &L-23

-->

Tustar min-al-Ahwaz. Year

200.

Zambaur published but did not describe fully


mint and date.

&

A.H. =934 A.D.

322

4.23

J-a

&#1

4U

A.

"V gal-J)
UM. 23mm., 3.86grm.

is

of

There are two published specimens


this issue, but one lacks
the pellet and the other
not fully described.
Madinat al-Salm. Year

Jail

J-31)

A.H. =940 A.D.

329

<-->

f>0~!

3:

*W** g.:23 &- <&

202.

J
gal-J)

*UW

-->

SU
A. UM. 22mm., 4.14grm.

53

S. of

A.

al

of

in

of

la

I,

pt.

E.

120, No. 420.


Khedivial Library, No. 693; Ties., No. 2929(a).

p.

71

in

of

is

of

70

Islamic Coins with Hindu Types, NC, 1946, pp. 121-128. The full bibliography
previously published dirhams
given
this type
the course
this article. Cf.
Altekar, A Bull and Horseman Type
Muqtadir Biliah
Coin
the Abbasid Caliph
JNSI, VIII,
pp. 75-78.
[sic!] Ja'afar,
Numismatique Orientale, NZ, 1914,
von Zambaur, Nouvelles Contributions
72

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*W*3

this

Misr. Year

201.

specimen

of

Newell Coll.). 23.5mm., 4.85grm.

ANs (ex

A'.

J-31) ---

RA R E

IS LA M I

CO

INS

- ~ U-

Mint? Year 336 A.H. =947/8 A.D.

203.

3:3

*W**

all
-->ve

All

All J3-2

call

Margin undeciphered, possibly

A.

meaningless.
UM. 22.5mm, 2.76grm.
PLATE VIII

to

very strange coin, exceptionally

of

of

is

thin and underweight,


and engraved with bold and clumsy characters.
have had
aban
This

in

or

of

ra,

It

or

In be

to

if

of

tooth for the preposition we are confronted with four teeth and
shin,
final letter: even
we take three
the teeth
sin

can make nothing

conventionalization

of

be
a

does not appear

to

it: in
it

writing Tustar. As for the reverse margin

of

of

to

of

Yqt find
bewildering number
possibilities.
we still have
many names whose letters would conform
these possibilities, but
likely site for
none
them seems
mint. As
last resort one
might argue that the die-engraver inadvertently omitted one tooth
the Prophetic

recognized

other dynasties

Caliph, are excessively rare.


group
late Abbsid dinars, most

on

of

al-Muti, other than those

which

as

is

he

The coins

of

Mission.

of

be

no

of

of

of

in

to

in

or

of

lar
to

There follows
them simi
published specimens but differing
greater degree
lesser
respect
from them
their weights. For the study
the metrol
following
ogy
period
the late Abbsid
the
list should
some

54

of

No. 478; Paris, Nos. 1268-9.

Cf. BM,

i,

is

As the legends differ

in

way from the known dinars


al-Nasir, al-Mustansir and al-Musta'sim, epigraphical description
omitted.
use.

78

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is

is

it

to

spite
don the attempt
read the name
the mint
the fact
quite clearly written.
that
consists
five teeth and final
probably
za,
letter with
tail which
nun. Allowing one

ABB As ID

Gold

611 A.H. = 1214/5 A.D.


A. ANS-MMA (ex Durkee Coll.). 31mm., 7.19grm.

204.

Madinat al-Salm. Year

205.

Madinat al-Salm. Year 612

A.H. = 1215/6 A.D.


A. UM. 29.5mm., 6.84grm.

206-207.

Madinat al-Salm. Year 613 A.H. = 1216/7 A.D.


UM. 30.5mm., 12.39grm.
(ex Newell Coll.). 3omm., 11.56grm.

Madinat al-Salm.

615

A.H.

A.D.

1218/9

ANs (ex Starosselsky Coll.). 24.5mm., 4.69grm. (pierced)

A.H.

Madinat al-Salm. Year 62o

A.D.

1223

be A.

A.D.

1240/1

ANS-MMA (ex Durkee

Coll.).

24.5mm., 7.81grm.

unpublished.

A.H.

ANs

A.D.

1243/4

(ex Newell Coll.). 28mm., 8.73grm.

Madinat al-Salm. Year 642 A.H.

A.

212. Madinat al-Salm. Year 641

1244/5

A.D.

ANS-MMA (ex Durkee Coll.). 29mm., 11.17grm.


ANs (ex Starosselsky Coll.). 28mm., 4.68grm. (ringed)

Madinat al-Salm. Year 643 A.H.

A.H.

=
=

al-Salm. Year 654

Coll.).

1250/1

1256

27mm., 9.34grm.

A.D.

A.H.

A.D.

Coll.).

1258

55

26.5mm., 13.07grm.

A.D.

A.

Madinat al-Salm. Year 656

ANS-MMA (ex Durkee

219.

A.D.

ANs (ex Starosselsky Coll.). 27.5mm., 5.32grm. (ringed)

A.

218. Madinat

Madinat al-Salm. Year 648 A.H.

UM. 28.5mm., 11.98grm.

1247/8

ANS-MMA (ex Durkee

217.

A.H.

al-Salm. Year 645


A.

216. Madinat

A.D.

1245/6
A.

215.

A.

A.

213-214.

A.D. Al-Nasir.

1225

This year appears

to

Madinat al-Salm. Year 638 A.H.

A.

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211.

A.H.

UM. 30mm., 7.60grm.

ANs (ex Newell Coll.). 27mm., 3.78grm.

A.

210. Madinat al-Salm. Year 622

A.

209.

Year

A'.

208.

ANs

Av.

Av.

UM. 26.5mm., 8.90grm.

IS LA M I

RA R E

CO

INS

am aware of only one other specimen of this the last of Ab


basid coins. It must have been struck in the first six weeks of the

for al-Musta'sim was put to death and the Abbsid empire


brought to an end by the Mongol Hlg on the 14th of Safar, 656.
year,

B. SILVER"

&V.

(?) A.H. =755/6 (?) A.D.

4.5

** 3:3

138

Ua

Antkiyah. Year

oo ooooooooo
A.

Annulets:

ANs (ex Newell

Coll.).

24mm., 3.98grm.

VIII

for

188

and the mint

168,

J.J1,

Fraehn,"

<Jaju, which

he

as

suggested might

or

certainly identical coin was published

almost

who read the date

ous

no

be

the coin and the

<!-J1. The mystery was

the fact that one would not

be

or

in

<J.J)

or

of

be

to

of

what appears
<<
tantalizing particularly
view

as

30," No. 222

of

in

in

Ties. No. 1443.

56

with

Recensio,

is

the Museum
the American Numismatic Society number
Museum Collection there are eighty-two. Noteworthy specimens among
few from other sources, are described
the following pages.
=

these, together

the University

p.

in

* **
821;

tooth

p.

Allan, NC, 1919,


198.
The Abbsid silver coins

faultily

is

at

of

the definite article. Likewise, the kaf


the right, giving the impression that there

the expected lam


engraved

is
a

it

is

It

on

to

completely unknown town


encounter
mint early
finally dawned
the Abbsid period.
me that the mint, like
the date,
somewhat clumsily written, and that the second letter,
being slightly more elongated than
nun, and not
should be,

in

likely

have

that period. As for the mint must con


spent many hours hunting for some likely interpretation

is

fess that

for

the style

simple stroke.

of

is

little doubt that 138


epigraphy
definitely

correct,

as

in

it

be

it

as

assume that the mim had been written

of

to

is

is

as

is

of

be

but
left the problem unsolved.
admittedly equivocal: the second stroke
The date
the decade
high
lam,
reading
not
should
for
but
other
than
thirty
eighty, but
possible, unless
that case one would have

76

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An

by

PLATE

he

220.

ya
is

it;

ABB As ID s ILVER

and finally the


almost imperceptible. Admittedly
these adjustments are numerous, but
am quite confident that
Antkiyah
intended.

of

the sole evidence


the
beginning
Antioch before the

the issue

abandonment for nearly two centuries must

be
a

well

be

early Abbsid days might

but the reason for

of

in of

this important city

its

at

Muslim mint
the fourth century
the Hijrah. The establishment
existence

expected,

*k

ooooo ooo

ANs. 25mm., 2.85grm.

VIII

To my knowledge

J-4513

A.H. =763/4 A.D.

-- ~

&l=\

ooooo

Antkiyah appears
307 (Ties.,
325;
dated 306 (Porter, NC, 1921,

No.

specimen

be

1862."
to

in

of

27mm, 2.89grm.

Arrn.

p.

is

ANs.

22.76); and
Zambaur, NZ,

Soret).

57]

the reprint pagination

of

to

is

Ties., No. 754 (where the reference

104

Bartholomae's third letter

to

1862,

RNB,

p.

* 78

p.

The earliest known dirham


the only dinar which
have noted
1922,
10).
Paris, No. 1685.

of

Bartholomae

77

was listed

the second known Abbsid issue


by

This

is

AR.

Annulets:

with have

cf.

*3

146

have met

26.5mm., 2.61grm.

"..

published specimens that

Arrn. Year

Coll.).

ANs (ex Starosselsky

All

*3%u

oo

AR.

Annulets:

A.H. =758/9 A.D.

141

s--

3-4-13

**

o
o

Al-Kufah. Year

222.

Istakhr

A.H.

140

oo

one dated

the only other Abbsid dirham

of

PLATE

is

AR.

oo ~

&-

** 3:3

A.H. =756/7 A.D.

139

oo

Istakhr. Year

Annulets: ooo

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mint

matter for speculation.

221.

223.

in of

correct,

is

be

this reading

of

If

is

before

IS LA M I C

R A R E
224.

C O I

NS

Arrn. Year 149 A.H. =766/7 A.D.


&le;
** 3:213 &-

ooooo

AR.

Annulets:

Al-Muhammadiyah.

Described

Year

NHR, No.

in

225.

149

26.5mm, 2.86grm.

ANs.

A.H. =766/7 A.D.

The letter beneath the reverse area

51C.

(ex Wood Coll.). 26mm., 2.81grm.

Al-Muhammadiyah. Year 157 A.H. =773/4 A.D.


** 3:-->3 &<-->dU

226.

ANs

>!

->

(s-all

J-31)

-->l

Annulets:

oo oo oo oo
UM. 27mm., 2.71grm.

AR.

o
o

oo

of

of

J3-2 -->
All gle

r":

AR,

&-ell

59.

58

No. 66 (p. 23) =NHR, No.

Tornberg,

in

A.H. =778/9 A.D.

ANs.

J)

162

(3.1

oo

159

the year 157."

Madinat al-Salm. Year

** 3:- 3:1

believe

<le

&l=

of

be

specimen

Annulets:

an

the Istanbul Museum, but

accepted. Furthermore Tornberg's dirham

probably

227.

in

had seen

may now
a

is it

this year which

In

in

Mint and date are very badly written, but am quite confident
that they have been read correctly. This coin fills
blank
the
(p.
Rayy series.
unpublished
rejected
NHR
37)
dirham

80

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-*

&

AR.

oo

in

shape from the usual variety.


differs
Annulets: oo oo
oo

24mm, 2.87grm.

ABBA's ID SILVER

This variety, with this particular arrangement of pellets, appears


to be unpublished.
228. Al-Abbsiyah.

** 5-3

Year 168 A.H. =784/5 A.D.


&V.
*-U-IV

Annulets:

oo o o oo

--

cal

On

Coll.). 25mm,
O

apparently similar specimen, Fraehn read

** 3-3

229. Al-Muhammadiyah.

Year

(sic)

&V.

168

2.5ogrm.

81

-N->

A.H. =784/5 A.D.

--->4

AR.

Annulets: ooooooooo
ANs (ex Nies

Coll.).

26mm., 2.66grm.

NHR,

date.

W
*

J.3->

-->
w-

Obverse area enclosed


chain
marginal
legend.
border. No

>

No mint. No

by

230.

in

This curious coin has been described and illustrated


No. 68C.

all

cs:* >y)

Annulets:

oooo

&

&

&J

AR.

No marginal legend.
GCM

(Teheran, 1935). 12mm., o.5ogrm.

Ties., No. 1044.

59
|

6, No. 111

identify the governor, Yahy

Recensio,

p.

have not been able

b.

to

PLATE

* I

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ANs (ex Newell

an

AR.

*_j.

VIII

al-Rabi';

RA

IS LA M I

R E

CO I

NS

of

Al-Yammah.

** 3:-

ooo

be

all

at

g-

>

J.J."
All J3-2

o
o

ge_ll

&#91

AR.

J-31)

ANs

-->

-->

(ex Wood Coll.). 25mm., 2.7ogrm.

reckon

at

A.H.)

existence.

least seven distinct issues.

at

of

issues

VIII

this mint during the

Of the

year 170 alone

three years (169-171

its

bewildering number

of

is

PLATE

The present one appears

be

oo

of

A.H. =786/7 A.D.

(*)33-A

There

to

in

:-3

to

170

#30

oo

all gle

** 3:-

-->

All J.3->

ooo

unpublished issue and the latest striking


-

Al-Hrniyah. Year

Annulets:

in

et

i,

3.

to

7.

[60

1241;

5.

2.

i,

6.

Ties., No. 1117 =BM,


No. 744;
No. 230 Berlin, No.
1240(?);
Ties, No. 1119 Berlin, No. 1242(?);
No.
4.

is

b.

b.

is

i,

It

of p.

4o

1.

p.

.
.
.

of

82

Yahy
The Kufic seal
man named Ahmad
Rabi'
illustrated
Adler's
Collectio Nova Numorum Cuficorum
Museis Borgiano
Adleriano (Copenhagen,
1792),
permissible, but perhaps fanciful,
conjecture that this
(cf.
181).
person was the son
the unidentified governor.
BM,
Ties., No. 1099 =BM,
Paris,
No. 139 Paris, No. 743;
No. 140;
88

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this short-lived mint.


233.

datable

(ex Wood Coll.). 26mm., 25mm.; 2.94grm., 2.82grm.

an

be

AR,

to

This appears

ANs

the

the Hijrah.

<le

specimens:

events,

A.H. =786/7 A.D.

170

*u-JV

ooo

Annulets:

Year

style

>

231-232.

the second half

similarity

must,

the second century

in

coins issued during al-Mahdi's rule.

of

of

have placed this coin here because

It

its

his name does not appear in the early chronicles. Fractional dirhams
are rare, and the absence of mint and date is quite extraordinary.

Ties., No. 1118=Berlin,


Library, No. 397.

Khedivial

ABB As ID s ILVER

No. 1240 (=Ties, No. 1118?), and I publish


it here only because it may assist in untangling the whole series.
the same as Berlin,

so.

The name at the top is doubtful; and 35_a in the fourth line of

Annulets:

oo

Above and

A.H. =789/90 A.D.

173

*-

Ifriqiyah. Year
** 5-3 eit
in

-*
J3-2

oooo

-A-Pva

AUl

>

annulet border:

234.

*w

the reverse is equally

J3_* <ls.')

AR.

C3
(ex Newell Coll.). 25mm, 2.78grm.

ANs

This specimen differs from the published varieties.


Al-Mubarakah.

as

oooo

&

oo

A.H. =790/1 A.D.

Year 174
sulu

** 3-3 &Annulets:

(apparently)

Year

oo

NHR, No.

74B.

&

A.H. =792/3 A.D.

AR.

4.

oo

oo

Annulets:

oo

J-3

176

J1

Madinat al-Salm. Year


*3
f2.

(ex Wood Coll.). 25.5mm., 2.90grm.

ANs

in

AR.

oo

&

co oo

This coin has been described


237.

A.H. =790/1 A.D.

174

->dU

&2)

Annulets:

oo

** 5-3

(ex Wood Coll.). 25.5mm, 2.55grm.

ANs

the word sanah.

Al-Muhammadiyah.
oo

236.

of

AR.

J-a,

Note the omission

GCM

(Istanbul, 1933). 22mm., 1.67grm.

61

is

Ties., No. 1178 (p. 303)


most nearly like
but lacks the name
margin. Cf. also Ties., Nos. 1177-8, Berlin, Nos. 966-8.

in

it,

PLATE

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235.

VIII

the

obverse

RA

R E

IS LA M I C CO I NS

This is an extremely rare year in the otherwise plentiful series of


Baghdad.

am aware of only one other specimen, a fragment found


hoard in East Prussia in 1866."

Al-Muhammadiyah. Year 178 A.H. =794/5 A.D.


**
&W->
<- *->lu

238.

5-3

oooooooo
AR.

Al-Kfah. Year

239.

3:

180

**

33%

@@

Annulets:

in

This coin has been described

NHR, No.

79A.

A.H. =796/7 A.D.


<!!!

G)

J3-2 -->

3-yl U-yl

** 3:3

-->]

ANs (ex Newell

only one other specimen

of

AR.

of

Year

240. San'a.

U-1

-->

Coll.). 25mm,

2.84grm.

this issue."

A.H. =801 A.D.

185

J--> <- V-a:


of

minute groups

letters

(rest effaced)
AR.

ANs. 18.5mm., 1.28grm.

and this coin establishes the fact that

was also

office

185."
in

p.

p.

cf.

pp. 649, 740;


Zambaur, Manuel,
113. He was still active (as gov
(Tabari, III, pp. 712, 730).

62

191 and 192 A.H.

in

*Tabari, III,
ernor?)

p.

in

F.

85

ZDMG, 1866,
Nesselmann,
G. H.
610 Ties., No. 2787.
Ties., No. 2794 (not described
detail).
Recensio,
25," No. 199 Ties., No. 1387. The word beneath the reverse area was,
here, illegible.

as

in

184

in

Mecca and the Yaman

(al-Barbari)

he

was governor

Hammd

AH.,

VIII

this fractional dirham has been published.

of

One specimen

of

PLATE

in

Annulets:

oo

V->

87

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J:-31)

am aware

ANs. 25mm., 2.84grm.

Annulets: o

J.

in

sILVER

ABB As ID
241.

Al-Muhammadiyah.

** 3:3

Annulets:

*-

Year
:-->dU

186

A.H. =802 A.D.

oooo

oo

AR. ANS.

24mm., 2.90grm.

This coin is described in NHR, No. 87F.


242.

Madinat al-Salm. Year

** 3:3 -- ~
Annulets:

186

A.H. =802 A.D.

&-

*X-J

all

oo

o oo o oo o

J-yl

-->

J.3->

L-yl

3-3) l

4 U-

& -->

oooo

above the reverse

&

&

193

A.H.

=809

A.D.
<-->

(rest effaced)

*
*
*J1

All J.3->

ri-,

-->

&l=

Annulets:

(ex Newell Coll.). 26mm, 2.93grm.

here.

Madinat Balkh. Year

** 3-3

ANs

unique unless Tornberg's


as

in

is

fact

44

243.

names

180.

63

No.

Ties., No. 2807.


Ties., No. 1520.
Ties., No. 1542; BM,

i,

in

b.

al-Hakam
Sinn are present
the following year.

coin

Harthamah

issue

of

an

those

b.

full

the year 192"; and the

on

of

The reverse area legends are similar

on

(ex Newell Coll.). 25mm, 2.56grm. (frag. lacking)

of

ANs

of to

AR.

rJ.

91 90 89

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This specimen
area"

is

AR.

Jia

Zaranj

yan and

the same mint struck

R A R E

** 3-3

44

A.H. =809 A.D.

193

>3'--

~~~
all

(Q)

Q)

Point under ba of duriba.


Annulets:
(Q)

I NS

4) J3-2
33-ul U-yl

->

AR.

ANs

G3

&

5-31

J-ll +

Nisabr. Year

CO

244. Madinat

IS LA M I C

-->l

-->

(ex Newell Coll.). 21.5mm., 3.95grm.

it

in

of

in

of

ba

i,

in

This specimen differs from BM,


No. 245,
that
lacks the
Ties,
area;
name Uthmn beneath the reverse
and from
No. 1560,
the presence
the point under the
duriba. Another speci
men lacking the name Uthmn was found
the Stora Velinge
hoard.

J-V

oo

&

*
*N)

o
o

oo

&21

A.H. =809/10 A.D.

** 5-3

194

J3-2 -->
Al

Madin Bajunais. Year


Annulets:

14
J-31 ->

-->

Similar
246.

to

-A-e

Ties., No.

2820.

*-

Madinat Samarqand. Year

** 5-3

J--> <-

AR. ANS.

195

All

-*
4J)

J3-2 -->

3:31)

@@@@

Annulets:

23.5mm., 3.09grm.

A.H.=810/1 A.D.

--

33-ul

Jail)

No. 558,

64

p.

1941,

Linder-Welin, NNA,

Ulla

S.

AR. ANS.

**

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245.

99.

24mm., 2.5Igrm.

several respects from

published specimens

this year and mint.

Madin Bjunais. Year 195 A.H. =810/1 A.D.


** 5-3 J--> <- J-->W &-oo

3.913

oo

oo

all J3-2 -->


*...*J)
Jel V."
4

Annulets:

247.

of

This coin differs in

SILVER
all

ABB As ID

--

&:-31)

~~~

Ties, No.

248. Madinat

<!-->
all

oo

J3-2 -->
>! V- all
33-ul tuy

oo oo oo

oo

Annulets:

ANs

(ex Newell Coll.). 23.5mm, 2.82grm.

minor detail from one

in

This specimen differs

in

AR.

J-all

the British

Museum.

Annulets:

oo

*-

oooo

&

196

&

** 3:-

Madinat Balkh. Year

249.

A.H. =811/2 A.D.

As above, but large pellet be


al-Fadl (none above),
and point over
al-Fadl.

ANs

(ex Nies Coll.). 24mm, 2.84grm.

detail from published varieties.

65
|

58, No. 3oox.

ix,

BM,

p.

This specimen differs

in

AR.

f
of

neath

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A.H. =810/1 A.D.

Hart. Year 195


J--> <- cl_*

** 3:-

(ex Newell Coll.). 25mm., 2.68grm.

ANs

1604.

oo

Similar

oo

to

AR.

3_

IS LA M I C CO INS

** 5-3

A.H. =811/2 A.D.

196

All

~~~

(V-yl 4

--

33-ul

J-all

ANs

There are several published varieties


none like this in detail.

&-

A.H. =812/3 A.D.

197

** 5-3

this mint and date, but

&

Madinat al-Salm. Year

251.

(Wood Coll.). 25mm, 2.8ogrm.

of

AR.

ooo

e
o
o

oo

oo

oo

3:31)
oo

Annulets:

J3-2 -->

ll)

----

Madinat Samarqand. Year

250.

Lal

RARE

f2.J.

Annulets: ooooo

"I

-A-2Ea

4-la-J)

the year 176 (see

ANs

(ex Newell Coll.). 24mm, 2.90grm.

No. 237 above) specimens

of

As

in

AR.

Ooo

the Baghdad

and curiously rare. The only other pub


my attention" appears
lished coin that has come
bear the
Caliph, but find this description difficult
name
al-Ma'mun
events, would appear
credit. The present coin,
the last

mint for

Dimishq. Year

Annulets:

** 5-3
oo

&\*

to

be

to

all

the capital.

198

A.H. =813/4 A.D.


54-4
-A-Pve

All J3-2

-->

33-ul twyl

in

Blurred word
third quarter
of annulet border.

AR.

J-31 ---

252.

al-Amin

at

issue

of

at

as

of

to

to

197 are excessively

66

ANs. 25mm., 2.83grm.

PLATE
Ties., No. 1650.

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All J3-2

3-yl

VIII

SILVER

"ABBA's ID

Abbsid coins of Damascus are remarkably rare. Not only is this


coin apparently unpublished but of proximate years I have noted
only one specimen of the year 194 and two of the year 200. The
present issue is the first

of

is not only satisfactory

confirmation, but in some respects valuable

of dirhams issued by an individual


named Muhammad b. Salih b. Bayhas al-Kilbi, who calls himself
simply Muhammad b. Bayhas on the coins. The numismatic record
a series

elaboration, of the somewhat vague accounts in the chronicles of


developments in and about Damascus at the turn of the century.

b.

195 A.H.

the leader

of on

to

no

the year

scene toward the end

the
the

by

of

Kalbite faction, took possession

the principal cities

of

to

in

b.

Abbsid forces opposing the Umayyad pretender Ali


'Abdullh
al-Sufyani, who
his attempt
seize the Caliphate and aided
northern
Syria. The issue became one
rivalry,
Kalbite-Kaisite
and we next
Ibn-Bayhas
besieged Damascus whose Kaisite inhabitants
learn that

women's

the year 198.

Ibn

Damascus (witness the coins), and


b.

remained there until Abdullah

Tahir came

to

Bayhas became the Lord

Muharram

in

This event took place

of

him, while al-Sufyni escaped

of

clothes.

to

surrendered the city

in

of

the

Damascus.

in

**

Berlin, No. 1262; Ties., No. 1705; Paris, No. 907.


200 A.H.: Ties., No. 1705, Paris, No. 907; 204 A.H.: ANS, No. 257 below; 205 A.H.:
Paris, No. 908, and one, unpublished,
the Princeton University Collection; 208 A.H.:
Ties., No. 1796; 209 A.H.: Ties., No. 1801.
97

Ties., No. 1809.


His full name
Yqt
tioned
(Yqt, IV,
53;

of

be

to

to

is

p.

of

p.

p.

of
I.,

to

94

E.

p.

in

is a

of

in

its

at

an is

cf.

given

b.

p.

as

by

first occurrence
Ibn-al-Athir (VI,
172). He
men
authority on the residents
Qarht',
village belonging
Damascus
Le Strange, Palestine,
479). He
not
confused with abu
Bayhas al-Haysam
Jbir, the Khriiite, founder
the Bayhasiyah branch
the sect, who
was executed
the year
A.H. after fleeing
Medina from al-Hajjj's persecution (cf.
Mas'udi, Murilj, V,
230;
s.v. Ab Baihas). For the name, Bayhas (lion), see
Ibn-Dorayd (ed. Wstenfeld, Gttingen, 1854),
227.

67

cf.

p.

Ibn-al-Athir, VI, pp. 172-3; Ibn-Khaldn, III,


Weil, Geschichte der Chalifen,
235;
pp. 187-8; Fraehn, apud Tiesenhausen, No. 1705, quoting Ibn-'Asakir.

*
II,

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usually called," first appears


as

Ibn-Bayhas,

is

the year 211, bears

of he

account,

Bayhas." The next known


name. According
the historical

Muhammad

as

issue,

of

bearing the name

of

all

The coin evidence begins with the present dirham, dated 198 A.H.
There follow issues of the years 200, 204, 205, 208 and 209,

IS LA M I C CO I NS

RARE

Now I have failed to find exact mention of the date when the famous
Thirid general and statesman came to Damascus, but it seems
in

all

fairly well established that al-Ma'mun appointed him governor of


the territory lying between Raqqah and Egypt
206 A.H.
to

to

he

to

b.

of

Ibn-Bayhas, that Abdullh


The chronicles then say, apropos
Egypt, returned
Thir thereupon went
Damascus and took
Irq, where
Ibn-Bayhas with him
died.

of

b.

the effect that Ibn-Bayhas died

think we must assume that this

in

to

report

is

210," but

this chronology

is

in

to

factor
in

to

Irq appears
Tahir's return from Egypt and march
have been toward the end
the year 211." The only discordant

Abdullah

error. Otherwise,

come

of

known Damascus issue

one

of

as

to

below, the coins and the chron


icles complement each other admirably;
have noted above, the

with one exception which

the year 211 omits the name

Ibn

x-

by

of

to

in

is

of of

dirham
the year 203, listed
Porter among
the coins
the University
Beirut Collection, the reverse
which bears inscriptions similar
the present coin with one im

The exception

al

&

3:

of

be

portant difference:
above, and
beneath. This would
Muhammad, the son
al-Rashid,
Hrn
later the Caliph

of

to

Mu'tasim. Zambaur" attempts


reconcile this issue with Muham
Syria and Egypt
mad's (al-Mu'tasim's) honorary governorship

of

28

p.

(who

gives

Damascus).
52

(end

Abd Allh

b.

s.v.

II,

transl.,

p.

396

I.,

p.

cf.

of =

another account);

E.

Rajab, 212, according

235.
Slane,

I,

Ibn-Khaldn, III,
Ibn-Khallikn, ed.

173;

1098,

government

say 205 and

p.

I.,

p.

Abdullh's
de

p.

the commencement

VI,

some

b.

p.

of

E.

Ibn-Khaldn, III,
252 (206 A.H., and
Thir, Zambaur, Manuel,
Allh

s.v. Abd

to

in

211

or

of

101 Ibn-al-Athir,
102 Tabari, III,

257;

of

of

as

cf.

Ibn-al-Athir, VI,

p.

100

some say 207);


205
the date

p.

cf.

p.

he

of

in b.

in

p.

to to

is

to to

&

I,

Thir.
Matthes),
606;
Yqt, index,
667, where
108 Ibn-Taghri-Birdi (ed. Juynboll
Aghni, XV,
88, mistakenly interchanged with the Ibn-Taghri
Wstenfeld's reference
Salih, al-'Alawi. Ibn-Bayhas (Ibn-Bahis
Birdi reference, applies
another Muhammad
reported
Ibn-Khaldn)
have taken part
the revolt
abu-Harb al-Mubarqa' (the

in

of

II,

of p.

of
I.,

cf.

p.

in

and

else the chroniclers

E.

227 A.H.,

time;

or

in

jail. Thus
have been captured and put
was still active
have confused the dramatis personae
the two
rather similar uprisings (Tabari, III, pp. 1320, 1322; Ibn-al-Athir, VI, pp. 372, 376; Ibn
Weil, Geschichte der Chalifen,
Khaldn, III,
270;
s.v. al-Wthik;
332).
Incidentally, Ibn-Taghri-Birdi calls Ibn-Bayhas amir al-gharh, the exact significance
which
this context escapes me: certainly there can be no connection with northern Morocco, the
Veiled)
al-Wthio's

105

68

NZ,

1922,

I.,

western Syria. Cf.

320.

p. E.
7. of

1921,

NC,

104

p.

usual meaning. Probably the term applied

to

in

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Bayhas.

s.v. Gharb.

ABB As ID

s1 LVER

(allerdings etwas spter"). But this was very considerably later

212." Is it not

in

possible that Porter misread the words beneath the

Otherwise this apparent interruption


over Damascus is difficult to explain.

in Ibn-Bayhas

reverse?

rule

by

so,

The blurred word in the obverse border is probably the same as


that which appears on the specimens of the year 200 and that of the
year 204, No. 257 infra, i.e., &au. I do not know what it signifies.
Can it be 4 , Tabk? Fraehn (Ties, No. 1705), reading it
ad
a

in

was there that the Prophet won


bloodless victory and
treaty with the Christians and Jews, setting
precedent
a

it

of

on

of

at

can discover

the payment
the
other possible reading
the legend
to

significance with respect

of

jizyah.

no

A.H., and

arrived
far-reaching

to

of

to

the coin and can only suggest that we have here some obscure ref
Ibn-Bayhas, perhaps because
erence
the surrender
Damascus

(?).

his victory too was bloodless

&O

*3%u

O
O

Annulets:

A.H. =815 A.D.

199

&A-53

*3

Al-Kfah. Year

253.

g-ku

J
4:-

AR.

(Qur'n, LXI,
ANs (ex

Newell Coll.). 23.5mm.,

2.85

VIII

PLATE

G. &

rgus

4)

--

c->

&#1

G-

33:

Margin:

Jiey)

grm.

in

is, as

p.

in

of

in

of

of of

p.

honorary gov
196 Ibn-Khaldn, III,
255. Zambaur (Manuel,
28) has al-Mu'tasim
213, and (p. 27)
Egypt
incidentally,
ernor
Damascus
the same year. There
dinar
Misr
the year 214 (Berlin, No. 1316), bearing al-Mu'tasim's name
the form
abu-Ishq, his kunyah.

69

Hitti, History

of

Philip

K.

Tabk;

cf.

s.v.

I.,

of

pp. 824-5;

II 9.

E.

107 Yqt,
p.

I,

of

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of

it

to

of

in

the frontier between Arab and Byzantine lands


the
early days
Islam, far
Damascus;
the south
was the farthest
point
campaign
which Muhammad advanced
the
the year
to

Tabk lay

of on

of

mitted that any connection with the famous place


that name was
improbable, and suggested the possibility
moneyer's name.

the Arabs,

IS LA M

RAR E

IC

I NS

CO

This remarkable issue has been described more than once," but

pre
the

Abu'l

Mansur (or

his claimed
is

in

connection with this issue


the
the chronicles that Abu'l-Sary struck dirhams
The Qur'nic quotation reads: Verily Allh loves
battle-ranks like

his path, ranged

in

who fight

in

al-Kfah."

at

in

statement
those

of

Ma'mun's reign. He called himself Ftimi because

Alid descent. Of special interest

dis

of

in

of

of

Sary), the famous Alid brigand whose revolt


ten months
turbed the southern provinces
the empire
the early days

al

al-Sari

b.

reverse area) was the fictitious name

of

its

curiosity and relative rarity this almost perfectly


served specimen deserves publication here. Al-Asfar (beneath

in view of

compact

building.

Al-Rafiqah. Year

200

Ju

&:

A.H. =815/6 A.D.

common dirham mint, except


the third century
the Hijrah;
find

no

of

no means

in

year 190 and later

25.5mm., 2.90grm.

by

Al-Rafiqah

is

AR. ANS.

in

O
O

Annulets: ooo

o
o
o

Jaul.

the

pub

is

51, No. 15. Another specimen

313; RNB, 1870,

p.

al-Jazirah and commander-in-chief


listed but not described

at

Syria.

244;

E.

in

(Dhl-Yaminayn),

in

b.

al-Husayn

ZDMG, XXII, pp. 706-7, XXIII,


p.

108 C.-J. Tornberg,


Zambaur, NZ, 1905,

Thir

p.

this time governor

of

Thir must refer

to

in

lished specimens with exact date preserved between the year 193 and
208;" and none again until the year 259.
the present one; then one

p.

von

Markov,

66.

I,

p.

[70

s.v. al-Sari

b.

of

E.

is

of

A.

cf.

S.

110 Ulla

of

reported);
the rebel's striking
dirhams
pp. 502-3.
Der Islam im Morgen- und Abendland,
Linder-Welin, NNA, 1941, Nos. 681-2,
102.

line
where the fact
Mansur;
Mller,

I.,

p.

in

of

be

Tabari, III, pp. 976ff.; Ibn-al-Athir, VI, pp.


the revolt may
read
212ff, 217ff.; Mas'udi, Murilj, VII, pp. 55ff.; Ibn-Khaldn, III, pp. 242ff, (especially
243,
10" Accounts

7,

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254.

ABB As ID s ILVER

Al-Kufah. Year

255.

A.H. =816/7 A.D.

201

3:V's s--! ~ **l,

Oooo
ANs

(ex Newell Coll.). 24mm, 2.89grm.

of

AR.

o 22

Samarqand. Year 202

256.

Fraehn," differs

is

by

The specimen
this year and mint described
from the present. Another piece listed
Casanova

by

Annulets: 22C)

not described.

A.H. =817/8 A.D.


All

AR.

ANs

V.

3-0 +

&

&l

J.

G"

Gle

3
G-3

(ex Starosselsky Coll.). 22mm., 2.04grm.


PLATE

of

of

of

in

by

cited

by

in

the absence

VIII

the arrangement
the lines and
al-Mashriq and
Dhul-Ri'satayn from those

The present specimen differs

Tiesenhausen and that described

Lane-Poole. These

of

is

of an

of

its

as

of

remarkable issues
the Eighth Imm Ali al-Rid
heir apparent
general his
the Arab Empire are well known. Aside from
epigraphical document
torical interest the present coin
some

the end are engraved

it

is
a

of

the

not

is
a

the reduced size

the long inscription.


counterfeit,
counterfeitat least,

if

is
a

believe the coin

al-Rid from the

it do of

cursive characters,
coin and the consequent crowding

to

the reverse
expedient caused

by on

fifth line

of

the

an

word Ali

in

noted that the digit two and the genealogy

of

It

of

if

importance, for we have here one


the earliest,
not the earliest,
the use of Naskhi characters on an Islamic coin.
will be

instance

in

contemporary one, for the obverse outer margin, the reverse margin

the circumstances see my


71

account

No. 289.

For

1718.

i,

No.

Ties., No. 1730; BM,

of

**

111 Ties.,

an

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3-4.

XXX,

U-yl
&

Qurn,

V-J

&

margin and the last line


the area.
Outer margin:

All J3-2 -->


All &l= 33-ul

the inner

of

ventionalizations

in

There are several errors or con-

Casanova, No. 545.

NHR,

pp. 103-4.

RA

IS LA M I C CO I NS

R E

and the first part of the reverse area are in well-understood and
clearly executed Kufic.

3:23
Annulets:

At

Dimishq. Year 204

257.

&2)

o oo o oo

A.H. =819/20 A.D.

3-4

-A->

o........

4) J3-2 -->

*au

top, in annulet border:

33-ul twy

J-31 -cr'

J.

Point under ba of bin and un


AR.

der ba of Bayhas.
ANs

(ex Wood Coll.). 24.5mm, 2.69grm.

IX

Al-Basrah. Year

&:V:

J--

258.

the present piece.

205

A.H. =820/1 A.D.

*-*.
Qurn, XXX,

"

context

of

is

to

in

of

This unique coin has been mentioned


the discussion
No. 252
above. The reader
referred
that discussion for the historical

Outer margin:
3-4, ending with annulet.

on

Five equidistant small pellets


thin circle enclosing mar

of

known

Basrah struck

Ties., Nos. 1764-5, 1889. The other known specimen


196).

72

of

235."

(ex Newell Coll.). 25mm., 2.93grm.

believe, only one other coin

between the years 204 and


1919,

ANs

is

There

is,

AR.

ginal legend.

p.

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PLATE

the year 220 (Allan, NC,

ABB As ID SILVER

&

Madinat Zaranj. Year 205


&:V-3 J--> <- G-3
Annulets: ooee e

A.H. =820/1 A.D.


&\-
&

*L*

all

259.

J-el

Annulets on double beaded

cir

AR.

@@@)

cle between area and margin:


ANs. 26mm., 2.87grm.

IX

is,

PLATE

of

of

and 204 A.H. The person named above the reverse


abi'l-Faraj, who, the chronicles record,
area
Ghassn
Abbd
was lieutenant-governor
Khursn under al-Hasan
Sahl
this
governor
judge
year. Later, from 213-216,
was
Sind. To
ber between

by

of

he

b.

in

b.

of

is

b.

160

Outer

margin:

3:23 C-:

Madinat Isbahn. Year 209

260.

&W-1

Qurn

in

Zaranj

in

coins

of

whose name appears

who served

son

of

Egypt, Africa,

various times between 178 and 198

on

Mosul and Nisabr

career governor

yan,

in

he

Arabic sources. He must have been

the

at

b.

Harthamah

in b.

As

do not find him

in

Zaranj

of

dirham

of

the year 204, where


believe Hassn has
Ghassn,
already
been read for
was
installed
Khursn
that
A'yan
Harthamah,
year.
area,
for
the name beneath the reverse

A.H.," and

193.

A.H. =824/5 A.D.

XXX,

AU

(Teheran, 1935). 25mm., 2.81grm.


256;

cf.

VI,

Nisabr

202

Zambaur (Manuel,
governor (of

and

as

as

in

sub-prefect
and 203*) who names him
Khursn?)
204.
79, No. 311
Ties., No. 1763.
118 Tornberg,
Zambaur, Manuel, pp. 26, 36, 48, 63.
}

73

120 Ties.,

No.

1542;

BM,

i,

p.

in

pp.

p.

GCM

116 Berlin, No. 1687, year 301.


117 Tabari, III, pp. 1042-3, 11oo, 1105; Ibn-al-Athir,

in

AR.

3-4.

48

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it

to

of

of

an

be

not only unique, but


with the
later,"
exception
nearly
century
isolated issue
the last
Zaranj
the Abbsid
series
which there are considerable num

This dirham appears

No.

180.

RA R

IS LA M I C

CO

I NS

Zambaur published a specimen of this year and mint but described


it only as type normal, and a specimen in the British Museum
also is not

fully described.

Frs. Year

261.

209

5:V3 &margin:

Outer

XXX,

Qurn

*
All

with annulet.
AR.

3-4, ending

A.H. =824/5 A.D.


-2\,

GCM

(Teheran). 26mm., 2.96grm.


PLATE

IX

symbol

li'llhi

puzzling.

of

appears

is

it

to

is

It

is

start
'ayn,
unintelligible
out
word with the letter
but the rest
and
countermark,
although
engraved
seems more
resemble
on
as

the reverse under

to

on

of

of

only one
Abbsid coins
Frs (Fris) are very scarce. know
issue antedating this,
the year 203 A.H. (several specimens). The

3:23

U+*

210

A.H. =825/6 A.D.

~ -->

-->

33-ul

b.

al-Sari

is

AR.

o
e

........

"All

Ubaydullah

ANs

(ex Newell Coll.). 22.5mm, 2.76grm.

the well-known

governor

Egypt, 206

A.H.

oooo

-->] C. gley) -->

J)

J3-2 -->

*N)

AV)

-ke

3-#1

1914,

p.

AR.

s:
** NZ,

119, No. 409.

>]

33-ul twyl
ill

-->

ANs. 26mm., 2.96grm.

*** Allan, NC, 1919,

[74]

~~

oo

Annulets:

&

A.H. =826/7 A.D.

&

Madinat Arrn. Year 211


&:-5 5-42 &-- *- &lul

p.

263.

J
&

s_-J

the area:

Beneath:
Annulets:

2II

*-i-J

the 2nd and 3rd lines

Between

of

Misr. Year

262.

of

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the die.

195.

ABB As ID SILVER

The legends on the reverse are the same as those on the dirhams
of Arrn dated 210. There appears to be a dirham of the year 211
similar to the present one in the Ermitage.
264.

Arminiyah. Year 218 A.H. =833 A.D.


&:V-9 3--> --> <-

*-

No

annulets.

&

crual

AR.

3:31) --(ex Newell Coll.). 24.5mm, 2.87grm.

ANs

b.

of

it

of

is

This coin
interest because
differs from the only known
Arminiyah dirham
218. Al-Abbs
Amir al-Mu'minin (very
al-Ma'mun, who from the year 213
Iraq and the northwest
until his father's death was governor
pretender against the Caliph
frontier lands, and who later rose

of

on

of

in

b.

to

of

of

of

an

coins

in

Arrn
217 and 218,
Arminiyah
and also, apparently,
issue
217. The present
Arminiyah
issue probably antedates the other dirham
218 re
Khqn,
above, which has the name
ferred
Abd al-Rahmn
completely unknown person who was doubtless lieutenant-gov
on

al-Mu'tasim." His name appears

123 Ties., No. 1805; BM,

i,

ernor under al-Abbs


al-Ma'mun's death.

or

No.

else

took over the administration

upon

272.

b.

to

an

to

in

to

in

by b.

I.,

of

E.

p.

is

to

of

is

p.

.
.

R.

Vasmer, Chronologie der Statthalter von Armenien


.,
***
Monumenta Armeno
logica, 1927,
134, where reference
made
coin numbered 763A,
accession
the
Ermitage since Markov's Inventory. The career
Abd al-A'la
Ahmad with reference
Ya'qubis account
analyzed
the coin and
this article.
12" Allan, NC, 1919,
195.
al-Ma'mun, and the authorities cited there.
**
s.v. al-Abbs
or

p.

p.

cit

136; Arminiyah,
** The Arrn coins cited
Vasmer (op.
under No. 263 above),
NNA,
877, No. 774a, and Arminiyah,
217(?): Markov,
217
227: Linder-Welin,
1941,
100, No. 607.
** Cf. Vasmer, loc. cit.: eine gnzlich unbekannte Persnlichkeit, welche nirgends
erwhnt wird und ber die,
viel ich weiss, berhaupt nichts bekannt ist.

75

so

p.

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as

of

of

clumsily written) was the son

R A R E
265.

IS LA M I C

CO

INS

San'a. Date effaced.

Annulets:

.....

OQ - - - - -

All

&ls

Margin: Qurn XXX, 3-4.


AR. GCM.

13.5mm., O.75grm.
PLATE IX

This exceptional one-third dirham (with the fraction indicated on


the reverse) must have been struck toward the end of the second or
the beginning of the third century of the Hijrah. The epigraphy is
suggestive of the middle second century, but the use of Qurn XXX,
3-4, as a marginal legend was not introduced until about the time
of al-Ma'mun."
observation

of the author of the Hudud al-'Alam (372

A.H.)

(the second largest town in the Yaman at that time), he wrote their
12 dirhams weigh only 1 dirham's weight. The present piece
weighs o.75 grams; twelve of them would have weighed 9.00 grams
(probably more, because this specimen is worn), a figure which
bears no apparent relation to the standard weight

of

ever, the remark may have some obscure reference

Outer

-U

Misr. Year 223 A.H. =837/8 A.D.


5:V3 & #23 "

margin:

Qurn

XXX,

3-4.

AR,

1856

of

Tiesenhausen, No.

dirham.

How

to these thirds.

#
AU\,

ANs

ra-l

(ex Newell Coll.). 27.5mm, 2.97grm.

the same

mint and date

is

266.

not described.

76

p.

p.

I,

cf.

p.

of

rub'yt (quarters): ed.


128a Maqrizi relates that al-Ma'mun
ordered the striking
48;
Sauvaire, Matriaux,
Anastase-Marie
St-Elie (Cairo, 1939),
157.
** Op. cit, under No. 173 above,
147.
de

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An

may have some bearing on this fractional dirham: speaking of Zabid,

ABB As ID s ILVER

Dimishq. Year 225

267.

&-te: J-->

&:V-3

Outer margin:

Qurn

A.H. =839/40 A.D.


<- 54-4

XXX,

As above.

AR,

3-4
ANs

(ex Newell Coll.). 25.5mm., 3.02grm.

of

in

No mint. No

date.

**
J3

All

*A*-*

J3-

all

All-

All

93

-\,...)

(retrograde)

Counterfeit.

268.

in

of

is

of

There
one specimen
this issue
the collection
the Amer
University
Beirut,
apparently
(unpublished)
ican
and another
the Istanbul Museum.

J*-aall

33.
ANs. 28mm., 3.92grm.

Dimishq. Year 228


43 &V*

&:V3
Outer

an

be

copy

attempt

margin:

Qurn

reproduce the

54-4

XXX,

(8)3
W.

All
77

322.

8.

this issue

322; Zambaur, NZ, 1922,

Gill

(Istanbul, 1942). 25mm., 3.02grm.


is

GCM

p.

AR.
1921,

1921,

p. p.

NC,
NC,

of

The one published specimen


** Porter,

be

A.H. =842/3 A.D.

3-4.

131 Porter,

3-u_J1

of

to is

obviously

imitation here
to

forgery

IX

al-Mu'tasim.

&

269.

of

cause the legend beneath one area


and that beneath the other appears

(?)

place this curious contemporary

or

PLATE

name

of

be

imitations

33,

IX,

both

AR,

Qur'n

to

Obverse and reverse margins appear

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not fully described.

IS LA M I C

RARE

Dimishq. Year 230 A.H. =844/5


&:V-3 &#
54-4

270.

margin:

Outer

XXX,

Qurn

CO I

NS

A.D.

Apparently

nothing above.

neath, effaced.
AR.

3-4.

by

ANs. 26mm., 2.90grm.

de

in

specimen

of

Porter, but not


this year also was published
scribed; Zambaur apparently had one
his collection.

Be

A.H. =846/7 A.D.

Al-Shsh. Year 232


&:V's 5:3 &#1

271.

margin:

Outer

Ju-J
XXX,

Qurn

"

3-4.

&:V's
Outer

3:3

margin:

J--> <- sl-

Qurn

A.H.

235

849/50 A.D.

Surra man-ra'a, Year

XXX,

"

3-4.

AR.

All Gle J#3:ll

this mint and date, but none,


this small size and engraved
such advanced

all x2

so

in

A.H. =850/1 A.D.


As above.

>]

--

Surra man-ra'a, Year 236


sl.,
&:W. &#3

&

of

know,
far
ornamental Kufic characters.
273.

UM. 16mm, 2.92grm.


PLATE IX

of

There are published specimens


as

XXX,

78

p.

322; Zambaur, NZ, 1922,


}

NC, 1921,

(ex Wood Coll.). 25mm., 2.93grm. (pierced)

** Porter,

ANs

8.

AR.

2.

Outer margin: Qurn,


3-4, ending with
p.

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coins, among which

for this issue among the so-called Thirid


may well have been published.

have not searched

272.

5:13

(ex Longworth Dames Coll.). 28.5mm., 3.15grm. (twice pierced)

ANs

it

AR.

4JW

ABBASID SILVER

A.H. =851/2 A.D.

Isbahn. Year 237

274.

& #3 &As above.

&:V3

&W-k

As above.
AR. ANS.

Dimishq. Year

275.

&:V-9 3-4-1
Area

A.H. =854/5 A.D.

240

3.

As above.

as above.

Outer margin:

27mm., 2.7Igrm.

XXX,

Qurn,

276.

Surra man-ra'a, Year


&:V's J-4513 ~

*-

Outer

A.H. =857/8 A.D.

243

sl.,

As above.

5-all

4JW

margin:

XXX,

Qurn,
AR.

3-4, partly effaced.


ANs

(ex Newell Coll.). 19mm., 2.92grm. (pierced)

Area

as

4-13

of

A.H. =857/8 A.D.


1

&:V3

&

Misr. Year 243


&

277-278.

Kufic.

the usual unadorned

J-a

&

legends are

in

is

is

of

The one published specimen


this mint and date
not de
scribed. Like No. 272 above, this coin
reduced size, but the

As above.

above.

AR,

2.

Outer margin: Qurn, XXX,


3-4, ending with
ANs (ex Newell Coll.). 26mm., 26mm.; 2.43grm.,
(both specimens are fragmentary and one
broken)

These and the succeeding

specimens

79

No. 1916.

183 Ties.,

to

to

oxidized, and appear


have come from
by Mr. Newell during
Egypt.
visit

of

is

specimens:

3.04grm.

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Newell Coll.). 26mm., 2.89grm. (frag. lacking)

ANs (ex

&

AR.

3-4, traces.

Misr are corroded and

hoard, probably acquired

R A R E

Misr. Year 244 A.H. =858/9 A.D.


U-a
&:V-9 3-4-13 &- *

Area

As above.

as above.

XXX,

XXX,

Qurn

ANs (ex Newell

22mm.,

2.90grm.

"
All'.

J-ll

as

above.

specimens:

R.

-->

Outer margin

ANs

(ex Newell Coll.). 27mm., 27mm.; 2.88grm., 2.96grm.

lists but does not describe

dirham

Misr

of

Casanova

cruell

Coll.).

of

&

Misr. Year 249 A.H. =863/4 A.D.


&:V's J-213
--~~

J-31

this

date.

A.H. =864/5 A.D.


&:V-3 &--> <- U-a
250

Area and outer margin

As above.

above.

ANs (ex Newell Coll.). 29mm., 28mm.;


2.87grm., 2.83grm. (frag.
one specimen lacking)

of

specimens:

R.

Misr. Year

as

283-284.

2
184 No. 601.

[80

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281-282.

margin:

As above.

above.

&-

3-4.

25.5mm., 3.03grm.

--~~

AR.

Area

Outer

Coll.).

A.H. =861 A.D.

3:213 &as

&:

247

ANs (ex Newell

Misr. Year
W*

280.

AR,

Outer margin: Qurn,


3-4, partly effaced.

279.

IS LA M I C CO I NS

ABB As ID

ILVER

Madinat Mh al-Kfah. Year 251 A.H. =865 A.D.


3:ws
s-- ~ **Q1 (sic) u

285.

3-2

margin:

Outer

Qurn

XXX,

3-4.

all

published specimen

Coll.).

21.5mm., 2.88grm.

of

AR.

3-5.)
ANs (ex Wood

Jall

allu

to

to

be
a

of

in

in

At

is,

this mint and date appears


lack the
evidently, written correctly.
word madinat and the word Mh
this time and
the region
Mh al-Kufah the abu-Dulafids
were issuing coins
their own names, but this appears
straight Abbsid issue."

dirham

Misr

of

(ex Newell Coll.). 22.5mm., 2.89grm.


a

AR.

ANs

of

g.

as

As above.

above.

lists, but does not describe,

Casanova

this

date.

Outer margin off the flan,


lacking.

or

3-3

Makkah. Year 253 A.H. =867 A.D.


~~

5:V:

44

287.

all

&-l

Allu

is

in

photograph.
PLATE IX

remarkable coin. Aside from the exceeding rarity


Mecca, the date (253), which
unquestionable,

in of

**

from

is

struck

the plate

This

at is

smooth. The reproduction

is

of

is

AR

(billon?). ANs (ex Longworth Dames Coll.). 18.5mm.,


3.77grm. The coin
unusual fabric and
worn quite

coins

con

p.

be

of

of

[81

of is

p.

(al-Mu'tazz)

the letter kaf


off the flan, but
believe there can
little doubt about
only three other Abbsid coins
the mint. know
Mecca:
dinar dated 25x
47, No. 847);
the Ermitage (Markov,
dirham
the year 289 (Berlin,
of

top

the reading

in

*The

p.

Dorn, Nova Supplementa,


Ties., No. 1952.
231, No. 312a
103; Vasmer, Dva Klada kuficheskikh Monet, pp. 46ff.
Cf. Markov,
187 No. 608.

of

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Outer margin

.
.
.

Misr. Year 252 A.H. =866 A.D.


&:V-3 &-->4
~ U-a

286.

RARE

IS LA M I C CO I NS

junction with the name of the Caliph al-Musta'in, poses

Al-Musta'in was deposed in


Shawwal,

252.

problem.

and was murdered on the 6th of


possible explanations of the anomaly readily

Two

251

suggest themselves:

either an old reverse die was used, or else the


mention of al-Musta'in's name is intentional and reflects an issue of

in view of al
Musta'in's brief rule and of the rare mint, is not very likely. As for
the latter I believe that the events of history provide us with the
very facts we need to support, if not to prove, the correctness of the
partisanship. The former

alternative, especially

suggested explanation.

In the year

251,

in consequence of disturbances

at Samarra,

al

forced by his cousin al-Mu'tazz to abdicate. According to the terms


agreed upon by the two parties, al-Musta'in was guaranteed personal
safety and the safety of his family, and he was to remove himself to
Mecca, where he was to reside. Actually, according to the chronicles,
he never reached Mecca, for he was prevented from going there, and,

Now it is not at

improbable that,

in

252, as stated above.

all

after a short visit at Wsit, he was assassinated near Samarra late in

con

to

temporary capital. Such


explanation
coin

of

exile but
pertinent

in

an

place
Mecca was not simply
argument would certainly

We may imagine that

Muharram, 252.
his own account until
them, and probably
al-Musta'in himself,

in be of

did not announce

to on

he

at

in

formance with the abdication terms, al-Musta'in's partisans struck


coins
Mecca
his name after his abdication, which incidentally

to

82

it

be that

as

of

dinar
the year 325 (O.
wrongly described
is

a
289

by

g-_5

al-Musta'in's rights

242); and

specimen

dinar).

of

to

at

solve the riddle. Can

of

in

Z.

Adolf Erman
fr N., 1881,
NC, 1902,
273, where the Berlin
p.

1638;

loss

posthumous recognition

cf.

No.

Codrington,

still

p.

we have here

reach Mecca, one

is

it

of

is

to

252.

al-Musta'in's name

of

in

explain this post


But how
prepared
humous issue
253? Unless one
believewhich
am
notthat
took more than two months for the news
the murder
struck

to

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Musta'in had found it necessary to leave that city and to establish


himself at Baghdad where, in the last month of the year, he was

silv ER

ABB As ID

his supporters; or, alternatively, was this issue struck late in 252 in
anticipation of the deposed Caliph's arrival at Mecca early in 253?

J-3 J-->

255

&:V's

<-

A.H. =868/9 A.D.

sl-

Surra man-ra'a, Year

&

288.

--

AU

-->

JW

3-31) -->

5-all

5-31) ---

SJ
Outer margin: Qurn XXX,

issue

of

an

the same mint and date,

&:V's

J-3

&V.

&

A.H. =871/2 A.D.

Surra man-ra'a, Year 258

Jia-

"
All gle x-all

as

Outer margin

_*

size (and apparently

ANs.

21.5mm, 2.81grm.

in

AR.

above.

This dirham differs

by

in

the letters beneath


the reverse) from two other published specimens."
of at

of

p.

is

of

The story
al-Musta'in's deposition and death
recounted
some length
Masdi (Murilj, VII, pp. 363-371; see especially
367 for the terms
abdication). The
official date of the end
al-Musta'in's rule and of the commencement of that of al
is

of

in

ZDMG, XXII,

288, No.

[83]

in

and the sources cited there.


Ausgrabungen Arabischen Geldes
Ties., No. 1994 (p. 306); Paris, No. 1029.

Die jngsten
32
=

of
I.,

s.v. al-Musta'in

Tornberg,
p.

140

J.

pp. 396ff.;

E.

II,

in

by

of

p.

VII,

of

dispute among the Arab historians themselves (cf. Mas'udi,


been
matter
368). The usually accepted date for the beginning
al-Mu'tazz's reign
Muharram, 252; but there are coins struck
him
251: e.g., Paris, nos. 984-5; Berlin,
question see: Tabari, III, pp. 1645ff.; Ibn
Nos. 1517-8. For other accounts
the events
al-Athir, VII, pp. 76-7; Ibn-Khaldun, III, pp. 287-290; Weil, Geschichte der Chalifen,

Mu'tazz has

C.

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(ex Newell Coll.). 26mm., 2.88grm.

Caliph al-Muhtadi.

the succeeding
289.

1972,

ANs

is

Tiesenhausen No.

of

AR.

3-4.

Schweden,

RARE

3-3

INS

&

as above.

All gle -->ll

The only other specimen

ANs (ex Newell

have noted

is

Area and outer margin

291.

C O

Madinat al-Salm. Year 259 A.H. =872/3 A.D.


&:V-9
f>J1
&-

AR.

290.

IS LA M I C

J-3

#
All gle x-all

All G1 Ce3"|

AR.

as

above.

3:2 5-3 s--

(ex Newell Coll.). 25.5mm, 2.82grm.

A.H. =884/5 A.D.

292. Al-Basrah. Year 271

ANs

*-*.'

All gle x-all

U-U

331)

&#133
above.
AR.

as

Outer margin

33

4.

All

&

all

ANs. 26mm., 2.95grm.

PLATE

IX

of

abu-Ahmad Talhah, son


al-Mutawakkil and
during
Caliphate
virtual ruler
the
his brother al-Mu'tamid. His
honorific, al-Nasir li-din Allh, was given him after his victory
2

over the rebellious Zanj, whose leader was killed

on

of

is

Al-Muwaffaq

Safar, 270.

of

of

108;

of
I.,

Muraj, VIII,

E.

18; Mas'udi,

p.

1999.

No. 2062; Tabari, III, pp. 2098,

21

142 Cf. Ties.,

b.

is

of

141 Ties., No.

to

of

As for the title He


the Two Vizierates, beneath the name
the
Caliph
Makhlad,
reverse,
the
the reference
S'id
Vizier
complete
published
bearing
al-Mu'tamid."
list
coins
his title
on

s.v. al-Mu'tamid.

1* Cf.

Ties., No. 2060; Tabari,

index;

Mas'udi,

[84

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24.5mm., 3.09grm.

not described."

Misr. Year 265 A.H. =878/9 A.D.


J:V's
J--> <- J-a

Outer margin

Coll.).

Murilj, VIII, pp. 39, 61-3. Zambaur

ABB As ID SILVER

Vasmer;" it does not include

may be found in an article by Richard


this Basrah issue

Frs

293.

3:23

of the year

(?). Year

A.H. =886/7 A.D.

273

J-3 eit

271.

*- (*)-2\,

"
All gle -->ll

(3).J1 G1 C***)

3:31

<!\!

G.

-->

Outer margin: traces of Qur'n


3-4.
AR.

GCM. 21mm., 2.86grm.

is,

course, the heir apparent,

of

be

the name

al-Muwaffaq

Caliph

later the
an

b.

of

is

of

is

as

If

interesting
believe, Frs, the coin
al-Mu'tadid.
the mint
document, for there
another issue
the same year and mint, bear
ing the names
al-Layth and Muhammad
the Saffrids, Amru
b.

Amru."

al

in

of

as

b.

of

gov
al-Layth
announced the deposition
Amru
Khursn,"
official pronouncement which, however,

Amru was well entrenched."

circumstances,

to

No. 292

al-Muwaffaq.

Also

he

in

minute detail

Frs und Hursn, NZ, 1930,

de

Slane,

from Eastern History

85

Sketches

IV,

105, No.

324.
(1892), pp. 198-9.

9,

2106; Ibn-Khallikn, transl.

III,

Cf. Theodor Nldeke,

No. 14; Markov,

p.

149,

p.

p.

II,

1*Tabari,
147

this title

der Saffriden und ihrer Gegner

Constantinople,
No. 608; Tornberg,
(No. 9a); strup, No. 759a.

another

p.

attributing

with

2.

*** ber die Mnzen


pp. 141-2, note

error
(p. 7).

in

in

of

is

(Manuel, Table G, note 87)


omits S'id from his list
Viziers

took effect, since

the Saffrid coinage cited under


in

his article

in

Vasmer

The confused

the coins, has been examined

on

particular reference

to

called for energetic and prolonged action before

it

an

ernor

of

Mu'tamid

in

at a

It of

of

proximate dates and the same area, are


These coins, and others
reflection
the political situation
central and southern Persia
year
the time.
was
Shawwal
the
271 that the Caliph

by

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(on the reverse)

of

is,

of

Blurred letters make the reading


the mint and
problematical.
neath the obverse somewhat
Ahmad

b.

XXX,

and

IS LA M I C

R A R E

I NS

CO

of

an

say, the mint

of

as

Shirz issues
is

Saffrid." The present coin (if,

well

as

272, are

the same mint and date,

as

another coin

of

is,

is

all

above. Tabari's and Ibn-al-Athir's accounts of Amru's defeat at


the hands of the abu-Dulafid Ahmad b. 'Abd al-'Aziz differ, the
former placing the event on the 16th of Rabi I, 273, and the latter
on the Ioth of Rabi I, 271. At
events there
Abbsid coin
lacking Amru's namedated 272," although
the Frs mintthat
Frs)

is

is

of

another illustration
the same in-and-out situation which quite
understandably confused the historians.
further example No. 295
below.
<--

2)

&

3:

3:V:

Al-Rafiqah. Year 274 A.H. =887/8 A.D.

294,

*|Ju

AU

&

All gle x-all

C23A)

3.31

XXX,

Qur'n

SJ

margin:

Outer

Ju

AR.

3-4
ANs

(ex Newell Coll.). 25mm., 4.98grm.

of

is

of

with

have not met

of

published dirham
al-Rafiqah
this
date; there are, however,
dinars,
number
both Abbsid and
clearly Abbsid.
Tlnid. This issue

J-3

5:V3

A.H. =887/8 A.D.

Frs. Year 274

295.

&2)

crew.

Outer margin

all
AllW

ge. -->

33.1

25mm., 3.30grm.
to

p.

to

of

NZ, 1930, pp. 141


pertinent coins up
date, consult
To bring Vasmer's corpus
Linder-Welin, NNA, 1941,
114, containing the only important additions
ff.

**

-->

above.
AR. ANS.

Ulla

&

&

Allu

as sil

U-Ul

&

*U

all

S.

Vasmer's exhaustive compendium.


** Tornberg, ZDMG, XXII, 288, No. 39.
142, Nos. 30-32.
Cf. Vasmer, op. cit.,
Rogers, The Coins
18,
151 E.g., Paris, Khedivial Library (cf.
the Tlni Dynasty,
No. 38), University Museum Collection (all Abbsid); Paris, publ. by
Cottevieille
35, No.

(Tlnid).

[86

Giraudet, RN, 1935,

p.

R.

of

T.

E.

p.

p.

p.

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All G1

ABB As ID

SILVER

Here is another Abbsid dirham of Frs, reflecting the vicissitudes


of the Saffrid's career (cf. No. 293 above). It was in 274 A.H. (18th
of Rabi I) that al-Muwaffaq himself led the army against Amru b.
al-Layth and drove him out of Frs and on to Kirmn and beyond
to Sijistan. Other specimens of this issue are known.
296.

Madinat al-Salm. Year 274 A.H. =887/8 A.D.

3-3

&:V-9

& 2)
Area and outer margin

*- f>J)

****
As above.

as above.

AR. ANS.

25.5mm., 4.42grm.

This specimen differs from one published by Tornberg, in that


it lacks the words at the sides of the obverse and reverse areas.

"
all

-a

at

Word

Qur'n

or

Outer margin: traces

letters

ef

bottom

faced.

3-4.

AR.

XXX,

&Valu

4JU

of

Allu

A.H. =889/90 A.D.

5")

J-3

3:V3

GCM

(Teheran, 1935). 26mm., 2.84grm.


PLATE

IX

It

is

of

to

an

is

of

is

of

it

of

of

is

in

very curious coin, differing


This
remarkable manner from
the known issue
al-Shsh
the same year.
dated 276 and
yet
bears the name
al-Mu'tadid who did not succeed
the
Caliphate until 279 A.H. Another dirham
al-Shsh,
year
269,
the
hybrid, that
presents this same anomaly." Either the coin

al-Mu'tadid before his succession. The first alternative

certainly

p.

of

21
=

[87

Ties., No. 2093.

p.

Tornberg,
102, No. 429, with the name
al-Mu'tamid
1*Tornberg, Symbolae, IV, No.
Ties., No. 2115.

al

un

p.

NNA,

p.

= cf.

p.

P.

in cf.

2113, Ibn-al-Athir, VII,


298;
Vasmer, op. cit.,
143.
48, No. 871; one uncatalogued
Berlin; Linder-Welin,
Vasmer, op. cit.,
106, Nos. 1161-2;
143, No. 34.
Ties., No. 2082.
100, No. 422
1*

p.

*** Tabari III,


Markov,

is

of

on

or

of

of

old obverse die was used with


reverse
al-Mu'tadid's during his
Caliphate (279-289 A.H.),
else abu'l-Abbs Ahmad (son
Muwaffaq, whose name appears
the obverse) received the title

p.

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-~

Al-Shsh. Year 276

(5'

297.

1941,

IS LA M I C

RAR E

CO

INS

somewhere

of

in

lie

it.

likely. The second seems the more plausible, although I fail to find
However, the explanation must
the historical evidence to support
the abnormal state

reign: al-Muwaffaq,

affairs during al-Mu'tamid's

name. But what

in

27

in

it

of

in

later striking than that

the more serious anomaly

Shsh,

with al-Mu'tamid's
Tornberg's coin

of

of

issue presumably being

of

year that the change

least

the position usually reserved for


argued that
was during the course
this
allegiance
the East was made, the present

in

might

of be

It

the Caliph.

at

officially recognized,

al-Mu'tadid's name appears

for

is

might say that this reality

of

on

as

as

in

of

as

No. 292 above, was


effect the
ruler, but
al-Muwaffaq's
years
the last two
life (he died
Safar, 278), al-Mu'tadid became the virtual sovereign. On the
present issue,
well
the one
269 mentioned above, one
noted under

the year 269?

900

Jia-

-a

AR.

Large central pellet.


ANs

(ex Newell Coll.). 24mm., 3.47grm.

A.H. =900 A.D.

effaced. Year 287?

#3 &-

Ju

3:

(3)

"

XXX,

**
Ju -a
ce.

all
3.)

Mint

V3

299.

&

3-4.

Qurn

margin:

Outer

313-y\|

all

5:93 &#3 &-

ANs (ex Longworth Dames

Coll.). 24mm,

3-oogrm.

s.v.

al-Mu'tadid,

and the sources

88

is

The

IX

with coarse and semi-literate

date, aside from being badly worn,

cited there; Mas'udi,


}

I.,

157

of

characters.

very crudely executed coin

This

is

PLATE

curiously

Murilj, VIII,

writ
p.

AR.

No outer margin?

E.

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A.D.

Al-Ahwz. Year 287 A.H.

298.

108.

ABB As ID SILVER

of the Caliph's name is turned backward somewhat


like a cursive kaf, but I believe that it can only be al-Mu'tadid. Abu
ten; and the dal

Ja'far and abu-Ibrhim, whose names appear on the obverse and


verse respectively,

of

publication

its

are unidentified.

of

ized issue, but the solution

The coin must be an unauthor


political context must await the

with mint preserved.

specimen

Al-Ahwaz. Year 289 A.H. =901/2 A.D.


315yu
J:w: 3-#3 &*

margin:

Outer

all

XXX,

Qurn

JU -a

3-4.

AR. ANs.

all

300.

25mm., 4.75grm.

22

on

II,

to

of

This dirham must have been struck during the first four months
the year, for al-Muktafi's succession
the Caliphate occurred
Rabi
289.

3\""

#3 &-

&

&:V3

A.H. =902 A.D.

Isbahn. Year 289

301.

as

Outer margin

"

above.

l Giil

been published but not

as

the Leggett Collection has

fully described.

&: V-3 &:3 &-

Outer margin

la-l:

As above.

above.

AR. ANS.

al-Muktafi's

Lane-Poole,

Fasti Arabici

IV, NC,

of

struck
1886,

[89

al-Ahwz

229.

in

dirhams

21.69.

at

are

have

al-Mu'tadid.

p.

*There
No.

25mm., 2.97grm.

this date and mint which

noticed are issues

of

the published specimens

of

All

25mm., 2.32grm.

A.H. =902 A.D.

Wsit. Year 289

302.

in

this year and mint

specimen

of

AR. ANS.

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re

the same year, e.g., Ties.,

RAR E

IS LA M I C

INS

C O

Al-Ahwaz. Year 290 A.H. =902/3 A.D.


&:V-9 3-- ~ 313-y\|
Outer margin

As above.
AR.

as above.

specimen, probably similar,

is
a

There

Al-Basrah. Year 290

J--

the British

As above.

above.

3-3

&:V-9

the British

Museum.

A.H. =904/5 A.D.

&#1

3+-->

3.

AR. ANS.

25mm., 3.03grm.

indeed they are present

the Berlin Collec

the ornamental letters,

that coin.

- -2\,
AR.

(ex Newell Coll.). 25.5mm., 3.88grm.

this issue which

197.

Fasti Arabici

IV, NC,

1886,

229; Allan, NC, 1919,

162o.

Ties., No. 2193.

[90

19, No. 316

Fraehn, Recensio,

p.

1919,

p.

Allan, NC,

p.

written differently.

161 Lane-Poole,

162 No.

ANs

the one published specimen

p.

noticed

of

The date

As above.

above.

4-0

of

3-3

J:ws

Outer margin

*
*

note

IX

Arminiyah. Year 293 A.H. =905/6 A.D.


as

306.

on

tion, but Ntzel did not make

this year

in

Dimishq

of

dirham

of

of

There

is

PLATE

if

al-Muktafi's name thus:

JCP; and the fa-ya

of

of

as

As above.
Outer margin
above.
The qaf
the word Dimishq terminates with floral flourish, thus

is

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Dimishq. Year 292

another

in

fully described, and there


305.

ANs. 26mm., 2.96grm.

the Leggett Collection has been published but not


is

in

specimen

Museum.

A.H. =902/3 A.D.

AR.

as

Outer margin

24mm., 3.07grm.

&: V-3

Coll.).

304.

ANs (ex Newell

in

303.

197.

have

ABB As ID sILvER

Sq al-Ahwaz. Year 294

307.

&:V's

J-3

Outer margin

&21

A.H. =906/7 A.D.

33

313-yl

As above.

as above.

AR. ANS.

There was
scribed."

24mm., 3.49grm.

in the Leggett Collection, not fully de

a specimen

Al-Ahwaz. Year 295 A.H. =907/8 A.D.


&:
&-3 J--> <- 313-y\|
V-3

308.

the Beirut Collection, not

as

date (late 3rd

ently

gall ge.

as

far

as

3-4,

as

XXX,

far

Margin: Qur'an IX, 33, appar

One marginal legend only:


Qurn

fully described."

Hijrah?).

as

in

(ex Wood Coll.). 26.5mm, 2.98grm. (formerly ringed).

specimen

No Mint. No

309.

AR.

3ll.
GCM

(Teheran, 1935). 12mm, o.87grm. (formerly ringed).

the end

of

place this minute fractional dirham

of at

PLATE

IX

the third

cen

Dimishq. Year 296

of

310.

to

the

It

Hijrah because
epigraphy.
might date
the style
anywhere from the middle third
the early fourth century.

tury

of

&:W.
Outer

J-3 --

margin:

Qurn

A.H. =908/9 A.D.

34.4

XXX,

3-4.

Allu

p.

Lane-Poole, Fasti Arabici IV, NC, 1886,


Porter, NC, 1921,
324.

229.

[91

**

l-all

AR.ANs. 27mm., 2.86grm.

p.

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is

There

ANs

As above.

above.

c.

AR.

Outer margin

RAR E

Dimishq. Year 297

311.

3-3

J:V-9

Outer margin

&-

IS LA M I C CO INS

A.H. =909/10 A.D.

5:.

As above.

as above.

Large central pellet.


24mm., 3.04grm.

AR. ANS.

3-3

&:V-9

&

A.H. =909/10 A.D.

Wsit. Year 297

312.

&-

la-l:

All

JW 5-all

cruel! 3:

J-31) --Outer margin

ANs

(ex Newell Coll.). 28.5mm., 3.21grm.

Lane-Poole

is

by

specimen published

not described.

Al-Kfah. Year 298 A.H. =910/1 A.D.

5-3

3:V's

&V.

313.

as

Area and outer margin

#3%u

As above.

above.

specimen published

not described."

WW2.

As above.

above.
ANs (ex Newell

Coll.).

is,

AR.

Area and outer margin

&-

27mm., 2.33grm.

A.H. =911/2 A.D.

as

.
.

3:

Jannb. Year 299


V.

314.

Lane-Poole

is

by

AR. ANS.

26mm., 2.89grm.
PLATE IX

1919,

197.

[92

NC,

on

as

J.

162.

229.
122, spelled Jannabah. Cf. Le Strange, Lands, pp. 273-4.
p.

Allan

in p.

II,

*Yqt,
listed

Johnston's Cabinet, NC, 1892,

p.

VII, Mr. M.
IV, NC, 1886,

166 Fasti Arabici


167 Fasti Arabici

p. C.

so

in

of

of

believe, the earliest known Abbsid issue


This
the very rare
Jannb, the important port
mint
Frs
the Persian Gulf.
Earlier Saffrid issues are known, but
far
am aware the only

by

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AR.

as above.

specimen was

ABB As ID s ILVER

recorded Abbsid specimens are dirhams of the years 304, 306 and

314."

&-

A.H. =912/3 A.D.

Ju

-a

Allan."

As above.

above.
specimens:

of

GCM

the same mint and date

Shirz. Year

*W* ~

300

3124:

As above.

above.

AR.

Area and outer margin

Wsit. Year

*W** 5-1

301

in

Lane-Poole.

A.H. =913/4 A.D.

Ja-l:

As above.

above.

AR.

Area and outer margin

Specimens

ANs. 26mm., 2.90grm.

not fully described, was published

as

319.

specimen,

Collection."

the Beirut

A.H. =912/3 A.D.


as

318.

ANs. 26.5mm., 2.90grm.;

(Teheran, 1936). 26mm., 2.70grm.

by

specimen

ANs. 27mm., 3.67grm.

the Ermitage and the Beirut Collections are not

fully

1905,

54, No. 22; Berlin, No. 1679. Zambaur's good


a

of

the Saffrid and


197.

NC, 1921,
172 Fasti Arabici VII, NC,
325.
51, No. 939; Porter, NC, 1921,
178 Markov,
326.
93

p.

p.

p.

171 Porter,

1892,

p.

p.

in

be

to

is

of

for the identification


the mint, together with
list
NZ, 1906, pp. 192-4.
Byid issues
Jannb,
found
162; Allan, NC, 1919,
170 Lane-Poole, Fasti Arabici VII, NC, 1892,
reasons

of

No. 1153; Zambaur, NZ,

p.

169 Paris,

summary

p.

described.

of

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as

Area and margin

&M

by

and another

believe, the

the year 300 was published

R.

1892,

specimen

is,

very rare Abbsid mint, and this

*V

As above.

as above.

Al-Basrah. Year 300

316-317.

in

in

Lane-Poole

ANs (ex Wood Coll.). 26mm., 2.56grm. (frag. lacking)


PLATE IX

known year.

earliest

. .

is

is
a

AR.

Area and outer margin

Sinjr also

3-3

&:V-9

A.H. =91 1/2 A.D.

299

by of

Sinjr. Year

315.

162.

IS LA M I C CO I NS

R AR E

**

g.:)

A.H. =914/5 A.D.

302

Area and outer margin

313-yu

as above.

All

AR,

Ju
321.

Madinat al-Salm. Year


as

Area and outer margin

ANS

2-call

(ex Newell Coll.). 25.5mm., 3.05grm.

A.H. =915/6 A.D.

303

above.

AU

AR.

Ju

313-yu
as

arb'.

which, however,

probably similar

not fully described.

Wsit. Year 304

*u-s:

to

is

This specimen

(Teheran, 1936). 28mm., 1.8ogrm.

GCM

is

AR.

of

beneath

ba

(?)

As above.

above.

the Beirut Collection,

A.H. =916/7 A.D.

1-13.
margin
Area and outer
above.

As above.
AR.

as

821

one

in

821

Area and outer margin

323.

lack

Al-Ahwaz. Year 304 A.H. =916/7 A.D.

*u-l's
Pellet

published varieties

differs from

2.91 grim.

322.

(ex Wood Coll.). 27mm,

ANs

Madinat al-Salm. Year


f>|-J)

*W** --->

<-

324-326.

&
305

ANs. 29mm., 2.84grm.

A.H. =917/8 A.D.

Three specimens with the usual areas and outer margin, and differ
ing only
the following ornaments:
*** Ties., Nos. 2246-7, Khedivial

Library,

No. 678; Porter, NC,

94

325.

p.

No. 759 (not described).


*** Porter, NC, 1921,

1921,

p.

in

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This specimen
pellets.

--all
of

its

Al-Ahwaz. Year

in

320.

326; Casanova,

ABB As ID sILVER

324.

325.

ANs. 26mm., 25mm., 25mm.; 2.98grm., 3.24grm., 3.13grm.

ornamental detail from

J-31)

Outer margin:

4.

cruel!

pub

"

3:

&

--

--

to

differ

Isbahn. Year 306 A.H. =918/9 A.D.


*W***
~ &W->\.

327.

2-call

XXX,

Qurn
AR.

3-4.
GCM

(Teheran, 1936). 28mm., 2.73grm. (frag. lacking)

Harrn. Year 306 A.H. =918/9 A.D.


As above.

above.

specimen apparently similar

ANs (ex Newell and Wood Coll.).


27mm., 24mm.; 2.88grm., 4.03grm.

these

listed

by

specimens:

is

Area and outer margin

&l_*

R.

-- ~

to

*W**

as

328-329.

Zambaur."

p.

"Ties, Nos. 2258-9 (also 307); Paris, No. 1191; Berlin, Nos. 1729-30; Constantinople,
No. 652; Casanova, Nos. 761-2 (not described).
1914,

120, No. 415.

95

NZ,

*77

p.

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These dirhams appear


lished varieties."

in

AR.

326.

Q_7

IS LA M I

RARE
330. Shirz. Year 306

CO I NS

A.H. =918/9 A.D.


As above.

as above.

specimen

ANs. 26mm.,

the British

3.12grm.

Museum.

Al-Kfah. Year 306 A.H. =918/9 A.D.

*%u

--

Area and outer margin

L.

W.

Clark (New York). 26mm., 2.91grm.

&

Year 306 A.H. =918/9 A.D.

f)(J

as

*W**

332. Madinat al-Salm.

As above.

above.
AR.

Area and outer margin

as

--

*u-si

>

331.

above.

all

All

ANs

(ex Newell Coll.). 26mm., 3.56grm.

is

is

In

by

all

AR.

2-all

probability this specimen


identical with one published
Bartholomaei, where the symbol beneath the reverse
differently

in

terpreted."

A.H. =920/1 A.D.

Area and outer margin

Usu

as

<u>3 Ju-

Antkiyah. Year 308

333.

above.

All

2-all

mentioned

by

(ex Newell Coll.). 25mm., 3.60grm.

is

of

ANs

this mint and date

Bartholomaei,

not described.

178 Allan, NC, 1919,


179 Ties., No. 2268.

197.

p.

F.

.
.
.
a

Soret, RNB, 1864,


331, footnote= Ties., No. 2904.
lettre
M.
Bartholomaei's note must be Amid al-Dawlah.

96

in

180 Quatrime

Amir ed-dauleh

p.

but

specimen
is

AR.

Ju

it

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this issue

in

of

is

There

AR.

Area and outer margin

ABB As ID SILVER

Al-Rafiqah. Year 308 A.H. =920/1 A.D.

-- *|Ju

Jus:

Area and outer margin

Surra man-ra'a, Year 309


<\.:
&l.
&

e--

ANs

A.H.

(ex Newell Coll.). 26mm., 2.76grm.

921/2 A.D.

As above.

335.

As above.

as above.

*W**

AR.

334.

as

specimen

(ex Wood Coll.). 25mm., 2.83grm.

ANs

listed but not described

as

As above.

above.
by

listed

Zambaur."

A.H. =923/4 A.D.

gla-I.

As above.

above.
AR.

Area and outer margin

this

311

*-* (5-

UM. 26.5mm., 3.81 grm. (pierced)

.
.

Filastin. Year

*W**

to

specimen apparently similar

as

ANs

(ex Newell Coll.). 25mm., 2.68grm.

317, 320 and 322


No.

of

of

specimens

of

was aware

specimens

the years

264, 277,

only three other years,

A.H."

745.

[97

in

p.

p.

120, No. 416.


*** NZ, 1914,
79, No. 436m, Berlin, Nos. 1709, 1822-3; Quarterly
*** BM, ix,
Antiquities
Palestine, XIII, Nos. 3-4 (1948), pp. 124-5.

of

1*1

Nassar

IX

mint; before the

rare Abbsid dirham

of

and 323(?),

293

G.

recent publication

N.

excessively

by

an

Filastin

is

PLATE

the Department

of

AR.

as

Outer margin

is

cr'J

Ju

3.

&

.
.

U+*

5-3.)

337.

Casanova."

Al-Rafiqah. Year 310 A.H. =922/3 A.D.

336.

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is

AR.

above.
by

Outer margin

IS LA M I

R A R E

* (5-

None

of

Outer margin

INS

&

A.H. =923/4 A.D.

311

3.J

As above.

as above.

(ex Greenwood Coll.). 26mm., 2.33grm.

ANs

the published varieties appears

to

AR.

*W**

have the pellet.

>

of

AR.

as

above.

There are two other specimens

the reverse, and the other

Madinat al-Salm. Year 313

Area and outer margin

as

34

*W*:

44;

3.1

above.

is

pellets

on

ANs. 25mm., 2.28grm.

this issue, but one lacks the

not described.

A.H. =925/6 A.D.


4]
2-call

AR.

4.

Ju

(ex Newell Coll.). 27mm., 2.82grm.

ANs

this specimen differs from the known varieties.


Berlin, Nos. 1736-7; Constantinople,
333; Casanova, No. 769 (not described).

197;

p.

Berlin,

Nos. 1739-40; Constantinople, No. 661;


333; Casanova, Nos. 770-1 (not described).

[98

307);

Fasti Arabici VI, NC, 1887,

p.

Ties., Nos. 2312-13 (also

Lane-Poole,

p.

p.

307); Paris, No.


*** Ties., No. 23oo (and
No. 658; Lane-Poole, Fasti Arabici VI, NC, 1887,
185 Berlin, No. 1686; Porter, NC, 1921,
325.

p.

The reverse

of

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Outer margin

2-all

*UW

&

cruel!

"

J-31) ---

340.

184

Al-Rafiqah. Year 313 A.H. =925/6 A.D.


<u>
-e el: *- Asl_Ju
3

339.

Madinat al-Salm. Year

3:

338.

CO

ABB As ID

ILv ER

Sq al-Ahwaz. Year 314 A.H. =926/7 A.D.


*W** 34 &-l * 313-yl

Area and outer margin

33

as above.

All

AR.

Ju

1.1%

821

above, but pellet above

"AR.

ANs. 25mm., 2.84grm.

Shirz. Year

317

A.H. =929/30 A.D.

3_42

&-

*-

cruel!

As above.

Hamadhn. Year 315

4.oogrm., 2.66grm.

that mentioned

Tiesenhausen

A.H. =927/8 A.D.

J--> <- &l-e

As above.

above.
GCM

(Teheran, 1935). 27mm., 2.30grm.

14
=

187 Ties., No. 2327; Berlin, No. 1771 (?); Zambaur, NZ,
No. 787(?) (not described).
Ties., No. 2918.
177, No.
188 NZ, 1871,

[99]

1905,

p.

AR.

Area and outer margin

as

*-*

ANs. 26mm., 25mm.;

by

These are doubtless similar


the Murom find.

AR.

above.

specimens:

*W**

the

jL:

to

Outer margin

345.

respect

-->

as

J-31)

(ringed)

3:1

*W**

&

343-344.

5-all

4JW

above.

This specimen differs from published varieties


obverse pellet.

p.

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Outer margin

as

ha of ilaha.

in

as

Area

A.H. =926/7 A.D.

in

*-*

*W**

(ex Newell Coll.). 24.5mm., 3.17grm.

Wsit. Year 314

342.

ANs

2-call

of

341.

61, No. 36; Casanova,

R A

RE IS LA M I

CO I NS

Abbsid dirhams of Hamadan are very rare. I know of only one


other date in the fourth century of the Hijrah, 307."
346.

Antkiyah. Year 318

*W**

* Su-

Area and outer margin

A.H. =930 A.D.

\lau

As above.
AR.

as above.

(ex Wood Coll.). 28mm., 3.48grm.

ANs

published

Bartholomaei

is

specimen

by

PLATE

not completely

de

scribed."
Madinat al-Salm. Year 318

A.H. =930 A.D.

*W*:: 34 du:

<-->

*- f>J)

as

Area and outer margin

above.

all

on

one specimen
as

on

of

this year lack the pellet


pellet
specimen has
the obverse
varieties

5-all

(ex Wood Coll.). 26mm., 4.18grm.

ANs

in

AR.

of

With the exception

Berlin, the published

the reverse; and the Berlin

well."

Ju

Horseman,
helmeted,

5-all.

specimens:

R.

left; above,

coat

riding
Lias

mail

(?),

horse

J.

to

Siva,

in

of

A.D.).
Nandi, sacred bull
clining left; above,

re-

No mint. No date (Al-Muqtadir, 295-320 A.H. =908-932

348-349.

(ex Newell Coll.). 19mm., 19mm.;

ANs

4.05grm. (fitted for ring), 3.42grm.

This remarkable type has been discussed under No. 199, above,
dinar
the same design. The present specimens, both from the
of

189 Berlin,

No.

1772.

100 Ties., No. 2350.

ix,

79, No. 446"; Berlin, Nos. 1748-9; Paris, No. 1204; Con
191 Ties., No. 2345; BM,
stantinople, No. 669; Casanova, No. 774 (not described).

100

p.

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4JW

of

347.

ABB As ID

ILVER

of dies, appear to be from the identical dies used in striking


the specimen in the National Museum in Damascus."
same set

350.

Al-Basrah. Year

A.H. = 933 A.D.

321

*W** 3.43 &-- ~

margin:

-a J.

"

J-l

3-5.)

Outer

Qurn

XXX,

3-4.
AR. ANS.

A
351.

single specimen, published by Fraehn, is fragmentary."

Al-Ahwaz. Year

*W*3 &J-23
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27mm., 2.74grm.

&

Area and outer margin

322
#1

A.H. =933/4 A.D.


313-y\|
all

as above.

J3-2 -->
Ju Lal

4J)

l-vel

4J)

g will

&J J)

AR. ANs.

24mm., 3.Iogrm.
PLATE

similar specimen was published by Soret," but with an incom


plete description. The bibliography of comment on the extraordinary

which occurs on some other coins of al-Qhir's as


well, may be found in Tiesenhausen." The title refers to the execu
tion of the famous general Mu'nis in the year 321; in recognition of
the deed the Caliph called himself He who avenges the religion of
reverse legend,

Allh upon the enemies of Allh. The historians word it somewhat


192 mir Djafar Abdel-Kader,
in Mlanges Syriens offerts Monsieur
(Paris, 1939), pl. I (opp. p. 4oo), No. 16.

Ren Dussaud,

198 Ties., No. 2368.


194 Lettre Fraehn,

Mm. Soc. Imp. d'Archologie, St. Petersbourg, 1851, No. 27 = Ties.,

No. 238o.
195 No. 2374.

101

IS LA M I

R A R E

CO I NS

differently, but they correctly record that al-Qhir placed the


ific upon his coins."

Al-Rafiqah. Year 323 A.H. =934/5 A.D.


*u. . . . 4.e3 &l
&L
as above.

all

ANs (ex

Newell Coll.). 28mm., 3.39grm.

This specimen differs from two published ones


ornament in the obverse area."

lacks the

3-Ja:
As above.
ANs

(ex Newell Coll.). 24mm.,

3.01

is

Halab also

dinars," and

know

few fuls.

(S)-2

As above.
AR.

Outer margin

above.

*W*3

exceedingly rare mint.

grm.

A.H. =934-940 A.D.

32x

(?). Year
as

Halab

4.

354.

&

only four other dirhams," two

an

unique. Tarsus

is

This coin

is

PLATE

of

above.
AR.

as

Outer margin

c.

4.23

-"

&

*W*3

that

A.H. =934/5 A.D.

Tarsus. Year 323

353.

gal)

in

AR.

Allu

Outer margin

it

352.

(ex Newell Coll.). 27.5mm., 3.35grm.

ANs

very rare Abbsid mint, although under later rulers

of

on

of

course among the commonest.

2.33

+3*)

p.

NC,

1887,

p.

II,

Matthes),

&

&

will 4W)

254:

clies

.<-J)

Mr. Newell.

199 308 A.H.; Johnston,

NC,

1899,

266; 313 A.H.: Berlin, No. 1646.

102

is

of

p.

326; 312 A.H.: Berlin, No. 1707: 3.1x A.H.: Berlin,


333. suspect that the present coin
the same
Schulman's auction catalogue
March 30, 1914 (no. 1808), purchased

that listed

1921,

as

piece

l-el

Juynboll

(ed.

No. 464.

A.H.: Porter, NC,


333 A.H.: Lane-Poole,

(?)

in

1983oz

No. 1708;

&

J's

i,

ge 43

197 Ties., No. 2930, BM,

Ibn-Taghri-Birdi

Abu'l-Mahsin

p.

196 E.g.,

&

is

it

is

is

it

The epigraphy
the mint
name
somewhat obscure
this specimen. The fact that this coin
Abbsid, rather than Ikhshidid, would indicate that
was struck

by

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honor

ABB As ID

ILVER

or between 327 and 329, for there were Ikhshi

between 322 and 324

did governors at Halab during the other years of al-Rdi's reign."


I am not aware of any Ikhshidid coins of Aleppo, although there
were issues struck by the Ikhshidids at Damascus and Tabariyah.
355.

Nisibin. Year 32x A.H. =934-940 A.D.


*W*3 &L-23 . . . ~ 3:*:

&

Jail

As above.
3:

3-3) l
Outer margin

that apparently

940/1 A.D.

3:

.
.

&

&

other Nisibin issues

abu'l-Fadl.

Al-Basrah. Year 32(9) A.H.


*W*3
U-alu

23-all

(ex Newell Coll.). 25mm., 3.96grm.

all

ANs

is

al-Rdi lack the name

356.

J
gril

above.
AR.

(ex Newell Coll.). 24.5mm., 3.92grm.


to

originally wrongly attributed


al-Rdi,
this specimen. The missing digit must
the only year
the third decade
which

al

to

be
9,

2440,

of

because that year

is

Tiesenhausen no.
apparently similar

ANs

in

Outer margin

as

3:31) -->

is

Muttaqi ruled.

&

Outer margin

3:

*-

Madinat al-Salm. Year 330

*W**

as

357.

X-J

A.H. =941/2 A.D.

above.

all

J)

ll' gel

29.5mm., 2.93grm.
PLATE

32.

103

Cf. Zambaur, Manuel,

200

AR. ANs.

p.

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unusual

4.

of

This dirham

of in

AR.

as above.

IS LA M I

The anomaly of al-Rdi's name on

R A R E

CO I NS
coin of the year 330 must be

as an instance of the use of an old reverse die in striking


al-Muttaqi's.
a coin of

explained

A.H. =944 A.D.

Al-Rahbah. Year 323(sic)=333(?)

*W*3 &

-li

4.e3

Outer margin

-- *-Ju

as above.

AR.

All

all

Gill

(ex Newell Coll.). 27mm., 2.52grm.

ANs

in

is

an

mistake

al-Muttaqi's,

die-engraver

is

350. Al-Rahbah

the year 322,

referred

Beirut, and

probably the well-known place

to

the specimen

one dated

that name,
be on

the foot-note above, one

the mint, al-Rahbah,

by

know only

of

exceedingly rare.

the coin

is

likely.
of I

is

else the

writing the decade. The latter alternative seems

Another remarkable feature


which

or

reverse

in

the more

in

made

in

had taken possession

316

is of

the town

mint

in

the Abbsid reconquest

as

al-Rahbah

of
it of
in

brief, appearance

of

of

to

of

b.

or

Tawq, situated
usually called Rahbat al-Shm
Rahbat Mlik
the right bank
the Euphrates not far from Qarqisiya and
al-Miydin
today. The sudden, and
identified with the town
330

probably connected with


from the Qarmatids, who

A.H.
of

an

of

is

of

1.,

of

104

E.

in

by

E.

p.

p.

p.

of

al-Rdi, has been pub


201 Another specimen
this year and mint, but with the name
lished: Tornberg, Symbolae IV, No. 45 Ties., No. 241o.
202 Porter, NC, 1921,
326.
208 Zambaur, NZ, 1922,
12. The location
this specimen
not indicated.
204 Ibn-al-Athir, VIII,
132.
full description
this locality, together with
extensive
bibliography,
given
Honigmann
s.v. al-Rahba.
is

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die was used with

of

Rabi

of

date

remarkable coin
several respects.
the first place the
clearly written 323, but al-Muttaqi's rule did not begin until
329 A.H. Two explanations are possible: either
old obverse

I, is

This

In

PLATE

358.

ABB As ID
Antkiyah. Year

359.

*W*3

337

ILVER

A.H. =948/9 A.D.

&:3 &- ~ *:

Uait.

as above.

($)4]

AR.

Outer margin

&lal

Newell Coll.). 27mm., 4.42grm.

ANs (ex

***

of

is
a

the very rare mint

A.H. =950/1 A.D.

*-

Antkiyah. Year 339(?)

of

is

low are the last known Abbsid issues


Antioch.

(*).5:3 (8).J.-:

360.

is

poorly struck. The decade


little doubtful but
probably correctly read. This and the coin described immediately be

This dirham

usu

3-0)
above.
ANs (ex

Newell Coll.). 27mm., 4.46grm.


PLATE

very crudely executed coin

AR.

as

Outer margin

clall

All

&: Ill

to

with respect

have some reference

the

Qurn,
of

coins except

on in

on

occurrence

to

later date." Might

significance. The phrase occurs


its

not know

its
it of

but

of

explanation
do

no

is

to

is

is

both die-en
enigmatically written, the digit
graving and striking. The date
appearing
read ninety and the decade obscure. The legend be
unusual, and can offer
neath the obverse, the Evident Truth,

This

much
the Shi'ite controversy
some

which was particularly bitter during al-Muti's reign?


XXIV, 25; XXVII, 81.
Morocco, e.g., BM,
Nos. 265ff. Since this was written, another contempo
Sharifs
my attention: on
rary numismatic use
Ftimid dinar
al
the phrase has come
Candia, Monnaies Ftimites du Muse du Bardo
Mansrriyah, 342 A.H. (J. Farrugia
Ftimid
Revue Tunisienne, 1948, no. 15). The implication
(Premier Supplment),"
inquiry.
interesting field
influence
Antioch suggests

of

105

of

an

of

de

of

to

of

v,

205

at

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All

RARE

IS LA M I C

No mint. No date. Al-Nasir,

361.

Within

square,

double

CO I

575-622

NS

A.H. = 1180-1225 A.D.


As obverse:

outer

beaded:

all

In

segments:

A.H.

1242

J)

J.

<!-- ~~

segments:

be

to

106

84, No. 495p.

BM, ix,

15mm., o.75grm.

unique, although larger

the same general style are known.


p.

of

This fractional dirham appears

||

f21

J.

J-34

In

In
||

distinctly Ayyubid.

PLATE

207

. . .

different reverse

AR. ANs.

hams

J-a-ll

segments:

3:4)

. . .

A.D.
Within square:
fuyl

All J3-2

*w-

Ji

all

yl

-->

the coin
=

A
in
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Museum. The style

Madinat al-Salm. Year 640


Within square:

362.

(ex Newell Coll.). 15.5mm., 1.24grm.

ANs

somewhat similar fractional dirham with

the British

||

is

Ji

c.

Yl

||

segments:

is

AR.

of

. . .

In

AU)

dir

ABB As ID

coPPER

C. COPPER

With Names of Mints


Adhanah
Adhanah. Year 19x

Yl J1

A.H.

=806-815

A.D.
&

J-e J)

J3-2 -->
* >! U- J|

*3]

&3_* &

Margin:

** 5-3

J-M
AE.

. . .

. . .

-->

"

J.

(ex Wood Coll.). 26mm., 5.8ogrm.

ANs

of

Adana

on

is
a

the Sayhn,

today, the ancient Cilician

of

Arab Adhanah

the

"Aava on the River Saros, the Seleucid mint

Antiocheia

published," but initial errors

Soret have thrown later

In

have been

similar fuls, probably from different dies,


by

specimens

Several

of

at

In

fabric and style the coin resembles published coppers


neighbouring
from
al-Massisah" and unpublished ones from the
excavations
Tarsus.

Sarum.

of

in

in

p.

I,

Strange, Lands,
179 (cf.
344; Head, Historia Numorum, pp. 715-6.
Miles, Islamic Coins,
20*. Cf. George

131); Pauly-Wissowa,

is

Real-Encyclopdie,

in

IV, Part One


Antioch-on-the-Orontes,
1948), Nos. 150-151, pp. 111, 119. My statement on
119 with regard
Soret's
interesting
should
corrected
the light
the present positive identification.
C.

to

is

It

of

in

be

107

at

as

at

Hrn struck
al-Massisah (apparently),
well
Adhanah.
21, No. 29 Ties., No. 2463; Paris, Nos. 1643-4.
Dorn (1856),
p.

that Ahmad
209 Soret

b.

reading

p.

(Princeton,

as

I,

Le

are accurately reproduced.

*Yqt,

p.

ornaments

as

by

in

in

in

or

are

Numismatic
unpublished

of

260 copper coins


the Abbsids
the Museum
the
Society, and an insignificant few
the University Museum collection.
Notable
rare pieces among these, together with
few from my own small
following
collection, are described
apparently
unique
pages.
the
Some
but only partially
preserved specimens
the ANS have been omitted. The arrangement
this section
alphabetical,
mints. Common ornaments such
stars are conventionalized; only unusual

There

American

approximately

of

in

***

he

an

he

of

scholars off the scent


the correct attribution.
the first place Soret
thought
could read the date 333, and developed quite
erroneous
imagina
argument
support
reading.
highly
the
Then
saw

p.

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new mint.
important
the
Turkish city

is

Adhanah

of It

PLATE

ad

363.

R A RE

IS LA M I C CO I NS

J-2

on the obverse. Tiesenhausen and Lavoix copied


Soret's errors, the latter adding to the confusion by reading the name
of the governor as Ahmad b. Marwn instead of Ahmad b. Hrn,
which is perfectly clear on Soret's and the present specimens. Unfor
tive als' l-all

have not been able to identify

Ahmad b. Hrn in the


Arabic chronicles.
Amal, an unusual numismatic formula, must be the substantive
tunately

form, for there is no bi before the mint name.

Arrn
364.

Arrn(?). Year
Yl J| y

-3

&L

184

A.H. =800 A.D.


-->]

J)

*A*->ve

J3-2
AUl

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%
Annulets:

oo

-** &
Margin:

[oo]

** 5-3
AE. GCM.

&-l

<

19.5mm., 3.20grm.

The mint is obscure. The date, while somewhat obscure, is almost


certainly correctly read, and the fals is therefore probably similar to
one in Berlin where only the last two letters of the mint name are
preserved. I have not been able to identify the governor or prefect,

Ahmad b. Muhammad. Possibly he was that Ahmad b. Muhammad


&_--J1, who was relieved as governor of the Yaman in the year 212.
210 Berlin,
211

No. 2203.
Ibn-al-Athir, VI, p. 287.

108

ABB As ID coPPER

Arrn. Year
Yl

A.H. =808/9 A.D.


crual

J)

J3-2
all

J-Me

Margin:
&le; J-M1

AE,

the governor, al-Abbs

2.89grm.

of

the same mint and year bearing the name

b.

of

There are dirhams

GCM. 20mm.,

J-5

*3

&l

[o]

Annulets:

oo

oo

>5

&

&_*

...A-e-Pa

2-3
4

193

all

365.

Zufar (al-Hilli).

366.

Bukhr. Year

160

g-> <>

A.H. =776/7 A.D.


0

***

G3

J-4)

J3-2
All

A.
Margin:

cull

>!

3-2
e

*J.

3:

.
AE.

J-M1

** 3:-

**
&

Ji

-->

lie

(sic)

Margin:

lie

J-M1

J-yl

J.We

ANs (ex Wood Coll.). 21mm., 1.48grm.

the prefect,

218 Ties.,

No. 906; Berlin, No.

21.32a.

[109

178. For

fals

of

der Statthalter von Armenien

131; Zambaur, Manuel,

.
.

b.

Vasmer, Chronologie

Cf.

p.

1549.

No.

p.

212 Ties.,

R.

be

It

or to

Fraehn, Tiesenhausen and Ntzel left undeciphered.


seems
Qudayd (or Qadid,
that the name must
read Abadah
Monumenta Armenologica, 1927,
see Zambaur, NZ, 1905, No. 64.

is

whose name
me

pos
.,

the identity

in

of

raise the question

of

ously garbled obverse marginal legend


the present specimen,
well known. My only reason for publishing the specimen here

is

on

This fals, without the double striking which produced the curi

to

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Bukhr

the year 197,

RA RE

sibly Fudayk), but

IS LA M I C CO I NS

have been unable to trace any such

individual

in the chronicles. The governor (abu-'Awn) Abd al-Malik b.


Yazid, is of course a well-known figure, adequately documented in
written history and by his coins and glass weights.
Bardha'ah
Bardha'ah. Year
y! J1 y

A.H. =779/80 A.D.

**

J)

J3-2

J)

&_* Y

W
r-

J-a <ll

Jel

U-1

ANs (ex Wood Coll.). 23mm., 2.84grm.

is

to

Ties, no. 2769 (cf. Ties, No. 726), where the crescent
Similar
under the reverse area
not described.
Tustar

J1

Yl

ke-Pea

J3-2
all
OOO

&_*
Q

A.H. =781/2 A.D.

J)

2-3

165

Tustar. Year

368.

Ji

Annulets: (apparently) oooooo ooo

know, the only fuls

published. On the silver and the gold the name

of

as

far

the

110

1ssues,

the present

1657

13

and No.

Walker

list

of

p.

p. a

of

of

p.

is

of

name similar

to

full, Tustar min-al-Ahwaz.

*** There
an unidentified governor
Tabaristn with
father's name: J.-M. Unvala, Numismatique du Tabaristn,
(BM Cat.
the Arab-Sassanian Coins),
lxxx and
152.
AGW,
pp. 105-6, for
summary
Cf.
his career and

J-5

(Teheran, 1936). 19mm., 3.16grm.

is

to

Tustar
given
mint

in

be

This and the following coin are,

so

AE,

GCM

Margin: -->
J--> <J-M1 lia

*3

of

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Margin:
*> U-yl

#23-2
AE.

&

** 3-3

&

lie -->

J-M1

<ll

Margin:

&

-3

163

367.

his glass and copper

coPPER

ABB As ID

Tustar. Year

369.

166

A.H. =782/3 A.D.

** 3:-

AE,

Similar in every respect to No. 368 above, except for the date
GCM

(Teheran, 1936). 21mm., 3.08grm.

Jayy
Madinat Jayy. Year

A.H. =774/5 A.D.

J|

AUl

there even less clear than

the hope that

3
*

known, but
here.

this fals

GCM

->

(s-all
*-*.

Gle

Jel

J-31)

(*)3V-

(Teheran, 1935). 20mm., 5.1ogrm.

is

is

prefect

may elicit the publication

the name

the

publish this piece only


of

is

on

it

have transcribed them

or

as

to

in

in

another specimen
with the prefect's name more perfectly preserved. The only really
uncertain letter
the father's name
the present example
the
next
the last; feel fairly confident that the other letters are either
the other

Kufic possibilities.

Halab

AU1

A.H. =755/6 A.D.


-A-Pve

All J3-2

>

e-A-9
<gie

IX,

(ex Wood Coll.). 21mm., 3.67grm.

111

p.

*7BM,

No. 2137.

the British
i,

in

ANs

is

AE.

** 3:3

similar fals, with mint effaced,

216 Berlin,

Qur'n

~~

Margin: Part
.

&\*

Margin:

33

All

138

of

Halab. Year

Yl Y

371.

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One other example

of

AE,

G-

it is

&V.

-->

J-3

---

<!!

lie

<!-- J-M1

*3

Margin:

&

Margin:

of

&_*

J3-2

-3
4

158

370.

Museum.

200, No. 99.

IS LA M I

R A R E

CO

INS

Khazmat Halab. Year 146 A.H. =763/4 A.D.


Similar to the published specimens, but with

372.

the

above

AE.

obverse.
ANs

(ex Wood Coll.). 20mm., 2.82grm.

Dimishq

A.H. =788/9 A.D.


*A*-P-A.

J3-2
All

chu:

#1

on

believe)

of

is

mistakenly

(I

AE.

192

J1

3+-->

(ex Wood Coll.). 20.5mm., 2.92grm.

lished specimens
this coin"; another specimen
not completely described.

three

pub

read 172

but

Al-Ramlah
Al-Ramlah. Year 218 A.H. =833 A.D.
y

J.]

y]

-->

el-y

J3-2

Chain border.

Margin:

All
&

e-A-0

374-375.

E.g., BM,

ix,

of

There are similar issues

al-Ramlah dated 217.

p.

112

p.

u,

BM, ix,

p.

94, No. 9ok.


97, No. 127t,
Constantinople, No. 771.
21, No. XXV Ties., No. 1165.
220 Castiglioni, Monete Cufiche,
*** E.g., Berlin, Nos. 2211-12.
219

lie -->

ANs (ex Newell Coll.). 20mm., 21mm.; 2.30grm., 3.1ogrm.


PLATE

J-M1

specimens:

E,

*JW
2

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The date has been read

ANs

-->

&

J-M1

** 3-3

lie

Margin:

o
o
o

Annulets:

oo

3.

-3 J)

J1

y!

172

Dimishq. Year

373.

(No. 374)

coPPER

ABB As ID

Al-Rayy
Al-Rayy. Year 129 A.H. =746/7 A.D.
This variety of the issues of the Abbsid partisan Abdullah b.
Mu'awiyah has been published.
AE.

376.

>
3:

Ju

**

.
.
.

&

(sic)

Lal

All x2

Im.

&_*.

*3

Yl

-"

J.

le-

25mm., 4.44grm.

A.H. =746/7 A.D.

lie

J-M1

(sic)

129

Coll.).

Al-Rayy. Year

J.

377.

ANs (ex Wood

Double struck.

This

is
a

AE.

ANs

to

The garbled date and inverse line are due

double-striking.

(K. Minassian).

21mm., 2.8ogrm.

new variety.
Sq al-Ahwaz

J)

J3-2

J)

---Y)

AE,

** (*).5-3 s-- ~
NHR, No.

(ex Newell Coll.).

36C.

113

Cf. NHR, Nos. 36B-D.

223

ANs

-->
313-yl

-:

J-M1

lie

Margin:

Border
continuous (?) annulets outside double circle.

222

&

(*):-->)

<!!

&_*

-->ea

2-3

-A->

J|

al-Ahwaz. Year 16(?)1 A.H. =777/8(?) A.D.


y!

378. Sq

of

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Annulets:

Margin: traces.

33

22mm., 5.06grm.

IS LA M I C CO I NS

RAR E
379.

Sq al-Ahwaz. Year 16(2)8

A.H. =784/5(?) A.D.

yl J1 y

*A*-*

-3

J3-2

J)

J)

&_* Y

380. Sq

of

prefect,

(?)b.

33-

313-yl

name

including

Traces,

c-

<ll

V*

->

AE.

3:-3

lie

**

J-M1

Margin:

al-Abbs

.
.

Margin:

~9

(ex Newell Coll.). 21mm, 2.58grm.

ANs

al-Ahwaz. Year 210 A.H. =825/6 A.D.


-A-->ea

as

Area

above.

J3-2
Ornaments above and below,
any, obliterated.
margin,
Traces

including

of

r-

ill

313-yl 455-

381. Sq al-Ahwaz.

Year 210

3.81

(3)3x

.
.

U--

(ex Newell Coll.). 23mm.,

[?...]3

ANs

oo

AE.

Annulets:

Inanne:
o
o
o

J42

J-1

grm.

A.H. =825/6 A.D.

Area

as

*A*->ea

J3-2

above.

.
.

32-

313-yl

Margin:

*%

AUl

Margin obliterated.

-->

AE.

Outer border clipped.


ANs (ex Newell

114

&:

V-3

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Margin:

if

AV)

Coll.).

15mm., 1.7ogrm.

ABBA's ID

coPPER

Tabaristn
382.

Tabaristn. Year
Area as above.

A.H. = 767 A.D.

150

* >!

s-d

A->ea
-

(?)->

>

(*)-l. &

Margin:

J-8) lia

($) < J3

*3 J-->
AE,

3-3) l

4\e s- ge

Ju-J:

at

administration. Khlid
for the latter part
the

b.

in

unknown.

this mint. The


about this time;
of

is

C-:

As

to

is

the prefect,

at

time; but the words that follow, although they should


cipherable,

be

is

an

obverse marginal legend, the phrase fi-wilayat, although obscure,


can
read and
not
unusual conventional inscription
this
be

easily

de

escape me.

Al-Abbsiyah
Al-Abbsiyah. Year
Area
above.

173

A.H. =789/90 A.D.


&

as

383.

-A-->ve

-->

** 3-3

All

J-M1

J3-2

Ji

-U-V

lie

Margin:

*~

C32

be

of

(ex Torrey Coll.). 21mm., 3.85grm.

unique.

210, No. 129.

115

BM,

ANs

the year 172 are

224 E.g.,

i,

issue appears

al-Abbsiyah

to

Coppers

of

AE.

Margin: traces only.

p.

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of

two provinces were closely allied

Muhammad,

<-

J)

(Teheran, 1935). 21mm., 5.06grm.

GCM

am not familiar with any other copper coins


Rayy
style
very similar
that
coins struck
the

-->

&

of

&

Margin:

at

common, but this

RA

R E

IS LA M I C

CO

I NS

Ghazzah
Ghazzah. Year 217
Area as above.

384-385.

A.H. =832 A.D.


-A-Pve

Chain border.

J3-2
All

2 specimens:

E. ANs

&
Margin:
53: J-M1

lie -->

5:V-9 3-,+

&

(ex Newell Coll.). 21mm., 19mm.; 2.82grm, 2.67grm.

PLATEX (No.

384)

225

This issue has been published, but I believe that it has never been

The

straight edges where the coins were cut apart after removal from the
mould are very apparent. The casting of copper coins in Syria and,
apparently, Palestine, in the third century of the Hijrah appears to
have been a common practice. A very large number of cast coppers
were found

386.

in the excavations at Antioch.

Ghazzah. Year 217

A.H. =832 A.D.

Similar to the above, but with

beneath the obverse area and

(apparently five) in the border outside the chain margin.

annulets

ANs

(ex Wood Coll.). 21mm., 2.64grm.

1948), Nos. 148-153, pp. 118-9.

116

Part One (Princeton,

in

of =

IV,

Orontes,

cf.

in

Karabacek, Zur orientalischen Mnzkunde,


Wiener Numismatische Monatshefte,
Ties., No. 2849;
Berlin, No. 2220 (unbestimmter Prgeort").
37, No.
For
discussion
these cast coppers,
see my Islamic Coins,
Antioch-on-the

(1867),

p.

*
*

AE.

Cast, like the above.

III

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remarked that these coins were cast, not struck from dies.

ABB As ID

coPPER

Al-Kfah
387.

Al-Kfah. Year
Yl J| y
e-A-9

163

A.H. =779/80 A.D.


%

Jl

A-->ca

J3-2

&_* Y

Jl

3 J.
Margin:

Annulets: oo coo

***

the year 163

as

***

al-Kfah are known, but not lacking

165

A.H. =781/2 A.D.

-A->

J)

&_*

Jal

(ex Torrey Coll.). 20mm., 2.68grm.

J3-2
All

J1

-3

3-3 +

here.

Al-Kfah. Year
y!

388.

ANs

ANs

Ishq (b. al-Sabbah al-Kindi), governor

al-Kfah,

on fuls
the year 163, but this
the first specimen
165 bearing his name that
have met with.
is

205, No. 113.


43.

117

Ties., No. 947.

** E.g.,

p.

p.

BM,

i,

227 E.g.,

22*. Cf. Zambaur, Manuel,

w.

*3%u

(ex Newell Coll.). 20mm., 2.34grm.

of

AE,

** 3-3

*-l
J-->

<

<-

3-34

*l

Margin:

oooo

of is

oo

32-l
Annulets:

of

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the hundred

at

Fuls

of

AE.

(sic)

s-all

known

the year

R A

Al-Kfah. Year

389.

Area

RE

195

IS LA M I C CO INS

A.H. =810/1 A.D.

as above.

Chain border interrupted by

J3-J

ee e

AU)

W
J-31

AE.

*3%u

ANs

Margin:

-> --> * >!

** 3:- 3 J-> <

(ex Wood Coll.). 19mm., 2.75grm.

in

to

the ornaments above and


This specimen differs, with respect
the Istanbul Museum.
beneath the reverse, from that

Area

as

=8th

above.

J3-2
AUl

J
-

V-

.
.

A.D.

--->va

Margin:
[L]el

c.

H.

c.

Mh al-Kfah. Date effaced. 2nd

390.

(*):

other coppers

of

no

know

of

AE,

ANs

J-M

.
.

.33%) u:

.
.

Margin:

(ex Torrey Coll.). 20mm., 3.09grm.

this mint.

Al-Muhammadiyah
Al-Muhammadiyah.

Year

185

A.H. =801 A.D.

This particular variety, with al-Harib


my

al-Harith, has been pub

NHR.

AE,

lished

or

391.

in

Constantinople,
86E.

GCM

No. 779.

118

231 No.

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Mh al-Kfah

(Teheran, 1935). 23mm, 2.97grm.

ABB As ID coPPER

Misr
Misr. Year 25[9?]=87[2/3?] A.D.

392-393.

-3

all

J)

*A*-Pea

J3-2

el-A

J.]

Ornament?

y]

all
-Kyl

of b.

of
a

to

read the

dismiss this

here, for the date, unfortunately not clear

its

any further evidence were needed

Ahmad

number
Arabic figures

undertook
to

him

he

published

E.

on

certain coppers
some length

in

ment

is

262.
it

date

one specimen

by

and

have been discussed

the reverse area are similar

the past. Zambaur argued that they were

If

on

scholars

in

Tln which

at

if

to,

at

The curious symbols


the bottom
not identical with, the symbols

argu

entirety
to

of

it

Zambaur's acceptance
Ntzel's refuta
longtemps
qu'on
pas
tion?): aussi
nous fournira
une meilleure
explication,
simple
faut voir dans ces signes
ornement.
by

do

Tln

as

Ahmad

date(?)

the related

to

and mint,
not bear the name
coins referred
above.

b.

note that the present coins, Tlnid

of

to

interest

do

of

is

il

un

ne

is

Ntzel's statement (or

of

is

in

in

but almost certainly 259, written out


conventional fashion
the
margin. As for the significance
the symbols
can add nothing

It

p.

119

he

be

to

232 NZ, 1905, pp. 74-77, No. 70. The other significant references are
found there.
publishes Karabacek's cogent refutation.
194, No. 70, where
Cf. Zambaur, NZ, 1906,
NZ, 1906,
195.

p.

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Coll.).

(*)

largely effaced):
ANs (ex Newell
19mm., 20mm.; 2.24grm., 1.87grm.

by

specimens

of

(1

&:W.

-->

J.--

.
.

L-a-.

lie

Margin:

Chain border.

IS LA M I C CO I NS

R A RE

Al-Mawsil
Al-Mawsil. No date (ca.
Within square:
Yl

145

A.H. =762/3 A.D.).


Within square:
*A*-*

Around:

Around:
o

L-yl
5-3.)

(ex Wood Coll.).

ANs

o
O

J-3'

AE,

Ji]*

ge

s-

ot'',

J)

[]

&

e-A-9

Jel

J3-2

&

#3

all

&

all

394.

22mm., 3.44grm.

to

of

on

b.

the specimens

cited.

Lavoix assigns the

b.

on

b.

of

on

the Umayyad period


the basis
two alternative identifi
Mu'awiyah. Al-Haytham
Mu'awiyah, which
al-Walid

of

cations

Mu'awiyah

undoubtedly the person


the present coin,
that name who was governor
Ta'if and Mecca from 141
A.H.,"
governor
143
and who later turns
Basrah
155 and

to

judge

by

in

of

the governor,

to

of

156." As for the name

as

up

of

is

sufficiently clear

by is

the style, the

undoubtedly the Caliph al-Mansur's son Ja'far,


question
Ja'far
governor
Mosul
145-146 A.H. Hence
believe this fals
dated approximately 145.

ANs

be

(ex Wood Coll.). 28mm., 10.63grm.

cf.

120

--

3:

Ji
.

*l

J-31.

Cf. Ties., Nos. 2641-2, Paris, No. 1513, etc.


Ibn-al-Athir,
pp. 387, 389;
Zambaur, Manuel,
V,

**

&-

All
Margin:
[$Jia-] U-yl
Jel V.
All
J-31
AE.

~3

lie -->

to

J3-2

p.

J|

&_2

*A*-*

Margin:
J-M1

is

32-l

J|
y

-3

A.H. =773/4 A.D.

157

Al-Mawsil. Year
y!

395.

in

of

is

in

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coins

to

al-Walid

as

on

of

Mosul fuls
this general type have been pub
lished, but find none exactly similar
suspect that the
this.
prefect's name
some specimens has been misread,
for example
number

20.

ABB As ID coPPER

This fals is perhaps similar to one with date obscure (15x) in the
Bibliothque Nationale.
Nihwand
Nihwand. Year

154

A.H. =770/1 A.D.

* >!

Annulets: oo

Margin:

o oo o oo o

***
AE.

J-M1
u- ~3

->

J-5 &-

<

ANs (ex Wood Coll.). 21mm., 2.38grm.

at

published, with the curious word


the end
margin
the reverse
read
u... The letters before the final alif
(jim,
mim; perhaps
clearly
etc.),
are
and either qf (or fa)
issue has been

the

excess space

Similar

to

Madinat Nihwand. Year

397-400.

Berlin, Nos.

186

by

pious expression
in

fill

truly, verily,
up

G-,"
to

is

the word
die-engraver

or

as

of

This

used

the

the margin.

A.H. =802 A.D.

2191-2.

specimens: ANs (ex Newell Coll.). 26-27mm.; 8.20, 5.97, 6.92, 7.oogrm.

PLATEX (No.

397)

the mint are

40. Al-Haytham

is

Zambaur, Manuel,

p.

6;

cf.

36

2,

and

mentioned

Baghdad dirham

omitted, perhaps inadvertently,

later date.

121

241 Paris, No. 1553.

in

is

scription.
289 Ties., No. 835.
240 Cf. Ties., No. 1742,

of

Cf. Zambaur, Manuel,


and table
Paris, No. 1632. The word al-amir

G.

167.

287

p.

Ibn-al-Athir, VI, pp.

II,

*
*

by Yqt,

the name

believe, indisputable.

p.

crowded but,

nun and dal

of

wand. The wau,

in

to

in

to

publish these only


confirm the reading
the Berlin catalogue
point out Lavoix's erroneous reading Amid for Nih
and

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ca"

(s-"
oOO

>k

&_* Y

<!!

~ &-til
3-3) l &
J--

Yl J1 y
All

lie

396.

the

tran

RAR E

IS LA M I C CO I NS
Hamadhn

171

A.H. =787/8 A.D.


<ls.

-3

J-31)

*J)
-->

AE.

of

(5-

UM. 21mm., 8.32grm.

coin, but Lane

this

interpret the word beneath the reverse area.

of

Poole did not attempt

to

The British Museum has two specimens

.
.

J-3

*3

J.

&l-e J-M1

"

Margin:

co

Annulets: oo

oo

3_^y)
o

&_*
#

[3)]*

lie

Yl

Year

all

401. Hamadhn.

this word are distinct and well-preserved, but there are


(theoretically) exactly thirty possible readings
the combination
depending
upon
reading
Kufic letters,
the
the last three letters

of

the word (there being ten acceptable interpretations

of

of of

these

let

at

all

ters). Among these theoretical possibilities there are, believe, only


likelyal-abrad, al-abrak, and al-abradh (for the
three that are

in

by

no

is

to

us

Persian title abrz). This does not bring


much closer
the solu
tion, for
find
one suitable
such names
the chronicles.
probably the most likely.
Al-Abrad

A.H. =815/6 A.D.


&-'

ANs

&

-->
]

.
.
.

(ex Newell Coll.). 19mm., 4.36grm.

122

213, No. 136 (imperfectly preserved), and BM, ix,

*** BM,

p.

PLATE
98, No. 133P.

AE

&-

3-3)

G-J)

--

cale

4) J3-2 -->
>yl
Jal

r-

*ll

&:

>

Margin:

&_*

-3 J)

J1

200

[Madinat Hamadhn]. Year


y1

402.

i,
p.

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of

The letters

ABB As ID coPPER

The obliterated mint on this fals can easily be reconstructed from

of

As

as

for the

did not leave sufficient room)

an

in in

Husayn, and that the individual


al-Rustami,
influential soldier

question

al-Husayn

al

little doubt but that the first name


is

(for which

the die-engraver

etc.

b.

think there can

2.3%

is

governor,

be

has been variously read

reverse)

at

be

(if

two published specimens of the same coin. I publish the present


specimen only to discuss the identity of the governor and prefect.
The missing prefect's name
such
the word
the bottom
the

'Umar

al-Jibal during the struggle

be

for his services

being appointed governor

of

by

as
a

in

tween al-Amin and al-Ma'mun


the years 194-196 A.H." The coin
now demonstrates that
mawla of al-Ma'mun he was rewarded
Hamadhn.

Al-Yaman
Al-Yaman. Year 157 A.H. =773/4 A.D.
The inscriptions roughly
the center
obverse and reverse are
of

in

hole bored through the coin.

J1

J-M

Margin: Traces

~~3 &-

only preserved.

the following year,

158.

22mm., 2.12grm.

to

al-Yaman are known


The piercing
curious.
is

coppers

of

Two other Abbsid


in

IX,

33.
AE, ANS.

dated

Qurn,

me, both

It

Annulets:

oo .
.

3:

V.

--

Margin:

&_*

AU)

e-A-5

of

by

y!

obliterated

does not

No.

143d,

also Berlin,

of

is

It

so

99,

cf.

Ties., No. 1712; BM,

e,

2*

with mint

ix,
p.

as

an

as

seem likely that this humble copper coin was pierced for wearing
frequently are.
ornament
silver and gold coins
in
No. 2219, another specimen

effaced.

237.

123

y.

p.

p.

852-3. Cf. Ibn-Khaldun, III,


95, Nos. 98*,
246 BM, ix,

in

in

p.

is

&

I,

in

of

p.

of

of

Tayfr, client
al-Hdi, governor
was
Isbahn
169 A.H. (Ibn-al-Athir,
al-Mansur, who died
64). Cf. Tayfr, client
186 (Ties., No. 812, with reference
Ibn-Taghri-Birdi [ed. Juynboll
Matthes],
523).
misspelled, but corrected
244a Tabari, III, pp. 778, 8oo (where the name
the addenda),
244 There

VI,
to

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403.

IS LA M I

R A R E

CO I

NS

terest to note that one of the British Museum specimens

is

twice

pierced, not in the center but near the periphery.

Mint Names Lacking or Effaced


No mint. No date.
% ".

404.

J-yl

&

&-N

&"

cle

?-->

%
Margin:
U-yl 4.

. .

. .

All

.
AE,

Margin:

J.-

. . . y1

J1

(ex Newell Coll.). 19mm., 3.30grm.

ANs

to

The officials

question are almost

those whose names appear

specimens:

In

>k C:

Nos. 405-6

gle

"I

5-4

c.

J
ANs

center:

J3-2

(ex Brand Coll.). 15mm., 13.5mm.; 1.65grm.,

PLATEX (No.

2545-6; Paris, No. 1671.


102-3, where his Egyptian career

Cf. AGW, pp.

124

summarized.

as

the same issue

is

above. These specimens are surely

of

The officials Mahmud and Salih are unidentified.


246 Ties., Nos.

Margin:

square:

*$

form

E,

.
.

Around,

in

C:

***

record
unknown Mahmud, which the phrase

was.

we have

No mint. No date.

V- of

405-406.

as

certainly the same ones


below.

'Ali, but

on

he

as
a

'ala yaday indicates that

Salih

in

hazard the guess that Salih


prefect under
him

identify the officials. One might


no

loss

to

am still

at
an is a

is

so,

large heavy characters

published specimens. The style,


the areas, seems
me Egyptian,
b.

this

variant

in of

but

if

its

is

apparently

with

of

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This

PLATE

See

-->
1.61 grm.

405)

No.

404

that published

ABB As ID

coPPER

by Soret, and attributed to abu-Ja'far Ashins.

I think there

doubt but that Soret's reading Achnas is

misreading of

millah.

-[2-3

(continuing

in):
gin)

the

Margin:

*I

J1] yl J1 y
mar-

s-

Center

in):
gin)

>

-->
G3

(continuing the mar


$1]

*J

&

J-1]*)

Gle

Center

Margin:

J%
All

>y

bis

A.H. =773-776 A.D.).

date. (ca. 157-159

lie

No mint [Misr]. No

407.

is little

(ex Newell Coll.). 20mm. (thickness 3.5mm.), 8.26grm.

known," attributed

Qinnasrin, but

this issue are

to

of

Varieties

No mint

name

on

doubt that the mint name has been read correctly.

Qinnasrin legible
the Paris specimen, which
illustrated. Lavoix must simply have followed Tiesenhausen's
error, others
sources, some
whom must have read Qinnasrin
is

present here, nor

in in

in

is

style and fabric

typically Egyptian
The coin
exceptionally thick), and Matar served

the mint.

is

of

mention

(it

making

no

of

is

Egypt.
effaced. Year 151 A.H. =768 A.D.
margin
Outer
within outer linOuter margin within linear
circle:
pellets,
ear circle and circle

y
p.

J1

J1

yl

.
.

J!

Inner margin:

(*)--all

J-31 U

within border

Ji

Inner margin

Jel

5-3

.
.

<!!!

&

oo
:

-->

**

~ &-'ll

J-M1

lie

.
.
.

5-

annulets,

of

by

interrupted

V.

Mint

408.

():

125

p.

249

in

to

37
=

26, No.
Ties., No. 2568.
Dorn (1856),
AGW,
would therefore delete my reference
these coins
135.
AGW,
Ties.,
2626,
Paris,
my
pp.
118,
124, for Matar's glass weights.
250
No.
No. 1601. Cf.

248 Soret

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PLATE

is

ANs

AE,

R A

RE IS LA M I C

by roughly

Center obliterated

CO

I NS

Center obliterated by hole.

AE,

square hole.
(ex Valentine Coll.). 25mm., 4.96grm.

ANs

it

is

is

this very curious piece


worn
just barely possible that
might
al-Sughd, but

the mint name

quite smooth.
given the condition

It

be

Unfortunately

of

PLATE

be

is

of

is

at

of

of

at

of

this point any reading must


highly problematical. The flan shows the characteristics
casting,
opposite sides
that
there are straight edges
the periphery
where the piece was cut off. The arrangement
the legends
un
the legend

of

conventional, and the borders, especially the reverse inner border,


are atypical.
believe everything points toward
Central Asiatic
help
explain
provenance
mint. Such
would
the later piercing

in

it

as
a

square hole:

126

252 Cf. Nos. 384-5 above.

coinage and

the issues

of

in

the Bukhran

Ilek-Khns.

of

Compare the unconventionalities

of

is

Asiatic origin, although this


not
firm argument for there are
Syria and Palestine
cast flans
the Abbsid period.

in

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times

subsequent
was probably used
Chinese cash. The cast flan might also indicate Central

the coin with

the

AND TITLES
(-ex] 3.

&

-->l

&

85-7

3:)

23-all

Ju

5211

107

&3-A
117,

74,

73

->

72,

G2-l

120

Liey)

J-yl

5-31) ---y)
62-3,

J-y
J- -

118, 122

>>

122

6o

J.-Jia

39-40, 52, 62-3, 83, Ioo

*Ji

G-J)

-->

.
.
.

G3

eV->

62

3.

5-3) l

-->

115

71

59
AU1

g-yl
->J1

--

63

66

127

5-31)

3:
A

122

122

Ji

&

3-3) l

63

120

*J)

y)

3-y

J-31

62-3

Gle

~)

10

66

83,

81,

74,

64,

106,

J-el
(V-y

106

59, 62-4, 71, 109-10, 113, 120, 122, 124

60,

38-9,

41,

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64-6,

-->

g.

-->

& &

Io8

-Wi

&

103

Jall

69

3-3) l
5-3) l

J1

& &

5-31)

of

53, 53,

78-9
193

cruel!

3:

3-3) l

46-52, 92-100

?:)

Jia-

88

3:

88

3:

I C N A MES

A RA

&

IND EX OF

als
-l
(als

*/
4-law)

als'

R AR E

IS LA M I C

NS

CO I
64-5

5-31)

--! -->

* >]

ge_l1

+ 1301

60

60

g->

58

s-all &l=0)

61

&3_* *-isol
65 33le

&

53,

3-0-J

84

&#133/133

33

G-Ul

"V.

1923

3-1-1]

Gle

*J)

G3 U.J.

61, 115

C3

&-l
*_*

65

121

cle
Laul

-l
J-31

&

-->

Ji J1

J.

<!!!

-->
-->

-e

& &

&

401

64

5-ke

-->

& &

74
74
|

128

are

"-"

s--J

-->

cull -->
cull -->

"J.
109

cruell

c=ley)

33-,

3)

31

**

&

31
109

cru-Ji

& A." &

72 74

66,
83

->

113

~3:l.

->

&-3) l

33-ul twyl

123

& &

7o

33

AU-2)]

75,

80

38,

&-341 -->l
109

74

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34

clall

I24

&#1

77

G-3

&

Gle

&

&

4. . . .

122

111 &W.

J1

22.2

-->

IND

X OF A R A

C NA

AN

-" &l &

7"

IT

L E

& ge

& G-3

Gle

52 & 3.01

-->

73

V-

g-ku

53,

11,

69

Jaill
Jal

646

J.

101

74

123

*-i-

33-ul

J1

33-ul

--

3:31)

-e

J-Il

Ye

72

66,

&

64

&-3) l

33-ul &l=ll

3-3. L-l
71

74

646,

--> 33-ul

G3 33-ul

J1

78-80

ul

Gill
J33:ll

Gle

37,

1034

-->

&

&

124

--

37,
36,

83

81,

79-80

J-31)

--

76.7

41,

84-6

46-52,

lll J1

41-2, 87-9
39-41, 83-7

91-100

42-4, 89.91
129

s-1)

G3.

Ju
Ju

Ju

J-31)

54,

125

all

--

&-31)

Ula.

clall
5-all

J-all

r-all

JV -a

Gle ---all
&

106

?-->

Ju 5-ll
Ju J-a-l
105

38,

6o

80-1

-->
-->

all

68

9_*

+**

C-t:

3-0)

II3

66,

121,

72

115,

&

III,

58,

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II 5-3.) > -->


-->
125 3-3) l

Casall

JW 5-all
JW gasil

RARE

IS LA M I C

CO

I NS

*
101

J1

JW L-a:ll

37

&J

all l-el & c=ll


34 9-a
117

--

5-31)
5-31) >l &

117

58, 111, 115, 121, 125

3-1-1)

109

84,

->

s-til
s-til

~~~

(s-all

--> s+ll
(5->

60

G3 G-3

Ju

86-7

3331)

G3.
G3.

114

--

J-31)

&

125

U-ul
61

86-7, 106

84,

122,

63

*_*
J5_^

&

42

s'

40

61

4-1

&

4.3.

cl_*

&

59,

G->
*->

60

5:13

J3-J)

&J

110

130

Ju

(**)

G-1 + 3
59

64,

109

-- 32

J-31)
120

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122

36-7, 77-8

L-as

-"J

IND EX OF MINTS
-u.J.

al-'Abbsiyah
Adhanah

107

431

Ju:23,

Adharbayjn

Africa,

59, 115

29

15-6

33-yl

al-Ahwaz

40, 48, 52, 88-91, 94, 101

al-Andalus

J.J. Yl

19

Antkiyah

is

56-7, 96, 100, 105

Ardabil

Ua

J224!

49

Ardashir-Khurrah 3_-_-2321 7
Arminiyah
-->l 22, 75, 90

Jlul
Lil

J--

30

5,

63,65
50, 110

(c.3_

3-2.Jl
al-Basrah (Basrah)
Bihqubadh al-Awsat la-syl

Sure

3-4, 7-8

9,

Bishapur,

72, 84, 90, 93, 101, 103


23

&

Bardha'ah

30

el.

Ba'alabak

Balkh

31-2

5,

57-8, 74, 108-9

109

Su-

25, 30, 44, 46-7, 66, 72, 77-9, 90-2, 112

116
102,

li.a

III
27, 49, 99, 122

65

cl_a
Hart
&l_- 17, 41,
Harrn
al-Hrniyah #3_Ul

131

--

42-4, 51,

Filastin gla-I,
Ghazzah
Halab
Hamadhn

74, 85-6

crols

Frs (Fris)

97

(54.2

95

Dimishq

c.22

60

Dasht Maysn

24

24

Luse
Bukhr
J22
Dabil
Drbjird, 1-2,

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Arrn
Atrib

RA

Ifriqiyah

...,

Isbahn

&W-1

22, 61
43, 73,79, 89, 95

U-la-l

57

lus

92

al-Janzah
53:Jayy
G+

23

III

Jundi Sabur 2u- s->


al-Karaj
G-31 44-5
Khaznat Halab
Khwrizm, 10-12

--

Ju_s

4, 8

,<

as

112

25-6, 57, 62, 69-71, 92, 96, 117-8

Madin Amir al-Mu'minin &


Madin Bjunais J->\ 0--

L-

64-5
36-7,

0-

20

47,53,55, 58,

..

81-2

-3U.

&V.

38

2,

37, 58-9, 61-3, 118

121

64

u.

43, 103

&

L-5
4I

--J1

104
112
113
132

5,

al-Ramlah
Al-J1
al-Rayy
&_J1

44, 46-7, 70, 86, 97-8, 102

23

61

23

al-Rahbah

... ll

J1

al-Rafiqah

&xas

Gil

Qumm

Jull

43',

Nihwand

Qinnasrin

120

31, 36-40, 46-9, 51-3, 74, 76, 79-81, 84, 119

al-Mubarakah
al-Muhammadiyah

Nisibin

33,43-4,
27

J-5il

L-a-

Nisabr

5-6,

17

Misr

26
:

Marw (Marv)
al-Mawsil
Maysn

81, 118

..

Mandhir

.u.

,<!

Mh al-Kfah
Makkah

is

87, 94-6, 98, 100, 103, 106

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&-

(3.J

Madinat al-Salm

.311

66,

al-Kufah

*>

63,

Kirmn

24

61,

Jannb

42,

Istakhr

IS LA M I C CO I NS

R E

84,

,-

Samarqand

as

al-Smiyah

...V.J

-----

Sinjr

Bux16 2,

SR

2-

93,

30

Spain,

78, 87-8
99

Shirz

jL:

23

313-yl

la-13

L.;

48, 51,

60

-u.Jl

al-Yammah
al-Yaman

33, 89, 92-4,

123

63,

Wsit

99 &

110-1

min-al-Ahwaz

J1

Tustar

54,

73

L-

115

31

...l.

&

Zaranj
G-3
mint,
19, 21, 28-9, 34-5, 52, 59, 77,91,
No
9,

17-8, 30, 54, 88, 125

133

Uncertain mint,

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12-5,

Tarsus cr:--,
102
Taymarrah
3_Tustar

97

&

Ju-Jil

Tabaristn
Tabariyah

113-4

36-7, 41, 78-9, 83,

31

Surra man-ra'a (sl2


Surraq
25,

U-

Sq al-Ahwaz 313-yl 53- 47-8, 91, 99,

53

Sistn,

25

Guji

93

al-Shsh

MINTS

64, 66, 71

96,

Sarakhs

O F

25
36-7, 39, 41, 46, 62, 76

al-

San'a

I N DE X

100, 106, 124-5

INDEX OF PERSONS
(mentioned in historical commentary)

(or Qadid, or Fudayk),


abu'l-Abbs Ahmad, 87
al-Abbs b. Amir al-Mu'minin, 75
Abadah

b. Qudayd

al-Abbs b. al-Ma'mun,
al-Abbs b.

75

Zufar (al-Hilli),

109

Abd al-A'la b. Ahmad, 75


Abd al-Malik b. Marwn b. Msa,
Abd al-Malik b. Yazid, IIo

31

Abd al-Rahmn b. Khqn, 75


Abdullh,

14

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Abdullah b. 'Amir, 4
Abdullah b. Khzim, 5-6, Io
Abdullah

b. Mu'awiyah,

113

Abdullah b. al-Mu'tazz, 39
Abdullh Shh,

12

Abdullah b. Thir, 67-8


Abdullah b. Zubayr, 4
al-Abrad,

122

Ahmad b. 'Abd al-'Aziz, 86


Ahmad b. Hrn, 107-8
Ahmad b. Marwn, 108
Ahmad b. Muhammad,

108

Ahmad b. al-Muwaffaq, 85, 87


abu-Ahmad Talhah, 84
Ahmad b. Tln, 40, 119
Ahmad b. Yahya b. Rabi', 60
Ali b. 'Abdullh al-Sufyani, 67
abu-Ali al-Husayn b. al-Qsim, 52

Ali al-Rida, 71
Ali Sulaymn, Io
Ali b. Sulaymn,

10

134

109-10

I N DE X OF

P E R S O N S

Amid al-Dawlah, 52, 96


al-Amin, 10, 123
Amru b. al-Layth, 85-7
al-Asfar,

70

'Atiyah b. al-Aswad, 8
Atrib

b.

Misr b. Baysar b. Hm b. Nh, 32

abu-'Awn,

IIo

A'yan b. Harthamah, 73
abu-Bayhas al-Haysam b. Jbir, 67
Bill b. al-Hrith, 21
Byids, 93

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al-Dahhk, 33
Dhl-Ri'satayn,

71

Dhul-Yaminayn, 70
abu-Dulafids, 45, 86

al-Fadl,

11

abu'l-Fadl,

103

al-Fadl b. Sulaymn, 12
al-Fadl b. Yahya, 10-12
Ftimids,

105

Ghassn b. Abbd b. abi'l-Faraj, 73

al-Hadi, 123
Hadrian, 32
al-Hajjj b. Ysuf, 8, 67
al-Hakam b. Sinn, 63
Hammd (al-Barbari), 62
Hni, 14
abu-Harb al-Mubarqa, 68
al-Harib, 118
al-Harith,

118

135

RA

R E

LS

MI

CO

Harthamah b. yan, 63, 73


Hrn b. Khumrawaih, 42
al-Hasan b. Sahl, 73
al-Haytham b. Mu'awiyah,

I,

Heraclius

120

17

Hlg, 56
al-Husayn b. 'Umar al-Rustami, 123
abu'l-Husayn al-Qsim b. 'Ubaydullh,
Ibn-Bayhas, 67-9, 72
abu-Ibrhim, 89
Ikhshidids,

102-3

Ilek-Khns,

126

Ja'far,

al-Kindi,

117

12

abu-Ja'far, 89
abu-Ja'far Ashins,

125

Ja'far b. al-Mansur, 120


Ja'far b. Muhammad, 12
13

II,

Khlid b. Muhammad,

al-Mahdi,

1-3

al-Mahdi al-Fadl li'llh,


Mahmud, 124
al-Ma'mun, 68, 70, 75,

123

125

136

Bayhas, 67-9,

72

Muhammad

'Amru,

Muhammad

abi-Sufrah,

al-Muhallab

b. b. b.

Muflih al-Ysufi,

50

Matar,

Khusrau

115

85

Jarir,

6o

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Ishq b. al-Sabbah

43

INS

I N DE

OF

P E R S

ON

Hrn al-Rashid, 68
Muhammad b. Salih al-'Alawi, 68

Muhammad

b.

Muhammad

b. Salih b. Bayhas

al-Kilbi, 67-9, 72

Muhammad b. Sulaymn, 42
al-Muhtadi, 38, 83

al-Muktafi, 89
Mu'nis, IoI
al-Muntasir, 38

Muqtil,

14

al-Muqtadir,

50, 52, 100

Msa b. Nusayr,
abu-Muslim, 26

16

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al-Musta'in, 82-3
al-Mustansir, 54
al-Musta'sim, 54, 56
al-Mu'tadid, 85, 87-9
al-Mu'tamid,

84-5, 87-8

al-Mu'tasim, 68-9, 75, 77


al-Mutawakkil, 84
al-Mu'tazz, 38-9, 82-3

al-Muti,

54, 105

al-Mutaqqi,

103-4

al-Muwaffaq, 84-5, 87-8


al-Nasir, 54,

106

al-Nasir li-din Allh, 84


al-Qhir, 101-2
Qarmatids,

104

Rabi' b. Ziyd, Io
al-Rdi,

103-4

al-Rid,

71

Saffrids, 85-7, 92-3

137

R A R E

IS LA M I

S'id b. Makhlad, 84-5


Sajids, 50
Salih b.

'Ali,

124

Salm b. Ziyd, 5
abu'l-Sary, 70
al-Sari b. Mansur (abu'l-Sary), 70
Sulaymn, 13

Thir b. al-Husayn, 70
Tayfr, 123
Trajan, 32
Tlnids, 40, 42, 86,

119

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Ubaydullah b. abi-Bakrah, 7
Ubaydullah b. al-Sari, 74
Ubaydullah b. Ziyd, 5
Umar b. al-Al, 12-3

Umar b. 'Abd al-'Aziz,


Umar b. 'Ubaydullh, 7

21

Uthmn, 64

Wali al-Dawlah, 43
al-Walid b. Mu'awiyah,
Wasif, 50

120

al-Wthiol, 68
Yahya b. al-Rabi', 59
Zanj, 84
Ziyd b. abi-Sufyn, 4

138

CO

INS

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PLATES

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RARE ISLAMIC COINS

ARAB-SASSANIAN

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PLATE

ARAB-SASSANIAN

II

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PLATE

ARAB SASSANIAN: 2932a. BUKHARA IMITATIONS:


KHWARIZM, 35. TABARISTAN: 3639a.

III

3334a.

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# W.

PLATE IV

TABARISTAN: 39b52. EARLY AFRICAN AND SPANISH: 5457.


BYZANTINE-ARAB: 5861. POST-REFORM UMAYYAD GOLD: 6268.

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"'NA

s.

POST_REFORM UMAYYAD SILVER

PLATE V

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POST_REFORM UMAYYAD COPPER

PLATE VI

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PLATE VII

ABBASID GOLD

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ABBASID GOLD:

PLATE VIII

188203.

ABBASID SILVER:

220256.

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PLATE IX

"

ABBASID SILVER

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ABBASID SILVER:

PLATE X

346362.

ABBASID COPPER:

363408.