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fiziks

Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT-JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES

QUANTUM MECHANICS SOLUTIONS


Q1.

Ans:

NET/JRF (JUNE-2011)
1

The wavefunction of a particle is given by


0 i1 , where 0 and 1 are the
2

normalized eigenfunctions with energies E0 and E1 corresponding to the ground state


and first excited state, respectively. The expectation value of the Hamiltonian in the state
is
E
E
E 2 E1
E 2 E1
(a) 0 E1
(b) 0 E1
(c) 0
(d) 0
2
2
3
3
(d)

Solution:
Q2.

1
0 i1 and
2

E 0 2 E1
3

The energy levels of the non-relativistic electron in a hydrogen atom (i.e. in a Coulomb
potential V r 1 / r ) are given by E nlm 1 / n 2 , where n is the principal quantum
number, and the corresponding wave functions are given by nlm , where l is the orbital
angular momentum quantum number and m is the magnetic quantum number. The spin of
the electron is not considered. Which of the following is a correct statement?
(a) There are exactly (2l + 1) different wave functions nlm , for each Enlm.
(b) There are l(l + 1) different wave functions nlm , for each Enlm.
(c) Enlm does not depend on l and m for the Coulomb potential.
(d) There is a unique wave function nlm for each Enlm.

Ans:
Q3.

(c)


The Hamiltonian of an electron in a constant magnetic field B is given by H B .

where is a positive constant and 1 , 2 , 3 denotes the Pauli matrices. Let

B / and I be the 2 2 unit matrix. Then the operator e i H t / simplifies to




t i B t
i B

sin
sin t
(a) I cos
(b) I cos t
2
B
2
B


i B
i B
cos t
cos 2 t
(c) I sin t
(d) I sin 2 t
B
B
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT-JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES
Ans:

(b)

Solution: H B where 1 , 2 , 3 are pauli spin matrices and B are constant magnetic


field. 1i, 2 j , 3k , B Bxi By j Bz k and Hamiltonion H B in matrices

Bx iBy
. Eigenvalue of given matrices are given by
B

Bz
form is given by
Bx iBy
B and B .

H matrices

iBt
e
S 1

0
S
i Bt
e

iBt
e
S 1

0
S

i Bt

where

1
2
1
2

are

not

diagonals

e i H t / is

so

is unitary matrices and

1 i Bt

2 e

0
2

0 2

i Bt
1
e
2

equivalent

S 1 S

to

1
2
.
1

1
2
1
2

1
2
where B / .
1

cos t i sin t
which is equivalent to I cos t i x sin t can be written
eiHt /
i sin t cos t


i B
i B
sin t where x
as I cos t
B
B
Q4.

If the perturbation H' = ax, where a is a constant, is added to the infinite square well
potential

0 for
V x

0 x
otherwise.

The correction to the ground state energy, to first order in a, is


(a)
Ans:

a
2

(b) a

(c)

a
4

(d)

a
2

(a)

Solution: E01 0* H ' 0 dx


0

a2

x sin
0

x
a
dx

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sin

x
.

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Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT-JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES
Q5.

A particle in one dimension moves under the influence of a potential V x ax 6 , where a


is a real constant. For large n the quantized energy level En depends on n as:
(a) En ~ n3

Ans:

(b) En ~ n4/3

(c) En ~ n6/5

(d) En ~ n3/2

(d)

Solution: V x ax 6 , H

1
p x2
p x2
ax 6 , E
ax 6 and p x 2mE ax 6 2 .
2m
2m

According to W.K.B approximation pdx nh

2m E ax
6

1/ 2

dx n

We can find this integration without solving the integration

2
x

2
x

p
x
p

1
ax 6
2mE E / a
2m

E
x
a

1
6

Px
1/ 6

at p x 0 .

1/ 6

E / a

E / a

Area of Ellipse = semi major axis semiminor axis


1
6

2mE

2mE

E
2mE n E n 2 .
a
Q6. (A) In a system consisting of two spin

1

particles labeled 1 and 2, let S 1 1 and
2
2


S 2 2 denote the corresponding spin operators. Here x , y , z and
2

x , y , z are the three Pauli matrices.


In the standard basis the matrices for the operators Sx1S y2 and S y1Sx2 are respectively,
(a)

2 1 0 2 1 0

4 0 1 4 0 1

0 0
2 0 0
(c)

4 0 i
i 0
Ans:

0
i
0
0

i 2 0
0 , 0
0 4 0
i
0

(b)

0
0
i
0

0 i
i 0
0 0
0 0

2 i 0 2 i 0

4 0 i 4 0 i

2 1
(d)
4 0

1 0 0

0 0 0 2
,
0 0 i 4

0 i 0

i
0

i 0 0

0 0 0
0 0 1

0 1 0

(c)

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2 0

4 1

Solution: Sx1Sy2

S y1 S x 2

i
0
4 0
0
i

1 0

0 i

1
0

0
4 0

i 0

0 1

0
4 i
2

0
0

0
i

0
0

(B) These two operators satisfy the relation

(c) S S , S S iS S

(d) S S , S S 0

(a) Sx1S y2 , S y1Sx2 Sz1Sz2


1
x

2
y

1
y

2
x

1
z

(b) S x1S y2 , S y1S x2 0

1
x

2
y

1
y

2
x

Ans: (d)
Solution: We have matrix Sx1Sy2 and Sy1Sx2 from question 6(A) so commutation is given by

S S , S S 0 .
1
x

2
y

1
y

NET/JRF (DEC-2011)
Q7.

The energy of the first excited quantum state of a particle in the two-dimensional
potential V x, y
(a) 2

Ans:

1
m 2 x 2 4 y 2 is
2

(b) 3

(c)

(d)

(d)

Solution: V x, y

1
1
1
1
1

m 2 x 2 4 y 2 m2 x 2 m42 y 2 , E n x n y 2
2
2
2
2
2

For ground state energy n x 0, n y 0 E


First exited state energy n x 1, n y 0

1
3
2
2 2
2

3
5

2
2

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28-B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT
Hauz Khas, New Delhi-16
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT-JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES
Q8.

Consider a particle in a one dimensional potential that satisfies V x V x . Let 0


and

denote the ground and the first excited states, respectively, and let

0 0 1 1 be a normalized state with 0 and 1 being real constants. The


expectation value x of the position operator x in the state is given by

Ans:

(a) 02 0 x 0 12 1 x 1

(b) 01 0 x 1 1 x 0

(c) 02 12

(d) 2 0 1

(b)

Solution: Since V x V x so potential is symmetric.

0 x 0 0 , 1 x 1 0
x 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 01 0 x 1 1 x 0
Q9.

The perturbation H ' bx 4 , where b is a constant, is added to the one dimensional


harmonic oscillator potential V x

1
m 2 x 2 . Which of the following denotes the
2

correction to the ground state energy to first order in b?


[Hint: The normalized ground state wave function of the one dimensional harmonic
oscillator

potential

integral x e
2n

ax 2

m
is 0

dx a

(a)
Ans:

3b 2
4m 2 2

(b)

1
2

1/ 4

e m x

/ 2

You

may

use

the

following

(d)

15b 2
4m 2 2

n ].
2

3b 2
2m 2 2

(c)

3b 2
2 m 2 2

(a)

Solution: H ' bx 4 , V x

1
m 2 x 2 .
2

Correction in ground state is given by E 0 H ' 0


1
0

m
where 0

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1/ 4

mx 2
2

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1

m 2
4
E 0*bx 4 0 dx
b x e

1
0

mx 2

m 2
2 2 mx
dx
dx
b x e

It is given in the equation


Thus n 2 and
1

1
2 n n2
n 1/ 2
x
e dx n 2

2
m 2 m
m 2
2 2 mx
E 01
dx b
b x e

m 2 m
E b

1
0

Q10.

5
2

1
2

2
2

5 3 b 2

.
2 4 m 2 2

Let 0 and 1 denote the normalized eigenstates corresponding to the ground and first
excited states of a one dimensional harmonic oscillator. The uncertainty p in the
state

Ans:

1
2

1 , is

(a) p m / 2

(b) p m / 2

(c) p m

(d) p 2m

(c)

Solution:
a

p i
p2
p

m
1
0 1 , p i 2 a a
2

1
2

1 1 2 2

and a

1
2

10

m
m 2
a a 0 , p2
a a 2 2 N 1
2
2

m 1
m 2
m
a a2 2N 1
2N 1
2 1 m

2 2
2
2

p2 p

= m .

Head office
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28-B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT
Hauz Khas, New Delhi-16
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT-JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES
Q11.

The wave function of a particle at time t = 0 is given by 0

u1

u2

and

1
2

u 2 , where

are the normalized eigenstates with eigenvalues E1 and E2

respectively, E 2 E1 . The shortest time after which t will become orthogonal to

0 is
(a)
Ans:


2E 2 E1

(b)

E 2 E1

(c)

2
E 2 E1

2
E 2 E1

(b)
1

Solution: 0

u1 u2

iE1t
iE2t

u
e

u
e
2
1

1
2

t is orthogonal to 0 0 t 0 e
e

iE1t

cos
Q12.

(d)

iE 2t

0 e

iE1t

E2 E1 t cos t

iE 2t

E2 E1

iE1t

1
e
2

iE 2t

E2 E1

A constant perturbation as shown in the figure below acts on a particle of mass m


confined in an infinite potential well between 0 and L.

V0

V0
2

L/2

the first-order correction to the ground state energy of the particle is


(a)
Ans:

V0
2

(b)

3V0
4

(c)

V0
4

(d)

3V0
2

(b)

Head office
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Solution: E 1 V p 1
1
1

L
2

V 2
x
2
x
dx V0 sin 2
dx
= 0 sin 2
2 L
L
L
L
L
0
L

2
L

V 2 1
2V 1
2x
2x
E11 0 1 cos
dx 0 1 cos

dx
L 0 2
L
L L 2
L
L

E11

V0 L 2V0
L V0 2V0 3V0


L =
2L 2 2L
2 4
4
4

NET/JRF (JUNE-2012)
Q13.

The component along an arbitrary direction n , with direction cosines n x , n y , n z , of the


spin of a spin

1
particle is measured. The result is
2

(b)

(a) 0
Ans:

nz
2

(c)

nx n y nz
2

(d)

(d)

Solution: S x

2 1

i
1
, S z
0
2 0

1
0
, S y
0
2 i

n n x i n y j n z k and n x2 n y2 n z2 1 , S S x i S y j S z k

n S nx

0
2 n
y

2 n 2
+
z
0
0

n x in y
2

nz

Let is eigen value of n S



nz

nS 2

n x in y
2

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Hauz Khas, New Delhi-16
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fiziks
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nz

n x in y
2
0

n z
2

n x in y
2

2
n z2 2
2 2
nz
nz

2
2
2



n x n y 0

n x n y2 0 .
2
2
4
4
4

2 2

n x n y2 n z2 2 0 .
4
2
Q14.

A particle of mass m is in a cubic box of size a. The potential inside the box

0 x a,0 y a,0 z a
eigenstate of energy E
2
(a)
a

3/ 2

2
(c)
a

3/ 2

is zero and infinite outside. If the particle is in an

14 2
, its wavefunction is
2ma 2

3x
5y
6z
sin
sin
a
a
a

2
(b)
a

3/ 2

sin

4x
8y
2z
sin
sin
a
a
a

2
(d)
a

3/ 2

sin

sin

sin

7x
4y
3z
sin
sin
a
a
a

x
a

sin

2y
3z
sin
a
a

Ans: (d)

Solution: E nx ,n y ,nz n x2 n y2 n z2

2 14 2 2

2ma 2
2ma 2
2

nx2 n y2 nz2 14 n x 1, n y 2, n z 3 .
Q15. Let nlml denote the eigenfunctims of a Hamiltonian for a spherically symmetric
potential V r . The wavefunction

1
210 5 211 10 211 is an eigenfunction
4

only of
(a) H, L2 and Lz
Ans:

(b) H and Lz

(c) H and L2

(d) L2 and Lz

(c)

Solution: H En
L2 l l 1 2 and Lz m .

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Q16.

The commentator x 2 , p 2 is
(b) 2i( xp px)

(a) 2ixp
Ans:

(d) 2i( xp px)

(c) 2ipx

(b)

Solution: x2 , p 2 x x, p 2 x, p 2 x xp x, p x x, p p p x, p x x, p px

x
Q17.

, p 2 xpi xi p pi x i px 2ixp px .

A free particle described by a plane wave and moving in the positive z-direction
undergoes scattering by a potential

V
V r 0
0

if r R
if r R

If V0 is changed to 2V0, keeping R fixed, then the differential scattering cross-section, in


the Born approximation.
(a) increases to four times the original value
(b) increases to twice the original value
(c) decreases to half the original value
(d) decreases to one fourth the original value
Ans:

(a)

Solution:

V r V0 ,
0,

rR
rR

Low energy scattering amplitude f ,


d
given by 1 f
d

2mV0 R 3

2
3

m
4
V R 3 and differential scattering is
2 0
2
3

3
d 2 2m 2V0 R
2mV0
Now V r 2V0 for r R

d
3

3
2mV0 R 3
d 2 2m 2V0 R
d
4 1

4
2

d
3
d

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Q18.

variational

calculation

is

done

with

the

normalized

trial

wavefunction

15 2
a x 2 for the one-dimensional potential well
5/ 2
4a

0
V x

if x a
if x a

The ground state energy is estimated to be


(a)
Ans:

5 2
3ma 2

(b)

3 2
2ma 2

(c)

3 2
5ma 2

(d)

5 2
4ma 2

(d)

Solution: x

15
4a

5
2

x2 ,

V x 0 , x a and V x , x a

E Hdx where H
a

2 2
2m x 2

a
15 2
2 d 2 15 2

15 2
2
2
a

x
a

x
dx
a 2 x2 2dx

2
5/ 2
a 4a5/ 2

5
2
m
dx
4
a
16a 2m a


a
15 2 2
15 2 4a 3
5 2
2
2

=
E
a

x
dx

16a 5 m 3
4ma2
16a 5 2m a
a

Q19.

A particle in one-dimension is in the potential

V x V0
0

if x 0
if 0 x l
if x l

If there is at least one bound state, the minimum depth of potential is


(a)
Ans:

2 2
8ml 2

(b)

2 2
2ml 2

(c)

2 2 2
ml 2

(d)

2 2
ml 2

(a)

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Solution: For bound state V0 E 0
Wave function in region I, I 0 , II A sin kx Bcos kx , III ce x
Where k

2m E

2mV0 E
,
2

V0 o

Use Boundary condition at x 0 and x l (wave function is continuous and differential


at x 0 and x l ) one will get

k cot kl kl cot kl l cot where l , kl .


2mV0l 2

2
2

1/ 2

2mV0l 2
For one bound state

Q20.

V0

2 2
.
8ml 2

3
2

Which of the following is a self-adjoint operator in the spherical polar coordinate


system r , , ?
(a)

Ans:

i
sin 2

(b) i

(c)

i
sin

(d) i sin

(c)

Solution:

i
is Hermitian.
sin
NET/JRF (DEC-2012)

Q21.

Let v, p and E denote the speed, the magnitude of the momentum, and the energy of a
free particle of rest mass m. Then
(a) dE dp constant
(c) v cp

Ans:

p m c
2

(b) p = mv
(d) E = mc2

(c)

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Solution: p mv

m0 v
1

v2
c2

m02 v 2
p 2v 2
2 2
2

m
v

0
c2
v2
1 2
c

p2

2 p2
p2
2
2
v m0 2 p v 2 2
v
c
m0 c p 2

c2

pc

Q22.

p m02 c 2
2

The wave function of a state of the Hydrogen atom is given by,

200 2 211 3 210 2 211


where nlm is the normalized eigen function of the state with quantum numbers n, l, m in
the usual notation. The expectation value of Lz in the state is
(a)
Ans:

15
6

(b)

11
6

P0

(d)

1
2
3
2
200
211
210
211
16
16
16
16

1 9 10

.
16 16 16

Probability of getting (i) i.e. Pi


Now,

Ans:

3
8

(d)

Solution: Firstly normalize ,

Q23.

(c)

Lz

4
2
and P i .
16
16

Lz
10
4
2
4
2
2

0 1 1
16
16
16 16
16
16
8

The energy eigenvalues of a particle in the potential V x

1
m 2 x 2 ax are
2

1
a2

(a) En n
2
2m 2

1
a2

(b) En n
2
2 m 2

1
a2

(c) En n
2
m 2

(d) En n
2

(a)

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fiziks
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Solution: Hamiltonian H of Harmonic oscillator, H

p x2 1
m 2 x 2
2m 2

Eigenvalue of this, E n n
2

p x2 1
px2 1
2ax
a2
a2
2 2
2 2
m x ax H
But here, H
m x

2m 2
2m 2
m 2 m2 4 2m 2

p2 1
a
a2

H x m 2 x

2m 2
m 2
2m 2

1
a2

Energy eigenvalue, E n n
2
2 m 2

Q24.

If a particle is represented by the normalized wave function

15 a 2 x 2

x 4a 5 / 2
0

for a x a
otherwise

the uncertainty p in its momentum is


(a) 2 / 5a
Ans:

(b) 5 / 2a

(c) 10 / a

(d)

5 / 2a

(d)

Solution: p

p2 p

and
a

15 a 2 x 2
2
i 15

a x 2 dx
5/ 2
5/ 2
4a
4a x

15
i a 2 x 2 2 x dx ih 2 155

5
16 a
a16a
a

a
a

x x 3 dx

odd funcn

=0

15

16a 5
2

2 2
2
aa x x 2 a x dx
a

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a

a
2
15
x3
15
2
2
2

2
a

2
a

x
dx

3 a
16a 5
16a 5

a
2

2
p2

3 2a 3
15
1 15 2 2
15
2
3

2
a
1

2
2
a

3 4a 2 3
16
16a 5
3

5 2
2a 2

Now, p

5 2
0
2a 2

5
2a

Q25. Given the usual canonical commutation relations, the commutator

A, B

of

A i xp y yp x and B yp z zp y is

Ans:

(a) xp z p x z

(b) xp z p x z

(c) xp z p x z

(d) xp z p x z

(c)

Solution: A, B ixp y iyp x , yp z zp y

A, B ixp y , yp z i yp x , yp z ixp y , zp y iyp x , zp y


A, B ixp y , yp z 0 0 iyp x , zp y ixp y , yp z iyp x , zp y
A, B ix p y , yp z ix, yp z p y iy p x , zp y iy, zp y p x

A, B ixp y , yp z 0 0 iy, zp y p x

ix p y , yp z i y, zp y p x

A, B ix i p z izi p x
A, B xp z p x z
Q26.

Consider a system of three spins S1, S2 and S3 each of which can take values +1 and -1.
The energy of the system is given by E J S1 S 2 S 2 S 3 S 3 S1 where J is a positive
constant. The minimum energy and the corresponding number of spin configuration are,
respectively,
(a) J and 1

Ans:

(b) 3J and 1

(c) 3J and 2

(d) 6J and 2

(c)

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Solution: If we take S1 S2 S3 1

i.e.

S1

S2

S3

Then energy, E J 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 J
Again S1 S2 S3 1 , then
Energy E 3 J
So, minimum energy is 3J and there are two spin configuration.
If we take
S1

S2

S3

Then we get Maximum energy E J .


Q27.

The energies in the ground state and first excited state of a particle of mass m

1
in a
2

potential V x are 4 and 1 , respectively, (in units in which 1). If the


corresponding wavefunctions are related by 1 x 0 x sinh x, then the ground state
eigenfunction is

Ans:

(a) 0 x sec hx

(b) 0 x sec hx

(c) 0 x sec h 2 x

(d) 0 x sec h 3 x

(c)

Solution: Given that ground state energy E0 4 , first excited state energy E1 1 and 0 , 1
are corresponding wave functions.
Solving Schrdinger equation (use m

1
and 1)
2

2 2 0
V 0 E0 0
2m x 2

2 0
V 0 4 0 ..(1)
x 2

2 2 1
V 1 E1 1
2m x 2

2 1
V 1 1 1 ..(2)
x 2

Put 1 0 sinh x in equation (2) one will get

20 .sinh x 2 0 cosh x 0 sinh x V 0 sinh x 0 sinh x


x
x

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2 0

2 2 0 coth x 0 V 0 0
x
x

2 0

0
2 0

V 0 4 0
using
relation

2
coth
x

0
0
0

2
x 2
x
x

4 0 2

0
coth x 0 0
x

d 0

2 tanh xdx 0 sec h 2 x .

NET/JRF (JUNE-2013)
Q28.

In a basis in which the z - component S z of the spin is diagonal, an electron is in a spin


1 i / 6
state
. The probabilities that a measurement of S z will yield the values
2/3

/ 2 and / 2 are, respectively,


(a) 1/ 2 and 1/ 2
Ans:

(b) 2 / 3 and 1/ 3

(c) 1/ 4 and 3/ 4

(d) 1/ 3 and 2 / 3

(d)

1
0

Solution: Eigen state of S z is 1 and 2 corresponds to Eigen value


and
2
2
0
1
respectively.

1

P
2

Q29.

2
2
1 i
2 1

, P
2

6 3
6

2
3

Consider the normalized state of a particle in a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator:

b1 0 b2 1
where 0 and 1 denote the ground and first excited states respectively, and b1 and b2
are real constants. The expectation value of the displacement x in the state will be a
minimum when
(a) b2 0, b1 1
Ans:

(b) b2

1
2

b1

(c) b2

1
b1
2

(d) b2 b1

(d)

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Solution: x b12 0 x 0 b22 1 x 1 2b1b2 0 x 1
Since 0 x 0 0 and 1 x 1 0 x 2b1b2 0 x 1 .
Min of x means min 2b1b2 . We know that b12 b22 1 .
x

min

2
2
2
b1 b2 b12 b22 0 x 1 b1 b2 1 0 x 1 1 b1 b2 0 x 1

2
2
for min value of 1 b1 b2 there must be maximum of b1 b2 so

b1 b2

none of answer is matched but if we consider about magnitude then option (d) is correct .
Q30.

The un-normalized wavefunction of a particle in a spherically symmetric potential is


given by

r zf r
where f r is a function of the radial variable r . The eigenvalue of the operator

L2 (namely the square of the orbital angular momentum) is


(a) 2 / 4

(b) 2 / 2

(c) 2

(d) 2 2

Ans: (d)
Solution: r zf r

r cos f r

r Y10 , , L2 r L2Y10 , where l 1


L2 l l 1 2 11 1 2 2 2
Q31.

If nlm denotes the eigenfunciton of the Hamiltonian with a potential V V r then the
expectation value of the operator L2x L2y in the state

1
3 211 210 15 211
5

is
(a) 39 2 / 25
Ans:

(b) 13 2 / 25

(c) 2 2

(d) 26 2 / 25

(d)

Solution: L2x L2y L2 L2z

L2x L2y L2 L2z L2 L2z

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1
15
9

L2 L2z = 2 2 1 2 0 2 1 2
25
25
25

L2 L2z 2 2

Q32.

24 2

25

50 24 2 26 2

25
25

Consider a two-dimensional infinite square well

0
V x, y

0 x a,

0 ya

otherwise

Its normalized Eigenfunctions are nx ,n y x, y

2 n xx n y y

sin
sin
a a a

V
where n x , n y 1,2,3, ..If a perturbation H ' 0

a
a
, 0 y
2
2
otherwise

0 x

is applied, then the correction to the energy of the first excited state to order V 0 is

Ans:

(a)

V0
4

(c)

V0
4

16

1 9 2

(b)

V0
4

64

1 9 2

(d)

V0
4

32

1 9 2

(b)

Solution: For first excited state, which is doubly degree


2
a

1 sin

x
a

sin

2 y
2
2 x
y
, 2 sin
sin
a
a
a
a

H11 1 H 1 V0

1 1 V0
2 a / 2 2 x 2 a / 2 2 2 y


sin
dx
sin
dy
0
2 2 4
a 0
a
a 0
a

2 x 2 a / 2
2 y
y
2 a/2 x
sin
sin
dx sin
sin
dy

0
0
a
a
a
a
a
a
16
V
16
4 4
V0 V0
, H 21 2 H 1 V0 2 and H 22 2 H 2 0 .
2
9
9
4
3 3

H12 1 H 2 V0
H 12

16V0
V0
2
2

9 2 0 V0 16V0 0
Thus 4
2
16V0 V0
4
9

2
4
9

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16V0
V
V

0
0
2
4
9
4

Q33.

64

1 2
9

The bound on the ground state energy of the Hamiltonian with an attractive deltafunction potential, namely
H

2 d 2
a x
2m dx 2

using the variational principle with the trial wavefunction x A exp bx 2 is

Note
:
e t t a dt a 1

(a) ma 2 / 4 2

(b) ma 2 / 2 2

(c) ma 2 / 2

(d) ma 2 / 5 2

Ans: (c)
Solution: For given wavefunction T

For variation of parameter


E

Q34.

m in

d E
db

2b
2b
2b
2b
E
a
and V a

2m

2m

d E
2
2 1 12
4

a
b 0b
.
db
2m
2
8m 2

ma 2
.
2

If the operators A and B satisfy the commutation relation A, B I , where I is the


identity operator, then


(c) e , B e


(d) e , B I

Ans:

(b) e A , B e B , A

(a) e A , B e A

,A

(a)

A A2

.......
Solution: A, B I and e A 1
2
1

A2 , B A3 , B
A A2

e , B 1
......., B = 1, B A, B

.........
2
3
2
1

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,B 0 I

e , B 1 A A2! ........ e
2

Q35.

AA, B A, B A A A 2 , B A 2 , B A

.......... .
2!
3!
A

where A, B I , A 2 , B 2 A and A3 , B 3 A 2 .

Two identical bosons of mass m are placed in a one-dimensional potential


V x

1
m 2 x 2 . The bosons interact via a weak potential,
2

V12 V0 exp mx1 x2 / 4


2

where x1 and x 2 denote coordinates of the particles. Given that the ground state
1

m 4
wavefunction of the harmonic oscillator is 0 x
e

mx 2
2

. The ground state

energy of the two-boson system, to the first order in V 0 , is


(a) 2V0

(b)

(c) V0 1

2
Ans:

1
2

V0


(d) V0 1

(c)

Solution: There is two bosons trapped in harmonic oscillator so energy for ground state without
perturbation is 2.
If

perturbation

.
2

is

introduced

we

have

to

calculate

V1,2

where

2
V12 V0 exp mx1 x2 / 4 .
1

m x12
m x22
2

e 2 e 2
But calculating V1,2 on state 0 x

is very tedious task.

So lets use a trick i.e perturbation is nothing but approximation used in Taylor series. So

just expand V12 V0 exp mx1 x2 / 4 and take average value of first term
2

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V12 V0 exp mx1 x2 / 4 = V0 (1


V12 V0 (1

m x12 x22 2 x1.x2


4

V1,2 = V0 (1

x1 x2
4

...)

...)

m x12 x22 2 x1 . x2

...) = V (1

m(

0)
2m 2m
)...
4

V12 Vo (1
) V0 1
.
4
2
1

So E V0 1
.
2

NET/JRF (DEC-2013)
Q36.

A spin -

1
1 1 i

in the eigenbasis of S 2 and S z . If we


particle is in the state
2
3
11

measure S z , the probabilities of getting


(a)
Ans:

1
1
and
2
2

(b)

h
h
and , respectively are
2
2

2
9
and
11
11

(c) 0 and 1

(d)

1
3
and
11
11

(b)


Solution: P
2

P
2

1 i
1
10 1 2 2
3
2
11
11

1 i
1
9
01
11
3
11



i.e. probability of S z getting and
2
2

Head office
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Q37.

The motion of a particle of mass m in one dimension is described by the


Hamiltonian H

p2 1
m 2 x 2 x . What is the difference between the (quantized)
2m 2

energies of the first two levels? (In the following, x is the expectation value of x in the
ground state.)
(a) x
Ans:

(b) x

(c)

2
2m 2

(d)

(d)

Solution: H

p2 1
1
m 2 x 2 x V x m 2 x 2 x
2m 2
2

V x

1
2

2
2

1
2 2
m 2 x 2

2
m 2 2
m 2 m 2 4 m 2 4

V x

1

2

m 2 x

2
m 2
2m 2

1
2
3
1

En n
E1 E0
2
2
2m
2
2

Q38.

Let nlm denote the eigenfunctions of a Hamiltonian for a spherically symmetric


potential V r . The expectation value of L z in the state
1
6

200 5 210 10 211 20 211 is


(a)
Ans:

18

(c)

(d)

18

(d)

Solution: Lz Lz =
Q39.

(b)

1
5
10
20
10
5
0 0 (1) (1) =
36
36
36
36
36
18

If x A exp x 4 is the eigenfunction of a one dimensional Hamiltonian with


eiggenvalue E 0 , the potential V x (in units where 2m 1 ) is
(a) 12x 2

(b) 16x 6

(c) 16 x 6 12 x 2

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(d) 16x 6 12x 2


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Ans:

(d)

Solution: Schrodinger equation


2 V 0 (where 2m 1 and E 0 )

4
4
4
4
2

Ae x VAe x 0 e x 4 x3 Ve x 0
2

x
x

4 3x 2 e x x 3 4x 3e x
4

Ve

x4

0 12 x 2 e x 16 x 6 e x Ve x 0
4

V 16x 6 12x 2

Q40.

A particle is in the ground state of an infinite square well potential given by,

0
V x

for a x a
otherwise

The probability to find the particle in the interval between


1
2

(a)
Ans:

(b)

1 1

(c)

a
a
and
is
2
2

1 1

(d)

(b)

Solution: The probability to find the particle in the interval between


a/2

a / 2

a
a
and
is
2
2

a/2
a/2
2
2
x
x
1
x
1 1
2x
dx 1 cos

cos cos dx cos2


dx
a
2a
a 2 a / 2
2a
2a 2a
2a
2a
a / 2

1 a a a
1
2a 1 1
1
a
x

1 1
a

x sin

2
2a
a a / 2 2a 2 2
2a
a/2

Q41.

The expectation value of the x - component of the orbital angular momentum L x in the
state

1
3 2,1, 1 5 2,1,0 11 2,1, 1
5

(where nlm are the eigenfunctions in usual notation), is


(a)

10
25

11 3

(b) 0

(c)

10
25

11 3

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(d) 2

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Ans:

(a)

Solution: L l , m l l 1 m m 1 l , m 1 and L l , m l l 1 m m 1 l , m 1

Lx

L L
2

Lx

L L
2

1
L 3 2 210 5 2 211
5

1
1
1
.3 10
110
10(3 11)
25
25
25

1
L 2 5 211 2 11 210
5
L
Lx

L L
2

Lx
Q42.

1
1
.3 10
10 11
25
25
=

1
10(3 11)
25

1
1
10
.3 10
10 11 =
25
25
25

11 3

A particle is prepared in a simultaneous eigenstate of L2 and Lz . If l 1 2 and m are


respectively the eigenvalues of L2 and Lz , then the expectation value L2x of the particle
in this state satisfies
(a) L2x 0
(c) 0 L

2
x

Ans:

(b) 0 L2x 2 2
1 2
2
2
Lx
(d)
2
2

1 2
2

(d)

Solution: L2x

1
l l 1 2 m2 2
2

For max value m 0 and for min m l


l 2
l l 1 2
L2x
2
2

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A, B, C are Non zero Hermitian operator.

A, B C AB BA AB Ab 0 C
but

C0

if

AB BA

ie A, B C false

(2)

NET/JRF (JUNE-2014)
Q43.

Consider a system of two non-interacting identical fermions, each of mass m in an


infinite square well potential of width a . (Take the potential inside the well to be zero
and ignore spin). The composite wavefunction for the system with total energy
E

Ans:

5 2 2
is
2ma 2

(a)

2 x1 2x2
2x1 x2
sin
sin
sin
sin

a a a
a a

(b)

2 x1 2x2
2x1 x2
sin
sin
sin
sin

a a a
a a

(c)

2 x1 3x2
3x1 x2
sin
sin
sin
sin

a a 2a
2a a

(d)

2 x1 x2
x x
sin
cos
sin 2 cos 2

a a a
a a

(a)

Solution: Fermions have antisymmetric wave function

2 x 2 x2
2 x1
x2
x1 x2 sin 1 sin
sin
sin

a a a
a
a
En

5 2 2
nx1 1, nx2 2
2ma 2

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Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT-JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES
Q44.

A particle of mass m in the potential V x, y


energy E

Ans:

1
m 2 4 x 2 y 2 , is in an eigenstate of
2

5
. The corresponding un-normalized eigen function is
2

(a) y exp
2 x 2 y 2
2

(b) x exp
2 x 2 y 2
2

m 2

(c) y exp
x y 2
2

m 2

(d) xy exp
x y 2
2

(a)

Solution: V x, y

1
5
m 2 4 x 2 y 2 , E
2
2

V x, y

1
1
2
m 2 x 2 m 2 y 2
2
2

1
1
1
1

Now, E n n x x n y y n x 2 n y
2
2
2
2

En 2nx n y
2

En

Q45.

when n x 0 and n y 1 .

A particle of mass m in three dimensions is in the potential

0
V r

Its ground state energy is


(a)
Ans:

2 2
2ma 2

2 2
(b)
ma 2

ra
ra
3 2 2
(c)
2 ma 2

9 2 2
(d)
2ma 2

(a)

2
2 d u r l l 1

V r u r Eu r
Solution:

2
2mr 2
2m dr

d 2u r
dr

Ku r K

2mE
, l 0, V r 0
2

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u r A sin Kr B cos Kr
Using boundary condition, B 0,
u r A sin Kr , r a, u r 0 sin Ka 0 Ka n E

Q46.

2 2

n 1

2ma 2

1
Given that p r i , the uncertainty p r in the ground state.
r r

0 r

3
0

e r / a0

of the hydrogen atom is


(a)
Ans:

a0

(b)

2
a0

2a 0

(c)

(d)

2
a0

(a)

1
1
Solution: p r i , 0 r
e r / a0
3
r r
a0
Pr

Pr2 Pr

Now Pr
0

r / a

1 e 0
e r / a0 i
r r a03
a03

4 i r / a0 r / a0 1

e
e
a 03 0
a0

2
4 r dr

1 r / a0 2
r dr
e

4 i 1
2 r / a0 2
2 r / a0

e
r
dr

re
dr

0
a03 a0 0

4 i 1 2 !
1 !

a03 a0 2 / a0 3 2 / a0 2

4 i a02 a02

0
a03 4 4

Pr 0

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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT-JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES
2
r

2 2 2 r / a0
1
r / a0
2
e
3 e
2
4 r dr
r r
a0 0
r

4 2 r / a0 r / a0 1 2 1 r / a0 2

e
e
r dr
a 2 r a e
a03 0


0
0

4 2 1 2 2 r / a0
2
4 2
2 r / a0
r
e
dr

re
dr

a03 0 a02
a0 0
a03

42 2 ! a03 2 a02
4 2

8 a0
4
a03 a02
a03

Q47.

Pr2 Pr

1 2 !
2 1 !
2

3
2
a0 2 / a0 a0 2 / a0

a0 a0
4 2 a0 2

3 2
4
2
a0 4 a0

0
2
a0
a0

The ground state eigenfunction for the potential V x x where x is the delta
function, is given by x Ae

, where A and 0 are constants. If a perturbation

H bx 2 is applied, the first order correction to the energy of the ground state will be
(a)
Ans:

b
2

(b)

(c)

2b

(d)

b
2 2

(d)

Solution: V x x , x Ae x

1 x e x
E 1 H 1
1
1

e x bx 2 e x dx

2 x
2 x 2
2 2 x
2 2 x
2 2x
2
e bx dx b e x dx b x e dx x e dx b 2 x e dx

2!
2!
b
2 x
2

2
b

2 b 3

e
bx
dx

8
2 2
2

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Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT-JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES
Q48.

An electron is in the ground state of a hydrogen atom. The probability that it is within the
Bohr radius is approximately equal to
(a) 0.60

Ans:

(b) 0.90

(c) 0.16

(d) 0.32

(d)
2

a0

Solution: Probability:

3
0

r / a0

a0

a03

r / a0

4
4 r dr 3
a0
2

4
4 r dr 2
ao
2

2 2 r / a0
r e

a0

r e

2 2 r / a0

dr

a0

2e2 r / a0

4
3
a0

4
a03

2 2aa0
a0 e 0

a0
2

a02

2
a
0

a0

a0 a0
a0
2 r / a0
2 2r e
2 2

a0
a0 a0 a0

2 2 2

3
2 a0 / a0 a03 2 a0 / a0
0 a0
e

2
e

a03 1 a03 1
a03 a03
1
1
5

4 2 5 2 1

2
2
2
4
2 e
4
e
4e
4e

2 e

5 0.137 1 0.685 1 0.32


Q49.

A particle in the infinite square well

0 xa

0
V x

otherwise

is prepared in a state with the wavefunction

3 x
A sin
x
a
0

0 xa
otherwise

The expectation value of the energy of the particle is


(a)
Ans:

5 2 2
2ma 2

(b)

9 2 2
2ma 2

(c)

9 2 2
10 ma 2

(d)

2 2
2ma 2

(c)

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3 x
A sin
x
a
otherwise,
0

0 xa

otherwise

0 xa

0
Solution: V x

3
x
1
3 x
x
A sin
sin 3 A 3sin A 4sin 3 A
A sin
4
a
4
a
a

x A sin 3

x
a 2
3 x
3
x
1
3 x A a 2

3sin

sin
A sin
A sin

4 2 a
a
2 a
a
4
a
4
a
x

1
1
4

x 3.
x

A a
a
3 x
3 1 x
4 2
2

a 32
a 32
1 x
3 x
2 10a
2 10a

3
1
1 x
3 x
10
10

Now, E1

2 2
2ma 2

Probably P E1
E

10a 2
32
a 2 a 2
A 1 A
A
A 1
32
10a
32
32

E2

9 2 2
E an P an
2ma 2

2
9
, P E2
10

1
10

9 2 2 1 9 2 2
9 2 2

10 2ma 2 10 2ma 2
10ma 2

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NET/JRF (DEC-2014)
Q50.

Suppose Hamiltonian of a conservative system in classical mechanics is H xp , where

is a constant and x and p are the position and momentum respectively. The
corresponding Hamiltonian in quantum mechanics, in the coordinate representation, is
1
(a) i x
x 2

(c) ix
Ans:

1
(b) i x
x 2

(d)

i
x
2 x

(b)

Solution: Classically H xp , quantum mechanically H must be Hermitian,


So, H

H
H

xp px and

xp px

i x

x

x i
i x
2
x
x
x
x


2x
2 x 1
2
x
2 x

1
H i x
x 2

Q51.

Let 1 and 2 denote the normalized eigenstates of a particle with energy eigenvalues
E1 and E 2 respectively, with E 2 E1 . At time t 0 the particle is prepared in a state
t 0

1
2

1 2

The shortest time T at which t T will be orthogonal to t 0 is


(a)
Ans:

2
E 2 E1

(b)

E 2 E1

(c)

2E 2 E1

(d)

4E 2 E1

(b)

Solution: t 0

1
2

1 2

and t T

1 iE1T
1 iE2T
e
1
e
2
2
2

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1
2

*
0 T dx 0 e

iE1
T

iE
iE
T
1T
2T
i E2 E1
1 iE2 T
e 0 e e e
1
2

cos 1 1
Equate real part cos E2 E1 1 T

E2 E1
E2 E1

Q52.

Consider the normalized wavefunction

a1 11 a 2 10 a3 11
where lm is a simultaneous normalized eigenfunction of the angular momentum
operators L2 and Lz , with eigenvalues l l 1 2 and m respectively. If is an
eigenfunction of the operator L x with eigenvalue , then
(a) a1 a3
(c) a1 a3
Ans:

1
1
, a2
2
2

1
,
2

a2

(b) a1 a3

1
2

1
,
2

(d) a1 a 2 a3

a2

1
2

1
3

(b)

Solution: Lx

L L

2

L a111 a210 a311 a1 012 a2 211 a3 210

For L ,

a2 211 a3 210
For L , L a111 a210 a311 a1 210 a2 211
Given

L L

2

L L
1
a2 2 11 a1 a3 2 10 a2 2 11
2
2

L L
a111 a210 a311 (Given)
2

Thus

a2
2

a1 a2 2a1

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a1 a3
2

a2

a1 a3
a
2a1 2 a3
2
2

a12 a22

a1 a3
Q53.

a22
1
2

1
1
, a2
2
2

Let x and p denote, respectively, the coordinate and momentum operators satisfying the
canonical commutation relation x, p i in natural units 1 . Then the commutator

x, pe is
p

(b) i 1 p 2 e p

(a) i 1 p e p
Ans:

(c) i 1 e p

(d) ipe p

(a)

Solution: x, p i

p 2 p3
x, pe p x, p e p p x, e p ie p p x,1 p
....
2
3

p2
2ip 3ip 2
ie p p x,1 x, p x, .... ie p p 0 i

......
2
3
2

x, pe ie
p

Q54.

p3
2
i p p ..... ie p ipe p i 1 p e p
2

Let 1 , 2 , 3 , where 1 , 2 , 3 are the Pauli matrices. If a and b are two



arbitrary constant vectors in three dimensions, the commutator a , b is equal to (in

the following I is the identity matrix)



(a) a b 1 2 3

(c) a b I

Ans:


(b) 2i a b

(d) a b I

(b)

Solution: a a1i a2 j a3 k , b b1i b2 j b3k , xi y j z k

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a , b a1 x a2 y a3 z , b1 x b2 y b3 z



a , b a1b1 x , x a1b2 x , y a1b3 x , z a2b1 y , x a2b2 y , y

a2b3 y , z a3b1 z , x a3b2 z , y a3b3 z , z


a1b1 0 a1b2 2i z 2ia1b3 y a2b1 2i z 0 a2b3 2i x a3b1 2i y a3b2 2i x 0



a , b 2i a b

Q55.

The ground state energy of the attractive delta function potential


V x b x ,

where b 0 , is calculated with the variational trial function

A cos ,
x
2a

0,

a x a,

otherwise,

for

is
(a)
Ans:

mb 2
2 2

(b)

2mb 2
2 2

(c)

mb 2
2 2 2

(d)

mb 2
4 2 2

(b)

Solution: V x b x ;
Normalized
T *
a

b 0 and

8ma

2a

a x a

2 2
2 2

dx

2 m x 2
8ma 2

2
x
cos
2a
2a

V * b x dx

2 2

x A cos

2
b
b
2a
a

b
a

2 2
2 2
2 2 2 b

2 0
b 0 a
4ma
4ma
a
8ma 3
a

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Put the value of a in equation:

Q56.

2 2
b 4mb
b 4mb
2mb2
E

2
8ma 2 a
2 2
2 2
8m 2 2
2

2 2

Let c0 0 c1 1 (where c 0 and c1 are constants with c 02 c12 1 ) be a linear


combination of the wavefunctions of the ground and first excited states of the onedimensional harmonic oscillator. For what value of c 0 is the expectation value x a
maximum?

Ans:

(a) x

,
m

(c) x

1
, c0
2m
2

c0

(b) x

1
, c0
2 m
2

(d) x

,
m

c0

1
2

(c)

Solution: c0 0 c1 1

X X

2
2
X 2c0c1 0 X 1 c02 c12 c0 c1 0 X 1 1 c0 c1 0 X 1

For max
X 2

2m

Q57.

X c0 c1

c02 c12 1 c0

1
2

1 1
0 X 1 0 X 1
2 2

0 aa 1

2m

Consider a particle of mass m in the potential V x a x , a 0 . The energy eigenvalues E n n 0, 1, 2, .... , in the WKB approximation, are
3a
1
(a)
n
2
4 2m

1/ 3

3a
1
(c)
n
2
4 2m

3a
1
(b)
n
2
4 2m

2/3

3a
1
(d)
n
2
4 2m

4/3

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Ans:

(b)

Solution: V x a x ,

x0

According to W.K.B.,

E/

P2
a x P 2m E a x
2m

E /

E /

E /

pdq n where 1 and 2 are positive mid point

E /

E /

2m E a x dx n
2

2m E ax dx

E /

2m E ax dx n
2

2m E ax dx n
2

2m E ax t

At x 0,

t 2mE;

x E / a, t 0

2madx dt
2ma

2 mE

4
ma t 3/2
3

2 mE

1
2

t1/ 2 dt n 2ma t
2
3 0

2 mE
0

n
2

1
4
1
3/ 2

n ma 2mE n
3
2
2

3a
4
1
1

23/ 2 am5 / 2 E 3/ 2 n E
n

3
2
2

4 2m

Q58.

2/3

The Hamiltonian H 0 for a three-state quantum system is given by the matrix


1 0 0
0 1 0

H 0 0 2 0 . When perturbed by H 1 0 1 where 1 , the resulting shift


0 0 2
0 1 0

in the energy eigenvalue E 0 2 is


(a) , 2
Ans:

(b) , 2

(c)

(d) 2

None of the answer is correct.

Head office
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1 0 0
Solution: H 0 0 2 0 ,

0 0 2

0 1 0
H 0 1 0 1

0 1 0

2 0
0 1
0 2 in H 0 is not 0 1 0 in H because H is not in block diagonal form. So we
must diagonalised whole H . The Eigen value at H 0, 2 0 , 2 0 .

After diagonalisation H 0 0
0

0
2
0

0 , 0 is correction for Eigenvalue at H 0 .


2

So 2 0 is the correction for eigenvalue of H 0 2


None of the answer is correct.

Head office
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Anand Institute of Mathematics,
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