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Randy Laist, PhD

Faculty Focus |

Curriculum Development
Curriculum development includes a variety of activities around the creation of planned
curriculum, pedagogy, instruction, and delivery methods for guiding student learning. Turn to
Faculty Focus for tips and techniques.

May 11
Inviting guest speakers into your classroom is a classic teaching strategy. Welcoming other
voices into the classroom provides students with access to other perspectives, adds variety to the
classroom routine, and demonstrates that learning is a collaborative enterprise. At the same time,
however, presentations by guest experts are often plagued by a variety of design flaws that
hinder their educational effectiveness. Guest experts, being unfamiliar with the mastery level of
the students in the class, may speak over the heads of the students, or they may present their
material at a level that is inappropriately introductory. Because they are generally unfamiliar with
the class curriculum, they may repeat information that the students have already learned, or their
comments may not connect in any clear way with what the students already know and what they
are currently learning.

September 25, 2014


I dont get it! Every fall the new telephone book arrives, filled with lots of information and with
loads of new numbers, so why dont we design a class that covers this material? Nowhere do we

teach this information. Why dont we expect folks to study the telephone book and memorize the
numbers? Grudgingly, I am forced to admit that no real justification for memorizing telephone
numbers exists, as tempting as it might be for me to teach this course.
For one thing, there are just too many numbers. Back when there were only a dozen or so, it
might have been possible to memorize them allnot that it would have served any existential
purpose, but just as an exercise. Now there are way too many. My critics tell me the real problem
is that the telephone book is pretty useful as a reference. It is well organized and easy to find a
number when you need it. In fact, it turns out that most people have no interest in memorizing
telephone numbers and only learn those they use regularly, although speed dial can remove even
that reason. Basically, all that folks need to know is how to use a phone book.

May 15, 2014


Required introductory coursesthats how most students meet our disciplines or, as John Zipp
says (hes writing specifically about sociology), they are the public face of the field.

November 1, 2013
Lets start out by defining our terms. The definition of service-learning differentiates it from
volunteering and old-fashioned community service.
It is true that there are many definitions about service-learning floating around, some since the
1970s. In fact, everyone reading this probably has one. But this definition is a solid working one,
succinctly covering the distinctives:

May 2, 2013
As the student body becomes increasingly diverse, its important to have faculty incorporate
multicultural design into their courses regardless of discipline. Although it may not seem that all
disciplines lend themselves to including multiculturalism as a learning goal, consider how
Christine Stanley and Mathew Ouellett frame the issue.
January 31, 2013
Capstone courses are now a requirement in many departments, programs, and college curricula.
They vary across different dimensions, indicating that although their value is universally
recognized, they share few common features. For starters, they are offered at various levels; at
the department level for students in a particular major, at the college level, say, for students in
engineering, and at the university level as a general education integrative experience.

August 7, 2012
Fieldwork refers to any component of the curriculum that involves leaving the classroom and
learning through firsthand experience. Most instructors incorporate fieldwork to help students
understand theory, develop skills, integrate knowledge, build tacit knowledge, develop meaning
in places, and work with peers and instructors in alternate settings.
June 12, 2012
Service-learning courses offer a combination of academic content, service experience, and
critical reflection. To make service-learning successful, consider the following recommendations
from Barbara Jacoby, Faculty Associate for Leadership and Community Service-Learning at the
University of Maryland, College Park.

August 30, 2011


A new edition of a classic book on the curriculum suggests eight lessons from the learning
literature with implications for course and curriculum planning. Any list like this tends to
simplify a lot of complicated research and offer generalizations that apply most, but certainly not
all, of the time. Despite these caveats, lists like this are valuable. They give busy faculty a sense
of the landscape and offer principles that can guide decision making, in this case about courses
and curricula.
April 26, 2011
The Computer Information Sciences program at ECPI College of Technology offers job oriented,
hands-on education required to meet the needs of an ever-changing and increasingly technical
society. We encourage students not only to earn their degree but also to get certified in their
respective fields. The great success we achieved in getting more than 50 students Comptia
Security+ certified compelled us to share our experience.
Curriculum development includes a variety of activities around the creation of planned
curriculum, pedagogy, instruction, and delivery methods for guiding student learning. Turn to
Faculty Focus for tips and techniques.
April 19, 2011
Theres a tacit rule that most college teachers abide by: I wont mess with your course if you
agree not to mess with mine. Gerald Graff observes and asks, This rules suits the teacher, but
how well does it serve students? (p. 155)
February 2, 2011
While it is easy to see how service-learning meshes with courses in the social sciences, public
health and education, can it work equally well in other areas, such as the hard sciences and the
humanities?
Yes. While service-learning is not appropriate for every course, it can and does work well in
every discipline. No matter the discipline, research has shown that service-learning helps
students identify and examine the big questions and the social context in which the disciplines
are situated.
November 29, 2010

Most faculty work hard to make each individual course they teach the best learning experience it
can be. They learn with each semester, and make revisions based on what worked and where the
course stumbled. If done correctly, its a continuous improvement process that runs like a welloiled machine. But no matter how good their individual courses are, its easy for faculty to end
up in a silounsure of whats happening in other courses throughout their discipline or
department.
September 16, 2010
Dan Klionsky makes some excellent points in a letter to the editor published in Cell Biology
Education. Hes objecting to how departments design curricula. Hes writing about biology, but
what concerns him doesnt just happen in biology. Curricular development
August 19, 2010
The growth of knowledge within your discipline is what makes being a professor so exciting, but
it also presents new challengesparticularly when it comes to teaching. Because the time allotted
for each course remains constant and the content that could be included in any course continues
to grow, you may find it difficult to try to cram all this information into a course.
June 22, 2010
There is no question that higher education tends to get caught up in fashionable program
innovations, and learning communities could certainly be considered an example. A great deal of
research has established that, in terms of retention and persistence, first experiences in college
are tremendously important.
May 14, 2010
Given the difficulty most faculty have getting students to read for courses, even assigned reading
in required textbooks, reading lists may not be used as extensively now as they were 20 years
ago. Nonetheless, they still figure prominently in the delivery of independent studies, special
topics courses, and senior and graduate seminars.
April 21, 2010
A biology class works with a local environmental organization to test water samples from the
Chesapeake Bay. A graphics design class helps a non-profit organization build a new website. A
childhood development class serves as mentors to at-risk students in an after-school program.
November 5, 2009
Tuesdays post discussed the goals and core practices of effective learning communities. Today
we outline elements of sustainable learning communities as well as some of the challenges of
learning community development.

November 3, 2009
Learning communities come in all shapes and sizes. Some simply link courses and put students
in a cohort; many go considerably beyond that to build a learning environment around core
practices known to promote student learning. Some are new, while
June 4, 2009
A survey released last month suggests that many colleges and universities are reforming their
general education programs and developing new curricular approaches and educational
assessment strategies for measuring key learning outcomes. As institutions review their general
education programs, many are choosing to incorporate more engaged and integrative curricular
practices.
April 17, 2009
Incorporating material that addresses diversity issues in classes has positive effects on a number
of learning outcomes. The success of efforts to make curricula more diverse depends to a large
degree on faculty willingness to incorporate these materials because control of the curriculum
remains in faculty handsboth collectively, in terms of course and program approval processes,
and individually, in terms of daily decisions about what to teach.
March 19, 2009
If you ask students what they want to get out of a course, most give the same answer: an A (never
mind if learning accompanies the grade). If you rephrase and ask why students are taking your
course, those answers
February 23, 2009
When you assign your students to write a paper, do they know where to start? Upperclassmen
surely do, but what about freshmen? Left to their own devices, theyll likely turn to Google and
Wikipedia as their main research tools, and may never even set foot in the library if they can help
it.
January 7, 2009
With state and federal governments putting more and more emphasis on assessment and learning
outcomes, these new-style accreditation processes can be grueling, to say the least. Here are a
few valuable tips to help ensure a successful accreditation visit.
October 29, 2008
Most instructors supplement their face-to-face courses with some online learning materials such
as online syllabi, handouts, PowerPoint slides, and course-related Web links. All of these can add
to the learning experience, but they are merely a start to making full use of the learning potential

of the online learning environment in either a hybrid or totally online course. Although there is
no standard definition of a hybrid course, one characteristic that makes a course a hybrid is the
use of the Web for interaction rather than merely as a means of posting materials, says LaTonya
Motley, instructional technology specialist at El Camino Community College in California.
October 13, 2008
How do you get the best out of your online faculty? Dont make them re-invent the wheel each
time they create an online course. Let them do what theyre best at. Free them from
administrative details. Do their work for them. Give them a course template.
September 22, 2008
Learning communities, an approach to curriculum design that links two or more courses, can
improve student success and retention and help students develop effective learning habits.
Learning communities also can improve the instructors teaching by exposing them to new
teaching
September 11, 2008
What are your institutions signature programsthose programs that epitomize your institutions
mission and define its distinctiveness in the marketplace? Its a question that every institution
should address, particularly when faced with increasing competition and decreasing resources,
says Jonnie Guerra, vice president for academic affairs at Cabrini College in Pennsylvania
July 19, 2008
The University of Oklahomas (OU) College of Arts and Sciences has a long history of
successful interdisciplinary programs. Each was created under different circumstances without a
standard process, but they all share several characteristics that have helped them thrive.
Academic Leader recently spoke with Paul B. Bell, Jr., dean of the College of Arts and Sciences
and vice provost for instruction, about what makes these interdisciplinary programs successful
Curriculum development includes a variety of activities around the creation of planned
curriculum, pedagogy, instruction, and delivery methods for guiding student learning. Turn to
Faculty Focus for tips and techniques.
July 17, 2008
The Bachelor of Arts in Liberal Studies (BAiLS) program, an interdisciplinary program at
Northern Arizona University designed to meet the needs of returning adult students, is less
structured than programs with similar goals at other institutions. This looser structure encourages
collaboration among disciplines and provides for greater flexibility, says Larry Gould, associate
dean of the College of Behavioral and Social Sciences
July 16, 2008

In 1989 the administration at Central Arizona College made a decision to move toward a
competency-based curriculum for all of its courses and certificate and degree programsa wise
decision given all the changes taking place within the community colleges district and within
higher education in general, says Linda Heiland, CACs associate vice president for institutional
effectiveness and chief academic officer July 15, 2008
Despite Marquette Universitys emphasis on global learning, including study abroad and
international service learning programs, students ranked global issues as very low in importance
when they participated in the National Survey of Student Engagement. When we got the NSSE
results, we were mystified. We have lots of co-curricular [activities] and core course that address
global issues. Why arent students identifying global issues as important to their education?
says Christine Krueger, Marquettes director of core of common studies
2015 Faculty Focus

Curriculum Development: An Overview


nau.edu |

Read the following curriculum development overview. This one is long. You might find that if
you print it in draft mode on your printer it is less straining on the eyes.
Curriculum Development:An Overview

INTRODUCTION
Ever since the term curriculum was added to educators' vocabularies, it has seemed
to convey many things to many people. To some, curriculum has denoted a specific
course, while to others it has meant the entire educational environment. Whereas

perceptions of the term may vary, it must be recognized that curriculum


encompasses more than a simple definition. Curriculum is a key element in the
educational process; its scope is extremely broad, and it touches virtually everyone
who is involved with teaching and learning.

This volume focuses on curriculum within the context of career and technical education.In no
other area has greater emphasis been placed upon the development of curricula that are relevant
in terms of student and community needs and substantive outcomes.The career and technical and
technical curriculum focuses not only on the educational process but also on the tangible results
of that process.This is only one of many reasons why the career and technical and technical
curriculum is distinctive in relation to other curricular areas and why career and technical
education curriculum planners must have a sound understanding of the curriculum development
process.
HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES
Several factors have appeared to cause the differences that currently exist between the career and
technical and technical curriculum and curricula in other areas.
Perhaps the foremost of these is historical influence.History has an important message to convey
about antecedents of the contemporary career and technical and technical curriculum and
provides a most meaningful perspective to the curriculum developer.Curriculum as we know it
today has evolved over the years from a narrow set of disjointed offerings to a comprehensive
array of relevant student learning experiences.
Early Foundations of Curriculum
Education for work has its beginnings almost four thousand years ago. This earliest
type of career and technical education took the form of apprenticeship. Organized
apprenticeship programs for scribes in Egypt are recorded as early as 2000 B.C. At
about that time, schools were established that provided two stages of training:
The first or primary stage consisted of learning to read and write ancient literature.
The second was an apprenticeship stage during which the learner was placed as an
apprentice scribe under an experienced scribe, usually a government worker
(Roberts, 1971).
Thus, the earliest form of education for work was organized in such a way that basic
knowledge could be developed in a classroom setting and applied skills could be
developed "on the job."
Even as organized apprenticeship programs began to flourish, this same basic
arrangement persisted. Apprenticeship programs initiated in ancient Palestine,
Greece, and other countries followed a similar pattern with youngsters learning a
craft or trade through close association with an artisan. Although apprenticeship
programs expanded rapidly as various skilled areas became more specialized,
reliance continued to be placed on training in the actual work setting-which, in most
cases, consisted of conscious imitation. The apprenticeship form of instruction thus

remained virtually unchanged until the nineteenth century.

Alternatives to Apprenticeship
By the sixteenth century, alternatives to apprenticeship were being strongly
considered. The educational schemes of philosophers such as Comenius and Locke
proposed inclusion of manual arts. Samuel Hartlib set forth a proposal to establish
a college of agriculture in England. These and other events in the Realism
Movement resulted in trade subjects and practical arts being introduced into formal
education. The Age of Reason, likewise, became a catalyst for shifting away from
the traditional apprenticeship system. Rousseau's concern about the value of
manual arts in education served as a model for other educators such as Pestalozzi,
Herbart, and Froebel. As Bennett (1926) indicates, Rousseau's "recognition of the
fact that manual arts may be a means of mental training marked the beginning of a
new era of education."
With the advent of the Industrial Revolution in the early 1800s, apprenticeship
began a steady decline. The great demand for cheap, unskilled labor obviously
could not be met through apprenticeship programs, and many newly established
industrial firms did not desire persons with such extensive training as was provided
through the traditional learner-artisan relationship. However, as the Industrial
Revolution progressed, owners and managers soon began to realize that skilled
workers would be a definite asset to an organization. This increased demand
almost seemed to correspond with the rapid decline of formal apprenticeship
programs in many skilled areas.

Toward Systematic Curriculum Development


Perhaps one of the earliest forms of systematic curriculum building in career and technical
education may be attributed to Victor Della Vos, director of the imperial Technical School of
Moscow.At the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition of 1876, Della Vos demonstrated a new
approach to teaching the mechanical arts that "became a catalyst for career and technical
education in the United States" (Lannie, 1971).Rather than leaning through conscious imitation,
the Russian system utilized shops where formal instruction in the mechanical arts could be
provided.This system attempted to teach mechanical arts fundamentals
(a)in the least possible time; (b) in such a way as to make possible the giving of adequate
instruction to a large number of students at one time; (c) by a method that would give to the
study of practical shopwork the character of a sound, systematical acquirement of knowledge;
and (d) so as to enable the teacher to determine the progress of each student at any time.(Bennett,
1937)
Using these basic principles, Della Vos set up separate shops in the areas of
carpentry, joinery, blacksmithing, and metal turning where students completed
graded exercises that were organized logically and according to difficulty (Lannie,
1971). The Russian system, which was noted by many Americans, had a most
substantial impact on Calvin Woodward and John Runlke. Woodward initiated a
manual training school at Washington University in St. Louis that closely paralleled
the system developed by Della Vos. Runkle, who served as president of

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, favored the Russian system to the extent


that practical shop instruction was initiated for engineering students, and a
secondary school of mechanical arts was established on the M.I.T. campus. These
pioneer efforts served as important precursors of the contemporary career and
technical and technical curriculum.
The successes of Runkle and Woodward generated great interest in this form of
instruction, and soon manual training began to spring up in a number of schools
around the United States. Shopwork was even introduced into the elementary
schools and, by the late 1800s, it was a formal part of many grammar schools
across the nation. However, this progress did not serve as the best substitute for
apprenticeship. Manual training and other forms of practical arts such as domestic
science represented course work 'of a career and technical nature but these courses
were incidental or supplementary to the primary function of the school" (Roberts,
1971). In response to this deficiency, schools began to organize so that students
could be prepared to enter work in a variety of occupational areas. During the late
1800s and early 1900s, technical institutes, trade schools, commercial and business
schools, and agricultural high schools began to flourish. Many of the offerings
provided in these schools were similar in scope to those found in today's
comprehensive high schools and community colleges. However, the standards
associated with these programs were quite tax or even nonexistent. Quality was at
best a local matter and, more often than not, did not extend beyond the concern of
the individual instructor. The result was a considerable amount of inconsistency in
quality among programs across the nation.
By 1900, a rather strong public sentiment for career and technical education had
developed. As the Industrial Revolution continued to expand, a need for skilled
workers increased. This need was expressed by both business-people and labor
leaders. Rural America began seriously to question the relevance of traditional
education and sought to have agriculture play a more important role in the school
program. These feelings were more formally presented to the federal government
by way of national organizations. Groups such as the National Society for the
Promotion of Industrial Education and the Association of Agricultural Colleges and
Experiment Stations led the way in terms of securing federal aid for career and
technical education. However, the movement to secure federal support for career
and technical education was not without controversy. The pressure to institute
career and technical education legislation opened a debate between those who
believed public schools were places where only liberal studies should be taught and
those who believed career and technical education should be incorporated into the
school curriculum. In essence, the choice of that time was "whether schools are to
become servants of technocratic efficiency needs, or whether they can act to help
[persons] humanize life under technology" (Wirth, 1972, p. 1). During this historic
discussion period, two prominent figures presented different philosophical positions
on the place of career and technical education in the public schools. Charles
Prosser strongly supported the idea of social efficiency, which contends that schools
should be reformed to meet the needs of a technocratic society. Philosopher John
Dewey believed that the industrial education movement of the day had some
positive potential but felt it should prepare the way for a more humane
technological society, a place where "science, technology, and democracy would
complement each other' (Wirth, 1972, p. 3). Dewey closely monitored the

movement, examined the proposed legislation, and spoke out against certain of its
aspects. For example, he opposed dualism in education, an idea that Prosser had
firmly imbedded into the legislation. Unfortunately for Dewey, Prosser's philosophy
prevailed and was included in the Smith-Hughes Act that was enacted in 1917.
Among other things, this landmark legislation set the stage for career and technical
education being separate and distinct from academic education.
The Smith-Hughes Act and subsequent federal legislation have had profound effects
on the public career and technical and technical curriculum. Not only has legislation
provided funds for high-quality education, but state and local education agencies
have been required to meet certain standards if they want to qualify for these
funds. Since legislation has stipulated that career and technical education be under
public supervision and control, the standards associated with federal funding have
had great impact on curriculum development in career and technical education.
Types of offerings, targeted groups of students, scheduling, facilities, equipment,
and numerous other factors have been incorporated into federal legislation
supporting career and technical education. These factors have, in turn, affected
curriculum planning, development, and implementation, since they have required
the local developer to be responsive to national-level concerns.
The point should be made that the Smith-Hughes Act and more recent legislation
have supported the concept of providing students with a broad experiential base in
preparation for employment. This contrasts greatly with many of the early career
and technical offerings, which were more or less separate entities, often consisting
of single courses. A major impact of federal legislation on career and technical and
technical curricula, then, has been in the area of quality control. The various career
and technical education acts have assisted greatly in the establishment of minimum
program standards.
Beginning in the 1960s, people began to recognize that the world was slowly
shifting from separate and distinct country economies to a more holistic, global
economy. Persons in the workplace were thus beginning to see their competition
shift from regional and national bases to an international venue. Concurrently, a
technological revolution was occurring. The introduction of low cost computer
technology and technological advances in production, distribution, and
communication not only made competition among businesses and industries more
fierce, it began to shift many countries' economies from a low skills-high wages
equilibrium to a high skills-high wages equilibrium. Thus, workers with 1950s'skiUs
were not prepared to work in the new high skills work environment. Demands
placed on workers in the new workplace included greater facility in mathematics,
science, English, and communication. Persons who were employed in the high
performance workplace were expected to apply their academic skills as they
continued their learning in continuously changing work environments, to serve as
contributing members of self-directed work teams, and often to be leader-workers
instead of the traditional follower-workers.
Obviously, these shifts in the workplace called for a different sort of career and
technical education legislation. Such legislation should encourage educators to
prepare students who had academic skill levels that matched their technical
expertise. Response to this need emerged as several important pieces of federal

legislation. The Carl D. Perkins career and technical and Applied Technology
Education Act of 1990 (Perkins 11) is grounded in the notion that the United States
is falling behind other nations in its ability to compete in the global marketplace.
Among its various provisions, the Perkins II legislation offered the states financial
incentives to create and operate educational programs that have as their goal
producing workers who function more effectively and thus increase United States
competitiveness in the current and future international workplace. The Perkins 11
legislation ushered in a new era of preparing students to enter and succeed in the
workplace. For example, the law shifted emphasis from reactive and rigid career
and technical education curriculum and instructional models to those emphasizing
flexibility and cooperation. In contrast with previous legislation that contributed to
a wide separation between academic and career and technical education, the
Perkins II legislation supported the integration of academic and career and technical
education studies. Also included were provisions for using Tech Prep to link high
school and post-high school curricula in creative and beneficial ways.
More recently enacted legislation, termed the School-to-Work Opportunities Act of
1994, has expanded on the proactive elements of Perkins II. In order to receive
school-to-work funding, programs are required to include three components: schoolbased learning, work-based learning, and connecting activities that link school and
work-based activities in meaningful ways. This Act has been seen by many as
legislation that "brings it all together" to form a powerful curriculum and
instructional delivery system. It encourages creative, collaborative development of
curricula that link academic and applied studies in more meaningful ways. Both the
Perkins II and the School-to-Work Acts philosophically align much more closely with
the views of John Dewey than those espoused by Charles Prosser. With their
emphasis on exposing students to broad, thematic curricula where students can
learn in contextual ways, these more recent laws reflect many of Dewey's ideas
about schools and schooling. It is indeed unfortunate that he could not be present
to see some of his views incorporated into national legislation (Finch, 1997).

CONTEMPORARY PERCEPTIONS OF EDUCATION


The present-day curriculum may be perceived as being a basic part of the broader
area known as education. Education itself is often viewed as an amorphous term
that defies description and explanation. In actuality, education is a concept that
each curriculum developer needs to define and refine before the curriculum
development process is carried out.

Education and Its Elements


In contemporary society, education may be viewed as comprised of two basic
elements: formal education and informal education. Formal education is that which
occurs in a more structured educational setting. Representative of this element
would be school and school-related activities such as taking a course, participating
in a school athletic event, holding employment as part of a formal cooperative
career and technical education program, or being involved in a student club or
organization. Informal education (often called non-formal education) consists of
education that typically takes place away from the school environment and is not a
part of the planned educative process. Part-time volunteer work in a hospital,

babysitting, taking a summer vacation in Europe, and waiting on tables might be


considered as informal education activities. Central to this element is the fact that
a person chooses to engage in a non-school activity, and this participation results in
some form of education. Also central to this element is that education extends far
beyond the four walls of the school and encompasses more than what is under a
teacher's direction. Career awareness, exploration, and preparation may take place
through one's personal initiative or by way of a parent's encouragement. Education
in its formal and informal spheres encompasses a great portion of one's life. From
early childhood through adulthood, opportunities exist for participation in formal
and informal education, and the extent of a person's participation often corresponds
with his or her capabilities to perform various roles in later life.

Goals of Education
Superimposed on the formal and informal elements of education are two categories
that reflect the broad goals associated with it. These two types of education may
be referred to as education for life and education for earning a living. As may be
noted in Figure 1-1, the two are not mutually exclusive. Dealing with these two
broad goals as separate entities is sometimes quite difficult, if not impossible. Each
must be considered in light of the other. Basic preparation for life as part of one's
high school education may serve as a foundation for postsecondary education or
earning a living. Likewise, education for earning a living, received early in one's life,
might serve to let an individual know that a certain occupation would or would not
be satisfying to that person. However, a continued interest in the field, together
with education in that area, might nurture a strong acareer and technical
involvement.
One should remember that each of these types of education can be facilitated in
formal and informal ways. For example, a youngster who takes a part-time job as a
service station attendant to earn some extra money might find that some of this
experience makes a direct contribution to a formal school-based auto mechanics
program. On the other hand, this same experience could make the student a better
citizen by serving as a realistic example of how our free enterprise system
operates. Whether the experience is preparation for life or for earning a living,
education may be provided through formal or informal means. Although informal
education may not be as deliberate and systematically structured as formal
education, it nonetheless serves as an important contributor to the outcomes of
education.
Figure 1

TOWARD A DEFINITION OF CURRICULUM


How, then, may we define curriculum? Referring to Figure 1, it can be noted that
formal education, which includes education for life and education for earning a
living, represents a vast array of learning activities and experiences. These learning
activities and experiences are not merely specific class sessions or courses but
extend to or through the entire educational spectrum of a particular school or
schools. Within this context, curriculum may be perceived as being rather global in
nature and representing a broad range of educational activities and experiences.

Thus, curriculum may be defined as the sum of the learning activities and
experiences that a student has under the auspices or direction of the school.
Acceptance of this generic definition commits the curriculum developer to accept
two additional supporting concepts. First, the central focus of the curriculum is the
student. In fact, one may interpret this to mean each student has his or her own
curriculum. This interpretation is a sound concept, since students often select
courses, experiences, and noncredit activities that align with their unique personal
needs and aspirations. This fact might be pointed out by asking, "How often can it
be found that two students have had exactly the same set of educational
experiences?"
A second supporting concept has to do with the breadth of learning experiences and
activities associated with a curriculum. Formal courses are not the only items
considered to be a part of the curriculum. Clubs, sports, and other co-curricular
activities are significant contributors to the development of a total individual and to
curriculum effectiveness. Learning and personal growth do not take place strictly
within the confines of a classroom or laboratory. Students develop skills and
competence through a variety of learning activities and experiences that may not
necessarily be counted as constructive credit for graduation. Student career and
technical organizations, social dubs, and athletics are but a few of the many
experiences that extend beyond the prescribed set of course offerings of a school.
These experiences have the power to make contributions to student growth in ways
that cannot be accomplished in classroom and laboratory settings.
Accepting the foregoing implies that we must consider a curriculum as
encompassing general (academic) education as well as career and technical
education. Realistically, whether at the secondary or postsecondary level, the
curriculum includes courses and experiences associated with preparation for life
and for earning a living. This more global definition of curriculum enables us to
consider not only what might be offered in career and technical education, but how
those learning activities and experiences should relate to the student's more
general studies.
The foregoing concepts also support the notion that a curriculum should focus on
developing the whole person. It is not enough to have the curriculum include
courses and experiences that are exclusively related to career and technical
education. General studies are clearly a part of every curriculum as they serve to
provide the student with a broad knowledge base both for life and for earning a
living. Likewise, the curriculum builder must keep in mind how general and career
and technical studies are intertwined. Life-related content such as mathematics,
communication skills, and science is a meaningful contributor to content for earning
a living and vice versa. Thus, as the curriculum is being designed and
implemented, consideration must be given to how these two content areas may be
closely integrated rather than segregated from each other.

Curriculum and Instruction


In order to clarify this definition of curriculum it is important to examine how it may
be distinguished from the concept of instruction. Whereas curriculum constitutes a
broad range of student experiences in the school setting, instruction focuses on the
delivery of those experiences. More specifically, instruction may be perceived as

the planned interaction between instructors and students that (hopefully) results in
desirable learning. Sometimes, serious questions may be raised as to what exactly
constitutes curriculum and what constitutes instruction. Some educators feel that
any curriculum includes instruction; others contend that sound instruction includes
a sound curriculum.

A brief description of curriculum development and instructional development should aid in


clarifying these apparent differences of opinion.Curriculum development focuses primarily on
content and areas related to it.It encompasses the macro or broadly based activities that impact
on a wide range of programs, courses, and student experiences.In fact, the curriculum should
define the institution's mission and goals.Curriculum activities are typically conducted prior to
and at a higher level than instructional development.In contrast, instructional development is
more of a micro activity that builds on curriculum development through planning for and
preparation of specific learning experiences within courses.
Naturally, when curriculum development is taking place, the instruction that is to be built on this
framework must be kept in mind.Likewise, principles of learning are not avoided when a
curriculum is being developed; they are merely considered from a higher level of
generalization.Anyone who is developing instruction must be constantly aware of the content to
be included in that instruction.In the case of instruction, content that has already been derived as
part of the curriculum development process is further explicated
and specific strategies are designed to aid the student in learning this content.Figure 1-2 provides
a visual description of possible shared unique areas associated with instructional development
and curriculum development.Although each area focuses on a number of rather unique concerns,
many aspects of development could be classed as either curriculum or instruction.The shared
aspects of curriculum and instructional development sometimes become unique to one area or
the other based on the person or persons involved in the development process as well as those
who will eventually benefit from this development.If one instructor were writing objectives for
his or her course, this activity might be classed as instructional development.However, if a group
of instructors were writing objectives for use in their courses and, perhaps, other instructors'
courses, the activity might be considered as curriculum development.The distinguishing
differences between these two areas become the scope of the development process and the extent
of generalizability.If the development process involves a number of professionals and the
product of this effort will be usable by a number of instructors, the process is more correctly
termed curriculum development.Instructional development is best viewed as usually involving
one professional (typically an instructor) in the process of preparing for his or her own
classes.Although the distinctions between curriculum development and
instructional development are not as clear as many would like them to be, they serve fairly well
to identify each process.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE career and technical AND TECHNICAL CURRICULUM


It should be noted that most discussions presented in this web will center on the
career and technical education curriculum. One must, however, recognize that from
a conceptual point of view the ideal curriculum is neither "academic" nor 'career
and technical and technical.' career and technical and technical curriculum
terminology is used throughout this class merely as a means of emphasizing this
area of study within the total curriculum and highlighting the unique aspects of
career and technical education curriculum building.
Even though career and technical education is included within the overall
framework of education, the career and technical and technical curriculum has
certain characteristics that distinguish it from the rest of the educational milieu.
These characteristics represent a curricular focus that may be best associated with
curriculum building, maintenance, and immediate and long-term outcomes.
Whereas each of these characteristics is, to a greater or lesser degree, associated
with other curricula (e.g., general or academic), their influence on the career and
technical and technical curriculum development process is important to note.
Collectively, they represent the potential parameters of any curriculum that has as
its controlling purpose the preparation of persons for useful, gainful employment.
These basic characteristics of the career and technical and technical curriculum
include orientation, justification, focus, in-school success standards, out-of-school
success standards, school community relationships, federal involvement,
responsiveness, logistics, and expense.

Orientation
Traditionally, the career and technical and technical curriculum has been product or

graduate-oriented. Although a major concern of career and technical education has


been to provide a means for each student to achieve curricular outcomes, the
ultimate outcome is more far-reaching than the educational process. The ultimate
success of a career and technical and technical curriculum is not measured merely
through student educational achievement but through the results of that
achievement-results that take the form of performance in the work world. Thus, the
career and technical and technical curriculum is oriented toward process
(experiences and activities within the school setting) and product (effects of these
experiences and activities on former students).

Justification
Unlike its academic counterpart, the career and technical and technical curriculum
is based on identified occupational needs of a particular locale. These needs are
not merely general feelings; they are clarified to the point that no question exists
about the demand for workers in the selected occupation or occupational field.
Thus, curriculum justification extends beyond the school setting and into the
community. Just as the curriculum is oriented toward the student, support for that
curriculum is derived from employment opportunities that exist for the graduate.

Focus
Curricular focus in career and technical education is not limited to the development
of knowledge about a particular area. The career and technical and technical
curriculum deals directly with helping the student to develop a broad range of
knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values, each of which ultimately contributes in
some manner to the graduate's employability. The vocations and technical
education learning environment makes provision for student development of
knowledge, manipulative skills, attitudes, and values, a well as the integration of
these areas and their application to simulated and realistic work settings. The
career and technical and educational curricular focus also includes the integration
of academic studies such as mathematics, communication skills, and science with
applied studies so that students are better able to link these academic content
areas to applied career and technical education content.

In-School Success Standards


Although it is important for each student to be knowledgeable about many aspects
of the occupation he or she will enter, the true assessment of student success in
school must be with 'hands-on" or applied performance. For example, knowledge of
the metric system is important to the extent that it contributes to student success
in applied situation such as machining metric threads, administering medication, or
repairing a car. In-school success standards must be closely aligned with
performance expected in the occupation, with criteria used by instructor often being
standards of the occupation. The student may be required t4 perform a certain task
or function in a given amount of time using pre scribed procedures, with each of
these standards having its parallel ii the work world.

Out-of-School Success Standards


The determination of success is not limited to what transpires in a school setting. A
career and technical and technical curriculum must also be judged in terms of its
former students' success. Just as a college preparatory or community college
transfer curriculum is judged on the basis of graduates' success in a four-year
college or university, former career and technical and technical students should
demonstrate their success in the world of work. Thus, there is a major concern for
the product or graduate of the curriculum, particularly with respect to employmentrelated success. Although success standards vary from school to school and from
state to state, they quite often take the form of affective job skills, technical skills,
occupational survival skills, job search skills, and entrepreneurial skills. There are
certainly other standards that could be added to this list; however, the above items
are out-of-school success standards that career and technical education as well as
business and industry leaders rank as being very important curricular outcomes.

School-Workplace--Community Relationships
Although it is certainly recognized that any educational endeavor should relate in
some way to the community, career and technical education is charged with the
responsibility of maintaining strong ties with a variety of agriculture, business, and
industry-related areas. In fact, strong school-workplace-community partnerships
exist in many locales. Since there are a number of potential "customers" in the
community who are interested in products (graduates), the curriculum must be
responsive to community needs. Employers in the community are, likewise,
obligated to indicate what their needs are and to assist the school in meeting these
needs. This assistance might consist of employers serving on curriculum advisory
committees, donating equipment and materials to the schools, or providing
internships and shadowing experiences for students. Whatever relationship exists
between the career and technical curriculum and the community, it should be
recognized that strong school-workplace-community partnerships may often be
equated with curriculum quality and success.

Federal Involvement
Federal involvement with public career and technical education has existed for many years.Ever
since the passage of the Smith-Hughes Act in 1917, schools that desired support for the operation
of career and technical curricula have had to meet certain requirements.This, of course, means if
federal support is desired for an offering, state and federal requirements must be adhered to.The
extent to
which federal involvement affects the curriculum may constitute a distinct asset or a
liability.Requirements such as certain clock hours of instruction and certain types of equipment
to be used in the shop or laboratory might foster a higher level of quality.On the other hand, there
may be certain requirements that place undue restrictions on curriculum flexibility, and thus
hinder attempts at innovation or at meeting the needs of certain student groups.

Responsiveness
Another basic characteristic of the career and technical and technical curriculum is
responsiveness to technological changes in our society. Two hundred years ago,
programs and their content that prepared people for work were quite stable.
Typically, the skills and knowledge developed in an apprentice pi gram would be
useful for the rest of one's productive life. Today, however, the situation is quite
different. The Industrial Revolution and, more recent the integration of
technological concepts into our everyday life have had a profound impact on career
and technical education curricula. The contemporary career and technical
curriculum must be responsive to a constantly changing world of work. New
developments in various fields should be incorporated into the curriculum so that
graduates can compete for jobs and, on they have jobs, achieve their greatest
potential.

Logistics
Bringing together the proper facilities, equipment, supplies, and instructional resources is a
major concern to all persons involved in the implementation career and technical curricula.The
logistics associated with maintaining any
curriculum are often complex and time-consuming, but the sheer magnitude most career and
technical curricula makes this factor quite critical to success or failure.Some logistical concerns
are associated with any curriculum.Physics and chemistry equipment and materials must be
available for experiments.Recording devices must be in proper working order when language
laboratories are being used.Textbooks must be on hand when mathematics and history classes
begin.However, all of the above types of items, and many more, might be needed in career and
technical laboratories across the country.The highly specialized equipment needed to operate
quality programs usual requires regular maintenance and must be replaced as it becomes
obsolete.Materials used in the curriculum must be purchased, stored, inventoried replaced, and
sometimes sold.The need for coordination of cooperate, career and technical programs with
businesses and industries in a community working closely to establish and maintain relevant
work stations for students presents a unique set of logistical problems.The logistics associated
with operating a career and technical and technical curriculum are indeed complex, and these
complexities need to be taken into account when a curriculum is being established and after it
becomes operational.
Expense
Although the cost of maintaining a career and technical curriculum is not
inordinately high, the dollars associated with operating certain career and technical
curricula are sometimes considerably more than for their academic counterparts.
This expense may depend on the particular area of instructional emphasis, but
there are some items in the career and technical curriculum that show up quite
regularly. These include basic operating costs such as heating, electricity, and
water; purchase, maintenance, and replacement of equipment; purchase of
consumable materials; and travel to work-based learning locations that are away

from the school. Some of these costs are necessary to operate any school;
however, the career and technical and technical curriculum may often require
greater basic operating expenditures because of facilities that have a large square
footage or equipment such as welders, ovens, or computers that require large
amounts of energy for their operation. Equipment must be updated periodically if
the instructor expects to provide students with realistic instruction, and this
updating process can be very expensive. The ever-increasing costs associated with
the purchase of high-quality equipment make this area one of tremendous concern
to career and technical educators. Finally, the purchase of consumable materials
requires a sustained budgetary commitment to the curriculum. Dollars need to be
available to buy consumables as they are used by students throughout the school
year. These items are not limited to pencils and paper; they might include such
diverse items as oil, flour, shampoo, steel, wood, or fertilizer.

A RATIONALE FOR CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT IN career and technical education


The uniqueness of the career and technical and technical curriculum raises a critical
question. What is the basic direction that curriculum development in career and
technical education should take? History tells us that, traditionally, curricula have
been developed in a somewhat haphazard manner with little consideration given to
the impact of the development process. Another point is that a career and technical
and technical curriculum soon becomes outdated when steps are not taken to keep
it from remaining static. Finally, it must be recognized that the career and technical
and technical curriculum thrives on relevance. The extent to which a curriculum
assists students to enter and succeed in the work world spells out success.
As a curriculum is being developed, the career and technical educator is obligated
to deal with these concerns in such a way that quality is built into the "finished
product" or graduate. Any curriculum that is not developed systematically, or that
becomes static or irrelevant, will soon have an adverse effect or all who come in
contact with it. In order to avoid this difficulty, curriculum developers must give
consideration to the basic character of the curriculum and build in those factors that
contribute to its quality. Whereas some of these factors might apply equally well to
any sort of curriculum development, they are especially relevant to career and
technical education. As the development process is going on, outcomes of this
process must be made clear. It is hoped that these outcomes will lead to a career
and technical and technical curriculum that is data-based, dynamic, explicit in its
outcomes, fully articulated, realistic, student-oriented, evaluation-conscious, futureoriented, and world class-focused. Each of these is important to the success of the
contemporary career and technical and technical curriculum, and, as will be seen,
each is congruent with the character of career and technical education described in
the chapters to follow.

Data-Based
The contemporary career and technical and technical curriculum cannot function
properly unless it is data-based. Decisions about whether or not to offer a
curriculum need to be founded upon appropriate school and community related
data. Curriculum content decisions should be made after a variety of data, such as

student characteristics and the nature of the occupation being prepared for, have
been gathered and examined. The quality of curriculum materials is determined
after data have been obtained from instructors and students who use them. In fact,
the use of data as a basis for curriculum decisions cannot be overemphasized. The
reason for this is that developers of traditional curricula have often neglected to
place emphasis on the relationships that should exist between data and curriculum
decisions.

Dynamic
It might be said that a static curriculum is a dying curriculum. Just as career and
technical education is in a dynamic state, its curricula must, likewise, be dynamic.
Administrators, curriculum developers, and instructors must constantly examine the
curriculum in terms of what it is doing and how well it meets student needs.
Provision must be made for curricular revisions, particularly those modifications that
are tangible improvements and not just change for the sake of change. This does
not mean that once each year or so the curriculum is checked over by a panel of
"experts." Provision must be made to redirect, modify, or even eliminate an existing
curriculum any time this action can be fully justified. The responsiveness of a
curriculum to changes in the work world has much bearing on the ultimate quality
of that curriculum and its contribution to student growth.

Explicit Outcomes
Not only must the contemporary career and technical and technical curriculum be
responsive to the world of work, it must also be able to communicate this
responsiveness to administrators, teachers, students, parents, and employers.
Broadly stated goals are an important part of any curriculum; however, these goals
are only valid to the extent that they can be communicated in a more explicit
manner. Although it is recognized that we cannot state all curricular outcomes in
specific measurable terms, many of these outcomes may be written down in such a
manner that the broad curricular goals are made more quantifiable. To the extent
that outcomes are explicit, we will be able to tell whether students achieve them
and how the outcomes relate to a particular occupation or field. This is perhaps the
most commanding reason for ensuring that curriculum outcomes are clear and
precise.

Fully Articulated
Although courses and other educational activities contribute to the quality of a
curriculum, the way that they are arranged in relation to each other makes the
difference between experiences that are merely satisfactory and experiences that
are superior. Curriculum articulation may involve the resolution of content conflicts
across different areas or development of a logical instructional flow from one year to
the next. Articulation might extend to determining the ways co curricular activities,
such as student career and technical organizations, lend support to the rest of the
curriculum or deciding which mathematics concepts should be taught as a
prerequisite and/or within a particular technical course. It may include the
articulation of curriculum content between career and technical and technical and

general education courses.


Curriculum articulation also takes place throughout levels of schooling. Reduction
or elimination of instructional duplication at the secondary and postsecondary levels
might be a major concern of the curriculum developer as well as those who are
funding the offerings. Articulation across levels also enables both the secondary
and the postsecondary instructor to teach what is best for his or her particular
group of students and to do this in a more efficient manner. In this regard,
articulation may extend to formal Tech Prep and 2 + 2 agreements that establish
sound curriculum linkages.

Realistic
The career and technical and technical curriculum cannot operate in a vacuum. If
students are to be prepared properly for employment, the curricular focus must be
one that is relevant. Content is not developed merely on the basis of what a person
should know but also includes what a person should be able to do. career and
technical curriculum content is typically based upon the actual worker's role with
relevant tasks, knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values serving as a foundation for
what is to be taught. Great emphasis must be placed upon practicality. Since the
bulk of a worker's time is spent in applied areas, many student experiences must,
likewise, be of a contextual nature. Hands-on experiences in laboratory and workbased educational settings provide the student with a relevant means of
transferring knowledge, skills, and attitudes to the world of work.

Student-Oriented
Most curricula are, to some extent, student-oriented, and curricula in career and
technical education are certainly no exception. Currently there is a great deal of
concern about how a curriculum can best meet students' needs. Various
approaches such as team teaching and individualized instruction have been used by
instructors to help meet these needs. But, regardless of the approach an instructor
uses, a basic question has to be answered: To what extent will the approach actually
assist students in preparing for employment?
Another aspect of student orientation deals with the teaching-learning process. Not
only must the curriculum meet group needs, but there is an obligation to meet the
individual student's needs. In order for these needs to be met in an expeditious
manner, arrangements could, for example, be made to provide instruction that
accommodates various students' learning styles, to develop individual work-based
learning plans, or to make available alternate paths for the achievement of course
objectives. Whatever the means used to assist students, a basic concern should be
with the individual and how he or she may be helped in the best possible ways.

Evaluation-Conscious
Evaluation is perceived by many to be an activity that comes periodically in conjunction with
accreditation procedures.Realistically, administrators and instructors cannot wait that long to find
out how successful they have been.Curriculum evaluation has to be an on ongoing activity-one

that is planned and conducted in a systematic manner.Anyone who is involved with the career
and technical and technical curriculum should be aware that evaluation is a continuous effort.As
a curriculum is being designed, plans must be made to assess its effects on students.Then, after
the curriculum has been implemented and data have been gathered, school personnel may
actually see what strengths and weaknesses exist.Although most educators recognize that
evaluation is not a simple activity, it is one that should be carried out concurrently with any
curriculum effort.
Future-Oriented
Educators, particularly career and technical and technical educators, are very much
concerned about the future. What technological changes might affect the need for
graduates? What types of school laboratories win be needed twenty years from
now? What sorts of continuing education will be needed by students who are in
school right now? These and other questions are often raised by educators who
think in futuristic terms. Persons responsible for the contemporary career and
technical and technical curriculum need to ensure that ongoing curricula are
considered in relation to what will or may occur in the future. As decisions are being
made about curriculum content and structure, thought should be given to the future
results that might come from those decisions. Any curriculum that hopes to be
relevant tomorrow must be responsive to tomorrows as well as today's needs. The
extent to which a curriculum is successful twenty, thirty, or even forty years from
now will be largely dependent on its future-oriented perspective.

World Class-Focused
In recent years, much discussion has centered on the world-class workplace. This is
a place where employees are world-class performers and their collective
performance results in products and services that rank among the best and most
competitive in the world. Why does one international hotel chain continue to
expand while another continues to lose customers? Why is the service provided
worldwide by car dealerships for a certain brand of automobile consistently better
than the service given -by other dealers? Benchmarking against world-class
standards, focusing on total quality, and empowering self-directed work teams are
several of the ways that businesses and industries can become world class.
Likewise, curricula that prepare students to work in these businesses and industries
must be sure what is taught includes world class-focused learning experiences.
Before graduating, each student should know what makes the difference between
world class and less than world class performance and be prepared to perform in an
occupation or field at a world-class level. As more and more companies are faced
with worldwide competition, persons who work for these companies must be ready
to produce and provide service at this level.

Source: Finch, C.R. and Crunkilton, J. R. (1999). Curriculum Development in career and
technical education (pp. 3-22). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Return to Module 1

Curriculum
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Not to be confused with Curriculum vitae.

A curriculum for the MD degree.

In education, a curriculum (/krkjlm/; plural: curricula /krkjl/ or curriculums) is


broadly defined as the totality of student experiences that occur in the educational process.[1][2]
The term often refers specifically to a planned sequence of instruction, or to a view of the
student's experiences in terms of the educator's or school's instructional goals. In a 2003 study
Reys, Reys, Lapan, Holliday and Wasman refer to curriculum as a set of learning goals
articulated across grades that outline the intended mathematics content and process goals at
particular points in time throughout the K12 school program.[3] Curriculum may incorporate the
planned interaction of pupils with instructional content, materials, resources, and processes for
evaluating the attainment of educational objectives.[4] Curriculum is split into several categories,
the explicit, the implicit (including the hidden), the excluded and the extra-curricular.[5][6][7]
Curricula may be tightly standardized, or may include a high level of instructor or learner
autonomy.[8] Many countries have national curricula in primary and secondary education, such as
the United Kingdom's National Curriculum.
UNESCO's International Bureau of Education has the primary mission of studying curricula and
their implementation worldwide.

Contents
[hide]

1 Etymology

2 Definitions and interpretations


o

2.1 Historical conception

2.2 Progressivist views

3 Primary and secondary education


o

3.1 Japan

3.2 Australia

3.3 Nigeria

3.4 South Korea

3.5 United Kingdom

3.6 United States

4 Higher education
o

4.1 Russia

4.2 United States

4.2.1 Core curriculum

4.2.2 Distribution requirements

4.2.3 Open curriculum

5 See also

6 Works cited

7 References

8 External links

Etymology[edit]

First published use of "curriculum" in 1576.

The word "curriculum" began as a Latin word which means "a race" or "the course of a race"
(which in turn derives from the verb currere meaning "to run/to proceed").[9] The first known use
in an educational context is in the Professio Regia, a work by University of Paris professor
Petrus Ramus published posthumously in 1576.[10] The term subsequently appears in University
of Leiden records in 1582.[11] The word's origins appear closely linked to the Calvinist desire to
bring greater order to education.[12]
By the seventeenth century, the University of Glasgow also referred to its "course" of study as a
"curriculum", producing the first known use of the term in English in 1633.[9] By the nineteenth
century, European universities routinely referred to their curriculum to describe both the
complete course of study (as for a degree in surgery) and particular courses and their content.

Definitions and interpretations[edit]

Curriculum may include unplanned or unstructured activities.

There is no generally agreed upon definition of curriculum.[13] Some influential definitions


combine various elements to describe curriculum as follows:

All the learning which is planned and guided by the school, whether it is
carried on in groups or individually, inside or outside the school. (John Kerr)

Kerr defines curriculum as, "All the learning which is planned and guided by
the school, whether it is carried on in groups or individually, inside or outside
of school." [5]

Braslavsky states that curriculum is an agreement amongst communities,


educational professionals, and the State on what learners should take on
during specific periods of their lives. Furthermore, the curriculum defines
"why, what, when, where, how, and with whom to learn." [7]

Outlines the skills, performances, attitudes, and values pupils are expected to
learn from schooling. It includes statements of desired pupil outcomes,
descriptions of materials, and the planned sequence that will be used to help
pupils attain the outcomes.

The total learning experience provided by a school. It includes the content of


courses (the syllabus), the methods employed (strategies), and other
aspects, like norms and values, which relate to the way the school is
organized.

The aggregate of courses of study given in a learning environment. The


courses are arranged in a sequence to make learning a subject easier. In
schools, a curriculum spans several grades.

Curriculum can refer to the entire program provided by a classroom, school,


district, state, or country. A classroom is assigned sections of the curriculum
as defined by the school.

Through the readings of Smith,[14] Dewey,[15] and Kelly,[16] four curriculums


could be defined as:

Explicit curriculum: subjects that will be taught, the identified "mission" of the
school, and the knowledge and skills that the school expects successful
students to acquire.

Implicit curriculum: lessons that arise from the culture of the school and the
behaviors, attitudes, and expectations that characterize that culture, the
unintended curriculum.

Hidden curriculum: things which students learn, because of the way in which
the work of the school is planned and organized but which are not in
themselves overtly included in the planning or even in the consciousness of
those responsible for the school arrangements (Kelly, 2009). The term itself is
attributed to Philip W. Jackson and is not always meant to be a negative.
Hidden curriculum, if its potential is realized, could benefit students and
learners in all educational systems. Also, it does not just include the physical
environment of the school, but the relationships formed or not formed
between students and other students or even students and teachers
(Jackson, 1986[17]).

Excluded curriculum: topics or perspectives that are specifically excluded


from the curriculum.

Extracurricular: May include school-sponsored programs, which are intended


to supplement the academic aspect of the school experience, or communitybased programs and activities. Examples of school-sponsored extracurricular
programs include sports, academic clubs, and performing arts. Communitybased programs and activities may take place at a school (after hours) but
are not linked directly to the school. Community-based programs frequently
expand on the curriculum that was introduced in the classroom. For instance,
students may be introduced to environmental conservation in the classroom.
This knowledge is further developed through a community-based program.
Participants then act on what they know with a conservation project.
Community-based extracurricular activities may include environmental
clubs, 4-H, boy/girl scouts, and religious groups (Hancock, Dyk, & Jones,
2012).[18]

Curriculum can be ordered into a procedure:[14]


Step 1: Diagnosis of needs.[14]
Step 2: Formulation of objectives.[14]
Step 3: Selection of content.[14]
Step 4: Organization of content.[14]
Step 5: Selection of learning experiences. [14]
Step 6: Organization of learning experiences. [14]
Step 7: Determination of what to evaluate and of the ways and means of
doing it.[14]

Under some definitions, curriculum is prescriptive, and is based on a more general syllabus
which merely specifies what topics must be understood and to what level to achieve a particular
grade or standard. The word Syllabus originates from Greek. The Greek meaning of the word
basically means a "concise statement or table of the heads of a discourse, the contents of a
treatise, the subjects of series of lectures.[5]
Curriculum has numerous definitions, which can be slightly confusing. In its broadest sense a
curriculum may refer to all courses offered at a school, explicit. The intended curriculum, which
the students learn through the culture of the school, implicit. The curriculum that is specifically
excluded, like racism. Plus, the extra curricular activities like sports, and clubs. . This is
particularly true of schools at the university level, where the diversity of a curriculum might be
an attractive point to a potential student.
A curriculum may also refer to a defined and prescribed course of studies, which students must
fulfill in order to pass a certain level of education. For example, an elementary school might

discuss how its curriculum, or its entire sum of lessons and teachings, is designed to improve
national testing scores or help students learn the basics. An individual teacher might also refer to
his or her curriculum, meaning all the subjects that will be taught during a school year.
On the other hand, a high school might refer to a curriculum as the courses required in order to
receive ones diploma. They might also refer to curriculum in exactly the same way as the
elementary school, and use curriculum to mean both individual courses needed to pass, and the
overall offering of courses, which help prepare a student for life after high school.
Curriculum can be envisaged from different perspectives. What societies envisage as important
teaching and learning constitutes the "intended" curriculum.[16] Since it is usually presented in
official documents, it may be also called the "written" and/or "official" curriculum.[16] However,
at classroom level this intended curriculum may be altered through a range of complex classroom
interactions, and what is actually delivered can be considered the "implemented" curriculum.[16]
What learners really learn (i.e. what can be assessed and can be demonstrated as learning
outcomes/learner competencies) constitutes the "achieved" or "learned" curriculum.[16] In
addition, curriculum theory points to a "hidden" curriculum (i.e. the unintended development of
personal values and beliefs of learners, teachers and communities; unexpected impact of a
curriculum; unforeseen aspects of a learning process).[16] Those who develop the intended
curriculum should have all these different dimensions of the curriculum in view.[16] While the
"written" curriculum does not exhaust the meaning of curriculum, it is important because it
represents the vision of the society.[16] The "written" curriculum is usually expressed in
comprehensive and user-friendly documents, such as curriculum frameworks; subject
curricula/syllabuses, and in relevant and helpful learning materials, such as textbooks; teacher
guides; assessment guides.[16]
In some cases, people see the curriculum entirely in terms of the subjects that are taught, and as
set out within the set of textbooks, and forget the wider goals of competencies and personal
development.[15] This is why a curriculum framework is important. It sets the subjects within this
wider context, and shows how learning experiences within the subjects need to contribute to the
attainment of the wider goals.[15]
There are many common misconceptions of what curriculum is and one of the most common is
that curriculum only entails a syllabus. Smith (1996,2000) says that, "A syllabus will not
generally indicate the relative importance of its topics or the order in which they are to be
studied. Where people still equate curriculum with a syllabus they are likely to limit their
planning to a consideration of the content or the body of knowledge that they wish to transmit".
Regardless of the definition of curriculum, one thing is certain. The quality of any educational
experience will always depend to a large extent on the individual teacher responsible for it
(Kelly, 2009).
Curriculum is almost always defined with relation to schooling.[14] According to some, it is the
major division between formal and informal education.[14] However, under some circumstances it
may also be applied to informal education or free-choice learning settings. For instance, a

science museum may have a "curriculum" of what topics or exhibits it wishes to cover. Many
after-school programs in the US have tried to apply the concept; this typically has more success
when not rigidly clinging to the definition of curriculum as a product or as a body of knowledge
to be transferred. Rather, informal education and free-choice learning settings are more suited to
the model of curriculum as practice or praxis.
Historical conception[edit]

Action is
response; it is
adaptation,
adjustment.
John Dewey[15]

In the early years of the 20th century, the traditional concepts held of the "curriculum is that it is
a body of subjects or subject matter prepared by the teachers for the students to learn." It was
synonymous to the "course of study" and "syllabus".
In The Curriculum,[19] the first textbook published on the subject, in 1918, John Franklin Bobbitt
said that curriculum, as an idea, has its roots in the Latin word for race-course, explaining the
curriculum as the course of deeds and experiences through which children become the adults
they should be, for success in adult society. Furthermore, the curriculum encompasses the entire
scope of formative deed and experience occurring in and out of school, and not only experiences
occurring in school; experiences that are unplanned and undirected, and experiences intentionally
directed for the purposeful formation of adult members of society. (cf. image at right.)
To Bobbitt, the curriculum is a social engineering arena. Per his cultural presumptions and social
definitions, his curricular formulation has two notable features: (i) that scientific experts would
best be qualified to and justified in designing curricula based upon their expert knowledge of
what qualities are desirable in adult members of society, and which experiences would generate
said qualities; and (ii) curriculum defined as the deeds-experiences the student ought to have to
become the adult he or she ought to become.
Hence, he defined the curriculum as an ideal, rather than as the concrete reality of the deeds and
experiences that form people to who and what they are.
Contemporary views of curriculum reject these features of Bobbitt's postulates, but retain the
basis of curriculum as the course of experience(s) that forms human beings into persons.
Personal formation via curricula is studied at the personal level and at the group level, i.e.
cultures and societies (e.g. professional formation, academic discipline via historical experience).
The formation of a group is reciprocal, with the formation of its individual participants.

Although it formally appeared in Bobbitt's definition, curriculum as a course of formative


experience also pervades John Dewey's work (who disagreed with Bobbitt on important matters).
Although Bobbitt's and Dewey's idealistic understanding of "curriculum" is different from
current, restricted uses of the word, curriculum writers and researchers generally share it as
common, substantive understanding of curriculum.[20][21] Development does not mean just getting
something out of the mind.[15] It is a development of experience and into experience that is really
wanted.[15]
Robert M. Hutchins, president of the University of Chicago, regarded curriculum as "permanent
studies" where the rules of grammar, rhetoric and logic and mathematics for basic education are
emphasized. Basic education should emphasize 3 Rs and college education should be grounded
on liberal education. On the other hand, Arthur Bestor as an essentialist, believes that the mission
of the school should be intellectual training, hence curriculum should focus on the fundamental
intellectual disciplines of grammar, literature and writing. It should also include mathematics,
science, history and foreign language.
This definition leads us to the view of Joseph Schwab that discipline is the sole source of
curriculum. Thus in our education system, curriculum is divided into chunks of knowledge we
call subject areas in basic education such as English, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies and
others. In college, discipline may include humanities, sciences, languages and many more.
Curriculum should consist entirely of knowledge which comes from various disciplines.To learn
the lesson is more interesting than to take a scolding, be held up to general ridicule, stay after
school, receive degrading low marks, or fail to be promoted.[15]
Thus curriculum can be viewed as a field of study. It is made up of its foundations
(philosophical, historical, psychological, and social foundations); domains of knowledge as well
as its research theories and principles. Curriculum is taken as scholarly and theoretical. It is
concerned with broad historical, philosophical and social issues and academics. Under a starting
definition offered by John Kerr and taken up by Vic Kelly in his standard work on the
curriculum, curriculum is all the learning which is planned and guided by the school, whether it
is carried on in groups or individually, inside or outside the school.[14]
Four ways of approaching curriculum theory and practice:[14]
1. Curriculum as a body of knowledge to be transmitted. [14]
2. Curriculum as an attempt to achieve certain ends in students products. [14]
3. Curriculum as a process .[14]
4. Curriculum as praxis.[14]

In recent years the field of education, and therefore curriculum, has expanded outside the walls
of the classroom and into other settings such as museums. Within these settings curriculum is an

even broader topic, including various teachers such as other visitors, inanimate objects such as
audio tour devices, and even the learners themselves. As with the traditional idea of curriculum,
curriculum in a free choice learning environment can consist of the explicit stated curriculum and
the hidden curriculum, both of which contribute to the learner's experience and lessons from the
experience.[22] These elements are further compounded by the setting, cultural influences, and the
state of mind of the learner.[23] Museums and other similar settings are most commonly leveraged
within traditional classroom settings as enhancements to the curriculum when educators develop
curriculum that encompasses visits to museums, zoos, and aquarium.[24]
Progressivist views[edit]
On the other hand, to a progressivist, a listing of school subjects, syllabi, course of study, and list
of courses of specific discipline do not make a curriculum. These can only be called curriculum
if the written materials are actualized by the learner. Broadly speaking, curriculum is defined as
the total learning experiences of the individual. This definition is anchored on John Dewey's
definition of experience and education. He believed that reflective thinking is a means that
unifies curricular elements. Thought is not derived from action but tested by application.
Caswell and Campbell viewed curriculum as "all experiences children have under the guidance
of teachers." This definition is shared by Smith, Stanley and shores when they defined
"curriculum as a sequence of potential experiences set up in schools for the purpose of
disciplining children and youth in group ways of thinking and acting."
Curriculum as a process is when a teacher enters a particular schooling and situation with: an
ability to think critically, in-action; an understanding of their role and the expectations others
have of them; and a proposal for action which sets out essential principles and features of the
educational encounter.[14] Guided by these, they encourage conversations between, and with,
people in the situation out of which may comes a course of thinking and action.[14] Plus, the
teacher continually evaluates the process and what they can see of outcomes.[14]
Marsh and Willis on the other hand view curriculum as all the "experiences in the classroom
which are planned and enacted by teacher, and also learned by the students.[25]
Any definition of curriculum, if it is to be practically effective and productive, must offer much
more than a statement about knowledge-content or merely the subjects which schooling is to
teach or transmit or deliver.[16] Some would argue of the course that the values implicit in the
arrangements made by schools for their pupils are quite clearly in the consciousness of teachers
and planners, again especially when the planners are politicians, and are equally clearly accepted
by them as part of what pupils should learn in school, even though they are not overtly
recognized by the pupils themselves.[16] In other words, those who design curricula deliberately
plan the schools expressive culture. If this is the case, then, the curriculum is hidden only to
or from the pupils, and the values to be learnt clearly from a part of what is planned for pupils.
They must, therefore, be accepted as fully a part of the curriculum, and most especially as an
important focus for the kind of study of curriculum with which we are concerned here, not least
because important questions must be asked concerning the legitimacy of such practices.[16]

Currently, a spiral curriculum is promoted as allowing students to revisit a subject matter's


content at the different levels of development of the subject matter being studied. The
constructivist approach proposes that children learn best via pro-active engagement with the
educational environment, i.e. learning through discovery.

Primary and secondary education[edit]


A curriculum may be partly or entirely determined by an external, authoritative body (e.g., the
National Curriculum for England in English schools).
Crucial to the curriculum is the definition of the course objectives that usually are expressed as
learning outcomes and normally include the program's assessment strategy. These outcomes and
assessments are grouped as units (or modules), and, therefore, the curriculum comprises a
collection of such units, each, in turn, comprising a specialised, specific part of the curriculum.
So, a typical curriculum includes communications, numeracy, information technology, and social
skills units, with specific, specialized teaching of each.
Core curricula are often instituted, at the primary and secondary levels, by school boards,
Departments of Education, or other administrative agencies charged with overseeing education.
A core curriculum is a curriculum, or course of study, which is deemed central and usually made
mandatory for all students of a school or school system. However, even when core requirements
exist, they do not necessarily involve a requirement for students to engage in one particular class
or activity. For example, a school might mandate a music appreciation class, but students may
opt out if they take a performing musical class, such as orchestra, band, chorus, etc.
Japan[edit]
The Japanese educational system is based off traditional values from their heritage with
curriculum ideas borrowed from England, Germany, France and the United States. The Japanese
curriculum is world famous. Their math and science standards are among the most demanding in
the developed countries. Students there are expected to know more about another country's
history, economics, and geography than the students in that country know. Japanese students
cannot skip grades and are not held back. They are expected to master the curriculum at every
level. Due to their meritocratic nature all students are funded equitably, follow exactly the same
curriculum with the same expectations. Students that are ahead in class are expected to help
those that are not. Beyond the academics, students are expected to clean the classrooms and the
hallways to teach respect and responsibility.[26]
Australia[edit]
In Australia, the Australian Curriculum took effect nationwide in 2014,[27] after a curriculum
development process that began in 2010.[28] Previously, each state's Education Department had
traditionally established curricula. The Australian Curriculum consists of one curriculum
covering eight subject areas through year 10, and another covering fifteen subjects for the senior
secondary years.[27]

Nigeria[edit]
In 2005, the Nigerian government adopted a national Basic Education Curriculum for grades 1
through 9. The policy was an outgrowth of the Universal Basic Education program announced in
1999, to provide free, compulsory, continuous public education for these years.[29] In 2014, the
government implemented a revised version of the national curriculum, reducing the number of
subjects covered from 20 to 10.[30]
South Korea[edit]
The National Curriculum of Korea covers kindergarten, primary, and secondary education, as
well as special education.[31] The version currently in place is the 7th National Curriculum, which
has been revised in 2007 and 2009.[31] The curriculum provides a framework for a common set of
subjects through 9th grade, and elective subjects in grades 10 through 12.[32]
United Kingdom[edit]
Main article: National Curriculum (England, Wales and Northern Ireland)

The National Curriculum was introduced into England, Wales and Northern Ireland as a
nationwide curriculum for primary and secondary state schools following the Education Reform
Act 1988. Notwithstanding its name, it does not apply to independent schools, which may set
their own curricula, but it ensures that state schools of all local education authorities have a
common curriculum. Academies, while publicly funded, have a significant degree of autonomy
in deviating from the National Curriculum.
The purpose of the National Curriculum was to standardise the content taught across schools to
enable assessment, which in turn enabled the compilation of league tables detailing the
assessment statistics for each school. These league tables, together with the provision to parents
of some degree of choice in assignment of the school for their child (also legislated in the same
act) were intended to encourage a 'free market' by allowing parents to choose schools based on
their measured ability to teach the National Curriculum.
United States[edit]
In the U.S., each state, with the individual school districts, establishes the curricula taught.[33]
Each state, however, builds its curriculum with great participation of national[34] academic subject
groups selected by the United States Department of Education, e.g. National Council of Teachers
of Mathematics (NCTM) nctm.org for mathematical instruction.
The Common Core State Standards Initiative promulgates a core curriculum for states to adopt
and optionally expand upon. This coordination is intended to make it possible to use more of the
same textbooks across states, and to move toward a more uniform minimum level of educational
attainment.

Higher education[edit]

Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology student examines the university's main
class schedule board on the first day of classes to find what classes he and all
students in his specialization (sub-major) will attend this semester.

Many educational institutions are currently trying to balance two opposing forces. On the one
hand, some believe students should have a common knowledge foundation, often in the form of a
core curriculum; on the other hand, others want students to be able to pursue their own
educational interests, often through early specialty in a major, however, other times through the
free choice of courses. This tension has received a large amount of coverage due to Harvard
University's reorganization of its core requirements.[35][36]
An essential feature of curriculum design, seen in every college catalog and at every other level
of schooling, is the identification of prerequisites for each course. These prerequisites can be
satisfied by taking particular courses, and in some cases by examination, or by other means, such
as work experience. In general, more advanced courses in any subject require some foundation in
basic courses, but some coursework requires study in other departments, as in the sequence of
math classes required for a physics major, or the language requirements for students preparing in
literature, music, or scientific research. A more detailed curriculum design must deal with
prerequisites within a course for each topic taken up. This in turn leads to the problems of course
organization and scheduling once the dependencies between topics are known.
Russia[edit]
Core curriculum has typically been highly emphasized in Soviet and Russian universities and
technical institutes.[citation needed]
United States[edit]
Core curriculum[edit]

Shimer College students discussing texts in the school's core curriculum.

At the undergraduate level, individual college and university administrations and faculties
sometimes mandate core curricula, especially in the liberal arts. But because of increasing
specialization and depth in the student's major field of study, a typical core curriculum in higher
education mandates a far smaller proportion of a student's course work than a high school or
elementary school core curriculum prescribes.
Amongst the best known and most expansive core curricula programs at leading American
colleges and universities are that of Columbia College at Columbia University, as well as the
University of Chicago's. Both can take up to two years to complete without advanced standing,
and are designed to foster critical skills in a broad range of academic disciplines, including: the
social sciences, humanities, physical and biological sciences, mathematics, writing and foreign
languages.
In 1999, the University of Chicago announced plans to reduce and modify the content of its core
curriculum, including lowering the number of required courses from 21 to 15 and offering a
wider range of content. When The New York Times, The Economist, and other major news outlets
picked up this story, the University became the focal point of a national debate on education. The
National Association of Scholars released a statement saying, "It is truly depressing to observe a
steady abandonment of the University of Chicago's once imposing undergraduate core
curriculum, which for so long stood as the benchmark of content and rigor among American
academic institutions."[37] Simultaneously, however, a set of university administrators, notably
then-President Hugo Sonnenschein, argued that reducing the core curriculum had become both a
financial and educational imperative, as the university was struggling to attract a commensurate
volume of applicants to its undergraduate division compared to peer schools as a result of what
was perceived by the pro-change camp as a reaction by the average eighteen-year-old to the
expanse of the collegiate core.
As core curricula began to diminish over the course of the twentieth century at many American
schools, some smaller institutions became famous for embracing a core curriculum that covers
nearly the students entire undergraduate education, often utilizing classic texts of the western
canon to teach all subjects including science. Four Great Books colleges in the United States
follow this approach: St. Johns, Shimer, Thomas Aquinas, Gutenberg College and Thomas
More.[38]
See also: Association for Core Texts and Courses
Distribution requirements[edit]

Some colleges opt for the middle ground of the continuum between specified and unspecified
curricula by using a system of distribution requirements. In such a system, students are required
to take courses in particular fields of learning, but are free to choose specific courses within
those fields.

Open curriculum[edit]

Other institutions have largely done away with core requirements in their entirety. Brown
University offers the "New Curriculum," implemented after a student-led reform movement in
1969, which allows students to take courses without concern for any requirements except those
in their chosen concentrations (majors), plus two writing courses. In this vein it is certainly
possible for students to graduate without taking college-level science of mathematics or math
courses, or to take only science or math courses. Amherst College requires that students take one
of a list of first-year seminars, but has no required classes or distribution requirements. Others
include Evergreen State College, Hamilton College, and Smith College.[39]
Wesleyan University is another school that has not and does not require any set distribution of
courses. However, Wesleyan does make clear "General Education Expectations" such that if a
student does not meet these expectations, he/she would not be eligible for academic honors upon
graduation.[40]

See also[edit]

Academic advising

CSCOPE (education)

Curriculum studies

Educational program

Europass

Extracurricular activity

Hidden curriculum

Lesson

Lesson plan

Open source curriculum

Pedagogy

Structure of the disciplines

Sudbury schools - Sudbury Schools are for ages 4 through 18 and have no
curriculum. Based on the Sudbury Valley School (founded 1968).

Syllabus

Unschooling - Unschooling is a type of homeschooling with an emphasis on


self-directed learning rather than a curriculum.

Works cited[edit]

Bilbao, Purita P., Lucido, Paz I., Iringan, Tomasa C., and Javier, Rodrigo B.
(2008). Curriculum Development. Quezon City: Lorimar Publishing, Inc.

Kelly, A.V. (2009). The Curriculum: theory and practice (6th ed.).
ISBN 9781847872746.

References[edit]
1.

Jump up ^ Kelly 2009, p. 13.

2.

Jump up ^ Wiles, Jon (2008). Leading Curriculum Development. p. 2.


ISBN 9781412961417.

3.

Jump up ^ Reys, Robert; Reys, Barbara; Lapan, Richard; Holliday,


Gregory; Wasman, Deanna (2003). "Assessing the Impact of Standards-Based
Middle Grades Mathematics Curriculum Materials on Student Achievement".
Journal for Research in Mathematics Education: 7495.

4.

Jump up ^ Adams, Kathy L.; Adams, Dale E. (2003). Urban Education:


A Reference Handbook. pp. 3132. ISBN 9781576073629.

5.

^ Jump up to: a b c Kelly, A. V. (2009). The curriculum: Theory and


practice (pp. 155). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

6.

Jump up ^ Dewey, J. (1902). The Child and the Curriculum (pp. 131).
Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

7.

^ Jump up to:

8.

Jump up ^ Adams 2003, pp. 3334.

9.

^ Jump up to:

10.

a b

a b

Braslavsky, C. (2003). The curriculum.

Oxford English Dictionary, "Curriculum," 152

Jump up ^ Hamilton, David (2014). Towards a Theory of Schooling.


p. 55. ISBN 9780415857086.

11.

Jump up ^ Hamilton 2014, p. 7.

12.

Jump up ^ Hamilton 2014, p. 47.

13.

Jump up ^ Wiles 2008, p. 2.

14.

^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Smith, M. K. (1996, 2000)


Curriculum theory and practice the encyclopedia of informal education,
www.infed.org/biblio/b-curric.htm.

15.

^ Jump up to:
curriculum.

16.

^ Jump up to:

a b c d e f g

Dewey, John (1902). The child and the

a b c d e f g h i j k l

Kelly 2009.

17.

Jump up ^ Jackson, Philip (1986). Life in Classrooms. New York: Holt,


Rinehart, and Winston. pp. 3335. ISBN 0-8077-3034-3.

18.

Jump up ^ Hancock, D., Dyk, P. H., & Jones, K. (2012). Adolescent


Involvement in Extracurricular Activities. Journal of Leadership Education,
11(1), 84101.

19.

Jump up ^ Bobbitt, John Franklin. The Curriculum. Boston: Houghton


Mifflin, 1918.

20.

Jump up ^ Jackson, Philip W. "Conceptions of Curriculum and


Curriculum Specialists." In Handbook of Research on Curriculum: A Project of
the American Educational Research Association, edited by Philip W. Jackson,
340. New York: Macmillan Pub. Co., 1992.

21.

Jump up ^ Pinar, William F., William M. Reynolds, Patrick Slattery, and


Peter M. Taubman. Understanding Curriculum: An Introduction to the Study of
Historical and Contemporary Curriculum Discourses. New York: Peter Lang,
1995.

22.

Jump up ^ Museum Education as Curriculum: Four Models, Leading to


a Fifth Elizabeth Vallance Studies in Art Education Vol. 45, No. 4 (Summer,
2004), pp. 343358

23.

Jump up ^ Falk, J.H. & Dierking, L.D. (2000). Learning from museums:
Visitor experiences and the making of meaning. Walnut Creek, CA; AltaMira
Press.

24.

Jump up ^ Kim, M., & Dopico, E. (2014). Science education through


informal education. Cultural Studies of Science Education, 17.

25.

Jump up ^ Bilbao, Purita P., Lucido, Paz I., Iringan, Tomasa C., and
Javier, Rodrigo B. (2008). Curriculum Development. Quezon City: Lorimar
Publishing, Inc.

26.

Jump up ^ http://www.ncee.org/programs-affiliates/center-oninternational-education-benchmarking/top-performing-countries/japanoverview/

27.

^ Jump up to:

a b

"Australian Curriculum". Retrieved 2015-01-12.

28.

Jump up ^ "Senior secondary Australian Curriculum". Queensland


Curriculum & Assessment Authority.

29.

Jump up ^ Danmole, B.T. (2011). "Emerging Issues on the Universal


Basic Education Curriculum in Nigeria: Implications for the Science and
Technology Component". Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences 8 (1): 6268.
doi:10.3923/pjssci.2011.62.68.

30.

Jump up ^ Mohammed, Amina (2014-08-14). "Nigeria revises basic


education curriculum". Premium Times. Retrieved 2015-01-12.

31.

^ Jump up to: a b "National Curriculum of Korea Source Inventory".


National Curriculum Information Center. Retrieved 2015-01-12.

32.

Jump up ^ "THE SCHOOL CURRICULUM OF THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA:


Proclamation of the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology: #200941" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-01-12.

33.

Jump up ^ National Education Standards...They're Back! (article)

34.

Jump up ^ Diane Ravitch, National Standards in American Education A


Citizen's Guide (book)

35.

Jump up ^ "Harvard Gazette: Discussing the Core Curriculum".


Harvard University. Retrieved 9 February 2013.

36.

Jump up ^ "Harvard approves new general education curriculum".


The Boston Globe. 15 May 2007. Retrieved 9 February 2013.

37.

Jump up ^ "Home Page". National Association of Scholars. Archived


from the original on 12 April 2013. Retrieved 7 February 2014.

38.

Jump up ^ Johnson, Dirk (2007-11-04). "Small Campus, Big Books".


The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-05-22.

39.

Jump up ^ "Examples in Action: Our List of Open Curriculum Colleges


& Universities". Open Jar Foundation. Archived from the original on 4 August
2012. Retrieved 7 February 2014.

40.

Jump up ^ "General Education Expectations, Registrar". Weslayan


University. Retrieved 7 February 2014.

External links[edit]
Look up curriculum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Library resources about

Curriculum

Re
sources in your library

World Council for Curriculum and Instruction

George M. Wiley (1920). "Education, Courses of Study in". Encyclopedia


Americana.

UNESCO International Bureau of Education

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

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