Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 8

TITLE

Archimedes Principle
OBJECTIVE
To determine the relative density of a copper from the Archimedes
Principle.
THEORY
The density of the body is defined as its mass per unit volume. If a body is
totally immersed in a fluid, the volume of the fluid displaced must equal to
the volume of the body.
An object that is completely or partially submerged in a fluid experiences
an upward force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced.
A submerged body will sink if the weight of the fluid is displaces (the
buoyant force) is less than the weight of the body. If the weight of the
displaced fluid is exactly equal to the weight of the submerged body, it
will neither sink nor rise. In this instance, the body will be in equilibrium. If
the weight of the displaced fluid exceeds the weight of a submerged body,
the body will rise to the surface and float.
When the floating body comes to equilibrium at the surface, it will
displace its own weight of liquid.
Relative density also known as specific gravity is a ratio of the substance
density to that of water, which is a dimensionless quantity.
APPARATUS
Triple-beam balance (with string attached)
Copper block
Distilled water
Overflow can

500 cm3 beaker


Weight balance
PROCEDURE
1. The triple was set-up with a fine thread attached to the underside of
the pan so that the copper block can be weighed by hanging them
on the thread.
2. The mass of the copper block in air was measured and recorded.
3. The overflow can was filled with distilled water until the nozzle level
reached.
4. The mass of an empty 500 cm3 beaker was weighed and recorded,
and it was placed under the overflow can nozzle. As shown in Figure
1.
5. The copper block was then submerged completely and the apparent
mass of the block was read and recorded. The block was ensured to
submerged completely and not touching the side of the overflow
can.
6. The beaker which contain the displaced water was removed, the its
volume and its mass was measured.

RESULTS
Mass of the object in air (kg)

0.062

Actual weight of the object (N)

0.608

Apparent mass of the object in


water (kg)

0.055

Apparent weight of the object in


water (N)

0.539

Buoyant force (N)

0.049

Volume of the displaced water (m3)

5.0 X 10-6

Volume of the object (m3)

8.0 X 10-6

Mass of the beaker (kg)

0.132

Mass of beaker and displaced water


(kg)

0.137

Mass of the displaced water (kg)

0.005

Weight of displaced water (N)

0.049

Density of the copper block (kg m-3)

7750

Relative density of the object

7.750

percentageerror=

actual valueexperimentalvalue
100
actualvalue

error=

89207750
100
8920

DISCUSSION
This experiment was carried out to determine the density of copper block
from the Archimedes Principle. Archimedes Principle states that the
buoyant force on an object immersed in a fluid is equal to the weight of
the fluid displaced by that object. The upward force acting on an object
immersed in a liquid resulting in the apparent loss of weight of the object
is called the buoyant force.
From the results obtained from this experiment, the buoyant force of the
object is calculated using the formula of :
FB =

Vg

FB = mg
FB is the buoyant force
is the density of copper
m is the mass of water displaced
g is the gravitational acceleration (9.8 ms-2)
It was found that the buoyant force is equal to the weight of the water
displaced by the copper block, that is;
Weight of water displaced = (Weight of beaker + water displaced)
(Weight of beaker)
Besides that, it was also found that the weight of the copper block in air is
not same as its weight when immersed in the water. Its weight in air is
heavier compared to its weight when immersed in water. It is a matter of
common experience that bodies appear lighter when immersed in water
or any other liquid. Objects appear to be less heavy in water or in any
liquid because the liquid or water exerts an upward force on the objects
immersed in it. This force is the force which known as buoyant force.
Finally, from the data obtained, the density of copper can be determined
by using the formula of;

copper =
That is;

mcopper
V copper
is the density of copper
m is the mass of copper in air
V is the volume of copper block

In addition, the relative density of the copper was determined by using the
formula of;

Relative density, RD =

copper
water

The value of density of copper obtained from the experiment was however
differs from the standard value of the density of copper, that is 8920 kgm3
. This is due to some factors that influence the results of the experiment,
including the improper techniques while handling the experiment. This
problem can be improved by concerning about the precautions that should
be taken when handling the experiment. One of the precaution that
should be taken during the experiment is to ensure that the block was
completely submerged and not touching the side of the overflow can.
QUESTIONS
1. From your finding, what can you say about the relation between the
buoyant force and the weight of displaced water.
When an object immersed in a fluid, it was found that the buoyant
force acting on the object is equal to the weight of the water
displaced by it.
2. State the Archimedes Principle.
Archimedes Principle states that the buoyant force on an object
immersed in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by
that object.
3. Compare the density of copper from your calculation with the
standard value.
The density of copper from the calculation is less than the standard
value, due to errors occurred during the experiment.

CONCLUSION
The relative density of copper is 7.750

REFERENCES

MARA University of Technology


Sabah Branch
Faculty of Applied Science
Diploma In science
PHY 210

Lab 3
ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE
Prepared by ;
Siti Nurajjar binti Jami
2010673706
Date of experiment :
24th FEBRUARY 2011

Date of submission :
3rd MARCH 2011